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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A phase 1/1b study of combined rituximab, bendamustine, and ibrutinib in patients with previously untreated and relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Ibrutinib has single agent activity of 22-68% in relapsed B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of ibrutinib combined with rituximab (R) and bendamustine. Patients received R 375 mg/m(2) day 1, bendamustine 90 mg/m(2) days 1 and 2, and ibrutinib (280 or 560 mg) days 1-28 every 28 days for 6 cycles followed by ibrutinib alone until progression. Forty-eight patients enrolled, including 12 patients with follicular lymphoma (FL), 16 with diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL), and 17 with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). No dose limiting toxicities were observed. Patients received a median of 8 cycles, with 26 completing 6 cycles and continuing ibrutinib alone in cycles 7-34. The overall response rate (ORR) was 72%, with 52% complete responses (CR). By histology, the ORR was 94% (76% CR) in MCL, 37% (31% CR) in DLCL, and 90% (50% CR) in FL. Grade 3-4 toxicities included lymphopenia (77%), neutropenia (33%), thrombocytopenia (19%), and rash (25%). Median progression-free survival has not been reached (95% CI, 8.7 months - not reached). The recommended phase 2 dose of ibrutinib in combination with R-bendamustine in patients with NHL is 560 mg. The combination has promising efficacy, particularly in MCL and FL.
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A phase I trial of the Fc engineered CD19 antibody XmAb®5574 (MOR00208) demonstrates safety and preliminary efficacy in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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CD19 is ubiquitously expressed on CLL cells and is therefore an attractive candidate for antibody targeting. XmAb(®)5574 (aka MOR00208) is a novel humanized CD19 monoclonal antibody with an engineered Fc region to enhance Fc gamma receptor binding affinity. Here we report results of a first in human Phase I trial of XmAb5574 in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL. 27 patients were enrolled to 6 escalating dose levels, with expansion at the highest dose level of 12 mg/kg. 9 doses of XmAb5574 were infused over 8 weeks. No maximal tolerated dose was reached, and the drug was generally well tolerated, with infusion reactions of grades 1 and 2 being the most common toxicities. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities occurred in 5 patients and included neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, increased aspartate aminotransferase, febrile neutropenia, and tumor lysis syndrome. XmAb5574 showed preliminary efficacy, with 18 patients (66.7%) responding by physical exam criteria and laboratory studies, and 8 patients (29.6%) responding by CT criteria. Pharmacokinetics showed a half-life of 14 days with clearance that was not dose-dependent. In conclusion, this Phase I trial demonstrates safety and preliminary efficacy of a novel Fc engineered CD19 monoclonal antibody XmAb5574 and justifies movement into the Phase II setting. Trial is registered on clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01161511.
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A phase 1 study of vorinostat maintenance after autologous transplant in high-risk lymphoma.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Only a minority of patients with high risk lymphoma will be cured with autologous transplant, so maintenance with vorinostat, an oral agent with activity in relapsed lymphoma, was studied starting day + 60 for 21 consecutive days followed by a week off for up to 11 cycles. Twenty-three patients with lymphoma were treated. Ten patients completed the full 11-cycle treatment plan per protocol, four patients were removed due to progressive disease and seven withdrew or were removed from the study due to toxicities. Despite Prevnar vaccine administration every 2 months for three injections, the mean antibody concentration never reached protective levels (> 0.35 ?g/mL). Fatigue and functional well-being measured by Brief Fatigue Inventory and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General improved significantly from cycle 1 to cycle 7, but depression scores from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale did not change. Given the toxicities observed, this broad-spectrum deacetylase inhibitor at this schedule is not optimal for prolonged maintenance therapy.
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Resistance mechanisms for the Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Ibrutinib is an irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) and is effective in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Resistance to irreversible kinase inhibitors and resistance associated with BTK inhibition have not been characterized. Although only a small proportion of patients have had a relapse during ibrutinib therapy, an understanding of resistance mechanisms is important. We evaluated patients with relapsed disease to identify mutations that may mediate ibrutinib resistance.
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The translation inhibitor silvestrol exhibits direct anti-tumor activity while preserving innate and adaptive immunity against EBV-driven lymphoproliferative disease.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Treatment options for patients with Epstein-Barr Virus-driven lymphoproliferative diseases (EBV-LPD) are limited. Chemo-immunotherapeutic approaches often lead to immune suppression, risk of lethal infection and EBV reactivation, thus it is essential to identify agents that can deliver direct anti-tumor activity while preserving innate and adaptive host immune surveillance. Silvestrol possesses direct anti-tumor activity in multiple hematologic malignancies while causing minimal toxicity to normal mononuclear cells. However, the effects of silvestrol on immune function have not been described. We utilized in vitro and in vivo models of EBV-LPD to simultaneously examine the impact of silvestrol on both tumor and normal immune function. We show that silvestrol induces direct anti-tumor activity against EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), with growth inhibition, decreased expression of the EBV oncogene latent membrane protein-1, and  inhibition of the downstream AKT, STAT1 and STAT3 signaling pathways. Silvestrol promoted potent indirect anti-tumor effects by preserving expansion of innate and EBV antigen-specific adaptive immune effector subsets capable of effective clearance of LCL tumor targets in autologous co-cultures. In an animal model of spontaneous EBV-LPD, silvestrol demonstrated significant therapeutic activity dependent on the presence of CD8-positive T-cells. These findings establish a novel immune-sparing activity of silvestrol, justifying further exploration in patients with EBV-positive malignancies.
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Complete response to induction therapy in patients with Myc-positive and double-hit non-Hodgkin lymphoma is associated with prolonged progression-free survival.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Myc-positive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with or without a B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) rearrangement is associated with inferior progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In this study, the authors reviewed the outcomes of patients with myc-positive and double-hit NHL at The Ohio State University.
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Improved efficacy using rituximab and brief duration, high intensity chemotherapy with filgrastim support for Burkitt or aggressive lymphomas: cancer and Leukemia Group B study 10 002.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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To improve long-term outcomes for Burkitt leukaemia/lymphoma (BL) or aggressive lymphomas in adults, we assessed the benefit of adding rituximab and filgrastim support to a dose-dense modified chemotherapy regimen from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9251 trial. One hundred and five patients (aged 19-79 years) were enrolled; 27% were >60 years old; 47% had high or high-intermediate risk by International Prognostic Index (IPI) criteria. Common severe toxicities included stomatitis/upper gastrointestinal toxicity (69%), renal insufficiency (10%), neurological events (25%) and pulmonary events (18%). Seven died from treatment-related causes (one central nervous system bleed, four infections, two respiratory failure); five were >60 years old. Results in this adult population are encouraging as complete response (CR) was observed in 83% and 4-year event-free (EFS) and overall survivals (OS) were 74% and 78%, respectively. Results compare favourably to our prior chemotherapy alone study (CALGB 9251) but despite this, high-risk patients still had worse outcomes. In conclusion, short duration, intensive chemo-immunotherapy is feasible and should be considered in adults with BL as it results in high remission rates and durable remissions.
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Prolonged lymphocytosis during ibrutinib therapy is associated with distinct molecular characteristics and does not indicate a suboptimal response to therapy.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib has outstanding activity in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Most patients experience lymphocytosis, representing lymphocyte egress from nodal compartments. This resolves within 8 months in the majority of patients, but a subgroup has lymphocytosis lasting >12 months. Here we report a detailed characterization of patients with persistent lymphocytosis during ibrutinib therapy. Signaling evaluation showed that while BTK is inhibited, downstream mediators of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling are activated in persistent lymphocytes. These cells cannot be stimulated through the BCR and do not show evidence of target gene activation. Flow cytometry for ? and ? expression, IGHV sequencing, Zap-70 methylation, and targeted gene sequencing in these patients are identical at baseline and later time points, suggesting that persistent lymphocytes do not represent clonal evolution. In vitro treatment with targeted kinase inhibitors shows that they are not addicted to a single survival pathway. Finally, progression-free survival is not inferior for patients with prolonged lymphocytosis vs those with traditional responses. Thus, prolonged lymphocytosis is common following ibrutinib treatment, likely represents the persistence of a quiescent clone, and does not predict a subgroup of patients likely to relapse early.
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Histopathological image analysis for centroblasts classification through dimensionality reduction approaches.
Cytometry A
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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We present two novel automated image analysis methods to differentiate centroblast (CB) cells from noncentroblast (non-CB) cells in digital images of H&E-stained tissues of follicular lymphoma. CB cells are often confused by similar looking cells within the tissue, therefore a system to help their classification is necessary. Our methods extract the discriminatory features of cells by approximating the intrinsic dimensionality from the subspace spanned by CB and non-CB cells. In the first method, discriminatory features are approximated with the help of singular value decomposition (SVD), whereas in the second method they are extracted using Laplacian Eigenmaps. Five hundred high-power field images were extracted from 17 slides, which are then used to compose a database of 213 CB and 234 non-CB region of interest images. The recall, precision, and overall accuracy rates of the developed methods were measured and compared with existing classification methods. Moreover, the reproducibility of both classification methods was also examined. The average values of the overall accuracy were 99.22%?±?0.75% and 99.07%?±?1.53% for COB and CLEM, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that both proposed methods provide better classification accuracy of CB/non-CB in comparison with the state of the art methods. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
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Glycovariant anti-CD37 monospecific protein therapeutic exhibits enhanced effector cell-mediated cytotoxicity against chronic and acute B cell malignancies.
MAbs
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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TRU-016 is a SMIP(TM) (monospecific protein therapeutic) molecule against the tetraspanin transmembrane family protein CD37 that is currently in Phase 2 trials in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). In an attempt to enhance the ADCC function of SMIP-016, the chimeric version of TRU-016, SMIP-016(GV) was engineered with a modification in a glycosylation site in the Fc domain. The wild-type and glycovariant SMIP proteins mediate comparable Type I antibody-like direct cytotoxicity in the presence of anti-human Fc crosslinker and show a similar tyrosine phosphorylation pattern post-treatment. However, NK cells stimulated with the SMIP-016(GV) exhibit enhanced activation and release 3-fold more interferon-? compared with SMIP-016. SMIP-016(GV) shows enhanced ADCC function against cells expressing CD37 with NK cell effectors derived from both normal and CLL-affected individuals. Enhanced ADCC is observed against CLL cells and is sustained at concentrations of SMIP-016(GV) as low at 5E(-6) µg/mL on cells expressing minimal CD37 antigen. In support of the biological relevance of this, SMIP-016(GV) mediates effective ADCC against primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells with low surface expression of CD37. Collectively, these data suggest potential use of the novel therapeutic agent SMIP-016(GV) with enhanced effector function for B cell malignancies, including CLL and ALL therapy.
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Characterization of a new chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell line for mechanistic in vitro and in vivo studies relevant to disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Studies of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have yielded substantial progress, however a lack of immortalized cell lines representative of the primary disease has hampered a full understanding of disease pathogenesis and development of new treatments. Here we describe a novel CLL cell line (OSU-CLL) generated by EBV transformation, which displays a similar cytogenetic and immunophenotype observed in the patients CLL (CD5 positive with trisomy 12 and 19). A companion cell line was also generated from the same patient (OSU-NB). This cell line lacked typical CLL characteristics, and is likely derived from the patients normal B cells. In vitro migration assays demonstrated that OSU-CLL exhibits migratory properties similar to primary CLL cells whereas OSU-NB has significantly reduced ability to migrate spontaneously or towards chemokine. Microarray analysis demonstrated distinct gene expression patterns in the two cell lines, including genes on chromosomes 12 and 19, which is consistent with the cytogenetic profile in this cell line. Finally, OSU-CLL was readily transplantable into NOG mice, producing uniform engraftment by three weeks with leukemic cells detectable in the peripheral blood spleen and bone marrow. These studies describe a new CLL cell line that extends currently available models to study gene function in this disease.
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Telomere length and telomerase reverse transcriptase gene copy number in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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The family risk ratio for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is among the highest of all cancers. Collectively, familial cases (fPTC) and sporadic cases (sPTC) are not known to show molecular differences. However, one study reported that telomeres were markedly shorter and the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene was amplified and up-regulated in germline DNA from patients with fPTC compared with sPTC.
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Resistance to the translation initiation inhibitor silvestrol is mediated by ABCB1/P-glycoprotein overexpression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
AAPS J
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Protein synthesis is a powerful therapeutic target in leukemias and other cancers, but few pharmacologically viable agents are available that affect this process directly. The plant-derived agent silvestrol specifically inhibits translation initiation by interfering with eIF4A/mRNA assembly with eIF4F. Silvestrol has potent in vitro and in vivo activity in multiple cancer models including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and is under pre-clinical development by the US National Cancer Institute, but no information is available about potential mechanisms of resistance. In a separate report, we showed that intraperitoneal silvestrol is approximately 100% bioavailable systemically, although oral doses were only 1% bioavailable despite an apparent lack of metabolism. To explore mechanisms of silvestrol resistance and the possible role of efflux transporters in silvestrol disposition, we characterized multi-drug resistance transporter expression and function in a silvestrol-resistant ALL cell line generated via culture of the 697 ALL cell line in gradually increasing silvestrol concentrations. This resistant cell line, 697-R, shows significant upregulation of ABCB1 mRNA and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) as well as cross-resistance to known Pgp substrates vincristine and romidepsin. Furthermore, 697-R cells readily efflux the fluorescent Pgp substrate rhodamine 123. This effect is prevented by Pgp inhibitors verapamil and cyclosporin A, as well as siRNA to ABCB1, with concomitant re-sensitization to silvestrol. Together, these data indicate that silvestrol is a substrate of Pgp, a potential obstacle that must be considered in the development of silvestrol for oral delivery or targeting to tumors protected by Pgp overexpression.
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Combination anti-CD74 (milatuzumab) and anti-CD20 (rituximab) monoclonal antibody therapy has in vitro and in vivo activity in mantle cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell malignancy with a median survival of 3 years despite chemoimmunotherapy. Rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb), has shown only modest activity as single agent in MCL. The humanized mAb milatuzumab targets CD74, an integral membrane protein linked with promotion of B-cell growth and survival, and has shown preclinical activity against B-cell malignancies. Because rituximab and milatuzumab target distinct antigens and potentially signal through different pathways, we explored a preclinical combination strategy in MCL. Treatment of MCL cell lines and primary tumor cells with immobilized milatuzumab and rituximab resulted in rapid cell death, radical oxygen species generation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Cytoskeletal distrupting agents significantly reduced formation of CD20/CD74 aggregates, cell adhesion, and cell death, highlighting the importance of actin microfilaments in rituximab/milatuzumab-mediated cell death. Cell death was independent of caspase activation, Bcl-2 family proteins or modulation of autophagy. Maximal inhibition of p65 nuclear translocation was observed with combination treatment, indicating disruption of the NF-?B pathway. Significant in vivo therapeutic activity of combination rituximab and milatuzumab was demonstrated in a preclinical model of MCL. These data support clinical evaluation of combination milatuzumab and rituximab therapy in MCL.
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Modern strategies for hairy cell leukemia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Enormous progress in the treatment of hairy cell leukemia over the last five decades has emerged as a result of organized clinical investigations. Although interferon represented one of the initial major therapeutic advances in the management of this disease in 1984, the subsequent introduction of purine nucleoside analogs (pentostatin and cladribine) changed the natural history of this rare disease by achieving a high rate of complete and durable remissions. The disease-free survival after effective therapy has not reached a plateau, suggesting control but not cure of the disease. Identification of minimal residual disease in patients achieving a complete hematologic remission provides insight into the potential source for predicting eventual relapse. Modern strategies of targeted therapies directed against immunophenotypic markers on the leukemic cells provide hope that improved long-term control of the disease is possible. Combined chemoimmunotherapy may hold the highest promise for disease eradication, but the optimal strategy for using this approach is under active investigation. Despite the perception by hematologists that this disease has already been conquered, there are critically important unanswered questions that remain. Investigation of the bone marrow microenvironment and its impact on minimal residual disease may ultimately prevent relapse. Consideration of the median age of patients at diagnosis combined with a substantial relapse rate mandates continued pursuit of improved therapy. The ultimate goal will be to achieve cure rather than simple control of the disease.
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Detection of follicles from IHC-stained slides of follicular lymphoma using iterative watershed.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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Follicular lymphoma (FL) is one of the most common types of nonHodgkin lymphoma in the U.S. Diagnosis of FL is based on tissue biopsy that shows characteristic morphologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) findings. Our groups work focuses on the development of computer-aided image-analysis techniques to improve the FL grading. Since centroblast enumeration needs to be performed in malignant follicles, the development of an automated system to accurately identify follicles on digital images of lymphoid tissue is an important step. In this letter, we describe an automated system to identify follicles in IHC-stained tissue sections. A unique feature of the system described here is the use of texture and color information to mimic the process that a human expert might use to identify follicle regions. Comparison of system-generated results with expert-generated ground truth has shown promising results with a mean similarity score of 87.11%.
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Computer-aided detection of centroblasts for follicular lymphoma grading using adaptive likelihood-based cell segmentation.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
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Follicular lymphoma (FL) is one of the most common lymphoid malignancies in the western world. FL has a variable clinical course, and important clinical treatment decisions for FL patients are based on histological grading, which is done by manually counting the large malignant cells called centroblasts (CB) in ten standard microscopic high-power fields from H&E-stained tissue sections. This method is tedious and subjective; as a result, suffers from considerable inter and intrareader variability even when used by expert pathologists. In this paper, we present a computer-aided detection system for automated identification of CB cells from H&E-stained FL tissue samples. The proposed system uses a unitone conversion to obtain a single-channel image that has the highest contrast. From the resulting image, which has a bimodal distribution due to the H&E stain, a cell-likelihood image is generated. Finally, a two-step CB detection procedure is applied. In the first step, we identify evident nonCB cells based on size and shape. In the second step, the CB detection is further refined by learning and utilizing the texture distribution of nonCB cells. We evaluated the proposed approach on 100 region-of-interest images extracted from ten distinct tissue samples and obtained a promising 80.7% detection accuracy.
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The CD4+ lymphopenic sarcoidosis phenotype is highly responsive to anti-tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} therapy.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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The treatment options for patients with sarcoidosis are presently limited, and it is unclear which treatments are most effective for any given patient. We have identified a sarcoidosis phenotype characterized by CD4(+) lymphopenia and resistance to conventional immunosuppressants, such as corticosteroids and methotrexate. Based on recent reports linking tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha to regulatory T-cell (Treg) dysfunction, we hypothesized that sarcoidosis-associated CD4(+) lymphopenia would resolve with anti-TNFalpha treatment. Five consecutive patients with CD4(+) lymphopenia were treated with a chimeric anti-TNFalpha antibody (infliximab). Clinical disease manifestations and peripheral blood T-cell subsets were assessed before and after infliximab treatment. All patients experienced significant increases in absolute peripheral blood lymphocyte and CD4(+) T-cell counts and demonstrated improvement in clinical disease manifestations in response to infliximab. No change in the distribution of T-cell subsets was noted. The presence of CD4(+) lymphopenia identifies a distinct sarcoidosis phenotype that is particularly responsive to anti-TNFalpha therapy.
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Computer-aided classification of centroblast cells in follicular lymphoma.
Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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To distinguish centroblast cells from non-centroblast cells using a novel automated method in follicular lymphoma cases and measure its performance on cases obtained by a consensus of six pathologists.
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The PD-1/PD-L1 axis modulates the natural killer cell versus multiple myeloma effect: a therapeutic target for CT-011, a novel monoclonal anti-PD-1 antibody.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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T-cell expression of programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) down-regulates the immune response against malignancy by interacting with cognate ligands (eg, PD-L1) on tumor cells; however, little is known regarding PD-1 and natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells exert cytotoxicity against multiple myeloma (MM), an effect enhanced through novel therapies. We show that NK cells from MM patients express PD-1 whereas normal NK cells do not and confirm PD-L1 on primary MM cells. Engagement of PD-1 with PD-L1 should down-modulate the NK-cell versus MM effect. We demonstrate that CT-011, a novel anti-PD-1 antibody, enhances human NK-cell function against autologous, primary MM cells, seemingly through effects on NK-cell trafficking, immune complex formation with MM cells, and cytotoxicity specifically toward PD-L1(+) MM tumor cells but not normal cells. We show that lenalidomide down-regulates PD-L1 on primary MM cells and may augment CT-011s enhancement of NK-cell function against MM. We demonstrate a role for the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling axis in the NK-cell immune response against MM and a role for CT-011 in enhancing the NK-cell versus MM effect. A phase 2 clinical trial of CT-011 in combination with lenalidomide for patients with MM should be considered.
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Products of vitamin D3 or 7-dehydrocholesterol metabolism by cytochrome P450scc show anti-leukemia effects, having low or absent calcemic activity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2010
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Cytochrome P450scc metabolizes vitamin D3 to 20-hydroxyvitamin D3 (20(OH)D3) and 20,23(OH)(2)D3, as well as 1-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1alpha,20-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,20(OH)(2)D3). It also cleaves the side chain of 7-dehydrocholesterol producing 7-dehydropregnenolone (7DHP), which can be transformed to 20(OH)7DHP. UVB induces transformation of the steroidal 5,7-dienes to pregnacalciferol (pD) and a lumisterol-like compounds (pL).
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Extraction of color features in the spectral domain to recognize centroblasts in histopathology.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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In this paper, we are proposing a novel automated method to recognize centroblast (CB) cells from non-centroblast (non-CB) cells for computer-assisted evaluation of follicular lymphoma tissue samples. The method is based on training and testing of a quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) classifier. The novel aspects of this method are the identification of the CB object with prior information, and the introduction of the principal component analysis (PCA) in the spectral domain to extract color texture features. Both geometric and texture features are used to achieve the classification. Experimental results on real follicular lymphoma images demonstrate that the combined feature space improved the performance of the system significantly. The implemented method can identify centroblast cells (CB) from non-centroblast cells (non-CB) with a classification accuracy of 82.56%.
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Imaging mass spectrometry analysis for follicular lymphoma grading.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common non-Hodgkins lymphoma in the United States. While the current diagnosis depends heavily on the review of H&E-stained tissues, additional sources of information such as IHC are occasionally needed. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) can be used to generate protein profiles from localized tissue regions, thus making it possible to relate changes in tissue histology to the changes in the protein signature of the tissue. It may be possible to determine potential biomarkers that can indicate disease state and prognosis based on the protein profile. This research aims to combine two different but related types of data in order to develop a unique diagnosis methodology that can potentially improve the accuracy of diagnosis. Preliminary analysis has shown promising results for distinguishing intrafollicle regions from the mantle and follicle zones in normal tissue.
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Prolonged myelosuppression with clofarabine in the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory, aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2009
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We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the purine nucleoside analogue, clofarabine, in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Six patients with DLBCL (n = 5) or MCL (n = 1) and a median age of 68 years were treated with 40 mg/m(2) clofarabine IV over 2 h for 5 days, repeated every 28 days, for 1-2 cycles. The overall response rate was 50% (complete response = 1, complete response unconfirmed = 1, partial response = 1). Median progression-free survival was 3.5 months (range 1.5-10 months) and the median overall survival was 7.8 months (range 3-31 months). Grade 3-4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia was universal, with a median of 34 (range 19-55) and 77 (range 0-275) days required for neutrophil and platelet recovery. Grade 3 non-hematologic toxicities included transaminitis, febrile neutropenia, non-neutropenic infections and orthostatic hypotension. Further accrual to the study was terminated due to prolonged Grade 3-4 myelosuppression and orthostatic hypotension in five of six patients. Clofarabine exhibits evidence of single agent activity in relapsed or refractory DLBCL. However, further study with novel administration schedules that maintain this efficacy and limit toxicity is warranted.
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Feature-based registration of histopathology images with different stains: an application for computerized follicular lymphoma prognosis.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common type of non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Manual histological grading of FL is subject to remarkable inter- and intra-reader variations. A promising approach to grading is the development of a computer-assisted system that improves consistency and precision. Correlating information from adjacent slides with different stain types requires establishing spatial correspondences between the digitized section pair through a precise non-rigid image registration. However, the dissimilar appearances of the different stain types challenges existing registration methods. This study proposes a method for the automatic non-rigid registration of histological section images with different stain types. This method is based on matching high level features that are representative of small anatomical structures. This choice of feature provides a rich matching environment, but also results in a high mismatch probability. Matching confidence is increased by establishing local groups of coherent features through geometric reasoning. The proposed method is validated on a set of FL images representing different disease stages. Statistical analysis demonstrates that given a proper feature set the accuracy of automatic registration is comparable to manual registration.
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Mcl-1 expression predicts progression-free survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients treated with pentostatin, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family. Increased Mcl-1 expression is associated with failure to achieve remission after treatment with fludarabine and chlorambucil in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, the influence of Mcl-1 expression has not been examined in CLL trials using chemoimmunotherapy. We investigated Mcl-1 protein expression prospectively as part of a phase 2 study evaluating the efficacy of pentostatin, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab in patients with untreated CLL. No significant difference by Mcl-1 expression was noted in pretreatment or response parameters. However, in patients with higher Mcl-1 expression, both minimal residual disease-negative status and progression-free survival was found to be significantly reduced (57% vs 19%, P = .01; 50.8 vs 18.7 months; P = .02; respectively). Mcl-1 expression may therefore be useful in predicting poor response to chemoimmunotherapy. These findings further support pursuing treatment strategies targeting this important antiapoptotic protein. (Because the trials described were conducted before the requirement to register them was implemented, they are not registered in a clinical trial database.).
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The novel plant-derived agent silvestrol has B-cell selective activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in vitro and in vivo.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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Therapeutic options for advanced B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are limited. Available treatments can also deplete T lymphocytes, leaving patients at risk of life-threatening infections. In the National Cancer Institute cell line screen, the structurally unique natural product silvestrol produces an unusual pattern of cytotoxicity that suggests activity in leukemia and selectivity for B cells. We investigated silvestrol efficacy using primary human B-leukemia cells, established B-leukemia cell lines, and animal models. In CLL cells, silvestrol LC(50) (concentration lethal to 50%) is 6.9 nM at 72 hours. At this concentration, there is no difference in sensitivity of cells from patients with or without the del(17p13.1) abnormality. In isolated cells and whole blood, silvestrol is more cytotoxic toward B cells than T cells. Silvestrol causes early reduction in Mcl-1 expression due to translational inhibition with subsequent mitochondrial damage, as evidenced by reactive oxygen species generation and membrane depolarization. In vivo, silvestrol causes significant B-cell reduction in Emu-Tcl-1 transgenic mice and significantly extends survival of 697 xenograft severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice without discernible toxicity. These data indicate silvestrol has efficacy against B cells in vitro and in vivo and identify translational inhibition as a potential therapeutic target in B-cell leukemias.
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Bortezomib added to daunorubicin and cytarabine during induction therapy and to intermediate-dose cytarabine for consolidation in patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia age 60 to 75 years: CALGB (Alliance) study 10502.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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The purpose of this study was to determine remission induction frequency when bortezomib was combined with daunorubicin and cytarabine in previously untreated older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and safety of bortezomib in combination with consolidation chemotherapy consisting of intermediate-dose cytarabine (Int-DAC).
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Tetraspanin CD37 directly mediates transduction of survival and apoptotic signals.
Cancer Cell
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Tetraspanins are commonly believed to act only as "molecular facilitators," with no direct role in signal transduction. We herein demonstrate that upon ligation, CD37, a tetraspanin molecule expressed on mature normal and transformed B cells, becomes tyrosine phosphorylated, associates with proximal signaling molecules, and initiates a cascade of events leading to apoptosis. Moreover, we have identified two tyrosine residues with opposing regulatory functions: one lies in the N-terminal domain of CD37 in a predicted "ITIM-like" motif and mediates SHP1-dependent death, whereas the second lies in a predicted "ITAM motif" in the C-terminal domain of CD37 and counteracts death signals by mediating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent survival.
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Variations of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia lack substantial impact on progression-free survival and overall survival: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study.
Leuk. Lymphoma
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The impact of mutation of the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) gene in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treatment outcome has not been examined. We studied ATM mutations in 73 patients treated with fludarabine and rituximab. ATM gene mutation analysis was performed using temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis. The impact of detected variants on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was tested with proportional hazards models. None of the 73 patients demonstrated truncating ATM mutations; 17 (23%, 95% confidence interval 14-35%) had non-silent variants (ATM-NSVs), including 13 known ATM polymorphisms and four missense variants. ATM-NSVs were not significantly associated with any baseline characteristics including immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene (IGVH) status. In multivariable models, no significant differences in complete response (p =0.70), PFS (p =0.59) or OS (p =0.13) were observed. Our data indicate that truncating ATM mutations are rare in patients with CLL. Furthermore, in this dataset, these non-silent variants had limited impact on PFS and OS.
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The spectrum of hematologic malignancies involving the pancreas: potential clinical mimics of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
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Hematologic malignancies often involve the pancreas, causing potential diagnostic pitfalls and, rarely, potentially avoidable surgical resection. We review the spectrum of hematologic malignancies involving the pancreas and describe features useful in preoperative distinction from adenocarcinoma. Archived clinical, pathologic, and radiologic data (1965 to present) for hematologic malignancies involving the pancreas were reviewed and compared with the data for 157 surgically resected pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Of 42 cases, 27 (64%) were clinically "suspicious" for hematologic malignancies. Of the remaining 15 cases, 4 patients underwent resection for presumed pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Isolated pancreatic masses proved most difficult to identify clinically. Significant factors in distinguishing hematologic malignancies from adenocarcinoma included history of hematologic malignancy, young age, large tumor size, low CA19-9 level, B symptoms, and lack of jaundice or diabetes mellitus. Various hematologic malignancies involve the pancreas, most commonly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Pancreatic masses are usually correctly identified clinically. Preoperative and operative sampling is strongly recommended when hematologic malignancies cannot be excluded.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.