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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Hoarding in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
J Obsessive Compuls Relat Disord
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Compared to studies in adults, there have been few studies of hoarding in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the current study, we evaluated OCD clinical features, Axis I disorders, and social reciprocity scores in 641 children and adolescents with OCD, of whom 163 (25%) had hoarding compulsions and 478 did not. We found that, as a group, youth with hoarding had an earlier age at onset and more severe lifetime OCD symptoms, poorer insight, more difficulty making decisions and completing tasks, and more overall impairment. The hoarding group also had a greater lifetime prevalence of panic disorder, specific phobia, Tourette disorder, and tics. As measured with the Social Reciprocity Scale, the hoarding group had more severe deficits in parent-rated domains of social communication, social motivation, and restricted interests and repetitive behavior. In a multivariable model, the overall social reciprocity score, age at onset of OCD symptoms, symmetry obsessions, and indecision were independently related to hoarding in these children and adolescents with OCD. These features should be considered as candidate risk factors for the development of hoarding behavior in pediatric OCD.
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Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette's Syndrome and OCD.
Dongmei Yu, Carol A Mathews, Jeremiah M Scharf, Benjamin M Neale, Lea K Davis, Eric R Gamazon, Eske M Derks, Patrick Evans, Christopher K Edlund, Jacquelyn Crane, Jesen A Fagerness, Lisa Osiecki, Patience Gallagher, Gloria Gerber, Stephen Haddad, Cornelia Illmann, Lauren M McGrath, Catherine Mayerfeld, Sampath Arepalli, Cristina Barlassina, Cathy L Barr, Laura Bellodi, Fortu Benarroch, Gabriel Bedoya Berrió, O Joseph Bienvenu, Donald W Black, Michael H Bloch, Helena Brentani, Ruth D Bruun, Cathy L Budman, Beatriz Camarena, Desmond D Campbell, Carolina Cappi, Julio C Cardona Silgado, Maria C Cavallini, Denise A Chavira, Sylvain Chouinard, Edwin H Cook, M R Cookson, Vladimir Coric, Bernadette Cullen, Daniele Cusi, Richard Delorme, Damiaan Denys, Yves Dion, Valsama Eapen, Karin Egberts, Peter Falkai, Thomas Fernandez, Eduardo Fournier, Helena Garrido, Daniel Geller, Donald Gilbert, Simon L Girard, Hans J Grabe, Marco A Grados, Benjamin D Greenberg, Varda Gross-Tsur, Edna Grünblatt, John Hardy, Gary A Heiman, Sian M J Hemmings, Luis D Herrera, Dianne M Hezel, Pieter J Hoekstra, Joseph Jankovic, James L Kennedy, Robert A King, Anuar I Konkashbaev, Barbara Kremeyer, Roger Kurlan, Nuria Lanzagorta, Marion Leboyer, James F Leckman, Leonhard Lennertz, Chunyu Liu, Christine Lochner, Thomas L Lowe, Sara Lupoli, Fabio Macciardi, Wolfgang Maier, Paolo Manunta, Maurizio Marconi, James T McCracken, Sandra C Mesa Restrepo, Rainald Moessner, Priya Moorjani, Jubel Morgan, Heike Muller, Dennis L Murphy, Allan L Naarden, Erika Nurmi, William Cornejo Ochoa, Roel A Ophoff, Andrew J Pakstis, Michele T Pato, Carlos N Pato, John Piacentini, Christopher Pittenger, Yehuda Pollak, Scott L Rauch, Tobias Renner, Victor I Reus, Margaret A Richter, Mark A Riddle, Mary M Robertson, Roxana Romero, Maria C Rosário, David Rosenberg, Stephan Ruhrmann, Chiara Sabatti, Erika Salvi, Aline S Sampaio, Jack Samuels, Paul Sandor, Susan K Service, Brooke Sheppard, Harvey S Singer, Jan H Smit, Dan J Stein, Eric Strengman, Jay A Tischfield, Maurizio Turiel, Ana V Valencia Duarte, Homero Vallada, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, Susanne Walitza, Ying Wang, Mike Weale, Robert Weiss, Jens R Wendland, Herman G M Westenberg, Yin Yao Shugart, Ana G Hounie, Euripedes C Miguel, Humberto Nicolini, Michael Wagner, Andrés Ruiz-Linares, Danielle C Cath, William McMahon, Danielle Posthuma, Ben A Oostra, Gerald Nestadt, Guy A Rouleau, Shaun Purcell, Michael A Jenike, Peter Heutink, Gregory L Hanna, David V Conti, Paul D Arnold, Nelson B Freimer, S Evelyn Stewart, James A Knowles, Nancy J Cox, David L Pauls.
Am J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The authors report a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Tourette's syndrome and OCD.
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Five-factor model personality traits as predictors of incident coronary heart disease in the community: a 10.5-year cohort study based on the Baltimore epidemiologic catchment area follow-up study.
Psychosomatics
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Certain personality and behavioral traits (e.g., type A and type D) have been reported to be associated with development and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD), but few have examined the relationship using a comprehensive assessment of personality along with a structured assessment of psychiatric disorders.
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Clinical correlates and genetic linkage of social and communication difficulties in families with obsessive-compulsive disorder: Results from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Some individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have autistic-like traits, including deficits in social and communication behaviors (pragmatics). The objective of this study was to determine if pragmatic impairment aggregates in OCD families and discriminates a clinically and genetically distinct subtype of OCD. We conducted clinical examinations on, and collected DNA samples from, 706 individuals with OCD in 221 multiply affected OCD families. Using the Pragmatic Rating Scale (PRS), we compared the prevalence of pragmatic impairment in OCD-affected relatives of probands with and without pragmatic impairment. We also compared clinical features of OCD-affected individuals in families having at least one, versus no, individual with pragmatic impairment, and assessed for linkage to OCD in the two groups of families. The odds of pragmatic impairment were substantially greater in OCD-affected relatives of probands with pragmatic impairment. Individuals in high-PRS families had greater odds of separation anxiety disorder and social phobia, and a greater number of schizotypal personality traits. In high-PRS families, there was suggestive linkage to OCD on chromosome 12 at marker D12S1064 and on chromosome X at marker DXS7132 whereas, in low-PRS families, there was suggestive linkage to chromosome 3 at marker D3S2398. Pragmatic impairment aggregates in OCD families. Separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, and schizotypal personality traits are part of a clinical spectrum associated with pragmatic impairment in these families. Specific regions of chromosomes 12 and X are linked to OCD in high-PRS families. Thus, pragmatic impairment may distinguish a clinically and genetically homogeneous subtype of OCD.
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Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome: a cross-disorder study.
Lauren M McGrath, Dongmei Yu, Christian Marshall, Lea K Davis, Bhooma Thiruvahindrapuram, Bingbin Li, Carolina Cappi, Gloria Gerber, Aaron Wolf, Frederick A Schroeder, Lisa Osiecki, Colm O'Dushlaine, Andrew Kirby, Cornelia Illmann, Stephen Haddad, Patience Gallagher, Jesen A Fagerness, Cathy L Barr, Laura Bellodi, Fortu Benarroch, O Joseph Bienvenu, Donald W Black, Michael H Bloch, Ruth D Bruun, Cathy L Budman, Beatriz Camarena, Danielle C Cath, Maria C Cavallini, Sylvain Chouinard, Vladimir Coric, Bernadette Cullen, Richard Delorme, Damiaan Denys, Eske M Derks, Yves Dion, Maria C Rosário, Valsama Eapen, Patrick Evans, Peter Falkai, Thomas V Fernandez, Helena Garrido, Daniel Geller, Hans J Grabe, Marco A Grados, Benjamin D Greenberg, Varda Gross-Tsur, Edna Grünblatt, Gary A Heiman, Sian M J Hemmings, Luis D Herrera, Ana G Hounie, Joseph Jankovic, James L Kennedy, Robert A King, Roger Kurlan, Nuria Lanzagorta, Marion Leboyer, James F Leckman, Leonhard Lennertz, Christine Lochner, Thomas L Lowe, Gholson J Lyon, Fabio Macciardi, Wolfgang Maier, James T McCracken, William McMahon, Dennis L Murphy, Allan L Naarden, Benjamin M Neale, Erika Nurmi, Andrew J Pakstis, Michele T Pato, Carlos N Pato, John Piacentini, Christopher Pittenger, Yehuda Pollak, Victor I Reus, Margaret A Richter, Mark Riddle, Mary M Robertson, David Rosenberg, Guy A Rouleau, Stephan Ruhrmann, Aline S Sampaio, Jack Samuels, Paul Sandor, Brooke Sheppard, Harvey S Singer, Jan H Smit, Dan J Stein, Jay A Tischfield, Homero Vallada, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, Susanne Walitza, Ying Wang, Jens R Wendland, Yin Yao Shugart, Euripedes C Miguel, Humberto Nicolini, Ben A Oostra, Rainald Moessner, Michael Wagner, Andrés Ruiz-Linares, Peter Heutink, Gerald Nestadt, Nelson Freimer, Tracey Petryshen, Danielle Posthuma, Michael A Jenike, Nancy J Cox, Gregory L Hanna, Helena Brentani, Stephen W Scherer, Paul D Arnold, S Evelyn Stewart, Carol A Mathews, James A Knowles, Edwin H Cook, David L Pauls, Kai Wang, Jeremiah M Scharf.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and the largest genome-wide CNV analysis in TS to date.
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OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE EVENTS: RESULTS FROM THE OCD AND REPRODUCTION COLLABORATIVE STUDY.
Depress Anxiety
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often report that symptoms first appear or exacerbate during reproductive cycle events; however, little is known about these relationships. The goals of this study were to examine, in a US and a European female OCD sample, onset and exacerbation of OCD in reproductive cycle events, and to investigate the likelihood of repeat exacerbation in subsequent pregnancies and postpartum periods.
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The relationship of mental and behavioral disorders to all-cause mortality in a 27-year follow-up of 4 epidemiologic catchment area samples.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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Subjects from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program, interviewed during 1979-1983, were linked to data in the National Death Index through 2007 to estimate the association of mental and behavioral disorders with death. There were more than 25 years of follow-up for 15,440 individuals, with 6,924 deaths amounting to 307,881 person-years of observation. Data were analyzed by using age as the time scale and parametric approaches to quantify the years of life lost due to disorders. Alcohol, drug use, and antisocial personality disorders were associated with increased risk of death, but there was no strong association with mood and anxiety disorders. Results of high- and low-quality matches with the National Death Index were similar. The 3 behavioral disorders were associated with 5-15 years of life lost, estimated along the life course via the generalized gamma model. Regression tree analyses showed that risk of death was associated with alcohol use disorders in nonblacks and with drug disorders in blacks. Phobia interacted with alcohol use disorders in nonblack women, and obsessive-compulsive disorder interacted with drug use disorders in black men. Both of these anxiety disorders were associated with lower risk of death early in life and higher risk of death later in life.
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Partitioning the heritability of Tourette syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder reveals differences in genetic architecture.
Lea K Davis, Dongmei Yu, Clare L Keenan, Eric R Gamazon, Anuar I Konkashbaev, Eske M Derks, Benjamin M Neale, Jian Yang, S Hong Lee, Patrick Evans, Cathy L Barr, Laura Bellodi, Fortu Benarroch, Gabriel Bedoya Berrió, Oscar J Bienvenu, Michael H Bloch, Rianne M Blom, Ruth D Bruun, Cathy L Budman, Beatriz Camarena, Desmond Campbell, Carolina Cappi, Julio C Cardona Silgado, Danielle C Cath, Maria C Cavallini, Denise A Chavira, Sylvain Chouinard, David V Conti, Edwin H Cook, Vladimir Coric, Bernadette A Cullen, Dieter Deforce, Richard Delorme, Yves Dion, Christopher K Edlund, Karin Egberts, Peter Falkai, Thomas V Fernandez, Patience J Gallagher, Helena Garrido, Daniel Geller, Simon L Girard, Hans J Grabe, Marco A Grados, Benjamin D Greenberg, Varda Gross-Tsur, Stephen Haddad, Gary A Heiman, Sian M J Hemmings, Ana G Hounie, Cornelia Illmann, Joseph Jankovic, Michael A Jenike, James L Kennedy, Robert A King, Barbara Kremeyer, Roger Kurlan, Nuria Lanzagorta, Marion Leboyer, James F Leckman, Leonhard Lennertz, Chunyu Liu, Christine Lochner, Thomas L Lowe, Fabio Macciardi, James T McCracken, Lauren M McGrath, Sandra C Mesa Restrepo, Rainald Moessner, Jubel Morgan, Heike Muller, Dennis L Murphy, Allan L Naarden, William Cornejo Ochoa, Roel A Ophoff, Lisa Osiecki, Andrew J Pakstis, Michele T Pato, Carlos N Pato, John Piacentini, Christopher Pittenger, Yehuda Pollak, Scott L Rauch, Tobias J Renner, Victor I Reus, Margaret A Richter, Mark A Riddle, Mary M Robertson, Roxana Romero, Maria C Rosário, David Rosenberg, Guy A Rouleau, Stephan Ruhrmann, Andrés Ruiz-Linares, Aline S Sampaio, Jack Samuels, Paul Sandor, Brooke Sheppard, Harvey S Singer, Jan H Smit, Dan J Stein, E Strengman, Jay A Tischfield, Ana V Valencia Duarte, Homero Vallada, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, Susanne Walitza, Ying Wang, Jens R Wendland, Herman G M Westenberg, Yin Yao Shugart, Euripedes C Miguel, William McMahon, Michael Wagner, Humberto Nicolini, Danielle Posthuma, Gregory L Hanna, Peter Heutink, Damiaan Denys, Paul D Arnold, Ben A Oostra, Gerald Nestadt, Nelson B Freimer, David L Pauls, Naomi R Wray, S Evelyn Stewart, Carol A Mathews, James A Knowles, Nancy J Cox, Jeremiah M Scharf.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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The direct estimation of heritability from genome-wide common variant data as implemented in the program Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) has provided a means to quantify heritability attributable to all interrogated variants. We have quantified the variance in liability to disease explained by all SNPs for two phenotypically-related neurobehavioral disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette Syndrome (TS), using GCTA. Our analysis yielded a heritability point estimate of 0.58 (se = 0.09, p = 5.64e-12) for TS, and 0.37 (se = 0.07, p = 1.5e-07) for OCD. In addition, we conducted multiple genomic partitioning analyses to identify genomic elements that concentrate this heritability. We examined genomic architectures of TS and OCD by chromosome, MAF bin, and functional annotations. In addition, we assessed heritability for early onset and adult onset OCD. Among other notable results, we found that SNPs with a minor allele frequency of less than 5% accounted for 21% of the TS heritability and 0% of the OCD heritability. Additionally, we identified a significant contribution to TS and OCD heritability by variants significantly associated with gene expression in two regions of the brain (parietal cortex and cerebellum) for which we had available expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). Finally we analyzed the genetic correlation between TS and OCD, revealing a genetic correlation of 0.41 (se = 0.15, p = 0.002). These results are very close to previous heritability estimates for TS and OCD based on twin and family studies, suggesting that very little, if any, heritability is truly missing (i.e., unassayed) from TS and OCD GWAS studies of common variation. The results also indicate that there is some genetic overlap between these two phenotypically-related neuropsychiatric disorders, but suggest that the two disorders have distinct genetic architectures.
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Genome-wide association analysis identifies 13 new risk loci for schizophrenia.
Stephan Ripke, Colm O'Dushlaine, Kimberly Chambert, Jennifer L Moran, Anna K Kähler, Susanne Akterin, Sarah E Bergen, Ann L Collins, James J Crowley, Menachem Fromer, Yunjung Kim, Sang Hong Lee, Patrik K E Magnusson, Nick Sanchez, Eli A Stahl, Stephanie Williams, Naomi R Wray, Kai Xia, Francesco Bettella, Anders D Borglum, Brendan K Bulik-Sullivan, Paul Cormican, Nick Craddock, Christiaan de Leeuw, Naser Durmishi, Michael Gill, Vera Golimbet, Marian L Hamshere, Peter Holmans, David M Hougaard, Kenneth S Kendler, Kuang Lin, Derek W Morris, Ole Mors, Preben B Mortensen, Benjamin M Neale, Francis A O'Neill, Michael J Owen, Milica Pejović Milovančević, Danielle Posthuma, John Powell, Alexander L Richards, Brien P Riley, Douglas Ruderfer, Dan Rujescu, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Teimuraz Silagadze, August B Smit, Hreinn Stefansson, Stacy Steinberg, Jaana Suvisaari, Sarah Tosato, Matthijs Verhage, James T Walters, , Douglas F Levinson, Pablo V Gejman, Claudine Laurent, Bryan J Mowry, Michael C O'Donovan, Ann E Pulver, Sibylle G Schwab, Dieter B Wildenauer, Frank Dudbridge, Jianxin Shi, Margot Albus, Madeline Alexander, Dominique Campion, David Cohen, Dimitris Dikeos, Jubao Duan, Peter Eichhammer, Stephanie Godard, Mark Hansen, F Bernard Lerer, Kung-Yee Liang, Wolfgang Maier, Jacques Mallet, Deborah A Nertney, Gerald Nestadt, Nadine Norton, George N Papadimitriou, Robert Ribble, Alan R Sanders, Jeremy M Silverman, Dermot Walsh, Nigel M Williams, Brandon Wormley, Maria J Arranz, Steven Bakker, Stephan Bender, Elvira Bramon, David Collier, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Jeremy Hall, Conrad Iyegbe, Assen Jablensky, René S Kahn, Luba Kalaydjieva, Stephen Lawrie, Cathryn M Lewis, Don H Linszen, Ignacio Mata, Andrew McIntosh, Robin M Murray, Roel A Ophoff, Jim van Os, Muriel Walshe, Matthias Weisbrod, Durk Wiersma, Peter Donnelly, Inês Barroso, Jenefer M Blackwell, Matthew A Brown, Juan P Casas, Aiden P Corvin, Panos Deloukas, Audrey Duncanson, Janusz Jankowski, Hugh S Markus, Christopher G Mathew, Colin N A Palmer, Robert Plomin, Anna Rautanen, Stephen J Sawcer, Richard C Trembath, Ananth C Viswanathan, Nicholas W Wood, Chris C A Spencer, Gavin Band, Celine Bellenguez, Colin Freeman, Garrett Hellenthal, Eleni Giannoulatou, Matti Pirinen, Richard D Pearson, Amy Strange, Zhan Su, Damjan Vukcevic, Cordelia Langford, Sarah E Hunt, Sarah Edkins, Rhian Gwilliam, Hannah Blackburn, Suzannah J Bumpstead, Serge Dronov, Matthew Gillman, Emma Gray, Naomi Hammond, Alagurevathi Jayakumar, Owen T McCann, Jennifer Liddle, Simon C Potter, Radhi Ravindrarajah, Michelle Ricketts, Avazeh Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Matthew J Waller, Paul Weston, Sara Widaa, Pamela Whittaker, Mark I McCarthy, Kari Stefansson, Edward Scolnick, Shaun Purcell, Steven A McCarroll, Pamela Sklar, Christina M Hultman, Patrick F Sullivan.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Schizophrenia is an idiopathic mental disorder with a heritable component and a substantial public health impact. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) for schizophrenia beginning with a Swedish national sample (5,001 cases and 6,243 controls) followed by meta-analysis with previous schizophrenia GWAS (8,832 cases and 12,067 controls) and finally by replication of SNPs in 168 genomic regions in independent samples (7,413 cases, 19,762 controls and 581 parent-offspring trios). We identified 22 loci associated at genome-wide significance; 13 of these are new, and 1 was previously implicated in bipolar disorder. Examination of candidate genes at these loci suggests the involvement of neuronal calcium signaling. We estimate that 8,300 independent, mostly common SNPs (95% credible interval of 6,300-10,200 SNPs) contribute to risk for schizophrenia and that these collectively account for at least 32% of the variance in liability. Common genetic variation has an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia, and larger studies will allow more detailed understanding of this disorder.
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Personality and Cognitive Decline in the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Follow-up Study.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between personality domains and 11-year cognitive decline in a sample from a population-based study. METHOD: Data from Waves 3 (1993-1996) and 4 (2003-2004) of the Baltimore cohort of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study were used for analyses. The sample included 561 adults (mean age ± SD: 45.2 ± 10.78 years) who completed the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised prior to Wave 4. Participants also completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and immediate and delayed word recall tests at Wave 3, and at Wave 4, 10.9 ± 0.6 years later. RESULTS: In models adjusted for baseline cognitive performance, demographic characteristics, medical conditions, depressive symptoms, and psychotropic medication use, each 10-point increase in Neuroticism T-scores was associated with a 0.15-point decrease in MMSE scores (B = -0.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.30, -0.01), whereas each 10-point increase in Conscientiousness T-scores was associated with a 0.18-point increase on the MMSE (B = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.32) and a 0.21-point increase in immediate recall (B = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.41) between baseline and follow-up. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that greater Neuroticism is associated with decline, and greater Conscientiousness is associated with improvement in performance on measures of general cognitive function and memory in adults. Further studies are needed to determine the extent to which personality traits in midlife are associated with clinically significant cognitive outcomes in older adults, such as mild cognitive impairment and dementia, and to identify potential mediators of the association between personality and cognitive trajectories.
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Reciprocal Duplication of the Williams-Beuren Syndrome Deletion on Chromosome 7q11.23 Is Associated with Schizophrenia.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Several copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated as susceptibility factors for schizophrenia (SZ). Some of these same CNVs also increase risk for autism spectrum disorders, suggesting an etiologic overlap between these conditions. Recently, de novo duplications of a region on chromosome 7q11.23 were associated with autism spectrum disorders. The reciprocal deletion of this region causes Williams-Beuren syndrome.
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SEASON OF BIRTH IN OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER.
Depress Anxiety
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Effects of season of birth (SOB) have been documented in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. To date, few studies have evaluated this issue in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to investigate the birth seasonality in OCD.
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Familial aggregation of panic disturbances in Parkinsons disease.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2011
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Panic disorder has an elevated prevalence in Parkinsons disease (PD). To explore the basis for this co-occurrence, the familial aggregation of panic disorder was examined in patients with PD. Probands and relatives of patients with PD and panic disorder (PD-PANIC; N=20, N=115) and control probands with PD and no active psychiatric illness (PD-NA; N=17, N=108) were interviewed by phone, using a structured interview to determine panic status. Lifetime prevalence of panic and "panic-like" disorders was higher in PD-PANIC than in PD-NA relatives. Panic and "panic-like" disorders are familial disorders in PD.
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Cognitive functioning in compulsive hoarding.
J Anxiety Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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The aim of this study is to determine whether neurocognitive performance distinguishes individuals with compulsive hoarding (CH) from those with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Compared to control subjects, OCD patients and CHs scored significantly worse on the Serial Reaction Time Task suggesting disturbed implicit memory in both patient groups. On the Iowa Gambling Task, an overall learning progression difference over time was found between the CHs, OCD group, and control subjects, suggesting differences in decision-making between the groups. The groups did not differ in performance on the Stop Signal Reaction Time Task (motor inhibition). This study found evidence for impaired implicit memory in CHs, but also in OCD patients, albeit less severe. There was evidence that OCD patients learned more slowly on a decision-making task than CHs and control subjects. This latter finding provides some evidence to suggest that CH and OCD have, at least on this one measure, differing cognitive substrates.
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Comprehensive family-based association study of the glutamate transporter gene SLC1A1 in obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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SLC1A1 encodes a neuronal glutamate transporter and is a promising candidate gene for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Several independent research groups have reported significant associations between OCD and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene. Previously, we evaluated 13 SNPs in, or near, SLC1A1 and reported a strong association signal with rs301443, a SNP 7.5 kb downstream of the gene [Shugart et al. (2009); Am J Med Genet Part B 150B:886–892]. The aims of the current study were first, to further investigate this finding by saturating the region around rs301443; and second, to explore the entire gene more thoroughly with a dense panel of SNP markers. We genotyped an additional 111 SNPs in or near SLC1A1, covering from 9 kb upstream to 84 kb downstream of the gene at average spacing of 1.7 kb per SNP, and conducted family-based association analyses in 1,576 participants in 377 families.We found that none of the surrounding markers were in linkage disequilibrium with rs301443, nor were any associated with OCD. We also found that SNP rs4740788, located about 8.8 kb upstream of the gene, was associated with OCD in all families (P = 0.003) and in families with male affecteds (P = 0.002). A three-SNP haplotype (rs4740788–rs10491734–rs10491733) was associated with OCD in the total sample (P = 0.00015) and in families with male affecteds (P = 0.0007). Although of nominal statistical significance considering the number of comparisons, these findings provide further support for the involvement of SLC1A1 in the pathogenesis of OCD.
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Association between a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5HTTLPR) and personality disorder traits in a community sample.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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The serotonin transporter (SERT) polymorphism (5HTTLPR) has been reported to be associated with several psychiatric conditions. Specific personality disorders could be intermediate factors in the known relationship between 5HTTLPR and psychiatric disorders. This is the first study to test the association between this polymorphism and dimensions of all DSM-IV personality disorders in a community sample.
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Separation anxiety disorder in OCD.
Depress Anxiety
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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A history of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is frequently reported by patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of this study was to determine if there are clinical differences between OCD-affected individuals with, versus without, a history of SAD.
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Personality disorders and traits as predictors of incident cardiovascular disease: findings from the 23-year follow-up of the Baltimore ECA study.
Psychosomatics
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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Over the past several decades, the relationship between personality traits and heart disease has interested clinicians and researchers alike.
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Linkage and association on 8p21.2-p21.1 in schizophrenia.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
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In the past decade, we and others have consistently reported linkage to a schizophrenia (SZ) susceptibility region on chromosome 8p21. Most recently, in the largest SZ linkage sample to date, a multi-site international collaboration performed a SNP-based linkage scan (~6,000 SNPs; 831 pedigrees; 121 from Johns Hopkins (JHU)), that showed the strongest evidence for linkage in a 1?Mb region of chr 8p21 from rs1561817 to rs9797 (Z(max)?=?3.22, P?=?0.0004) [Holmans et al. 2009. Mol Psychiatry]. We have investigated this 8p21 peak region further in two ways: first by linkage and family-based association in 106 8p-linked European-Caucasian (EUC) JHU pedigrees using 1,402 SNPs across a 4.4?Mb region surrounding the peak; second, by an independent case-control association study in the genetically more homogeneous Ashkenazim (AJ) (709 cases, 1,547 controls) using 970 SNPs in a further narrowed 2.8?Mb region. Family-based association analyses in EUC pedigrees and case-control analyses in AJ samples reveal significant associations for SNPs in and around DPYSL2 and ADRA1A, candidate genes previously associated with SZ in our work and others. Further, several independent gene expression studies have shown that DPYSL2 is differentially expressed in SZ brains [Beasley et al. 2006. Proteomics 6(11):3414–3425; Edgar et al. 2000. Mol Psychiatry 5(1):85–90; Johnston-Wilson et al. 2000. Mol Psychiatry 5(2):142–149] or in response to psychosis-inducing pharmaceuticals [Iwazaki et al. 2007. Proteomics 7(7):1131–1139; Paulson et al. 2004. Proteomics 4(3):819–825]. Taken together, this work further supports DPYSL2 and the surrounding genomic region as a susceptibility locus for SZ.
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Should OCD be classified as an anxiety disorder in DSM-V?
Depress Anxiety
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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In DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and DSM-IV, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was classified as an anxiety disorder. In ICD-10, OCD is classified separately from the anxiety disorders, although within the same larger category as anxiety disorders (as one of the "neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders"). Ongoing advances in our understanding of OCD and other anxiety disorders have raised the question of whether OCD should continue to be classified with the anxiety disorders in DSM-V. This review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. Evidence is reviewed for retaining OCD in the category of anxiety disorders, and for moving OCD to a separate category of obsessive-compulsive (OC)-spectrum disorders, if such a category is included in DSM-V. Our preliminary recommendation is that OCD be retained in the category of anxiety disorders but that this category also includes OC-spectrum disorders along with OCD. If this change is made, the name of this category should be changed to reflect this proposed change.
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Monoamine oxidase A regulates antisocial personality in whites with no history of physical abuse.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2010
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Preclinical and human family studies clearly link monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) to aggression and antisocial personality (ASP). The 30-base pair variable number tandem repeat in the MAOA promoter regulates MAOA levels, but its effects on ASP in humans are unclear.
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Replication of an association of a common variant in the Reelin gene (RELN) with schizophrenia in Ashkenazi Jewish women.
Psychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2010
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A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs7341475) in RELN has recently been shown to be associated with schizophrenia (SZ) in an Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) case--control study specifically in women by Shifman et al. We have replicated this association in women in another large independent Ashkenazi Jewish collection (721 cases, 259 female; 1455 controls, 834 female) and confirmed that it applies to both SZ and schizoaffective disorder. Furthermore, we explore the effects of this polymorphism through quantitative trait loci analysis of nine SZ related factors providing information on sex-specific genotype--phenotype correlations.
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Genetics of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Psychiatr. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common debilitating condition affecting individuals from childhood through adult life. There is good evidence of genetic contribution to its etiology, but environmental risk factors also are likely to be involved. The condition probably has a complex pattern of inheritance. Molecular studies have identified several potentially relevant genes, but much additional research is needed to establish definitive causes of the condition.
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Overview of genetics and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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This paper reviews the current state of research into the genetics of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Heredity has a major role in OCD etiology. This evidence comes from several methodological approaches such as family, twin, and segregation analysis studies. A major single gene effect as well as a polygenic hypothesis has been suggested based on segregation studies. In addition, candidate gene association and linkage analyses have shown not only one gene, but a few interesting genes and areas of the genome that may be relevant in OCD. In this search for genes, new definitions of the OCD phenotype have emerged, and some of them may be considered intermediate phenotypes between the gene effect and OCD-DSM-IV diagnosis. The phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of OCD magnifies the challenge of locating susceptibility genes; at the same time, the identification of vulnerability genes will elucidate the identification of subtypes or dimensions of the disorder. Therefore research strategies that take advantage of clinical subtyping and that redefine the OCD phenotype in the context of genetic studies may potentially contribute to the nosology of OCD and ultimately pathophysiology. There is a lack of understanding about how genes and environment interact in OCD. However, there are some reports that will be discussed, which have attempted to evaluate how the environment contributes to OCD.
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Familiality of novel factorial dimensions of schizophrenia.
Arch. Gen. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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Factor analysis of the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia yields dimensional phenotypes that may relate to underlying genetic variation. Examination of familiality of factor scores can demonstrate whether they are likely to be of use in genetic research.
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Personality disorder traits as predictors of subsequent first-onset panic disorder or agoraphobia.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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Determining how personality disorder traits and panic disorder and/or agoraphobia relate longitudinally is an important step in developing a comprehensive understanding of the etiology of panic/agoraphobia. In 1981, a probabilistic sample of adult (> or =18 years old) residents of east Baltimore were assessed for Axis I symptoms and disorders using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS); psychiatrists reevaluated a subsample of these participants and made Axis I diagnoses, as well as ratings of individual Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition personality disorder traits. Of the participants psychiatrists examined in 1981, 432 were assessed again in 1993 to 1996 using the DIS. Excluding participants who had baseline panic attacks or panic-like spells from the risk groups, baseline timidity (avoidant, dependent, and related traits) predicted first-onset DIS panic disorder or agoraphobia over the follow-up period. These results suggest that avoidant and dependent personality traits are predisposing factors, or at least markers of risk, for panic disorder and agoraphobia-not simply epiphenomena.
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The stability of DSM personality disorders over twelve to eighteen years.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2009
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Stability of personality disorders is assumed in most nomenclatures; however, the evidence for this is limited and inconsistent. The aim of this study is to investigate the stability of DSM-III personality disorders in a community sample of eastern Baltimore residents unselected for treatment.
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Fine mapping on chromosome 10q22-q23 implicates Neuregulin 3 in schizophrenia.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2009
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Linkage studies have implicated 10q22-q23 as a schizophrenia (SZ) susceptibility locus in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) and Han Chinese from Taiwan populations. To further explore our previous linkage signal in the AJ population (NPL score: 4.27, empirical p = 2 x 10(-5)), we performed a peakwide association fine mapping study by using 1414 SNPs across approximately 12.5 Mb in 10q22-q23. We genotyped 1515 AJ individuals, including 285 parent-child trios, 173 unrelated cases, and 487 unrelated controls. We analyzed the binary diagnostic phenotype of SZ and 9 heritable quantitative traits derived from a principal components factor analysis of 73 items from our consensus diagnostic ratings and direct assessment interviews. Although no marker withstood multiple test correction for association with the binary SZ phenotype, we found strong evidence of association by using the "delusion" factor as the quantitative trait at three SNPs (rs10883866, rs10748842, and rs6584400) located in a 13 kb interval in intron 1 of Neuregulin 3 (NRG3). Our best p value from family-based association analysis was 7.26 x 10(-7). We replicated this association in the collection of 173 unrelated AJ cases (p = 1.55 x 10(-2)), with a combined p value of 2.30 x 10(-7). After performing 10,000 permutations of each of the phenotypes, we estimated the empirical study-wide significance across all 9 factors (90,000 permutations) to be p = 2.7 x 10(-3). NRG3 is primarily expressed in the central nervous system and is one of three paralogs of NRG1, a gene strongly implicated in SZ. These biological properties together with our linkage and association results strongly support NRG3 as a gene involved in SZ.
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Genetic association of FKBP5 and CRHR1 with cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy adults.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
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Chronic dysregulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is related to several neuropsychiatric disorders. Studies suggest that cortisol response to stress has a strong genetic etiology, and that FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) and G-protein coupled type-I CRH receptor (CRHR1) are key proteins regulating response. Variations in the genes encoding these proteins, FKBP5 and CRHR1, have been associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders.
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Relationship between personality disorder dimensions and verbal memory functioning in a community population.
Psychiatry Res
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Based on the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) follow-up survey, we examined relationships between dimensions of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) personality disorders and both subjective and objective memory functioning in a community population. Our study subjects consisted of 736 individuals from the ECA follow-up study of the original Baltimore ECA cohort, conducted between 1993 and 1996 and available for assessment in the Hopkins Epidemiology Study of Personality Disorders from 1997 to 1999. Subjects were assessed for DSM-IV personality disorders using a semi-structured instrument, the International Personality Disorder Examination, and were asked about a subjective appraisal of memory. Verbal memory function, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and recognition, were also evaluated. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine associations between personality dimensions of DSM-IV Axis II traits and subjective and objective memory functioning. Scores on schizoid and schizotypal personality dimensions were associated with subjective and objective memory dysfunction, both with and without adjustment for Axis I disorders. Borderline, antisocial, avoidant, and dependent personality disorder scores were associated with subjective memory impairment only, both with and without adjustment for Axis I disorders. This study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment and/or objective memory dysfunction are associated with specific personality disorder dimensions.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.