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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Deep localized distortion of alternating bonds and reduced transport of charged carriers in conjugated polymers under photoexcitation.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In a real bulk heterojunction polymer solar cell, after exciton separation in the heterojunction, the resulting negatively-charged carrier, a polaron, moves along the polymer chain of the acceptor, which is believed to be of significance for the charged carrier transport properties in a polymer solar cell. During the negative polaron transport, due to the external light field, the polaron, which is re-excited and induces deep localization, also forms a new local distortion of the alternating bonds. It is revealed that the excited polaron moves more slowly than the ground-state polaron. Furthermore, the velocity of the polaron moving along the polymer chain is crucially dependent on the photoexcitation. With an increase in the intensity of the optical field, the localization of the excited polaron will be deepened, with a decrease of the polaron's velocity. It is discovered that, for a charged carrier, photoexcitation is a significant factor in reducing the efficiency during the charged carrier transport in polymer solar cells. Mostly, the deep trapping effect of charged carrier in composite conjugated polymer solar cell presents an opportunity for the future application in nanoscale memory and imaging devices.
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X-ray optics of gold nanoparticles.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Gold nanoparticles have been investigated as contrast agents for traditional x-ray medical procedures, utilizing the strong absorption characteristics of the nanoparticles to enhance the contrast of the detected x-ray image. Here we use the Kramers-Kronig relation for complex atomic scattering factors to find the real and imaginary parts of the index of refraction for the medium composed of single-element materials or compounds in the x-ray range of the spectrum. These complex index of refraction values are then plugged into a Lorenz-Mie theory to calculate the absorption efficiency of various size gold nanoparticles for photon energies in the 1-100 keV range. Since the output from most medical diagnostic x-ray devices follows a wide and filtered spectrum of photon energies, we introduce and compute the effective intensity-absorption-efficiency values for gold nanoparticles of radii varying from 5 to 50 nm, where we use the TASMIP model to integrate over all spectral energies generated by typical tungsten anode x-ray tubes with kilovolt potentials ranging from 50 to 150 kVp.
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Mechanisms and Clinical Significance of Adenosine-Induced Dormant Accessory Pathway Conduction Following Catheter Ablation.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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-Adenosine (ADO) can unmask dormant pulmonary vein conduction following isolation. The role of ADO in uncovering dormant accessory pathway (AP) conduction following AP ablation is unknown.
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Small molecule inhibitor YM155-mediated activation of death receptor 5 is crucial for chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in pancreatic carcinoma.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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Despite much effort, pancreatic cancer survival rates are still dismally low. Novel therapeutics may hold the key to improving survival. YM155 is a small molecule inhibitor which has shown anti-tumor activity in a number of cancers by reducing the expression of survivin. The aim of our study is to understand the mechanisms by which YM155 functions in pancreatic cancer cells. We established the anti-tumor effect of YM155 with in vitro studies in the cultured cells, and in vivo studies using a mouse xenograft model. Our data demonstrated that YM155 reduced the expression of survivin; however down-regulation of survivin itself is insufficient to induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. We showed for the first time that treatment with YM155 increased death receptor 5 (DR5) expression in pancreatic cancer cells. We found that YM155 induced apoptosis by broad-spectrum inhibition of IAP family member proteins (e.g. CIAP1/2 and FLIP) and induced pro-apoptotic Bak protein up-regulation and activation; the anti-tumor effect of YM155 treatment with either the DR5 agonist lexatumumab or gemcitabine on pancreatic cancer cells was synergistic. Our data also revealed that YM155 inhibit tumor growth in vivo, whilst had no apparent toxicity to the non-cancerous human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line (HPDE). Together, these findings suggest that YM155 could be a novel therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer.
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Serotonin affects movement gain control in the spinal cord.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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A fundamental challenge for the nervous system is to encode signals spanning many orders of magnitude with neurons of limited bandwidth. To meet this challenge, perceptual systems use gain control. However, whether the motor system uses an analogous mechanism is essentially unknown. Neuromodulators, such as serotonin, are prime candidates for gain control signals during force production. Serotonergic neurons project diffusely to motor pools, and, therefore, force production by one muscle should change the gain of others. Here we present behavioral and pharmaceutical evidence that serotonin modulates the input-output gain of motoneurons in humans. By selectively changing the efficacy of serotonin with drugs, we systematically modulated the amplitude of spinal reflexes. More importantly, force production in different limbs interacts systematically, as predicted by a spinal gain control mechanism. Psychophysics and pharmacology suggest that the motor system adopts gain control mechanisms, and serotonin is a primary driver for their implementation in force production.
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A Synthetic Lethal Screen Reveals Enhanced Sensitivity to ATR Inhibitor Treatment in Mantle Cell Lymphoma with ATM Loss-of-function.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Mechanisms to maintain genomic integrity are essential for cells to remain viable. Not surprisingly, disruption of key DNA damage response (DDR) pathway factors, such as ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)/ATM- and RAD3-related (ATR) results in loss of genomic integrity. Here, a synthetic lethal siRNA-screening approach not only confirmed ATM but identified additional replication checkpoint proteins, when ablated, enhanced ATR inhibitor (ATRi) response in a high-content g-H2AX assay. Cancers with inactivating ATM mutations exhibit impaired DNA double-stranded break repair (DSB) and rely on compensatory repair pathways for survival. Therefore, impairing ATR activity may selectively sensitize cancer cells to killing. ATR inhibition in an ATM-deficient context results in phosphorylation of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunits (DNA-PKcs) and leads to induction of g-H2AX. Using both in vitro and in vivo models, ATR inhibition enhanced efficacy in ATM loss-of-function mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) compared to ATM wild-type cancer cells. In summary, single agent ATR inhibitors have therapeutic utility in the treatment of cancers, like MCL, in which ATM function has been lost. Implications: These data suggest that single agent ATR inhibitors have therapeutic utility and that ATR utilizes a complex and coordinated set of proteins to maintain genomic stability which could be further exploited.
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Transdermal rivastigmine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: current and future directions.
Expert Rev Neurother
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Despite the fact that the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is exponentially increasing, we have not yet been able to develop a new treatment to modify the course of the disease. This vacuum makes the traditional cholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist the only accessible pharmacotherapy options for the treatment of this disease. Among these medications, the only available transdermal patch at this time is the rivastigmine patch. This patch provides significantly lower gastrointestinal adverse effects. A higher tolerability rate provides the option for physicians to continue treatment with higher doses of rivastigmine in advanced stages of AD. Moreover, ease of use, easy-to-follow schedule, less administration time spent by the caregiver result in greater adherent to the treatment. This article aims to provide a comprehensive drug profile for transdermal rivastigmine, to review currently available treatment options, and to try to anticipate future treatment directions for AD.
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Whole genome sequencing and analysis of plant growth promoting bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of plantation crops coconut, cocoa and arecanut.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Coconut, cocoa and arecanut are commercial plantation crops that play a vital role in the Indian economy while sustaining the livelihood of more than 10 million Indians. According to 2012 Food and Agricultural organization's report, India is the third largest producer of coconut and it dominates the production of arecanut worldwide. In this study, three Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) from coconut (CPCRI-1), cocoa (CPCRI-2) and arecanut (CPCRI-3) characterized for the PGP activities have been sequenced. The draft genome sizes were 4.7 Mb (56% GC), 5.9 Mb (63.6% GC) and 5.1 Mb (54.8% GB) for CPCRI-1, CPCRI-2, CPCRI-3, respectively. These genomes encoded 4056 (CPCRI-1), 4637 (CPCRI-2) and 4286 (CPCRI-3) protein-coding genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both CPCRI-1 and CPCRI-3 belonged to Enterobacteriaceae family, while, CPCRI-2 was a Pseudomonadaceae family member. Functional annotation of the genes predicted that all three bacteria encoded genes needed for mineral phosphate solubilization, siderophores, acetoin, butanediol, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, chitinase, phenazine, 4-hydroxybenzoate, trehalose and quorum sensing molecules supportive of the plant growth promoting traits observed in the course of their isolation and characterization. Additionally, in all the three CPCRI PGPRs, we identified genes involved in synthesis of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which recently has been proposed to aid plant growth. The PGPRs also carried genes for central carbohydrate metabolism indicating that the bacteria can efficiently utilize the root exudates and other organic materials as energy source. Genes for production of peroxidases, catalases and superoxide dismutases that confer resistance to oxidative stresses in plants were identified. Besides these, genes for heat shock tolerance, cold shock tolerance and glycine-betaine production that enable bacteria to survive abiotic stress were also identified.
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Persistence and risk assessment of spiromesifen on tomato in India: a multilocational study.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Supervised field trials were conducted at four different agro-climatic locations of India to evaluate the dissipation pattern and risk assessment of spiromesifen on tomato. Spiromesifen 240 SC was sprayed on tomato at 150 and 300 g a.i.?ha(-1). Samples of tomato fruits were drawn at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after treatment and soil at 15 days after treatment. Quantification of residues was done on gas chromatograph-mass spectrophotometer in selective ion monitoring mode in the mass range of 271-274 (m/z). The limit of quantification of the method was found to be 0.05 mg kg(-1), while the limit of determination was 0.015 mg kg(-1). Residues were found below the LOQ of 0.05 mg kg(-1) in 10 days at both the doses of application at all the locations. Spiromesifen dissipated with a half-life of 0.93-1.38 days at the recommended rate of application and 1.04-1.34 days at the double the rate of application. Residues of spiromesifen in soil were detectable level (<0.05 mg kg(-1)) after 15 days of treatment. A preharvest interval (PHI) of 1 day has been recommended on tomato on the basis of data generated under All India Network Project on Pesticide Residues. Spiromesifen 240 SC has been registered for its use on tomato by Central Insecticide Board and Registration Committee, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. The maximum residue limit (MRL) of spiromesifen on tomato has been fixed by Food Safety Standard Authority of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India as 0.3 ?g/g after its risk assessment.
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Newly detected atrial high rate episodes predict long-term mortality outcomes in patients with permanent pacemakers.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Subclinical atrial high rate episodes (AHREs) detected by implanted devices in patients with no history of atrial fibrillation (AF) have been associated with an increased risk of stroke and systemic embolism. Data regarding the long-term survival of patients with permanent pacemakers and newly detected AHREs are limited.
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Genetic alterations of chromosome 8 genes in oral cancer.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The clinical relevance of DNA copy number alterations in chromosome 8 were investigated in oral cancers. The copy numbers of 30 selected genes in 33 OSCC patients were detected using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique. Amplifications of the EIF3E gene were found in 27.3% of the patients, MYC in 18.2%, RECQL4 in 15.2% and MYBL1 in 12.1% of patients. The most frequent gene losses found were the GATA4 gene (24.2%), FGFR1 gene (24.2%), MSRA (21.2) and CSGALNACT1 (12.1%). The co-amplification of EIF3E and RECQL4 was found in 9% of patients and showed significant association with alcohol drinkers. There was a significant association between the amplification of EIF3E gene with non-betel quid chewers and the negative lymph node status. EIF3E amplifications did not show prognostic significance on survival. Our results suggest that EIF3E may have a role in the carcinogenesis of OSCC in non-betel quid chewers.
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Mechanism-Specific Effects of Adenosine on Ventricular Tachycardia.
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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There is no universally accepted method by which to diagnose clinical ventricular tachycardia (VT) due to cAMP-mediated triggered activity. Based on cellular and clinical data, adenosine termination of VT is thought to be consistent with a diagnosis of triggered activity. However, a major gap in evidence mitigates the validity of this proposal, namely, defining the specificity of adenosine response in well-delineated reentrant VT circuits. To this end, we systematically studied the effects of adenosine in a model of canine reentrant VT and in human reentrant VT, confirmed by 3-dimensional, pace- and substrate mapping.
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Atypical presentation of perforated peptic ulcer disease in a 12-year-old boy.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
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A 12-year-old boy was referred to the surgical unit with 4?h history of severe lower abdominal pain and bilious vomiting. No other symptoms were reported and there was no significant medical or family history. Examination revealed tenderness in the lower abdomen, in particular the left iliac fossa. His white cell count was elevated at 19.6×10(9)/L, with a predominant neutrophilia of 15.8×10(9)/L and a C reactive protein of <0.3?mg/L. An abdominal X-ray revealed intraperitoneal gas and a chest X-ray identified free air under both hemidiaphragms. Subsequent diagnostic laparoscopy identified a perforated duodenal ulcer that was repaired by means of an omental patch. The case illustrates that although uncommon, alternate diagnoses must be borne in mind in children presenting with lower abdominal pain and diagnostic laparoscopy is a useful tool in children with visceral perforation as it avoids treatment delays and exposure to excess radiation.
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Overexpression of MMP13 Is Associated with Clinical Outcomes and Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) plays a central role in the MMP activation cascade that enables degradation of the extracellular matrix and basement membranes, and it is identified as a potential driver in oral carcinogenesis. Therefore, this study aims to determine the copy number, mRNA, and protein expression of MMP13 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to associate these expressions with clinicopathological parameters. Copy number, mRNA, and protein expression analysis of MMP13 were determined using real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry methods in OSCC samples. The correlations between MMP13 expressions and clinicopathological parameters were evaluated, and the significance of MMP13 as a prognostic factor was determined. Despite discrepancies between gene amplification and mRNA and protein overexpression rates, OSCC cases showed high amplification of MMP13 and overexpression of MMP13 at both mRNA and protein levels. High level of MMP13 protein expression showed a significant correlation with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.011) and tumor staging (P = 0.002). Multivariate Cox regression model analysis revealed that high level of mRNA and protein expression of MMP13 were significantly associated with poor prognosis (P < 0.050). Taken together, these observations indicate that the MMP13 protein overexpression could be considered as a prognostic marker of OSCC.
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Ubiquitous myocardial extensions into the pulmonary artery demonstrated by integrated intracardiac echocardiography and electroanatomic mapping: changing the paradigm of idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract arrhythmias.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias of left bundle branch block inferior axis morphology are usually localized to the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), presumably below the pulmonic valve (PV). However, the PV location is usually not confirmed by direct visualization.
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Adenosine-insensitive right ventricular tachycardia: novel variant of idiopathic outflow tract tachycardia.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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A hallmark of idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) tachycardia is its sensitivity to adenosine (ADO), which is consistent with a triggered mechanism. We have identified a novel group of patients with ADO-insensitive, non-reentrant RVOT tachycardia.
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Unifying mechanism of sustained idiopathic atrial and ventricular annular tachycardia.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Based on the current understanding of cardiac conduction system development and the observation that arrhythmogenic foci can originate in areas near the atrioventricular annuli, we hypothesized that focal annular tachycardias, whether atrial or ventricular, share a common mechanism. We, therefore, prospectively evaluated this hypothesis in patients with sustained atrial and ventricular tachycardia originating from the peri-tricuspid and mitral annuli.
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Clinicopathological features and prognosis of triple negative breast cancer in Kuwait: A comparative/perspective analysis.
Rep Pract Oncol Radiother
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of TNBC in Kuwait, to analyze the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of this type of breast cancer, and compare it with reports from other regions of the world.
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Persistence and effect of processing on reduction of fipronil and its metabolites in chilli pepper (Capsicum annum L.) fruits.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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A single laboratory UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the estimation of fipronil and its metabolites in fresh and dry chilli pepper fruits. Dissipation of fipronil on chilli fruits was studied following the application of fipronil (Jump 80 WG) at 40 and 80 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1) in the fruiting stage of the crop. The initial deposits of total fipronil on fresh chilli fruits at single and double dose application were 0.69 and 1.43 ?g g(-1), respectively, and were dissipated to below quantitation level at 27 days after application. The half-life of fipronil at single and double dose in fresh chilli pepper was 4.22 and 4.32 days and the waiting period was 25.9 and 30.6 days, respectively. Processing factor due to sun drying was calculated by measuring fipronil residues in dry chilli fruits, and it ranged from 2.96 to 3.50 during 0 to 21st day after application. Among the metabolites of fipronil, fipronil desulfenyl and fipronil sulfone had maximum residues in fresh and dried chilli, respectively, followed by fipronil sulfide. Dipping in solutions of tamarind, turmeric, vinegar and slaked lime and wet scrubbing could remove more than 90% of fipronil residues in fruits.
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Implant retained auricular prosthesis with a modified hader bar: a case report.
J Indian Prosthodont Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Auricular prostheses for defects of external ear are retained either by mechanical means or implants. All implant retained prostheses are retained by various means such as bar and clip, magnetic attachments or a combination of bar, clip and magnets. The commonest problem encountered with the bar and clip system is loosening of the clip after 3-4 months. When magnets are used as retaining component they tend to corrode over a period of time. So various alternative retention methods which possess good retentive qualities, ease of reparability and patient friendly were tried. In the present case a newly modified Hader bar design which can act as an additional retentive feature apart from the clip is employed to increase retention. The major advantages in the modified Hader bar system were that only two implants were employed, the additional loops in the Hader bar prevented micro movements and the retentive acrylic locks were easy to repair if broken. The modified Hader bar has anti-rotational slots which prevents the sliding or rotation of the prosthesis which gave new confidence to the patient who was otherwise worried of inadvertent displacement of the ear prosthesis while playing.
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Development of the reflux finding score for infants and its observer agreement.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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It is hypothesized that laryngeal edema is caused by laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) (ie, gastroesophageal reflux extending into the larynx and pharynx). The validated reflux finding score (RFS) assesses LPR disease in adults. We, therefore, aimed to develop an adapted RFS for infants (RFS-I) and assess its observer agreement.
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Photon statistics of resonance fluorescence in the limit of separated spectral lines.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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We have studied the statistics of fluorescent photons emitted by a two-state atom in a laser beam in the limit where either the detuning or the Rabi frequency is large. For this case, the spectrum of resonance fluorescence has three separated lines. We have obtained closed form expressions for the conditional probability density for the emission of the nth photon and for the probability for emission of n photons in a time interval [0,T]. Our solutions are complementary to the known solutions for the case of perfect resonance.
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Changed expression of E-cadherin and galectin-9 in oral squamous cell carcinomas but lack of potential as prognostic markers.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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The survival rate for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has remained generally unchanged in the past three decades, underlining the need for more biomarkers to be developed to aid prognostication and effective management. The prognostic potential of E-cadherin expression in OSCCs has been variable in previous studies while galectin-9 expression has been correlated with improved prognosis in other cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of galectin-9 and E-cadherin in OSCC and their potential as prognostic biomarkers.
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Reappraisal of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Idiopathic Outflow Tract Arrhythmias.
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Because of prognostic and therapeutic implications, the distinction between idiopathic right ventricular (RV) outflow tract (iRVOT) and arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is clinically important. Over the last 2 decades multiple reports have identified RV abnormalities using CMR in patients with idiopathic VT, suggesting a link between these arrhythmias and ARVC. The purpose of this study was to assess for structural abnormalities in patients with iRVOT tachycardia using contemporary cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging.
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Multicenter randomized phase 2 clinical trial of a recombinant human endostatin adenovirus in patients with advanced head and neck carcinoma.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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A randomized, open-label, phase 2, multicenter clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the addition of a recombinant human endostatin adenovirus (E10A) to cisplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma or nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Patients with locally advanced or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma or nasopharyngeal carcinoma not suitable for operation or radiotherapy were randomly assigned to receive E10A plus chemotherapy every 3 weeks for a maximum of six cycles or to receive chemotherapy only. One hundred and thirty-six eligible patients were randomly assigned. The addition of E10A did not significantly improve the objective response rate (29.9 versus 39.7%, P = 0.154). However, patients who received endostatin had longer progression-free survival (7.03 versus 3.60 months, P = 0.006; hazard ratio: 0.55). The combination of E10A with chemotherapy benefited prior chemotherapy-treated patients and those who received three to four treatment cycles (6.50 versus 3.43 months, P = 0.003; 8.27 versus 4.27 months, P = 0.018; respectively). The overall disease control rate significantly increased from 80.6% in the control group to 92.6% in the test group (P = 0.034). Except for fever, no adverse events were associated with the E10A treatment. In summary, E10A plus chemotherapy is a safe and effective therapeutic approach in patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma or nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
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Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (MC-1), a vitamin B6 derivative, inhibits expressed P2X receptors.
Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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P2X receptors are cation-permeable ligand-gated ion channels that open in response to the binding of ATP. These receptors are present in many excitable cells, including neurons, striated muscle cells, epithelial cells, and leukocytes. They mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission in the central and peripheral nervous systems and are thought to be involved in neuropathic pain, inflammation, and cell damage following ischemia-reperfusion injuries. P2X receptors are thus a target for the development of new therapeutics to treat chronic pain and inflammation. In this study, we characterized the inhibition caused by pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, a natural metabolite of vitamin B6 (MC-1), of P2X?, P2X?, P2X?, and P2X?/? receptors stably expressed in HEK293 cells using the patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration. We also tested a new approach using VC6.1, a modified cameleon calcium-sensitive fluorescent protein, to characterize the inhibition of P2X? and P2X?/?. MC-1 blocked these two P2X receptors, with an IC?? of 7 and 13 ?mol/L, respectively. P2X? exhibited the highest affinity for VC6.1, and the chimeric receptor P2X?/?, the lowest. The patch-clamp and imaging approaches gave similar results and indicated that VC6.1 may be useful for high throughput drug screening. Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate is an efficient P2X blocker and can be classified as a P2X antagonist.
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Dissipation kinetics and effect of different decontamination techniques on the residues of emamectin benzoate and spinosad in cowpea pods.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Dissipation and decontamination of the semisynthetic macrolide emamectin benzoate and the natural insecticide spinosad on cowpea pods were studied following field application at single and double doses of 11.0 and 22 and 73 and 146 g ai ha(-1), respectively. Residues of these naturalytes were estimated using LC-MS/MS. The initial deposit of 0.073 and 0.153 mg kg(-1) of emamectin benzoate dissipated below quantitation level on the fifth and seventh day at single and double dosage, respectively. For spinosad, the initial deposits of 0.94 and 1.90 mg kg(-1) reached below quantitation level on the 7th day and 15th day at single and double dosage, respectively. The half-life of emamectin benzoate and spinosad was 1.13-1.49 and 1.05-1.39 days with the calculated safe waiting period of 2.99-6.12 and 1.09-3.25 days, respectively, for single and double dosage. Processing of the harvestable pods with different decontamination techniques resulted in 33.82 to 100 % removal 2 h after the application of emamectin benzoate and 100 % removal 3 days after spraying, while the removal was 42.05 to 87.46 % 2 h after the application of spinosad and 38.05 to 68.08 % 3 days after application.
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New hypertension guidelines: one size fits most?
Cleve Clin J Med
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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The report of the panel appointed to the eighth Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 8) is more evidence-based and focused than its predecessors, outlining a management strategy that is simpler and, in some instances, less aggressive. It has both strengths and weaknesses.
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Prospects for discriminating Zingiberaceae species in India using DNA barcodes.
J Integr Plant Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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We evaluated nine plastid (matK, rbcL, rpoC1, rpoB, rpl36-rps8, ndhJ, trnL-F, trnH-psbA, accD) and two nuclear (ITS and ITS2) barcode loci in family Zingiberaceae by analyzing 60 accessions of 20 species belonging to seven genera from India. Bidirectional sequences were recovered for every plastid locus by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons in all the accessions tested. However, only 35 (58%) and 40 accessions (66%) yielded ITS and ITS2 sequences, respectively, by direct sequencing. In different bioinformatics analyses, matK and rbcL consistently resolved 15 species (75%) into monophyletic groups and five species into two paraphyletic groups. The 173 ITS sequences, including 138 cloned sequences from 23 accessions, discriminated only 12 species (60%), and the remaining species were entered into three paraphyletic groups. Phylogenetic and genealogic analyses of plastid and ITS sequences imply the possible occurrence of natural hybridizations in the evolutionary past in giving rise to species paraphyly and intragenomic ITS heterogeneity in the species tested. The results support using matK and rbcL loci for barcoding Zingiberaceae members and highlight the poor utility of ITS and the highly regarded ITS2 in barcoding this family, and also caution against proposing ITS loci for barcoding taxa based on limited sampling.
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Phase 1/2 study of KRN330, a fully human anti-A33 monoclonal antibody, plus irinotecan as second-line treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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KRN330 is a recombinant, fully-human monoclonal antibody directed against A33, a surface differentiation antigen that is uniformly expressed in 95 % of colorectal cancers. A previous Phase 1 study of single-agent KRN330 identified a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 3 mg/kg q2w and preliminary evidence of clinical activity among patients with advanced and metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This Phase 1/2 trial sought to assess the safety and activity of second-line KRN330 plus irinotecan in patients with mCRC. Patients with mCRC who showed disease progression after FOLFOX/CapOx received intravenous doses of KRN330 (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg qw or q2w) plus irinotecan (180 mg/m(2)) in a standard 3 + 3 dose escalation. The MTD of KRN330 with irinotecan in 19 patients was 0.5 mg/kg qw in the Phase 1 study with gastrointestinal effects and neutropenia being the predominant dose-limiting toxicities. In the Phase 2 study, the most frequent treatment-related Grade ?3 toxicities in 44 patients were fatigue (15.9 %), neutropenia (13.6 %), leukopenia (6.8 %), diarrhea (4.5 %), and dehydration (4.5 %). Objective response rate (ORR) was 4.5 % and disease control rate was 45.5 % for the intent-to-treat population. Median progression-free survival was 87 days (95 % CI, 43-136 days). The prespecified ORR of KRN330 plus irinotecan was not met. Further investigation of KRN330 plus other agents may be warranted.
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Genomic DNA copy number alterations from precursor oral lesions to oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Oral cancer is a multifactorial disease in which both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the aetiopathogenesis. Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide with a higher incidence among Melanesian and South Asian countries. More than 90% of oral cancers are oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present study aimed to determine common genomic copy number alterations (CNAs) and their frequency by including 12 studies that have been conducted on OSCCs using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). In addition, we reviewed the literature dealing with CNAs that drive oral precursor lesions to the invasive tumors. Results showed a sequential accumulation of genetic changes from oral precursor lesions to invasive tumors. With the disease progression, accumulation of genetic changes increases in terms of frequency, type and size of the abnormalities, even on different regions of the same chromosome. Gains in 3q (36.5%), 5p (23%), 7p (21%), 8q (47%), 11q (45%), 20q (31%) and losses in 3p (37%), 8p (18%), 9p (10%) and 18q (11%) were the most common observations among those studies. However, losses are less frequent than gains but it appears that they might be the primary clonal events in causing oral cancer.
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Feasibility and outcomes of ajmaline provocation testing for Brugada syndrome in children in a specialist paediatric inherited cardiovascular diseases centre.
Open Heart
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited arrhythmia syndrome that causes sudden cardiac death in the young. The class Ia antiarrhythmic ajmaline can be used to provoke the diagnostic ECG pattern. Its use has been established in adults, but little data exist on the ajmaline provocation test in children. This study aims to determine the safety and feasibility of ajmaline provocation testing in a large paediatric cohort in a specialist paediatric inherited cardiac diseases centre.
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Wilms' tumor protein induces an epithelial-mesenchymal hybrid differentiation state in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The Wilms' tumor transcription factor (WT1) was originally classified as a tumor suppressor, but it is now known to also be associated with cancer progression and poor prognosis in several malignancies. WT1 plays an essential role in orchestrating a developmental process known as mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) during kidney development, but also induces the reverse process, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during heart development. WT1 is not expressed in the adult kidney, but shows elevated expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, the role of WT1 in this disease has not been characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that WT1 is upregulated in ccRCC cells that are deficient in the expression of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (VHL). We found that WT1 transcriptionally activated Snail, a master transcriptional repressor that is known to induce EMT. Although Snail represses E-cadherin and induces mesenchymal characteristics, we found partial maintenance of E-cadherin and associated epithelial characteristics in kidney cells and ccRCC cells that express WT1, since WT1 upregulates E-cadherin expression and competes with Snail repression. These findings support a novel paradigm in which WT1 induces an epithelial-mesenchymal hybrid transition (EMHT), characterized by Snail up-regulation with E-cadherin maintenance, a tumor cell differentiation state in which cancer cells keep both EMT and MET characteristics which may promote tumor cell plasticity and tumor progression.
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The RAS subfamily Evolution - tracing evolution for its utmost exploitation.
Bioinformation
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In the development of multicellularity, signaling proteins has played a very important role. Among them, RAS family is one of the most widely studied protein family. However, evolutionary analysis has been carried out mainly on super family level leaving sub family information in scanty. Thus, a subfamily evolutionary study on RAS evolutionary expansion is imperative as it will aid in better drug designing against dreadful diseases like Cancer and other developmental diseases. The present study was aimed to understand RAS evolution on both holistic as well as reductive level. All human RAS family genes and protein were subjected to BLAST tools to find orthologs and paralogs with different parameters followed by phylogenetic tree generation. Our results clearly showed that H-RAS is the most primitive RAS in higher eukaryotes and then diverged into other RAS family members due to different gene modification events. Furthermore, a site specific selection pressure analysis was carried out using SELECTON server which showed that H-RAS, M-RAS and N-RAS are evolving faster than K-RAS and R-RAS. Thus, the results ascertain a new ground to cancer biologists to exploit negatively selected K-RAS and R-RAS as potent drug targets in cancer therapeutics.
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Genetic Profiling to Determine Risk of Relapse Free Survival in High-risk Localized Prostate Cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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The characterization of actionable mutations in human tumors is a prerequisite for the development of individualized, targeted therapy. We examined the prevalence of potentially therapeutically actionable mutations in patients with high risk clinically localized prostate cancer.
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Religion and Intergroup Conflict: Findings From the Global Group Relations Project.
Psychol Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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How might religion shape intergroup conflict? We tested whether religious infusion-the extent to which religious rituals and discourse permeate the everyday activities of groups and their members-moderated the effects of two factors known to increase intergroup conflict: competition for limited resources and incompatibility of values held by potentially conflicting groups. We used data from the Global Group Relations Project to investigate 194 groups (e.g., ethnic, religious, national) at 97 sites around the world. When religion was infused in group life, groups were especially prejudiced against those groups that held incompatible values, and they were likely to discriminate against such groups. Moreover, whereas disadvantaged groups with low levels of religious infusion typically avoided directing aggression against their resource-rich and powerful counterparts, disadvantaged groups with high levels of religious infusion directed significant aggression against them-despite the significant tangible costs to the disadvantaged groups potentially posed by enacting such aggression. This research suggests mechanisms through which religion may increase intergroup conflict and introduces an innovative method for performing nuanced, cross-societal research.
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Adenosine-induced pulmonary vein ectopy as a predictor of recurrent atrial fibrillation after pulmonary vein isolation.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Background- Adenosine can unmask dormant pulmonary vein (PV) conduction after PV isolation. Adenosine can also induce ectopy in electrically silent PVs after isolation, possibly via activation of autonomic triggers. We sought to identify the implications of adenosine-induced PV ectopy for atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after PV isolation. Methods and Results- A total of 152 patients (age, 60±11 years; 63% paroxysmal AF) undergoing PV isolation for AF were studied. After each PV was isolated, adenosine was administered and the presence of adenosine-induced PV reconnection and PV ectopy were recorded. Dormant conduction was targeted with additional ablation. Adenosine-induced PV ectopy was seen in 45 (30%) patients, and dormant conduction was seen in 44 (29%) patients. After a median follow-up of 374 days, 48 (32%) patients had recurrent AF after a single ablation procedure. Rates of freedom from AF among patients with adenosine-induced PV ectopy were significantly lower than patients without adenosine-induced PV ectopy (63% versus 76% at 1 year; log rank, 0.014). Rates of freedom from AF among patients with dormant conduction were also lower than patients without dormant conduction (64% versus 76% at 1 year; log rank, 0.062). With multivariate analysis, adenosine-induced PV ectopy was found to be the only independent predictor of AF after PV isolation (hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-3.40; P=0.032). Conclusions- Adenosine-induced PV ectopy is a predictor of recurrent AF after PV isolation and may be a marker of increased susceptibility to autonomic triggers of AF.
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Capture, release and culture of circulating tumor cells from pancreatic cancer patients using an enhanced mixing chip.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from peripheral blood hold important information for cancer diagnosis and disease monitoring. Analysis of this "liquid biopsy" holds the promise to usher in a new era of personalized therapeutic treatments and real-time monitoring for cancer patients. But the extreme rarity of CTCs in blood makes their isolation and characterization technologically challenging. This paper reports the development of a geometrically enhanced mixing (GEM) chip for high-efficiency and high-purity tumor cell capture. We also successfully demonstrated the release and culture of the captured tumor cells, as well as the isolation of CTCs from cancer patients. The high-performance microchip is based on geometrically optimized micromixer structures, which enhance the transverse flow and flow folding, maximizing the interaction between CTCs and antibody-coated surfaces. With the optimized channel geometry and flow rate, the capture efficiency reached >90% with a purity of >84% when capturing spiked tumor cells in buffer. The system was further validated by isolating a wide range of spiked tumor cells (50-50?000) in 1 mL of lysed blood and whole blood. With the combination of trypsinization and high flow rate washing, captured tumor cells were efficiently released. The released cells were viable and able to proliferate, and showed no difference compared with intact cells that were not subjected to the capture and release process. Furthermore, we applied the device for detecting CTCs from metastatic pancreatic cancer patients blood; and CTCs were found from 17 out of 18 samples (>94%). We also tested the potential utility of the device in monitoring the response to anti-cancer drug treatment in pancreatic cancer patients, and the CTC numbers correlated with the clinical computed tomograms (CT scans) of tumors. The presented technology shows great promise for accurate CTC enumeration, biological studies of CTCs and cancer metastasis, as well as for cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring.
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Mode of cell death induced by the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG (tanespimycin) is dependent on the expression of pro-apoptotic BAX.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Inhibitors of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) are of considerable current interest as targeted cancer therapeutic agents because of the ability to destabilize multiple oncogenic client proteins. Despite their resulting pleiotropic effects on multiple oncogenic pathways and hallmark traits of cancer, resistance to HSP90 inhibitors is possible and their ability to induce apoptosis is less than might be expected. Using an isogenic model for BAX knockout in HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells, we demonstrate the induction of BAX-dependent apoptosis at pharmacologically relevant concentrations of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG both in vitro and in tumor xenografts in vivo. Removal of BAX expression by homologous recombination reduces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo but allows a lower level of cell death via a predominantly necrotic mechanism. Despite reducing apoptosis, the loss of BAX does not alter the overall sensitivity to 17-AAG in vitro or in vivo. The results indicate that 17-AAG acts predominantly to cause a cytostatic antiproliferative effect rather than cell death and further suggest that BAX status may not alter the overall clinical response to HSP90 inhibitors. Other agents may be required in combination to enhance tumor-selective killing by these promising drugs. In addition, there are implications for the use of apoptotic endpoints in the assessment of the activity of molecularly targeted agents.
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Loss of tumor suppressor RPL5/RPL11 does not induce cell cycle arrest but impedes proliferation due to reduced ribosome content and translation capacity.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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Humans have evolved elaborate mechanisms to activate p53 in response to insults that lead to cancer, including the binding and inhibition of Hdm2 by the 60S ribosomal proteins (RPs) RPL5 and RPL11. This same mechanism appears to be activated upon impaired ribosome biogenesis, a risk factor for cancer initiation. As loss of RPL5/RPL11 abrogates ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis to the same extent as loss of other essential 60S RPs, we reasoned the loss of RPL5 and RPL11 would induce a p53-independent cell cycle checkpoint. Unexpectedly, we found that their depletion in primary human lung fibroblasts failed to induce cell cycle arrest but strongly suppressed cell cycle progression. We show that the effects on cell cycle progression stemmed from reduced ribosome content and translational capacity, which suppressed the accumulation of cyclins at the translational level. Thus, unlike other tumor suppressors, RPL5/RPL11 play an essential role in normal cell proliferation, a function cells have evolved to rely on in lieu of a cell cycle checkpoint.
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The effect of antispastic drugs on motor reflexes and voluntary muscle contraction in incomplete spinal cord injury.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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To investigate the effects of antispastic agents, baclofen and tizandine on reflexes and volitional tasks.
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Thermal or nonthermal? That is the question for ultrafast spin switching in GdFeCo.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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GdFeCo is among the most interesting magnets for producing laser-induced femtosecond magnetism, where light can switch its spin moment from one direction to another. This paper aims to set a criterion for the thermal/nonthermal mechanism: we propose to use the Fermi-Dirac distribution function as a reliable criterion. A precise value for the thermalization time is needed, and through a two-level model, we show that since there is no direct connection between the laser helicity and the definition of thermal/nonthermal processes, the helicity is a poor criterion for differentiating a thermal from a nonthermal process. In addition, we propose a four-site model system (Gd2Fe2) for investigating the transient ferromagnetic ordering between Gd and Fe ions. We find that states of two different kinds can allow such an ordering. One state is a pure ferromagnetic state with ferromagnetic ordering among all the ions, and the other is the short-ranged ferromagnetic ordering of a pair of Gd and Fe ions.
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Different strategies of cadmium detoxification in the submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum L.
Metallomics
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is highly toxic to plants. To understand the mechanisms of tolerance and resistance to Cd, we treated the rootless, submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum L. with sub-micromolar concentrations of Cd under environmentally relevant conditions. X-ray fluorescence measurements revealed changing distribution patterns of Cd and Zn at non-toxic (0.2 nM, 2 nM), moderately toxic (20 nM) and highly toxic (200 nM) levels of Cd. Increasing Cd concentrations led to enhanced sequestration of Cd into non-photosynthetic tissues like epidermis and vein. At toxic Cd concentrations, Zn was redistributed and mainly found in the vein. Cd treatment induced the synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) in the plants, with a threshold of induction already at 20 nM Cd for PC3. In comparison, in plants treated with Cu, elevated PC levels were detected only at the highest concentrations (100-200 nM Cu). Our results show that also non-accumulators like C. demersum store toxic metals in tissues where the heavy metal interferes least with metabolic pathways, but remaining toxicity interferes with micronutrient distribution. Furthermore, we found that the induction of phytochelatins is not proportional to metal concentration, but has a distinct threshold, specific for each PC species. Finally we could show that 20 nM Cd, which was previously regarded as non-toxic to most plants, already induces detoxifying mechanisms.
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Anxiety disorders in patients with COPD: a systematic review.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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There is a growing interest in the role of comorbid anxiety in patients with COPD. Comorbid anxiety has a major impact on physical functioning, health-related quality of life, and healthcare utilization. However, the prevalence of clinical anxiety, particularly specific anxiety diagnoses, in patients with COPD remains unclear.
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Combining trail with PI3 kinase or HSP90 inhibitors enhances apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells via suppression of survival signaling.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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TRAIL has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, but in some cases they fail to respond to this ligand. We explored the ability of representative phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3 Kinase)/mTOR and HSP90 inhibitors to overcome TRAIL resistance by increasing apoptosis in colorectal cancer models. We determined the sensitivity of 27 human colorectal cancer and 2 non-transformed colon epithelial cell lines to TRAIL treatment. A subset of the cancer cell lines with a range of responses to TRAIL was selected from the panel for treatment with TRAIL combined with the PI3 Kinase/mTOR inhibitor PI-103 or the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG (tanespimycin). Two TRAIL-resistant cell lines were selected for in vivo combination studies with TRAIL and 17-AAG. We found that 13 colorectal cancer cell lines and the 2 non-transformed colon epithelial cell lines were resistant to TRAIL. We demonstrated that co-treatment of TRAIL and PI-103 or 17-AAG was synergistic or additive and significantly enhanced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. This was associated with decreased expression or activity of survival protein biomarkers such as ERBB2, AKT, IKK? and XIAP. In contrast, the effect of the combination treatments in non-transformed colon cells was minimal. We show here for the first time that co-treatment in vivo with TRAIL and 17-AAG in two TRAIL-resistant human colorectal cancer xenograft models resulted in significantly greater tumor growth inhibition compared to single treatments. We propose that combining TRAIL with PI3 Kinase/mTOR or HSP90 inhibitors has therapeutic potential in the treatment of TRAIL-resistant colorectal cancers.
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Recovery of atrioventricular conduction after pacemaker placement following cardiac valvular surgery.
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2013
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Atrioventricular block (AVB) occurs commonly after valve surgery, and permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation is often required. However, the rate and time course of spontaneous recovery of AV conduction in these patients is not known. The goal of this study was to define the rate and risk factors for late high-grade AVB in patients who have PPM implantation for this indication.
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Effects of Cd & Ni toxicity to Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions in soft & hard water including a German lake.
Aquat. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Even essential trace elements are phytotoxic over a certain threshold. In this study, we investigated whether heavy metal concentrations were responsible for the nearly complete lack of submerged macrophytes in an oligotrophic lake in Germany. We cultivated the rootless aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions like sinusoidal light and temperature cycles and a low plant biomass to water volume ratio. Experiments lasted for six weeks and were analysed by detailed measurements of photosynthetic biophysics, pigment content and hydrogen peroxide production. We established that individually non-toxic cadmium (3 nM) and slightly toxic nickel (300 nM) concentrations became highly toxic when applied together in soft water, severely inhibiting photosynthetic light reactions. Toxicity was further enhanced by phosphate limitation (75 nM) in soft water as present in many freshwater habitats. In the investigated lake, however, high water hardness limited the toxicity of these metal concentrations, thus the inhibition of macrophytic growth in the lake must have additional reasons. The results showed that synergistic heavy metal toxicity may change ecosystems in many more cases than estimated so far.
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Verrucous Papillary Lesions: Dilemmas in Diagnosis and Terminology.
Int J Dent
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Verrucous papillary lesions (VPLs) of oral cavity are diagnostically challenging as they include a spectrum of benign, potentially malignant, and frankly malignant lesions. A majority of the benign VPLs have viral aetiology and include commonly occurring squamous papilloma along with verruca vulgaris, focal epithelial hyperplasia, and condyloma. Current understanding of potentially malignant VPLs is perplexing and is primarily attributed to the use of confusing and unsatisfactory terminology. Clinically and histologically oral verrucous hyperplasia, a potentially malignant disorder, resembles oral verrucous carcinoma and may be indistinguishable from one another. The most reliable way to separate these entities on routine haematoxylin-eosin stained tissue sections is to recognize the exophytic growth patterns of oral verrucous hyperplasia from the combined exophytic and endophytic growth patterns associated with verrucous carcinoma. A review of the literature showed that there is a lot of confusion regarding the current clinical and histopathological guidelines to diagnose this potentially malignant entity. The criteria elaborated by different authors in establishing the diagnosis of oral verrucous hyperplasia are discussed in detail. A brief overview of the treatment modalities adopted is also discussed. The need for establishing a clear understanding of this potentially malignant entity is stressed as it may have far reaching implications on its management.
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Mouse gene targeting reveals an essential role of mTOR in hematopoietic stem cell engraftment and hematopoiesis.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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mTOR integrates signals from nutrients and growth factors to control protein synthesis, cell growth, and survival. Although mTOR has been established as a therapeutic target in hematologic malignancies, its physiological role in regulating hematopoiesis remains unclear. Here we show that conditional gene targeting of mTOR causes bone marrow failure and defects in multi-lineage hematopoiesis including myelopoiesis, erythropoiesis, thrombopoiesis, and lymphopoiesis. mTOR deficiency results in loss of quiescence of hematopoietic stem cells, leading to a transient increase but long-term exhaustion and defective engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells in lethally irradiated recipient mice. Furthermore, ablation of mTOR causes increased apoptosis in lineage-committed blood cells but not hematopoietic stem cells, indicating a differentiation stage-specific function. These results demonstrate that mTOR is essential for hematopoietic stem cell engraftment and multi-lineage hematopoiesis.
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Mechanisms, predictors, and trends of electrical failure of Riata leads.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Riata and Riata ST implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads have been shown to be prone to structural and electrical failure.
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Cardiac resynchronization therapy in CKD: a systematic review.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) confers morbidity and mortality benefits to selected patients with heart failure. This systematic review examined effects of CRT in CKD patients (estimated GFR [eGFR] <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)).
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Animal models of human prostate cancer: the consensus report of the New York meeting of the Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium Prostate Pathology Committee.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Animal models, particularly mouse models, play a central role in the study of the etiology, prevention, and treatment of human prostate cancer. While tissue culture models are extremely useful in understanding the biology of prostate cancer, they cannot recapitulate the complex cellular interactions within the tumor microenvironment that play a key role in cancer initiation and progression. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium convened a group of human and veterinary pathologists to review the current animal models of prostate cancer and make recommendations about the pathologic analysis of these models. More than 40 different models with 439 samples were reviewed, including genetically engineered mouse models, xenograft, rat, and canine models. Numerous relevant models have been developed over the past 15 years, and each approach has strengths and weaknesses. Analysis of multiple genetically engineered models has shown that reactive stroma formation is present in all the models developing invasive carcinomas. In addition, numerous models with multiple genetic alterations display aggressive phenotypes characterized by sarcomatoid carcinomas and metastases, which is presumably a histologic manifestation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The significant progress in development of improved models of prostate cancer has already accelerated our understanding of the complex biology of prostate cancer and promises to enhance development of new approaches to prevention, detection, and treatment of this common malignancy.
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Effects of nanomolar copper on water plants--comparison of biochemical and biophysical mechanisms of deficiency and sublethal toxicity under environmentally relevant conditions.
Aquat. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Toxicity and deficiency of essential trace elements like Cu are major global problems. Here, environmentally relevant sub-micromolar concentrations of Cu (supplied as CuSO4) and simulations of natural light- and temperature cycles were applied to the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum. Growth was optimal at 10nM Cu, while PSII activity (Fv/Fm) was maximal around 2 nM Cu. Damage to the PSII reaction centre was the first target of Cu toxicity, followed by disturbed regulation of heat dissipation (NPQ). Only after that, electron transport through PSII (?PSII) was inhibited, and finally chlorophylls decreased. Copper accumulation in the plants was stable until 10nM Cu in solution, but strongly increased at higher concentrations. The vein was the main storage site for Cu up to physiological concentrations (10nM). At toxic levels it was also sequestered to the epidermis and mesophyll until export from the vein became inhibited, accompanied by inhibition of Zn uptake. Copper deficiency led to a complete stop of growth at "0"nM Cu after 6 weeks. This was accompanied by high starch accumulation although electron flow through PSII (?PSII) decreased from 2 weeks, followed by decrease in pigments and increase of non photochemical quenching (NPQ). Release of Cu from the plants below 10nM Cu supply in the nutrient solution indicated lack of high-affinity Cu transporters, and on the tissue level copper deficiency led to a re-distribution of zinc.
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5S ribosomal RNA is an essential component of a nascent ribosomal precursor complex that regulates the Hdm2-p53 checkpoint.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Recently, we demonstrated that RPL5 and RPL11 act in a mutually dependent manner to inhibit Hdm2 and stabilize p53 following impaired ribosome biogenesis. Given that RPL5 and RPL11 form a preribosomal complex with noncoding 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and the three have been implicated in the p53 response, we reasoned they may be part of an Hdm2-inhibitory complex. Here, we show that small interfering RNAs directed against 5S rRNA have no effect on total or nascent levels of the noncoding rRNA, though they prevent the reported Hdm4 inhibition of p53. To achieve efficient inhibition of 5S rRNA synthesis, we targeted TFIIIA, a specific RNA polymerase III cofactor, which, like depletion of either RPL5 or RPL11, did not induce p53. Instead, 5S rRNA acts in a dependent manner with RPL5 and RPL11 to inhibit Hdm2 and stabilize p53. Moreover, depletion of any one of the three components abolished the binding of the other two to Hdm2, explaining their common dependence. Finally, we demonstrate that the RPL5/RPL11/5S rRNA preribosomal complex is redirected from assembly into nascent 60S ribosomes to Hdm2 inhibition as a consequence of impaired ribosome biogenesis. Thus, the activation of the Hdm2-inhibitory complex is not a passive but a regulated event, whose potential role in tumor suppression has been recently noted.
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Argininosuccinate synthase as a novel biomarker for inflammatory conditions.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) plays an important role in regulating metabolic functions in mammals. We previously reported that hepatic ASS is released into circulation at very high concentrations in response to endotoxin and acute liver injury. We propose that ASS may serve as a novel biomarker for various inflammatory conditions. Our data showed that ASS accumulated in serum and urine of septic, obese or tumor mice in a condition-dependent fashion. Moreover, ASS significantly increased in urine within the first week after tumor cell implantation in mice which subsequently develop tumors. These results suggest that ASS is a novel biomarker increased upon diverse inflammatory conditions.
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Characteristics and outcomes of adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas.
Gastrointest Cancer Res
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas (ASCAP) is a rare histologic type of pancreatic carcinoma that constitutes 1% to 4% of all pancreatic exocrine malignancies. It has a clinical presentation similar to that of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (ACP), but may have a worse overall prognosis, with most patients surviving for less than 2 years.
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Localization and relaxation of singlet exciton formation in conjugated polymers under photoexcitation.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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This paper employs a molecular dynamics approach to uncover the time profile of exciton formation, which can be divided into two stages: localization of electron-hole pairs and relaxation process (nuclear and electronic). Under photoexcitation, an electron-hole pair is formed by an electronic transition, and the pair in turn becomes localized through the electron-lattice interaction, which triggers the total energy to shift violently and oscillate. The oscillation during the first 40 fs induces the excitation to step into the second stage, i.e., relaxation. After the relaxation process of about 850 fs, the total energy, lattice energy, and electron energy reach certain values whereas the lattice configuration and electron remain localized, indicating the formation of a singlet exciton.
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Method for differentiating left superior pulmonary vein exit conduction from pseudo-exit conduction.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Electrical isolation of pulmonary vein (PV) conduction from the left atrium (LA) is the cornerstone of successful atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. Exit block is confirmed by the absence of LA capture during pacing from a circular mapping catheter positioned in the PV; however, far-field capture of the left atrial appendage (LAA) (pseudo-pulmonary vein exit conduction) can occur. In this study, we evaluated a methodology for identifying pseudo-exit conduction.
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Genome wide analysis of chromosomal alterations in oral squamous cell carcinomas revealed over expression of MGAM and ADAM9.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Despite the advances in diagnosis and treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), mortality and morbidity rates have not improved over the past decade. A major drawback in diagnosis and treatment of OSCC is the lack of knowledge relating to how genetic instability in oral cancer genomes affects oral carcinogenesis. Hence, the key aim of this study was to identify copy number alterations (CNAs) that may be cancer associated in OSCC using high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). To our knowledge this is the first study to use ultra-high density aCGH microarrays to profile a large number of OSCC genomes (n = 46). The most frequently amplified CNAs were located on chromosome 11q11(52%), 2p22.3(52%), 1q21.3-q22(54%), 6p21.32(59%), 20p13(61%), 7q34(52% and 72%),8p11.23-p11.22(80%), 8q11.1-q24.4(54%), 9q13-q34.3(54%), 11q23.3-q25(57%); 14q21.3-q31.1(54%); 14q31.3-q32.33(57%), 20p13-p12.3(54%) and 20q11.21-q13.33(52%). The most frequently deleted chromosome region was located on 3q26.1 (54%). In order to verify the CNAs from aCGH using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), the three top most amplified regions and their associated genes, namely ADAM5P (8p11.23-p11.22), MGAM (7q34) and SIRPB1 (20p13.1), were selected in this study. The ADAM5P locus was found to be amplified in 39 samples and deleted in one; MGAM (24 amplifications and 3 deletions); and SIRPB1 (12 amplifications, others undetermined). On the basis of putative cancer-related annotations, two genes, namely ADAM metallopeptidase domain 9 (ADAM9) and maltase-glucoamylase alpha-glucosidase (MGAM), that mapped to CNA regions were selected for further evaluation of their mRNA expression using reverse transcriptase qPCR. The over-expression of MGAM was confirmed with a 6.6 fold increase in expression at the mRNA level whereas the fold change in ADAM9 demonstrated a 1.6 fold increase. This study has identified significant regions in the OSCC genome that were amplified and resulted in consequent over-expression of the MGAM and ADAM9 genes that may be utilized as biological markers for OSCC.
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Growth control and ribosomopathies.
Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis are two of the most energy consuming processes in a growing cell. Moreover, defects in their molecular components can alter the pattern of gene expression. Thus it is understandable that cells have developed a surveillance system to monitor the status of the translational machinery. Recent discoveries of causative mutations and deletions in genes linked to ribosome biogenesis have defined a group of similar pathologies termed ribosomopathies. Over the past decade, much has been learned regarding the relationship between growth control and ribosome biogenesis. The discovery of extra-ribosomal functions of several ribosome proteins and their regulation of p53 levels has provided a link from ribosome impairment to cell cycle regulation. Yet, evidence suggesting p53 and/or Hdm2 independent pathways also exists. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathologies of ribosomopathies and discuss the relationship between ribosome production and tumorigenesis.
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Treatment outcomes and prognostic factors of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The aim of the present study was to determine the treatment outcome and prognostic factors for survival in patients with peripheral intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). A retrospective chart review was performed for patients diagnosed with ICC between 2000 and 2009 at a single institution. We identified a total of 105 patients with ICC. Among them, 63.8% were older than 60 years of age, 50.5% were male and 88.6% were Caucasian. By preoperative imaging approximately half of the patients (50.5%) were surgical candidates and underwent resection. The other half of the patients (49.5%) were unresectable. The unresectable group received chemoradiotherapy (53%) and transarterial chemoembolization (7.7%) as palliative treatments while 23.0% of the patients (12/52) received best supportive care alone. The median survival rates were 16.1 months (13.1?19.2) for the entire cohort, 27.6 months (17.7-37.6) for curative resection, 12.9 months (6.5-19.2) for palliative chemoradiotherapy and 4.9 months (0.4-9.6) for best supportive care (p<0.001). Independent predictors on multivariate analysis were advanced stage at diagnosis and treatment received. In those patients who underwent resection, advanced AJCC stage and presence of microvascular invasion were also independent predictors of poor survival. We concluded that surgery offers the most beneficial curative option and outcome, emphasizing the importance of resectability as a major prognostic factor. The present study also revealed that use of chemoradiotherapy in the adjuvant setting failed to improve survival but its palliative use in those patients with unresectable ICC offered a modest survival advantage over best supportive care. The overriding factors influencing outcome were stage and the presence of microvascular invasion on pathology.
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Mechanistic target of rapamycin (Mtor) is essential for murine embryonic heart development and growth.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Mechanistic target of rapamycin (Mtor) is required for embryonic inner cell mass proliferation during early development. However, Mtor expression levels are very low in the mouse heart during embryogenesis. To determine if Mtor plays a role during mouse cardiac development, cardiomyocyte specific Mtor deletion was achieved using ? myosin heavy chain (?-MHC) driven Cre recombinase. Initial mosaic expression of Cre between embryonic day (E) 10.5 and E11.5 eliminated a subset of cardiomyocytes with high Cre activity by apoptosis and reduced overall cardiac proliferative capacity. The remaining cardiomyocytes proliferated and expanded normally. However loss of 50% of cardiomyocytes defined a threshold that impairs the ability of the embryonic heart to sustain the embryos circulatory requirements. As a result 92% of embryos with cardiomyocyte Mtor deficiency died by the end of gestation. Thus Mtor is required for survival and proliferation of cardiomyocytes in the developing heart.
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Persistence and effects of processing on reduction of chlorantraniliprole residues on cowpea fruits.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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A field trial was conducted to study the dissipation kinetics of chlorantraniliprole 18.5 % SC on cowpea fruits. The fruit samples drawn periodically were analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass detection (LC-MS/MS). The initial residues of chlorantraniliprole in cowpea fruits were found to be 0.55 mg kg(-1) which dissipated rapidly, with a half-life of 1.31 days and a waiting period of 0.62 days following first order kinetics. Processing of the fruits with solutions commonly used in households reduced the insecticide residues on cowpea fruits harvested 2 h after spraying by 47.19 %-91.70 % and 44.56 %-91.25 % on fruits plucked on the third day.
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Bespoke microbiome therapy to manage plant diseases.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Information gathered with advanced nucleotide sequencing technologies, small molecule detection systems and computational biology is revealing that a community of microbes and their genes, now termed "the microbiome," located in gut and rhizosphere, is responsible for maintaining the health of human beings and plants, respectively. Within the complete microbiome a "core-microbiome" exists that plays the pivotal role in well being of humans and plants. Recent studies in medicine have shown that an artificial mixture of bacteria representing the core gut microbiome of healthy person when transferred into gut of diseased person results in re-establishment of normal microflora in the latter leading to alleviation from diseased condition. In agriculture, though not exactly in similar manner as in medicine, success in plant disease management has been achieved through transfer of microbiome by mixing disease suppressive soils with disease conducive soils. A study more similar to artificial gut microbiome transfer in medical field has been recently reported in agriculture, in which transfer of microbiome via soil solutions (filtered and unfiltered) has shown ability to alleviate drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the exact practice of transferring artificially cultivated core-microbiome as in medicine has not thus far been attempted in plant disease management. Nonetheless, as the gut and rhizosphere microbiome are known to share many common traits, there exists a good scope for accomplishing similar studies in agriculture. Based upon the information drawn from all recent works in microbiome studies of gut and rhizosphere, we propose that tailor-made core-microbiome transfer therapy can be a success in agriculture too and it could become a viable strategy for management of plant diseases in future.
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Comparative genome analysis of Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum tuberosum.
Bioinformation
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum tuberosum are agriculturally important crop species as they are rich sources of starch, protein, antioxidants, lycopene, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and fiber. The genomes of S. lycopersicum and S. tuberosum are currently available. However the linear strings of nucleotides that together comprise a genome sequence are of limited significance by themselves. Computational and bioinformatics approaches can be used to exploit the genomes for fundamental research for improving their varieties. The comparative genome analysis, Pfam analysis of predicted reviewed paralogous proteins was performed. It was found that S. lycopersicum proteins belong to more families, domains and clans in comparison with S. tuberosum. It was also found that mostly intergenic regions are conserved in two genomes followed by exons, intron and UTR. This can be exploited to predict regions between genomes that are similar to each other and to study the evolutionary relationship between two genomes, leading towards the development of disease resistance, stress tolerance and improved varieties of tomato.
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Calpain and reactive oxygen species targets Bax for mitochondrial permeabilisation and caspase activation in zerumbone induced apoptosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Fluorescent protein based signaling probes are emerging as valuable tools to study cell signaling because of their ability to provide spatio- temporal information in non invasive live cell mode. Previously, multiple fluorescent protein probes were employed to characterize key events of apoptosis in diverse experimental systems. We have employed a live cell image based approach to visualize the key events of apoptosis signaling induced by zerumbone, the active principle from ginger Zingiber zerumbet, in cancer cells that enabled us to analyze prominent apoptotic changes in a hierarchical manner with temporal resolution. Our studies substantiate that mitochondrial permeabilisation and cytochrome c dependent caspase activation dominate in zerumbone induced cell death. Bax activation, the essential and early event of cell death, is independently activated by reactive oxygen species as well as calpains. Zerumbone failed to induce apoptosis or mitochondrial permeabilisation in Bax knockout cells and over-expression of Bax enhanced cell death induced by zerumbone confirming the essential role of Bax for mitochondrial permeabilsation. Simultaneous inhibition of reactive oxygen species and calpain is required for preventing Bax activation and cell death. However, apoptosis induced by zerumbone was prevented in Bcl 2 and Bcl-XL over-expressing cells, whereas more protection was afforded by Bcl 2 specifically targeted to endoplasmic reticulum. Even though zerumbone treatment down-regulated survival proteins such as XIAP, Survivin and Akt, it failed to affect the pro-apoptotic proteins such as PUMA and BIM. Multiple normal diploid cell lines were employed to address cytotoxic activity of zerumbone and, in general, mammary epithelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells and smooth muscle cells were relatively resistant to zerumbone induced cell death with lesser ROS accumulation than cancer cells.
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A guide to analysis of mouse energy metabolism.
Nat. Methods
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2011
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We present a consolidated view of the complexity and challenges of designing studies for measurement of energy metabolism in mouse models, including a practical guide to the assessment of energy expenditure, energy intake and body composition and statistical analysis thereof. We hope this guide will facilitate comparisons across studies and minimize spurious interpretations of data. We recommend that division of energy expenditure data by either body weight or lean body weight and that presentation of group effects as histograms should be replaced by plotting individual data and analyzing both group and body-composition effects using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).
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Fluorescence dynamics and dipole moment evolution of singlet exciton decay in conjugated polymers.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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Both fluorescence dynamics and time-dependent electron transitions are introduced within a previously developed molecule dynamics approach for treating conjugated polymers. This is able to provide a panoramic view of luminescence dynamics during singlet exciton decay, in which the fluorescence dynamics is largely determined by the electron population and the evolution of the dipole moment. The fluorescence intensity is weakened due to a reduced dipole moment and diminished decay rate of the electron, which validates a previous assumption based on experimental studies. The lifetime of the singlet exciton in a conjugated polymer is found to be 1.2 ns, and the calculated time profile of the fluorescence intensity is in agreement with recent experimental results.
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Transient cortical blindness following a Hangmans fracture: a case report and review of literature.
Br J Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
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We describe a case with transient cortical blindness after trauma with no obvious structural damage to the vertebral artery in the presence of a C2 spondylolisthesis. A patient complaining of blindness in a setting of polytrauma should always alert the possibility of a cervical spine injury with vertebral artery ischaemia.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.