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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Administration of a Triple versus a Standard Double Antimicrobial Regimen for Human Brucellosis More Efficiently Eliminates Bacterial DNA Load.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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The effects of doxycycline-streptomycin-rifampin versus a standard doxycycline-streptomycin regimen on residual Brucella DNA were compared in 36 acute brucellosis patients. At admission, all patients given triple (n = 22) and double (n = 14) regimens had detectable Brucella DNA with similar mean loads (P = 0.982). At follow-up, 14 to 20 months postpresentation, significantly more patients receiving triple than double regimens had undetectable Brucella DNA (P = 0.026). The doxycycline-streptomycin-rifampin regimen eliminates Brucella DNA more efficiently than doxycycline-streptomycin, which may result in superior long-term clearance of Brucella.
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The genome of Eucalyptus grandis.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Eucalypts are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. Their outstanding diversity, adaptability and growth have made them a global renewable resource of fibre and energy. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640-megabase genome of Eucalyptus grandis. Of 36,376 predicted protein-coding genes, 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion thus far in plant genomes. Eucalyptus also shows the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites such as terpenes that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Genome sequencing of the E. grandis sister species E. globulus and a set of inbred E. grandis tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression. The E. grandis genome is the first reference for the eudicot order Myrtales and is placed here sister to the eurosids. This resource expands our understanding of the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.
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Identification of mycoparasitism-related genes against the phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum through transcriptome and expression profile analysis in Trichoderma harzianum.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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The species of T. harzianum are well known for their biocontrol activity against plant pathogens. However, few studies have been conducted to further our understanding of its role as a biological control agent against S. sclerotiorum, a pathogen involved in several crop diseases around the world. In this study, we have used RNA-seq and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) techniques in order to explore changes in T. harzianum gene expression during growth on cell wall of S. sclerotiorum (SSCW) or glucose. RT-qPCR was also used to examine genes potentially involved in biocontrol, during confrontation between T. harzianum and S. sclerotiorum.
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Fatigue and pruritus at onset identify a more aggressive subset of primary biliary cirrhosis.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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In recent years, primary biliary cirrhosis is mostly diagnosed in patients who are asymptomatic; however, a proportion of cases still present with typical complaints such as fatigue and/or pruritus. We compared biochemical, histological and immunological features of patients with or without fatigue and/or pruritus at onset to see whether the different clinical presentation may eventually impact on disease progression.
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Transcription profile of soybean-root-knot nematode interaction reveals a key role of phythormones in the resistance reaction.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Root-knot nematodes (RKN- Meloidogyne genus) present extensive challenges to soybean crop. The soybean line (PI 595099) is known to be resistant against specific strains and races of nematode species, thus its differential gene expression analysis can lead to a comprehensive gene expression profiling in the incompatible soybean-RKN interaction. Even though many disease resistance genes have been studied, little has been reported about phytohormone crosstalk on modulation of ROS signaling during soybean-RKN interaction.
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Analysis of the leaf transcriptome of Musa acuminata during interaction with Mycosphaerella musicola: gene assembly, annotation and marker development.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Although banana (Musa sp.) is an important edible crop, contributing towards poverty alleviation and food security, limited transcriptome datasets are available for use in accelerated molecular-based breeding in this genus. 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology was employed to determine the sequence of gene transcripts in genotypes of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides Calcutta 4 and M. acuminata subgroup Cavendish cv. Grande Naine, contrasting in resistance to the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella musicola, causal organism of Sigatoka leaf spot disease. To enrich for transcripts under biotic stress responses, full length-enriched cDNA libraries were prepared from whole plant leaf materials, both uninfected and artificially challenged with pathogen conidiospores.
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Transcriptome Analysis in Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA Interference in Insect Pests.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.
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A series of 22 patients with adult-onset Stills disease presenting with fever of unknown origin. A difficult diagnosis?
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Adult-onset Stills disease (AOSD) remains a perplexing, difficult to diagnose clinical entity, with clinical characteristics that are often broad and encountered in numerous other clinical entities. This vague clinical presentation is depicted in the commonly used diagnostic criteria, as the ones by Yamaguchi and Fautrel. The authors sought to investigate how diagnostic criteria apply in a series of 22 new cases of AOSD patients presenting with fever of unknown origin (FUO) and diagnosed at the Internal Medicine Department of Hatzikosta General Hospital of Ioannina, Greece. The aims of the study were: (1) to study the incidence of AOSD and (2) to retrospectively apply different classifications to the data of these patients in search of a more efficient way of diagnosing these patients in the future. The annual incidence of AOSD was estimated at two new cases per 10(5). The clinical manifestations of the patients are discussed, with an emphasis on specific manifestations being considered as criteria by Yamaguchi and Fautrel classifications. Four patients exhibited markedly increased serum D: -dimers, a finding of which the potential pathophysiologic implications are discussed. Serum ferritin levels have additive values, both for diagnostic and cost-reduction purposes in cases presenting as FUO; serum ferritin values are not included in any diagnostic set of criteria at present. The finding of high levels of D-dimers in AOSD needs further studies.
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High-throughput SNP genotyping in the highly heterozygous genome of Eucalyptus: assay success, polymorphism and transferability across species.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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High-throughput SNP genotyping has become an essential requirement for molecular breeding and population genomics studies in plant species. Large scale SNP developments have been reported for several mainstream crops. A growing interest now exists to expand the speed and resolution of genetic analysis to outbred species with highly heterozygous genomes. When nucleotide diversity is high, a refined diagnosis of the target SNP sequence context is needed to convert queried SNPs into high-quality genotypes using the Golden Gate Genotyping Technology (GGGT). This issue becomes exacerbated when attempting to transfer SNPs across species, a scarcely explored topic in plants, and likely to become significant for population genomics and inter specific breeding applications in less domesticated and less funded plant genera.
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Redistribution of regulatory T-cells across the evolving stages of chronic hepatitis C.
Dig Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Hepatitis C virus infection frequently leads to chronic hepatitis, possibly evolving to end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Regulatory T cells can affect antiviral immune response thus influencing the outcome of the disease.
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Brucellosis-induced autoimmune hemolytic anemia treated with rituximab.
Ann Pharmacother
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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To present a case of brucellosis-induced severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) that was refractory to traditional corticosteroid treatment and eventually treated with rituximab apart from antibiotic therapy and to discuss the potential role of rituximab in similar cases of AIHA triggered by an underlying reversible cause.
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Cell-mediated immunity in human brucellosis.
Microbes Infect.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2010
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Brucella can parasitize within human antigen-presenting cells modifying phagocytosis, phagolysosome fusion, antigen presentation, cytokine secretion, and apoptosis. Subversion of innate immune mechanisms by Brucella leads to defective Th1 immune responses and T-cell anergy in chronic brucellosis patients. This review summarizes the cellular immune responses in brucellosis, based on data derived exclusively from human cells or cell lines.
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The changing Brucella ecology: novel reservoirs, new threats.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2010
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Brucellosis is a zoonosis that preceded humans but continues to cause significant medical, veterinary and socioeconomic problems, mainly because its overall burden remains underestimated and neglected. Its ecology, or what we know of it, has evolved rapidly in recent years. Two novel species, Brucella ceti and B. pinnipedialis, with the potential for causing human disease have been isolated from marine mammals. Another novel species, B. microti, has been isolated from wildlife animals, whilst B. inopinata has been isolated from a human case. An active spillover of Brucella between domestic animals and wildlife is also being recognised, with elk transmitting B. abortus to cattle, and freshwater fish becoming infected with B. melitensis from waste meat. In recent years the global epidemiology of the disease has not altered drastically, apart from increased awareness of brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa and a rapid expansion of disease endemicity in the Balkan Peninsula. Isolated stories and events underline that Brucella knows no borders. The modern world has offered the pathogen the ability to travel and manifest itself anywhere and has also offered scientists the ability to track these manifestations better than ever before. This may allow the disease to be neglected no longer, or at least to be recognised as neglected.
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Characterization of novel microsatellite markers in Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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Banana is a nutritionally important crop across tropical and sub-tropical countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America and Asia. Although cultivars have evolved from diploid, triploid and tetraploid wild Asian species of Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome), many of todays commercial cultivars are sterile triploids or diploids, with fruit developing via parthenocarpy. As a result of restricted genetic variation, improvement has been limited, resulting in a crop frequently lacking resistance to pests and disease. Considering the importance of molecular tools to facilitate development of disease resistant genotypes, the objectives of this study were to develop polymorphic microsatellite markers from BAC clone sequences for M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4. This wild diploid species is used as a donor cultivar in breeding programs as a source of resistance to diverse biotic stresses.
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A saturated SSR/DArT linkage map of Musa acuminata addressing genome rearrangements among bananas.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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The genus Musa is a large species complex which includes cultivars at diploid and triploid levels. These sterile and vegetatively propagated cultivars are based on the A genome from Musa acuminata, exclusively for sweet bananas such as Cavendish, or associated with the B genome (Musa balbisiana) in cooking bananas such as Plantain varieties. In M. acuminata cultivars, structural heterozygosity is thought to be one of the main causes of sterility, which is essential for obtaining seedless fruits but hampers breeding. Only partial genetic maps are presently available due to chromosomal rearrangements within the parents of the mapping populations. This causes large segregation distortions inducing pseudo-linkages and difficulties in ordering markers in the linkage groups. The present study aims at producing a saturated linkage map of M. acuminata, taking into account hypotheses on the structural heterozygosity of the parents.
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Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with novel H1N1 influenza virus infection.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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The cardiac effects imposed by the novel H1N1 influenza strain have not been elucidated until now. Electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities were evaluated in a series of 50 patients with confirmed novel H1N1 influenza infection. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics, laboratory correlations, and the effect ECG abnormalities may exert on disease outcomes were prospectively studied. Of the 50 patients, 14 (28%) exhibited ECG changes on admission. Nine patients presented with T-wave inversions, while ST-segment depression was observed on the electrocardiograms of 6 patients. The presence of ECG changes did not correlate with age, gender, co-morbidities, the laboratory profiles of the patients, or the coexistence of lower respiratory tract involvement. None of the patients exhibited alterations in cardiac-specific biochemistry or cardiac ultrasonography. All ECG changes were transient and reversed during disease regression. Two patients with ECG changes and 1 with normal ECG findings required intensive care, the former 2 eventually dying. Among the remainder, the duration of hospitalization did not exhibit a significant difference between the 2 groups, although there was a trend toward fewer days of hospitalization in the patients with ECG changes. In conclusion, ECG abnormalities are frequently encountered during novel H1N1 influenza infection, but their presence does not indicate a direct pathogen effect to the myocardium; these alterations may necessitate admission in the first place but are transient and not correlated with preexisting patient characteristics or with outcomes.
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A selected set of EST-derived microsatellites, polymorphic and transferable across 6 species of eucalyptus.
J. Hered.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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Species of Eucalyptus are keystone species for ecological studies in their natural ranges and are extensively planted in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world to supply high-quality woody biomass for various applications. We report the development of a selected set of 20 dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeat microsatellites derived from Eucalyptus expressed sequence tags (ESTs). These microsatellites were selected for full transferability and homogeneous rate of polymorphism across species. They were evaluated for individual fingerprinting, parentage testing, and intraspecific population structure analyses in 6 of the most extensively studied and planted species worldwide, representing key phylogenetic sections of the largest subgenus Symphyomyrtus. This set of markers provides exceptional resolution for population genetics and molecular breeding applications in the genus Eucalyptus. As they were developed from conserved transcribed regions, the transferability and polymorphism of these microsatellites will most likely extend to the other 300 or more species within the same subgenus.
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Subacute thyroiditis in the course of novel H1N1 influenza infection.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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To describe the first documented case of subacute (De Quervain) thyroiditis in the course of novel H1N1 influenza infection. This is a case report of a patient diagnosed at the General Hospital "G. Hatzikosta" of Ioannina, Greece. A 55-year-old previously healthy male developed an influenza-like syndrome that was accompanied by severe neck pain, palpitations, weight loss, and disproportionately increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Polymerase chain reaction assay of pharyngeal swabs confirmed the diagnosis of novel H1N1 influenza infection. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone was suppressed to zero and levels of free thyroxine and particularly triiodothyronine were increased. Technetium-99m-pertechnetate scintigraphy showed diffuse and inhomogeneous very low technetium trapping. The patient was treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and thyroid function gradually normalized without evolving to a hypothyroid phase. This is the first case of subacute thyroiditis associated with novel H1N1 influenza infection. Furthermore, this is the first case to definitely demonstrate active influenza infection of any type concurrent with thyroiditis, and one of the very rare similar cases for any active viral disease etiologically implicated in the pathogenesis of subacute thyroiditis.
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Epidemiologic, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for adverse outcome in multiresistant gram-negative primary bacteremia of critically ill patients.
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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Characteristics and burden of primary bacteremia because of multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients remain understudied.
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Bacterial community associated with healthy and diseased reef coral Mussismilia hispida from eastern Brazil.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2010
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In order to characterize the bacterial community diversity associated to mucus of the coral Mussismilia hispida, four 16S rDNA libraries were constructed and 400 clones from each library were analyzed from two healthy colonies, one diseased colony and the surrounding water. Nine bacterial phyla were identified in healthy M. hispida, with a dominance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Lentisphaerae, and Nitrospira. The most commonly found species were related to the genera Azospirillum, Hirschia, Fabibacter, Blastochloris, Stella, Vibrio, Flavobacterium, Ochrobactrum, Terasakiella, Alkalibacter, Staphylococcus, Azospirillum, Propionibacterium, Arcobacter, and Paenibacillus. In contrast, diseased M. hispida had a predominance of one single species of Bacteroidetes, corresponding to more than 70% of the sequences. Rarefaction curves using evolutionary distance of 1% showed a greater decrease in bacterial diversity in the diseased M. hispida, with a reduction of almost 85% in OTUs in comparison to healthy colonies. integral-Libshuff analyses show that significant p values obtained were <0.0001, demonstrating that the four libraries are significantly different. Furthermore, the sympatric corals M. hispida and Mussismilia braziliensis appear to have different bacterial community compositions according to Principal Component Analysis and Lineage-specific Analysis. Moreover, lineages that contribute to those differences were identified as alpha-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. The results obtained in this study suggest host-microbe co-evolution in Mussismilia, and it was the first study on the diversity of the microbiota of the endemic and endangered of extinction Brazilian coral M. hispida from Abrolhos bank.
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A world wide web guide to pediatric infectious diseases.
J. Trop. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2009
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Pediatric infectious disease is a subspecialty constantly evolving in terms of scientific information. A novel means of attaining medical information that has emerged in recent years is the World Wide Web (WWW). The authors sought to assess availability and content of sites offering information on pediatric infectious diseases in the WWW. Websites chosen by two authors were evaluated by a specialist in pediatrics and a specialist in infectious diseases, and a representative list was constructed. A sub-search was performed for immunization-related websites. Websites from national and international institutions focusing on pediatrics in general or pediatric infectious diseases in particular offer ample information for health professionals and parents/public. There is an over-representation of vaccination-related material in the WWW, whereas no sites related to bioterrorism and children were considered as significant for inclusion during the process. Free access to related research remains a controversial issue.
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PML nuclear body component Sp140 is a novel autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
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Some patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) have antinuclear antibodies (ANAs). These ANAs include the "multiple nuclear dots" (MND) staining pattern, targeting promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear body (NB) components, such as "speckled 100-kD" protein (Sp100) and PML. A new PML NB protein, designated as Sp140, was identified using serum from a PBC patient. The aim of this study was to analyze the immune response against Sp140 protein in PBC patients.
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Current treatment of pseudomonal infections in the elderly.
Drugs Aging
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2009
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections have emerged as a major infectious disease threat in recent decades as a result of the significant mortality of pseudomonal pneumonia and bacteraemia, and the evolving resistance exhibited by the pathogen to numerous antibacterials. Pseudomonas possesses a large genome; thus, the pathogen is environmentally adaptable, metabolically flexible, able to overcome antibacterial pressure by selecting for resistant strains and even able to accumulate resistance mechanisms, leading to multidrug resistance (MDR), an increasingly recognized therapeutic challenge. In fact, most research currently does not focus on maximizing the efficacy of available antibacterials; rather, it focuses on maximizing their ecological safety. The elderly population may be particularly prone to pseudomonal infection as a result of increased co-morbidities (such as diabetes mellitus and structural lung disease), the presence of invasive devices such as urinary catheters and feeding tubes, polypharmacy that includes antibacterials, and immune compromise related to age. However, age per se, as well as residence in nursing homes, may not predispose individuals to an increased risk for pseudomonal infection. On the other hand, age has been repeatedly outlined as a risk factor for MDR pseudomonal infections. The severity of pseudomonal infections necessitates prompt administration of appropriate antibacterials upon suspicion. Progress has been made in recognizing risk factors for P. aeruginosa infections both in hospitalized and community-residing patients. Antimicrobial therapy may be instituted as a combination or monotherapy: the debate cannot be definitively resolved since the available data are extracted from studies with varying targeted populations and varying definitions of response, adequacy and MDR. Empirical combination therapy maximizes the chances of bacterial coverage and exerts a lower resistance selection pressure. Although associated with increased percentages of adverse events, mainly as a result of the included aminoglycosides, empirical combination therapy seems a reasonable choice. Upon confirmation of Pseudomonas as the causative agent and awareness of its susceptibility profile, monotherapy is advocated by many, but not all, experts. Infections involving MDR strains can be treated with colistin, which has adequate efficacy and few renal adverse events, or doripenem. In the elderly, in addition to making dose modifications that are needed because of loss of renal function, the prescriber should be more cautious about the use of aminoglycoside-containing regimens, possibly replacing them with a combination of quinolone and a beta-lactam, notwithstanding the possible increased pressure for selection of resistance with the latter combination.
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Diagnosis and therapy of autoimmune hepatitis.
Mini Rev Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2009
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Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic progressive hepatitis, characterized by interface hepatitis with lymphoplasmacellular infiltrates on liver biopsy, high serum globulin level and circulating autoantibodies. It is classified into two types, according to autoantibody profile: type 1 is characterized by anti-nuclear (ANA) and/or anti-smooth muscle (SMA) antibodies; type 2 by anti-liver kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM-1) antibodies. AIH affects all ages, may be asymptomatic, frequently has an acute onset, and can present as fulminant hepatitis. The diagnosis of AIH is based on a scoring system codified by an international consensus. Corticosteroids alone or in conjunction with azathioprine is the treatment of choice in patients with AIH and results in remission induction in over 80% of patients. Alternative proposed strategies in patients who have failed to achieve remission on standard therapy or patients with drug toxicity include the use of cyclosporine, tacrolimus, budesonide or mycophenolate mofetil. Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice in managing decompensated disease, however AIH can recur or develop de novo after liver transplantation.
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Lost in translation: differences in antimicrobial indication approval policies between the United States and Europe.
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
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Antimicrobials, like all drug products, are approved in the United States through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and in the European Union partly through the European Medicines Agency (EMEA). This article investigates the differences in approved indications between these 2 bodies for a series of antimicrobial agents approved during the past decade.
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The serological profile of the autoimmune hepatitis/primary biliary cirrhosis overlap syndrome.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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During the last decade patients with concomitant clinical, biochemical, immunoserological, and histological features of both autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) were sporadically described, but definite diagnostic criteria and specific serological markers to support the diagnosis of AIH/PBC overlap syndrome (AIH/PBC OS) are still lacking.
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Molecular phylogenetic diversity of bacteria associated with soil of the savanna-like Cerrado vegetation.
Microbiol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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The Brazilian savanna-like vegetation of Cerrado is rapidly being converted to pasture and agricultural fields. A 16S rDNA-based approach was taken to study the bacterial community associated with the soil of a native cerrado area (sensu stricto) and an area that has been converted to pasture. The bacterial group most abundantly identified in cerrado sensu stricto soil was the alpha-Proteobacteria while in cerrado converted to pasture the Actinobacteria were the most abundant. Rarefaction curves indicate that the species richness of cerrado sensu stricto is greater than that of cerrado converted to pasture. Furthermore, lineage-through-time plots show that the expected richness of species present in cerrado sensu stricto soil is approximately 10 times greater than that of cerrado converted to pasture.
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Multiple nuclear dots and rim-like/membranous IgG isotypes in primary biliary cirrhosis.
Autoimmunity
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2009
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Anti nuclear (ANA) immunomorphological patterns such as multiple nuclear dots (MND) and rim-like/membranous (RL/M) are considered highly specific but little sensitive for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) diagnosis. To evaluate frequency and clinical significance of MND and RL/M in PBC patients when investigated at the level of immunoglobulin G isotypes. MND and RL/M pattern have been tested in 141 PBC sera and 230 pathological controls using HEp-2 cells as substrate and anti- total IgG and individual IgG subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4) as specific antisera. One hundred and fourteen of 141 (80%) PBC patients had RL/M or MND pattern when IgG subclasses were used as revealing reagents (vs. 34% when anti total IgG were used, p < 0.0001). The prevalent isotype was IgG1 for RL/M, and IgG2 for MND pattern. None of controls was positive. No clinical differences in terms of severity and outcome of disease have been observed in PBC patients positive for MND and RL/M when investigated with IgG isotypes. The research for RL/M and MND pattern at level of IgG isotype determines a wide gain in terms of sensitivity without a loss of specificity. In Italian PBC patients MND and RL/M pattern did not seem to characterize any subgroup of patients with a poorer prognosis.
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Toxoplasmosis snapshots: global status of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence and implications for pregnancy and congenital toxoplasmosis.
Int. J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Toxoplasma gondiis importance for humans refers mainly to primary infection during pregnancy, resulting in abortion/stillbirth or congenital toxoplasmosis. The authors sought to evaluate the current global status of T. gondii seroprevalence and its correlations with risk factors, environmental and socioeconomic parameters. Literature published during the last decade on toxoplasmosis seroprevalence, in women who were pregnant or of childbearing age, was retrieved. A total of 99 studies were eligible; a further 36 studies offered seroprevalence data from regions/countries for which no data on pregnancy/childbearing age were available. Foci of high prevalence exist in Latin America, parts of Eastern/Central Europe, the Middle East, parts of south-east Asia and Africa. Regional seroprevalence variations relate to individual subpopulations religious and socioeconomic practices. A trend towards lower seroprevalence is observed in many European countries and the United States of America (USA). There is no obvious climate-related gradient, excluding North and Latin America. Immigration has affected local prevalence in certain countries. We further sought to recognise specific risk factors related to seropositivity; however, such risk factors are not reported systematically. Population awareness may affect recognition of said risks. Global toxoplasmosis seroprevalence is continuingly evolving, subject to regional socioeconomic parameters and population habits. Awareness of these seroprevalence trends, particularly in the case of women of childbearing age, may allow proper public health policies to be enforced, targeting in particular seronegative women of childbearing age in high seroprevalence areas.
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Reclassifying bioterrorism risk: are we preparing for the proper pathogens?
J Infect Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
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Existing classifications of potential biological weapons, acknowledge only limited important parameters of biological weapon potential. Certain pathogen factors would further influence the outcome of a potential attack in context with social and political aspects of the time and space of the attack. The importance of these factors was investigated through various attack scenarios that have been developed by the authors, and an individual score for each of these factors was calculated, based on the overall effect their variation had in the scenario outcome. A new classification score for potential biological weapons was subsequently developed, one, which drastically alters the perception of risk for certain pathogens, such as filoviruses and anthrax. This frame further allows for more accurate evaluation of the bioweapon potential of agents such as avian flu. Recognition of intervening factors and proper assessment of the actual risk might augment in proper distribution of interest and funds on relevant medical research.
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Clinical features and effect of antiviral therapy on anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 positive chronic hepatitis C.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
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Anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (anti-LKM1), a serological marker of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis, is also detected in a small proportion of patients with hepatitis C. This study aimed to evaluate clinical features and effect of antiviral therapy in patients with hepatitis C who are anti-LKM1 positive.
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Autoimmune hepatitis in Italy: the Bologna experience.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
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Autoimmune hepatitis affects mainly women. It is subdivided into type 1 and type 2 according to the autoantibody profile and without immunosuppression usually evolves to cirrhosis and end-stage liver failure.
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A life-threatening case of disseminated nocardiosis due to Nocardia brasiliensis.
Indian J Crit Care Med
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Nocardiosis is a rare disease caused by infection with Nocardia species, aerobic actinomycetes with a worldwide distribution. A rare life-threatening disseminated Nocardia brasiliensis infection is described in an elderly, immunocompromised patient. Microorganism was recovered from bronchial secretions and dermal lesions, and was identified using molecular assays. Prompt, timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment ensured a favorable outcome.
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Development of expressed sequence tag and expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat marker resources for Musa acuminata.
AoB Plants
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Banana (Musa acuminata) is a crop contributing to global food security. Many varieties lack resistance to biotic stresses, due to sterility and narrow genetic background. The objective of this study was to develop an expressed sequence tag (EST) database of transcripts expressed during compatible and incompatible banana-Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Mf) interactions. Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), caused by Mf, is a destructive disease of banana. Microsatellite markers were developed as a resource for crop improvement.
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A "One Health" surveillance and control of brucellosis in developing countries: moving away from improvisation.
Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
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Although a "One Health" approach has been successfully implemented for emerging infectious zoonotic diseases with pandemic potential, we still lack a conceptual framework to address enzootic diseases like brucellosis. The vast majority of published brucellosis studies in the developing world rely solely on serology. An important shortcoming of brucellosis serology is the impossibility to infer which (smooth) Brucella spp. induced antibodies in the host. In this respect, mixed farming and especially raising small ruminants along with cattle, a common practice in the developing world, is reported to be a risk factor and a central question that has to be answered is whether cattle are infected with B. melitensis or with B. abortus or with both Brucella species. Therefore the isolation, identification and molecular characterization of Brucella spp. in human and the different livestock species needs to be undertaken to define a sound conceptual framework, identify the source of infection and plan appropriate control measures.
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Involvement of the aorta in brucellosis: the forgotten, life-threatening complication. A systematic review.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
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Human brucellosis is a disease of protean manifestations, and has been implicated in complications and focal disease in many human organ systems. However, little is collectively known about the background, the course, the clinical characteristics, the diagnostic issues raised, and the short- and long-term therapeutic approaches in patients with aortic involvement as a complication of brucellosis. With the aim to glean from the literature useful information to better understand and manage this complication, a computerized search without language restriction was conducted using PubMed and SCOPUS. An article was considered eligible for inclusion in the systematic review if it reported data on patients with involvement of the aorta due to a Brucella infection. The epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of 44 cases of brucellar aortic involvement found through the systematic review of the literature were analyzed together with those of two new cases that we treated in the recent past. This complication involved the ascending thoracic aorta in 18 cases (in 16 of them as a consequence of brucellar endocarditis), and the descending thoracic aorta or the abdominal aorta in the remaining 30 cases. In the latter it was associated with spondylodiscitis of the lumbar spine in 13 cases. History of or symptoms indicative of brucellosis were not universally present. Brucellar aortic involvement represents a possibly underdiagnosed and underreported complication with major morbidity and mortality potential. Experience with novel invasive therapeutic approaches remains limited. Early suspicion through detailed history and diagnosis, aided by advances in aortic imaging, would allow for better planning of therapeutic interventions.
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Genomic characterization of DArT markers based on high-density linkage analysis and physical mapping to the Eucalyptus genome.
PLoS ONE
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Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) provides a robust, high throughput, cost-effective method to query thousands of sequence polymorphisms in a single assay. Despite the extensive use of this genotyping platform for numerous plant species, little is known regarding the sequence attributes and genome-wide distribution of DArT markers. We investigated the genomic properties of the 7,680 DArT marker probes of a Eucalyptus array, by sequencing them, constructing a high density linkage map and carrying out detailed physical mapping analyses to the Eucalyptus grandis reference genome. A consensus linkage map with 2,274 DArT markers anchored to 210 microsatellites and a framework map, with improved support for ordering, displayed extensive collinearity with the genome sequence. Only 1.4 Mbp of the 75 Mbp of still unplaced scaffold sequence was captured by 45 linkage mapped but physically unaligned markers to the 11 main Eucalyptus pseudochromosomes, providing compelling evidence for the quality and completeness of the current Eucalyptus genome assembly. A highly significant correspondence was found between the locations of DArT markers and predicted gene models, while most of the 89 DArT probes unaligned to the genome correspond to sequences likely absent in E. grandis, consistent with the pan-genomic feature of this multi-Eucalyptus species DArT array. These comprehensive linkage-to-physical mapping analyses provide novel data regarding the genomic attributes of DArT markers in plant genomes in general and for Eucalyptus in particular. DArT markers preferentially target the gene space and display a largely homogeneous distribution across the genome, thereby providing superb coverage for mapping and genome-wide applications in breeding and diversity studies. Data reported on these ubiquitous properties of DArT markers will be particularly valuable to researchers working on less-studied crop species who already count on DArT genotyping arrays but for which no reference genome is yet available to allow such detailed characterization.
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Global transcriptome analysis of two wild relatives of peanut under drought and fungi infection.
BMC Genomics
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Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is one of the most widely grown grain legumes in the world, being valued for its high protein and unsaturated oil contents. Worldwide, the major constraints to peanut production are drought and fungal diseases. Wild Arachis species, which are exclusively South American in origin, have high genetic diversity and have been selected during evolution in a range of environments and biotic stresses, constituting a rich source of allele diversity. Arachis stenosperma harbors resistances to a number of pests, including fungal diseases, whilst A. duranensis has shown improved tolerance to water limited stress. In this study, these species were used for the creation of an extensive databank of wild Arachis transcripts under stress which will constitute a rich source for gene discovery and molecular markers development.
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Characterization of soil bacterial assemblies in Brazilian savanna-like vegetation reveals acidobacteria dominance.
Microb. Ecol.
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The Brazilian Cerrado is the second largest biome in Brazil and is considered a biodiversity hotspot. In this work, we compared the bacterial communities in Cerrado soil associated with four types of native vegetation (Cerrado Denso, Cerrado sensu stricto, Campo Sujo, and Mata de Galeria) by ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer analysis, terminal fragment restriction length polymorphism and pyrosequencing. The fingerprinting results were very similar. The bacterial communities of Cerrado Denso and Cerrado sensu stricto grouped together and were distinct from those in Campo Sujo and Mata de Galeria. Pyrosequencing generated approximately 40,000 16S rRNA gene sequences per sample and allowed the identification of 17 phyla in soil samples under Cerrado vegetation. Acidobacteria were dominant in all areas studied with a relative frequency of 40-47 %, followed closely by Proteobacteria accounting for 34-40 % of the sequences. Results from all molecular techniques used suggested that the bacterial communities of Cerrado sensu stricto and Cerrado Denso are very similar to each other, while Campo Sujo forms a separate group, and Mata de Galeria is the most distinct with higher species richness. This is the first extensive study of native Cerrado soil microbiota, an important but endangered biome.
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Genomic selection for growth and wood quality in Eucalyptus: capturing the missing heritability and accelerating breeding for complex traits in forest trees.
New Phytol.
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• Genomic selection (GS) is expected to cause a paradigm shift in tree breeding by improving its speed and efficiency. By fitting all the genome-wide markers concurrently, GS can capture most of the missing heritability of complex traits that quantitative trait locus (QTL) and association mapping classically fail to explain. Experimental support of GS is now required. • The effectiveness of GS was assessed in two unrelated Eucalyptus breeding populations with contrasting effective population sizes (N(e) = 11 and 51) genotyped with > 3000 DArT markers. Prediction models were developed for tree circumference and height growth, wood specific gravity and pulp yield using random regression best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP). • Accuracies of GS varied between 0.55 and 0.88, matching the accuracies achieved by conventional phenotypic selection. Substantial proportions (74-97%) of trait heritability were captured by fitting all genome-wide markers simultaneously. Genomic regions explaining trait variation largely coincided between populations, although GS models predicted poorly across populations, likely as a result of variable patterns of linkage disequilibrium, inconsistent allelic effects and genotype × environment interaction. • GS brings a new perspective to the understanding of quantitative trait variation in forest trees and provides a revolutionary tool for applied tree improvement. Nevertheless population-specific predictive models will likely drive the initial applications of GS in forest tree breeding.
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Horizontal gene transfer confers fermentative metabolism in the respiratory-deficient plant trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
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Among trypanosomatids, the genus Phytomonas is the only one specifically adapted to infect plants. These hosts provide a particular habitat with a plentiful supply of carbohydrates. Phytomonas sp. lacks a cytochrome-mediated respiratory chain and Krebs cycle, and ATP production relies predominantly on glycolysis. We have characterised the complete gene encoding a putative pyruvate/indolepyruvate decarboxylase (PDC/IPDC) (548 amino acids) of P. serpens, that displays high amino acid sequence similarity with phytobacteria and Leishmania enzymes. No orthologous PDC/IPDC genes were found in Trypanosoma cruzi or T. brucei. Conservation of the PDC/IPDC gene sequence was verified in 14 Phytomonas isolates. A phylogenetic analysis shows that Phytomonas protein is robustly monophyletic with Leishmania spp. and C. fasciculata enzymes. In the trees this clade appears as a sister group of indolepyruvate decarboxylases of ?-proteobacteria. This supports the proposition that a horizontal gene transfer event from a donor phytobacteria to a recipient ancestral trypanosome has occurred prior to the separation between Phytomonas, Leishmania and Crithidia. We have measured the PDC activity in P. serpens cell extracts. The enzyme has a Km value for pyruvate of 1.4mM. The acquisition of a PDC, a key enzyme in alcoholic fermentation, explains earlier observations that ethanol is one of the major end-products of glucose catabolism under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This represents an alternative and necessary route to reoxidise part of the NADH produced in the highly demanding glycolytic pathway and highlights the importance of this type of event in metabolic adaptation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.