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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Phase 1 Trial of Single Agent Reolysin in Patients with Relapsed Multiple Myeloma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Introduction. Reolysin®, a proprietary isolate of reovirus Type 3 Dearing, enters and preferentially induces apoptosis of malignant cells. RAS pathway activation has been associated with more efficient reoviral infectivity and enhanced oncolysis. Reovirus is currently in advanced solid tumor phase 1 - 2 trials; no clinical trials have been conducted in patients with hematologic malignancies. Methodologies. A phase 1 trial treated 12 relapsed myeloma patients at two dose levels. Reolysin was infused daily for 5 days every 28 days. Bone marrow specimens were examined by In situ based hybridization (ISH) for CD138, p38, caspase-3, reoviral RNA and capsid protein at screening and cycle 1 day 8. Junctional adhesion molecule 1 (JAM-1) and cancer up regulated gene 2 (CUG2) were evaluated in patient samples and MM cell lines. Neutralizing Anti-Reovirus Antibody (NARA) assay was performed weekly during cycle 1. Results. There were no dose limiting toxicities (DLTs), patients reached the 3 x 1010 TCID50 daily on days 1-5 dose level, and grade 3 laboratory toxicities included neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and hypophosphatemia. In situ hybridization demonstrated reoviral genome confined in MM cells. Reoviral capsid protein and caspase-3 were rarely identified within reoviral RNA positive cells. The longest durations of stable disease were 4, 5 and 8 months. Conclusions. Treatment with single-agent Reolysin was well tolerated and associated with avid reoviral RNA myeloma cell entry but only minimal intracellular reoviral protein production within MM cells. Our data support that in MM cells, Reolysin-induced oncolysis requires combination therapy, similar to other cancers.
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Transcribed ultraconserved noncoding RNAs (T-UCR) are involved in Barrett's esophagus carcinogenesis.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Barrett's esophagus (BE) involves a metaplastic replacement of native esophageal squamous epithelium (Sq) by columnar-intestinalized mucosa, and it is the main risk factor for Barrett-related adenocarcinoma (BAc). Ultra-conserved regions (UCRs) are a class non-coding sequences that are conserved in humans, mice and rats. More than 90% of UCRs are transcribed (T-UCRs) in normal tissues, and are altered at transcriptional level in tumorigenesis. To identify the T-UCR profiles that are dysregulated in Barrett's mucosa transformation, microarray analysis was performed on a discovery set of 51 macro-dissected samples obtained from 14 long-segment BE patients. Results were validated in an independent series of esophageal biopsy/surgery specimens and in two murine models of Barrett's esophagus (i.e. esophagogastric-duodenal anastomosis). Progression from normal to BE to adenocarcinoma was each associated with specific and mutually exclusive T-UCR signatures that included up-regulation of uc.58-, uc.202-, uc.207-, and uc.223- and down-regulation of uc.214+. A 9 T-UCR signature characterized BE versus Sq (with the down-regulation of uc.161-, uc.165-, and uc.327-, and the up-regulation of uc.153-, uc.158-, uc.206-, uc.274-, uc.472-, and uc.473-). Analogous BE-specific T-UCR profiles were shared by human and murine lesions. This study is the first demonstration of a role for T-UCRs in the transformation of Barrett's mucosa.
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Bovine leukemia virus DNA in human breast tissue.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a deltaretrovirus, causes B-cell leukemia/lymphoma in cattle and is prevalent in herds globally. A previous finding of antibodies against BLV in humans led us to examine the possibility of human infection with BLV. We focused on breast tissue because, in cattle, BLV DNA and protein have been found to be more abundant in mammary epithelium than in lymphocytes. In human breast tissue specimens, we identified BLV DNA by using nested liquid-phase PCR and DNA sequencing. Variations from the bovine reference sequence were infrequent and limited to base substitutions. In situ PCR and immunohistochemical testing localized BLV to the secretory epithelium of the breast. Our finding of BLV in human tissues indicates a risk for the acquisition and proliferation of this virus in humans. Further research is needed to determine whether BLV may play a direct role in human disease.
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Squamous cell carcinoma arising in association with verruca vulgares and HPV-2: a clinicopathologic study with p16 and p53 immunohistochemical studies and human papillomavirus in situ hybridization studies.
Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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We observed cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas of the skin (SCCS) with histologic features suggesting they are arising in association with verruca vulgares (SCC-VV). We analyzed SCC-VV to determine what types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) could be detected by in situ hybridization. We also analyzed demographic and clinical features and performed immunohistochemical studies for p53, p16, and Ki-67.
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Correlation of MCM2 detection with stage and virology of cervical cancer.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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The highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) are important in the initiation of DNA replication. Few studies have correlated MCM expression with the progression of cancer.
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MicroRNA-135b promotes cancer progression by acting as a downstream effector of oncogenic pathways in colon cancer.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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MicroRNA deregulation is frequent in human colorectal cancers (CRCs), but little is known as to whether it represents a bystander event or actually drives tumor progression in vivo. We show that miR-135b overexpression is triggered in mice and humans by APC loss, PTEN/PI3K pathway deregulation, and SRC overexpression and promotes tumor transformation and progression. We show that miR-135b upregulation is common in sporadic and inflammatory bowel disease-associated human CRCs and correlates with tumor stage and poor clinical outcome. Inhibition of miR-135b in CRC mouse models reduces tumor growth by controlling genes involved in proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis. We identify miR-135b as a key downsteam effector of oncogenic pathways and a potential target for CRC treatment.
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Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Association With Verruca Vulgares and HPV-2: A Clinicopathologic Study With p16 and p53 Immunohistochemical Studies and Human Papillomavirus in Situ Hybridization Studies.
Diagn. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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We observed cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas of the skin (SCCS) with histologic features suggesting they are arising in association with verruca vulgares (SCC-VV). We analyzed SCC-VV to determine what types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) could be detected by in situ hybridization. We also analyzed demographic and clinical features and performed immunohistochemical studies for p53, p16, and Ki-67.
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Accumulation of metals in GOLD4 COPD lungs is associated with decreased CFTR levels.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel that primarily resides in airway epithelial cells. Decreased CFTR expression and/or function lead to impaired airway surface liquid (ASL) volume homeostasis, resulting in accumulation of mucus, reduced clearance of bacteria, and chronic infection and inflammation.
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Genetic validation of the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 as a candidate therapeutic target in glioblastoma.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive histologic subtype of brain cancer with poor outcomes and limited treatment options. Here, we report the selective overexpression of the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 as a novel candidate theranostic target in this disease. PRMT5 silences the transcription of regulatory genes by catalyzing symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues on histone tails. PRMT5 overexpression in patient-derived primary tumors and cell lines correlated with cell line growth rate and inversely with overall patient survival. Genetic attenuation of PRMT5 led to cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and loss of cell migratory activity. Cell death was p53-independent but caspase-dependent and enhanced with temozolomide, a chemotherapeutic agent used as a present standard of care. Global gene profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified the tumor suppressor ST7 as a key gene silenced by PRMT5. Diminished ST7 expression was associated with reduced patient survival. PRMT5 attenuation limited PRMT5 recruitment to the ST7 promoter, led to restored expression of ST7 and cell growth inhibition. Finally, PRMT5 attenuation enhanced glioblastoma cell survival in a mouse xenograft model of aggressive glioblastoma. Together, our findings defined PRMT5 as a candidate prognostic factor and therapeutic target in glioblastoma, offering a preclinical justification for targeting PRMT5-driven oncogenic pathways in this deadly disease.
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Clinical application of microRNA testing in neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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It is well documented that dysregulation of microRNAs is a hallmark of human cancers. Thus, this family of small non-coding regulatory molecules represents an excellent source of sensitive biomarkers. Unique microRNAs expression profiles have been associated with different types and subsets of gastrointestinal tumors including gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). GEP-NETs are a heterogeneous group of epithelial neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation. At present, early detection and surgical resection of GEP-NETs represent the best chance for a cure. Thus, clinically useful biomarkers for GEP-NETs that strongly correlate with early detection are urgently needed. The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of miRNAs in GEP-NET carcinogenesis and their possible use as novel diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers.
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MicroRNA profiles discriminate among colon cancer metastasis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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MicroRNAs are being exploited for diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of cancer and other diseases. Their high tissue specificity and critical role in oncogenesis provide new biomarkers for the diagnosis and classification of cancer as well as predicting patients' outcomes. MicroRNAs signatures have been identified for many human tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). In most cases, metastatic disease is difficult to predict and to prevent with adequate therapies. The aim of our study was to identify a microRNA signature for metastatic CRC that could predict and differentiate metastatic target organ localization. Normal and cancer tissues of three different groups of CRC patients were analyzed. RNA microarray and TaqMan Array analysis were performed on 66 Italian patients with or without lymph nodes and/or liver recurrences. Data obtained with the two assays were analyzed separately and then intersected to identify a primary CRC metastatic signature. Five differentially expressed microRNAs (hsa-miR-21, -103, -93, -31 and -566) were validated by qRT-PCR on a second group of 16 American metastatic patients. In situ hybridization was performed on the 16 American patients as well as on three distinct commercial tissues microarray (TMA) containing normal adjacent colon, the primary adenocarcinoma, normal and metastatic lymph nodes and liver. Hsa-miRNA-21, -93, and -103 upregulation together with hsa-miR-566 downregulation defined the CRC metastatic signature, while in situ hybridization data identified a lymphonodal invasion profile. We provided the first microRNAs signature that could discriminate between colorectal recurrences to lymph nodes and liver and between colorectal liver metastasis and primary hepatic tumor.
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The pathology of severe dengue in multiple organs of human fatal cases: histopathology, ultrastructure and virus replication.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Dengue is a public health problem, with several gaps in understanding its pathogenesis. Studies based on human fatal cases are extremely important and may clarify some of these gaps. In this work, we analyzed lesions in different organs of four dengue fatal cases, occurred in Brazil. Tissues were prepared for visualization in optical and electron microscopy, with damages quantification. As expected, we observed in all studied organ lesions characteristic of severe dengue, such as hemorrhage and edema, although other injuries were also detected. Cases presented necrotic areas in the liver and diffuse macro and microsteatosis, which were more accentuated in case 1, who also had obesity. The lung was the most affected organ, with hyaline membrane formation associated with mononuclear infiltrates in patients with pre-existing diseases such as diabetes and obesity (cases 1 and 2, respectively). These cases had also extensive acute tubular necrosis in the kidney. Infection induced destruction of cardiac fibers in most cases, with absence of nucleus and loss of striations, suggesting myocarditis. Spleens revealed significant destruction of the germinal centers and atrophy of lymphoid follicles, which may be associated to decrease of T cell number. Circulatory disturbs were reinforced by the presence of megakaryocytes in alveolar spaces, thrombus formation in glomerular capillaries and loss of endothelium in several tissues. Besides histopathological and ultrastructural observations, virus replication were investigated by detection of dengue antigens, especially the non-structural 3 protein (NS3), and confirmed by the presence of virus RNA negative strand (in situ hybridization), with second staining for identification of some cells. Results showed that dengue had broader tropism comparing to what was described before in literature, replicating in hepatocytes, type II pneumocytes and cardiac fibers, as well as in resident and circulating monocytes/macrophages and endothelial cells.
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Insulin growth factor signaling is regulated by microRNA-486, an underexpressed microRNA in lung cancer.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small 19- to 24-nt noncoding RNAs that have the capacity to regulate fundamental biological processes essential for cancer initiation and progression. In cancer, miRNAs may function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Here, we conducted global profiling for miRNAs in a cohort of stage 1 nonsmall cell lung cancers (n = 81) and determined that miR-486 was the most down-regulated miRNA in tumors compared with adjacent uninvolved lung tissues, suggesting that miR-486 loss may be important in lung cancer development. We report that miR-486 directly targets components of insulin growth factor (IGF) signaling including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), and phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (alpha) (PIK3R1, or p85a) and functions as a potent tumor suppressor of lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings support the role for miR-486 loss in lung cancer and suggest a potential biological link to p53.
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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is strongly associated with productive infection by herpesvirus saimiri.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a fatal disease without effective therapy or diagnostic test. To investigate a potential role for ?-herpesviruses in this disease, 21 paraffin-embedded lung biopsies from patients diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 21 lung biopsies from age-matched controls with pulmonary fibrosis of known etiology were examined for a series of ?-herpesviruses DNA/RNA and related proteins using in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based methods. We detected four proteins known to be in the genome of several ?-herpesviruses (cyclin D, thymidylate synthase, dihydrofolate reductase, and interleukin-17) that were strongly co-expressed in the regenerating epithelial cells of each of the 21 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis cases and not in the benign epithelia of the controls. Among the ?-herpesviruses, only herpesvirus saimiri expresses all four of these pirated mammalian proteins. We found herpesvirus saimiri DNA in the regenerating epithelial cells of 21/21 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis cases using four separate probe sets but not in the 21 controls. RT-PCR showed that the source of the cyclin D RNA in active idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was herpesvirus saimiri and not human. We cloned and sequenced part of genome corresponding to the DNA polymerase herpesvirus saimiri gene from an idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis sample and it matched 100% with the published viral sequence. These data are consistent with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis representing herpesvirus saimiri-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, treatment directed against viral proliferation and/or viral-associated proteins may halt disease progression. Further, demonstration of the viral nucleic acids or proteins may help diagnose the disease.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 15 November 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.198.
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The effect of aging of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues on the in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry signals in cervical lesions.
Diagn. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues are widely used in biomedical research but little is known about the effect of the age of the block or unstained slides on the in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry signal. We compared the in situ-based and immunohistochemistry-based signals for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia samples that ranged from 0 to 15 years of age. There was a progressive and statistically significant decrease in the strength of the p16 signal when comparing tissues prepared from recent unstained slides (0 to 1 y old, mean score of 92%) to those of intermediate age (5 to 7 y old, mean score of 49%) to old unstained slides (cut 13 to 15 y ago, mean score of 10%). Equivalent, progressive, and significant decreases in the intensity of the signals for microRNAs, CD45, and human papillomavirus DNA were seen in tissues stored on slides from 5 to 7 years and 13 to 15 years, respectively. However, the diminution of signal was much less, although still statistically significant, if the sections from the 13- to 15-year-old paraffin blocks were prepared in 2012. The data likely does not represent degradation of the targets as extraction of several microRNA from the old blocks showed no detectable degradation, despite the markedly weakened in situ hybridization signal. It is concluded that in situ-based signal for DNA, microRNAs, and proteins in paraffin-embedded tissues are significantly reduced over time, especially when stored long term on glass slides which, in turn, can lead to a significant underestimation of the amount and presence of the nucleic acid or protein target.
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Diagnostic microRNA markers to screen for sporadic human colon cancer in stool: I. Proof of principle.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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To present proof-of-principle application for employing micro(mi)RNAs as diagnostic markers for colon cancer, we carried out global microarray expression studies on stool samples obtained from fifteen individuals (three controls, and three each with TNM stage 0-1, stage 2, stage 3, and stage 4 colon cancer), using Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA 3.0 Array, to select for a panel of miRNA genes for subsequent focused semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis studies. Microarray results showed 202 preferentially expressed miRNA genes that were either increased (141 miRNAs), or reduced (61 miRNAs) in expression. We then conducted a stem-loop reverse transcriptase (RT)-TaqMan® minor groove binding (MGB) probes, followed by a modified qPCR expression study on 20 selected miRNAs. Twelve of the miRNAs exhibited increased and 8 decreased expression in stool from 60 individuals (20 controls, 20 with tumor-lymph node-metastatic (TNM) stage 0-1, 10 with stage 2, five with stage 3, and 5 with stage 4 colon cancer) to quantitatively monitor miRNA changes at various TNM stages of colon cancer progression. We also used laser-capture microdissection (LCM) of colon mucosal epithelial tissue samples (three control samples, and three samples from each of the four stages of colon cancer, for a total of 15 samples) to find concordance or lack thereof with stool findings. The reference housekeeping pseudogene-free ribosomal gene (18S rRNA), which shows little variation in expression, was employed as a normalization standard for relative PCR quantification. Results of the PCR analyses confirmed that twelve miRNAs (miR-7, miR-17, miR-20a, miR-21, miR-92a, miR-96, miR-106a, miR-134, miR-183, miR-196a, miR-199a-3p and miR214) had an increased expression in the stool of patients with colon cancer, and that later TNM carcinoma stages exhibited a more pronounced expression than did adenomas. On the other hand, eight miRNAs (miR-9, miR-29b, miR-127-5p, miR-138, miR-143, miR-146a, miR-222 and miR-938) had decreased expression in the stool of patients with colon cancer, which was also more pronounced from early to later TNM stages. Results from colon mucosal tissues were similar to those from stool samples, although with more apparent changes in expression. Cytological studies on purified stool colonocytes that employed Giemsa staining showed 80% sensitivity for detecting tumor cells in stool smears. The performance characteristics of the test confirmed that stool is a medium well-suited for colon cancer screening, and that the quantitative changes in the expression of few mature miRNA molecules in stool associated with colon cancer progression provided for more sensitive and specific non-invasive diagnostic markers than tests currently available on the market. Thus, a larger prospective and properly randomized validation study of control individuals and patients exhibiting various stages of colon cancer progression (TNM stages 0-IV) is now needed in order to standardize test conditions, and provide a means for determining the true sensitivity and specificity of a miRNA screening approach in stool for the non-invasive detection of colon cancer, particularly at an early stage (0-I). Eventually, we will develop a chip to enhance molecular screening for colon cancer, as has been accomplished for the detection of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs) in foods.
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Human sarcomas are mosaic for telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent telomere maintenance mechanisms: implications for telomere-based therapies.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Telomere shortening necessitates that tumor cells activate a telomere maintenance mechanism (TMM) to support immortalization. Although most tumor cells activate expression of the enzyme telomerase, some cells elongate telomeres in a telomerase-independent manner, termed alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Previous studies have evaluated the presence of telomerase or ALT mechanisms or both in a variety of tumor types. Our studies also show that TMMs are not mutually exclusive in some tumors. In contrast, our IHC analyses of human sarcomas identified a subset of tumors with some cells containing ALT-associated PML bodies, a hallmark of ALT, and separate cells expressing telomerase in the same tumor. By using a second set of human osteosarcomas, we merged IHC and biochemical analyses to characterize more fully the tumor TMM. The IHC data reveal the presence of both telomerase- and ALT-positive tumor cells in samples that demonstrate characteristics of both telomerase and ALT in biochemical assays. These assays, which measure telomere length and telomerase activity of tumor extracts, are conventionally used to classify tumor TMM. Our results suggest that TMM is not a single or perhaps static characteristic of some tumors and that TMM heterogeneity should be considered in tumor stratification. Furthermore, clinical interest in telomere-based therapies may necessitate accurate characterization of tumor TMM before treatment to maximize therapeutic efficacy.
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Paraneoplastic scleroderma-like tissue reactions in the setting of an underlying plasma cell dyscrasia: a report of 10 cases.
Am J Dermatopathol
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Systemic plasma cell dyscrasias have diverse manifestations in the skin and include an inflammatory paraneoplastic process. We encountered cases of scleroderma and eosinophilic fasciitis in the setting of an underlying plasma cell dyscrasia.
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In vivo NCL targeting affects breast cancer aggressiveness through miRNA regulation.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Numerous studies have described the altered expression and the causal role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in human cancer. However, to date, efforts to modulate miRNA levels for therapeutic purposes have been challenging to implement. Here we find that nucleolin (NCL), a major nucleolar protein, posttranscriptionally regulates the expression of a specific subset of miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-221, miR-222, and miR-103, that are causally involved in breast cancer initiation, progression, and drug resistance. We also show that NCL is commonly overexpressed in human breast tumors and that its expression correlates with that of NCL-dependent miRNAs. Finally, inhibition of NCL using guanosine-rich aptamers reduces the levels of NCL-dependent miRNAs and their target genes, thus reducing breast cancer cell aggressiveness both in vitro and in vivo. These findings illuminate a path to novel therapeutic approaches based on NCL-targeting aptamers for the modulation of miRNA expression in the treatment of breast cancer.
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Estrogen mediated-activation of miR-191/425 cluster modulates tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells depending on estrogen receptor status.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs), single-stranded non-coding RNAs, influence myriad biological processes that can contribute to cancer. Although tumor-suppressive and oncogenic functions have been characterized for some miRNAs, the majority of microRNAs have not been investigated for their ability to promote and modulate tumorigenesis. Here, we established that the miR-191/425 cluster is transcriptionally dependent on the host gene, DALRD3, and that the hormone 17?-estradiol (estrogen or E2) controls expression of both miR-191/425 and DALRD3. MiR-191/425 locus characterization revealed that the recruitment of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) to the regulatory region of the miR-191/425-DALRD3 unit resulted in the accumulation of miR-191 and miR-425 and subsequent decrease in DALRD3 expression levels. We demonstrated that miR-191 protects ER? positive breast cancer cells from hormone starvation-induced apoptosis through the suppression of tumor-suppressor EGR1. Furthermore, enforced expression of the miR-191/425 cluster in aggressive breast cancer cells altered global gene expression profiles and enabled us to identify important tumor promoting genes, including SATB1, CCND2, and FSCN1, as targets of miR-191 and miR-425. Finally, in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that miR-191 and miR-425 reduced proliferation, impaired tumorigenesis and metastasis, and increased expression of epithelial markers in aggressive breast cancer cells. Our data provide compelling evidence for the transcriptional regulation of the miR-191/425 cluster and for its context-specific biological determinants in breast cancers. Importantly, we demonstrated that the miR-191/425 cluster, by reducing the expression of an extensive network of genes, has a fundamental impact on cancer initiation and progression of breast cancer cells.
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Mir-125a-5p-mediated regulation of Lfng is essential for the avian segmentation clock.
Dev. Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Somites are embryonic precursors of the axial skeleton and skeletal muscles and establish the segmental vertebrate body plan. Somitogenesis is controlled in part by a segmentation clock that requires oscillatory expression of genes including Lunatic fringe (Lfng). Oscillatory genes must be tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels for proper clock function. Here, we demonstrate that microRNA-mediated regulation of Lfng is essential for proper segmentation during chick somitogenesis. We find that mir-125a-5p targets evolutionarily conserved sequences in the Lfng 3 UTR and that preventing interactions between mir-125a-5p and Lfng transcripts in vivo causes abnormal segmentation and perturbs clock activity. This provides strong evidence that microRNAs function in the posttranscriptional regulation of oscillatory genes in the segmentation clock. Further, this demonstrates that the relatively subtle effects of microRNAs on target genes can have broad effects in developmental situations that have critical requirements for tight posttranscriptional regulation.
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A comparative analysis of clinical and molecular factors with the stage of cervical cancer in a Brazilian cohort.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Cell cycle protein expression plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cervical cancer. However, few studies have attempted to correlate the use of these biomarkers with the clinical progression of the tumor.
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A mathematical model for microRNA in lung cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Lack of early detection and limited options for targeted therapies are both contributing factors to the dismal statistics observed in lung cancer. Thus, advances in both of these areas are likely to lead to improved outcomes. MicroRNAs (miRs or miRNAs) represent a class of non-coding RNAs that have the capacity for gene regulation and may serve as both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in lung cancer. Abnormal expression patterns for several miRNAs have been identified in lung cancers. Specifically, let-7 and miR-9 are deregulated in both lung cancers and other solid malignancies. In this paper, we construct a mathematical model that integrates let-7 and miR-9 expression into a signaling pathway to generate an in silico model for the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Simulations of the model demonstrate that EGFR and Ras mutations in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), which lead to the process of EMT, result in miR-9 upregulation and let-7 suppression, and this process is somewhat robust against random input into miR-9 and more strongly robust against random input into let-7. We elected to validate our model in vitro by testing the effects of EGFR inhibition on downstream MYC, miR-9 and let-7a expression. Interestingly, in an EGFR mutated lung cancer cell line, treatment with an EGFR inhibitor (Gefitinib) resulted in a concentration specific reduction in c-MYC and miR-9 expression while not changing let-7a expression. Our mathematical model explains the signaling link among EGFR, MYC, and miR-9, but not let-7. However, very little is presently known about factors that regulate let-7. It is quite possible that when such regulating factors become known and integrated into our model, they will further support our mathematical model.
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Epigenetic regulation of miR-17~92 contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease of progressive lung fibrosis with a high mortality rate. In organ repair and remodeling, epigenetic events are important. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and can target epigenetic molecules important in DNA methylation. The miR-17~92 miRNA cluster is critical for lung development and lung epithelial cell homeostasis and is predicted to target fibrotic genes and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)-1 expression.
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MiR-34a/c-Dependent PDGFR-?/? Downregulation Inhibits Tumorigenesis and Enhances TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis in Lung Cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world today. Although some advances in lung cancer therapy have been made, patient survival is still poor. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can act as oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes in human malignancy. The miR-34 family consists of tumor-suppressive miRNAs, and its reduced expression has been reported in various cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we found that miR-34a and miR-34c target platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and beta (PDGFR-? and PDGFR-?), cell surface tyrosine kinase receptors that induce proliferation, migration and invasion in cancer. MiR-34a and miR-34c were downregulated in lung tumors compared to normal tissues. Moreover, we identified an inverse correlation between PDGFR-?/? and miR-34a/c expression in lung tumor samples. Finally, miR-34a/c overexpression or downregulation of PDGFR-?/? by siRNAs, strongly augmented the response to TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) while reducing migratory and invasive capacity of NSCLC cells.
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The distribution of immunomodulatory cells in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2011
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We have characterized the immune system involvement in the disease processes of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in novel ways. To do so, we analyzed lung tissue from 21 cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 21 (non-fibrotic, non-cancerous) controls for immune cell and inflammation-related markers. The immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue was grouped by patterns of severity in disease pathology. There were significantly greater numbers of CD68(+) and CD80(+) cells and significantly fewer CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD45RO(+) cells in areas of relatively (histologically) normal lung in biopsy samples from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients compared with controls. In zones of active disease, characterized by epithelial cell regeneration and fibrosis, there were significantly more cells expressing CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68, CD80, chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6), S100, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-?, and retinoic acid-related orphan receptors compared with histologically normal lung areas from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. Inflammation was implicated in these active regions by the cells that expressed retinoid orphan receptor-?, -?, and -?, CCR6, and IL-17. The regenerating epithelial cells predominantly expressed these pro-inflammatory molecules, as evidenced by co-expression analyses with epithelial cytokeratins. Macrophages in pseudo-alveoli and CD3(+) T cells in the fibrotic interstitium also expressed IL-17. Co-expression of IL-17 with retinoid orphan receptors and epithelial cytoskeletal proteins, CD68, and CD3 in epithelial cells, macrophages, and T-cells, respectively, confirmed the production of IL-17 by these cell types. There was little staining for forkhead box p3, CD56, or CD34 in any idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lung regions. The fibrotic regions had fewer immune cells overall. In summary, our study shows participation of innate and adaptive mononuclear cells in active-disease regions of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lung, where the regenerating epithelial cells appear to propagate inflammation. The regenerative mechanisms become skewed to ultimately result in lethal, fibrotic restriction of lung function.
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Anti-microRNA-222 (anti-miR-222) and -181B suppress growth of tamoxifen-resistant xenografts in mouse by targeting TIMP3 protein and modulating mitogenic signal.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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We have shown earlier that miR-221 and -222 are up-regulated in tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 (OHT(R)) cells and Her2-positive human breast tumors when compared with Her2 negative tumors. In this study, we report markedly enhanced expression of miR-181b in OHT(R) cells and endocrine-resistant tumors. Further, anti-miR-222 or -181b in combination with tamoxifen suppressed growth of tamoxifen-resistant xenografts in mice. Luciferase reporter assay and expression analysis showed that TIMP3, a tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor, is a common target of miR-221/222 and -181b. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated reciprocal relationships between TIMP3 and miR-221/222/181b expression in primary human breast carcinomas. Ectopic expression of TIMP3 inhibited growth of the OHT(R) cells, and its depletion in MCF-7 cells reduced sensitivity to tamoxifen in vitro and in vivo. EGF-induced MAPK and AKT phosphorylation were significantly higher in OHT(R) cells and miR-221/222-overexpressing MCF-7 cells than in control cells, which suggests modulation of mitogenic signaling by TIMP3 and the miRs. On the contrary, phosphoMAPK and phosphoAKT levels were diminished in TIMP3-overexpressing OHT(R) cells and increased in TIMP3-depleted MCF-7 cells. Low levels of estrogen or tamoxifen elicited similar differences in phosphoMAPK levels in these cells. Reduced levels of TIMP3 facilitated growth of tamoxifen-resistant cells by alleviating its inhibitory effect on ADAM10 and ADAM17, which are critical for OHT(R) cell growth. In conclusion, miR-221/222 and -181b facilitate growth factor signaling in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer by down-regulating TIMP3, and corresponding anti-miRs can be used to render these tumors responsive to tamoxifen.
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miR-221 silencing blocks hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes survival.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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Patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) face a dismal prognosis because of a lack of any effective therapies. To address this situation, we conducted a preclinical investigation of the therapeutic efficacy of oligonucleotides directed against the oncogenic microRNA miR-221, which has been implicated in HCC. Of 9 chemistries evaluated, we determined that a 2-O-methyl phosphorothioate-modified anti-miR-221 oligonucleotide was most effective at reducing proliferation in vitro. A cholesterol-modified isoform of anti-miR-221 (chol-anti-miR-221) exhibited improved pharmacokinetics and liver tissue distribution compared with unmodified oligonucleotide. Chol-anti-miR-221 significantly reduced miR-221 levels in liver within a week of intravenous administration and in situ hybridization studies confirmed accumulation of the oligonucleotide in tumor cells in vivo. Within the same period, chol-anti-miR-221 reduced tumor cell proliferation and increased markers of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest, elevating the tumor doubling time and increasing mouse survival. Taken together, our findings offer a preclinical proof of efficacy for chol-anti-miR-221 in a valid orthotopic mouse model of HCC, suggesting that this targeted agent could benefit treatment for patients with advanced HCC.
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Gene expression networks in COPD: microRNA and mRNA regulation.
Thorax
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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The mechanisms underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that modulate the levels of specific genes and proteins. Identifying expression patterns of miRNAs in COPD may enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of disease. A study was undertaken to determine if miRNAs are differentially expressed in the lungs of smokers with and without COPD. miRNA and mRNA expression were compared to enrich for biological networks relevant to the pathogenesis of COPD.
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Precise scheduling of chemotherapy primes VEGF-producing tumors for successful systemic oncolytic virotherapy.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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We have previously reported that a burst of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling to tumor-associated endothelium induces a proviral state, during which systemically delivered oncolytic reovirus can replicate in endothelium, thereby inducing immune-mediated vascular collapse and significant antitumor therapy. Using chimeric receptors, we show here that induction of the proviral state proceeds through VEGFR2, but not VEGFR1, signaling in endothelial cells. In contrast, innate immune activation by reovirus-exposed endothelial cells was predominantly through VEGFR1. By screening conventional chemotherapies for their ability to induce similar effects in combination with reovirus both in vitro and in vivo, we observed that the proviral state could also be induced in endothelial cells exposed to VEGF during rebound from paclitaxel-mediated inhibition of VEGF signaling. We translated these in vitro findings in vivo by careful scheduling of paclitaxel chemotherapy with systemic virotherapy, neither of which alone had therapeutic effects against B16 tumors. Systemic availability of reovirus during endothelial cell recovery from paclitaxel treatment allowed for endothelial replication of the virus, immune-mediated therapy, and tumor cures. Therefore, careful scheduling of combination viro- and chemotherapies, which preclinical testing suggests are individually ineffective against tumor cells, can lead to rational new clinical protocols for systemic treatments with oncolytic viruses.
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A comparison of clinically utilized human papillomavirus detection methods in head and neck cancer.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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Detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in head and neck cancer has therapeutic implications. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for p16 are used by surgical pathologists. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of three popular commercial tests for HPV detection in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas with a gold standard HPV PCR assay. A total of 110 prospectively collected, formalin-fixed tumor specimens were compiled onto tissue microarrays and tested for HPV DNA by in situ hybridization with two probe sets, a biotinylated probe for high-risk (HR) HPV types 16/18 (Dako, CA, USA) and a probe cocktail for 16/18, plus 10 additional HR types (Ventana, AZ, USA). The p16(INK4) expression was also assessed using a Pharmingen immunohistochemistry antibody (BD Biosciences, CA, USA). Tissue microarrays were stained and scored at expert laboratories. HPV DNA was detected by MY09/11-PCR, using Gold AmpliTaq and dot-blot hybridization on matched-fresh frozen specimens in a research laboratory. HPV 16 E6 and E7-RNA expression was also measured using RT-PCR. Test performance was assessed by a receiver operating characteristic analysis. HR-HPV DNA types 16, 18 and 35 were detected by MY-PCR in 28% of tumors, with the majority (97%) testing positive for type 16. Compared with MY-PCR, the sensitivity and specificity for HR-HPV DNA detection with Dako in situ hybridization was 21% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7-42) and 100% (95% CI: 93-100), respectively. Corresponding test results by Ventana in situ hybridization were 59% (95% CI: 39-78) and 58% (95% CI: 45-71), respectively. The p16 immunohistochemistry performed better overall than Dako (P=0.042) and Ventana (P=0.055), with a sensitivity of 52% (95% CI: 32-71) and specificity of 93% (95% CI: 84-98). Compared with a gold standard HPV-PCR assay, HPV detection by in situ hybridization was less accurate for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma on tissue microarrays than p16 immunohistochemistry. Further testing is warranted before these assays should be recommended for clinical HPV detection.
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Transcription factor ets-2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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Ets-2 is a ubiquitous transcription factor activated after phosphorylation at threonine-72. Previous studies highlighted the importance of phosphorylated ets-2 in lung inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling, two pathways involved in pulmonary fibrosis. We hypothesized that phosphorylated ets-2 played an important role in pulmonary fibrosis, and we sought to determine the role of ets-2 in its pathogenesis. We challenged ets-2 (A72/A72) transgenic mice (harboring a mutated form of ets-2 at phosphorylation site threonine-72) and ets-2 (wild-type/wild-type [WT/WT]) control mice with sequential intraperitoneal injections of bleomycin, followed by quantitative measurements of lung fibrosis and inflammation and primary cell in vitro assays. Concentrations of phosphorylated ets-2 were detected via the single and dual immunohistochemical staining of murine lungs and lung sections from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Ets-2 (A72/A72) mice were protected from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, compared with ets-2 (WT/WT) mice. This protection was characterized by decreased lung pathological abnormalities and the fibrotic gene expression of Type I collagen, Type III collagen, ?-smooth muscle actin, and connective tissue growth factor. Immunohistochemical staining of lung sections from bleomycin-treated ets-2 (WT/WT) mice and from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis demonstrated increased staining of phosphorylated ets-2 that colocalized with Type I collagen expression and to fibroblastic foci. Lastly, primary lung fibroblasts from ets-2 (A72/A72) mice exhibited decreased expression of Type I collagen in response to stimulation with TGF-?, compared with fibroblasts from ets-2 (WT/WT) mice. These data indicate the importance of phosphorylated ets-2 in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis through the expression of Type I collagen and (myo)fibroblast activation.
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EGFR and MET receptor tyrosine kinase-altered microRNA expression induces tumorigenesis and gefitinib resistance in lung cancers.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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The involvement of the MET oncogene in de novo and acquired resistance of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has previously been reported, but the precise mechanism by which MET overexpression contributes to TKI-resistant NSCLC remains unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate gene expression, and their dysregulation has been implicated in tumorigenesis. To understand their role in TKI-resistant NSCLCs, we examined changes in miRNA that are mediated by tyrosine kinase receptors. Here we report that miR-30b, miR-30c, miR-221 and miR-222 are modulated by both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and MET receptors, whereas miR-103 and miR-203 are controlled only by MET. We showed that these miRNAs have important roles in gefitinib-induced apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting the expression of the genes encoding BCL2-like 11 (BIM), apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 (APAF-1), protein kinase C ? (PKC-?) and sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (SRC). These findings suggest that modulation of specific miRNAs may provide a therapeutic approach for the treatment of NSCLCs.
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Degos disease: a C5b-9/interferon-?-mediated endotheliopathy syndrome.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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Degos disease is a lethal small vessel angiopathy targeting the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and central nervous system, potentially developing in the setting of known autoimmune disease, although forme fruste primary variants exist. Its pathogenetic basis is unknown. Four cases of Degos disease were encountered in archival material, representing 2 men, ages 38 and 43 years, and 2 females, ages 48 and 2 years; 3 patients died of disease. All had characteristic skin lesions with gastrointestinal involvement; other affected organs included brain in one and pericardium and pleura in another. Skin biopsies showed pauci-inflammatory thrombogenic microangiopathy with endothelial cell injury. Extracutaneous organs demonstrated fibromucinous occlusive arteriopathy. Prominent vascular C5b-9 was seen in the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and brain. All cases had evidence of high expression of interferon-? (based on tissue expression of MXA, a type I interferon-inducible protein), endothelial tubuloreticular inclusions, and an interferon gene signature in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The MXA expression paralleled the pattern of C5b-9 deposition. Degos disease is a distinct vascular injury syndrome whereby a dysregulated interferon-? response in concert with membranolytic attack complex deposition may contribute to the unique vascular changes. Understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process could lead to more directed therapies, including terminal complement inhibition with agents such as eculizumab.
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Identification of a risk dependent microRNA expression signature in myelodysplastic syndromes.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) display both haematological and biological heterogeneity with variable leukaemia potential. MicroRNAs play an important role in tumour suppression and the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of haematopoietic progenitors. Using a microarray platform, we evaluated microRNA expression from 44 patients with MDS and 17 normal controls. We identified a thirteen microRNA signature with statistically significant differential expression between normal and MDS specimens (P < 0·01), including down-regulation of members of the leukaemia-associated MIRLET7 family. A unique signature consisting of 10 microRNAs was closely associated with International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) risk category permitting discrimination between lower (Low/Intermediate-1) and higher risk (Intermediate-2/High) disease (P < 0·01). Selective overexpression of MIR181 family members was detected in higher risk MDS, indicating pathogenetic overlap with acute myeloid leukaemia. Survival analysis of an independent cohort of 22 IPSS lower risk MDS patients revealed a median survival of 3·5 years in patients with high expression of MIR181 family compared to 9·3 years in patients with low MIR181 expression (P = 0·002). Our pilot study suggested that analysis of microRNA expression profile offers diagnostic utility, and provide pathogenetic and prognostic discrimination in MDS.
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In situ detection of human papillomavirus DNA after PCR-amplification.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an essential cofactor for cancer at many sites, including the genital tract, oral cavity, conjunctiva, and periungual region. The in situ detection of HPV allows us to determine the cellular targets of the virus. In situ-based coexpression analyses of HPV with putative target proteins provide tremendous insight into the molecular evolution of these viral-associated cancers. HPV DNA is present in high copy number in the precancerous lesions and is, thus, readily detected by in situ hybridization. However, viral integration, typical during oncogenesis, is associated with reduced copy number of the virus, necessitating in situ polymerase chain reaction amplification for accurate in situ detection of HPV. This chapter provides the protocols that can be used to detect HPV DNA in situ as well as to correlate viral DNA with coexpression of relevant protein targets.
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Expression and functional role of a transcribed noncoding RNA with an ultraconserved element in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2010
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Although expression of non-protein-coding RNA (ncRNA) can be altered in human cancers, their functional relevance is unknown. Ultraconserved regions are noncoding genomic segments that are 100% conserved across humans, mice, and rats. Conservation of gene sequences across species may indicate an essential functional role, and therefore we evaluated the expression of ultraconserved RNAs (ucRNA) in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). The global expression of ucRNAs was analyzed with a custom microarray. Expression was verified in cell lines by real-time PCR or in tissues by in situ hybridization using tissue microarrays. Cellular ucRNA expression was modulated with siRNAs, and the effects on global gene expression and growth of human and murine HCC cells were evaluated. Fifty-six ucRNAs were aberrantly expressed in HepG2 cells compared with nonmalignant hepatocytes. Among these ucRNAs, the greatest change was noted for ultraconserved element 338 (uc.338), which was dramatically increased in human HCC compared with noncancerous adjacent tissues. Although uc.338 is partially located within the poly(rC) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) gene, the transcribed ncRNA encoding uc.338 is expressed independently of PCBP2 and was cloned as a 590-bp RNA gene, termed TUC338. Functional gene annotation analysis indicated predominant effects on genes involved in cell growth. These effects were experimentally demonstrated in both human and murine cells. siRNA to TUC338 decreased both anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth of HCC cells. These studies identify a critical role for TUC338 in regulation of transformed cell growth and of transcribed ultraconserved ncRNA as a unique class of genes involved in the pathobiology of HCC.
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MicroRNA-21 induces resistance to 5-fluorouracil by down-regulating human DNA MutS homolog 2 (hMSH2).
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2010
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The overexpression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) is linked to a number of human tumors including colorectal cancer, where it appears to regulate the expression of tumor suppressor genes including p21, phosphatase and tensin homolog, TGF? receptor II, and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 -associated X protein. Here we demonstrate that miR-21 targets and down-regulates the core mismatch repair (MMR) recognition protein complex, human mutS homolog 2 (hMSH2) and 6 (hMSH6). Colorectal tumors that express a high level of miR-21 display reduced hMSH2 protein expression. Cells that overproduce miR-21 exhibit significantly reduced 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced G2/M damage arrest and apoptosis that is characteristic of defects in the core MMR component. Moreover, xenograft studies demonstrate that miR-21 overexpression dramatically reduces the therapeutic efficacy of 5-FU. These studies suggest that the down-regulation of the MMR mutator gene associated with miR-21 overexpression may be an important clinical indicator of therapeutic efficacy in colorectal cancer.
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REO-10: a phase I study of intravenous reovirus and docetaxel in patients with advanced cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
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REOLYSIN (Oncolytics Biotech) consists of a wild-type oncolytic reovirus, which has selective cytotoxicity for tumor cells while sparing normal cells. In a phase I study as a single agent, repeated infusions of reovirus were safe with evidence of antitumor activity. Preclinical studies indicate potential for synergy between reovirus and chemotherapeutic agents. A multicenter, phase I dose escalation study was designed to assess the safety of combining reovirus with docetaxel chemotherapy in patients with advanced cancer.
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Strong inverse correlation between microRNA-125b and human papillomavirus DNA in productive infection.
Diagn. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2010
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Infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a cause of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. microRNA (miRNA) in situ analysis of the transformation zone epithelia, the site of initial cervical HPV infection, showed that miRNAs let-7c, -99a, 26a, and 125b were the most abundantly expressed. In situ testing of CIN 1 showed a dramatic reduction in miR-125b expression in the koilocytes, the cytologic marker of productive HPV infection. A marked reduction in miR-125b was likewise observed in the HPV-infected cells of the condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris, and epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Reverse transcriptase in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that the pre-miRNA 125b was present in the koilocyte, suggesting direct inactivation of the mature miRNA. HEK cells transfected with only the antimiR-125b showed perinuclear halos equivalent to HPV-infected koilocytes. NIH 3T3 cells transfected with the HPV 16 full-length genome and mimetic miR-125b showed a marked reduction in viral DNA and protein synthesis by quantitative PCR and in situ-based analyses, respectively (P=0.002). Alternatively, cotransfection with anti-miR-125b and HPV 16 markedly increased HPV DNA (P=0.002). Sequence analyses showed strong homology between L2 of different HPV genotypes and miR-125b. Transfection with HPV 16 L2 resulted in a marked reduction in miR-125b levels in the NIH 3T3 cells. HPV L2-induced inactivation of miR-125b is associated with the classic cytologic changes of the koilocyte, and the exogenous application of mimetic miR-125b markedly inhibits HPV DNA synthesis.
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In situ detection of microRNAs in paraffin embedded, formalin fixed tissues and the co-localization of their putative targets.
Methods
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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This manuscript details a protocol for the co-localization of a microRNA and its putative protein target in paraffin embedded formalin fixed tissues. The key variables for the first step, microRNA in situ hybridization, includes probe concentration (1-2 pmol/?l), locked nucleic acid (LNA) modified probes, protease digestion (pepsin 1.3mg/ml), and a low stringency wash. Key variables for the subsequent immunohistochemical step are the concentration of the primary antibody, proper pretreatment (none, proteinase K, or antigen retrieval), and use of a highly sensitive detection system. A computer based system can convert the colorimetric signals (blue chromogen (NBT/BCIP) for the microRNA, and either a red (fast red) or brown (DAB) chromogen for the protein) to distinct fluorescent-based colors, and then mix them to determine if a given cell has the microRNA and protein of interest. Co-expression of a microRNA and its putative target in tissue sections offers physiologic corroboration of solution-based methods that a given microRNA may be regulating a specific protein.
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miR-802 regulates human angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in intestinal epithelial C2BBe1 cells.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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Studies have demonstrated that angiotensin II (Ang II) can regulate intestinal fluid and electrolyte transport and control intestinal wall muscular activity. Ang II is also a proinflammatory mediator that participates in inflammatory responses such as apoptosis, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling; accumulating evidence suggests that this hormone may be involved in gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation and carcinogenesis. Ang II binds to two distinct G protein-coupled receptor subtypes, the AT(1)R and AT(2)R, which are widely expressed in the GI system. Together these studies suggest that Ang II-AT(1)R/-AT(2)R actions may play an important role in GI tract physiology and pathophysiology. Currently it is not known whether miRNAs can regulate the expression of the human AT(1)R (hAT(1)R) in the GI system. PCR and in situ hybridization experiments demonstrated that miR-802 was abundantly expressed in human colon and intestine. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-802 could directly interact with the bioinformatics-predicted target site harbored within the 3-untranslated region of the hAT(1)R mRNA. To validate that the levels of miR-802 were physiologically relevant in the GI system, we demonstrated that miR-802 "loss-of-function" experiments resulted in augmented hAT(1)R levels and enhanced Ang II-induced signaling in a human intestinal epithelial cell line. These results suggest that miR-802 can modulate the expression of the hAT(1)R in the GI tract and ultimately play a role in regulating the biological efficacy of Ang II in this system.
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Interleukin-1beta selectively expands and sustains interleukin-22+ immature human natural killer cells in secondary lymphoid tissue.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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Among human natural killer (NK) cell intermediates in secondary lymphoid tissue (SLT), stage 3 CD34(-)CD117(+)CD161(+)CD94(-) immature NK (iNK) cells uniquely express aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and interleukin-22 (IL-22), supporting a role in mucosal immunity. The mechanisms controlling proliferation and differentiation of these cells are unknown. Here we demonstrate that the IL-1 receptor IL-1R1 was selectively expressed by a subpopulation of iNK cells that localized proximal to IL-1beta-producing conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) within SLT. IL-1R1(hi) iNK cells required continuous exposure to IL-1beta to retain AHR and IL-22 expression, and they proliferate in direct response to cDC-derived IL-15 and IL-1beta. In the absence of IL-1beta, a substantially greater fraction of IL-1R1(hi) iNK cells differentiated to stage 4 NK cells and acquired the ability to kill and secrete IFN-gamma. Thus, cDC-derived IL-1beta preserves and expands IL-1R1(hi)IL-22(+)AHR(+) iNK cells, potentially influencing human mucosal innate immunity during infection.
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MicroRNA cluster 221-222 and estrogen receptor alpha interactions in breast cancer.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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Several lines of evidence have suggested that estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)-negative breast tumors, which are highly aggressive and nonresponsive to hormonal therapy, arise from ERalpha-positive precursors through different molecular pathways. Because microRNAs (miRNAs) modulate gene expression, we hypothesized that they may have a role in ER-negative tumor formation.
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Modulation of mismatch repair and genomic stability by miR-155.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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Inactivation of mismatch repair (MMR) is the cause of the common cancer predisposition disorder Lynch syndrome (LS), also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), as well as 10-40% of sporadic colorectal, endometrial, ovarian, gastric, and urothelial cancers. Elevated mutation rates (mutator phenotype), including simple repeat instability [microsatellite instability (MSI)] are a signature of MMR defects. MicroRNAs (miRs) have been implicated in the control of critical cellular pathways involved in development and cancer. Here we show that overexpression of miR-155 significantly down-regulates the core MMR proteins, hMSH2, hMSH6, and hMLH1, inducing a mutator phenotype and MSI. An inverse correlation between the expression of miR-155 and the expression of MLH1 or MSH2 proteins was found in human colorectal cancer. Finally, a number of MSI tumors with unknown cause of MMR inactivation displayed miR-155 overexpression. These data provide support for miR-155 modulation of MMR as a mechanism of cancer pathogenesis.
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Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas in HIV-positive patients: a preliminary investigation of viral associations.
Head Neck Pathol
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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Oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases susceptibility to opportunistic infections and viral-promoted cancers. The prevalences of HPV, herpes simplex virus (HSV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) have not been established for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-positive patients (HIV+ HNSCC). We have observed that HIV+ HNSCC tend to contain numerous multinucleated tumor giant cells, this finding has not been described previously. The goal of this study is to test for these oncogenic viruses in a small cohort of retrospectively identified patients with HIV infection, and to compare histologically these cancers to a control group of HNSCC patients. Tumors were reviewed histologically and compared to a control group of 102 patients with HNSCC (serologically untyped or HIV negative). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded HIV+ HNSCC samples from combined 25 patients in two institutions. In situ hybridization was performed to identify EBV (EBER) and immunohistochemistry was performed to detect HSV-1, HSV-2, HHV-8, and HIV-related proteins (Nef, p24). The study sample consisted of 34 HIV+ patients with HNSCC from Montefiore Medical Center, and six HIV+ HNSCC patients from Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona; 24 (60%) men and 16 (40%) women. The larynx was most commonly involved (65%, n = 26); followed by the oropharynx (22.5%, n = 9). Four carcinomas arose from the oral cavity (10%) and one from the nasal cavity (2.5%). Histologically, multinucleated tumor giant cells were more common in the HIV+ group (39/40, 97.5%) than the control group (27/102, 26%, p 0.001, chi-square). HPV was detected in 6 of 25 (24%) HNSCC tumors by PCR, five were typed as HPV 16 and one as HPV 26/69; five of these tumors (83%) were located in the oropharynx. EBV, HSV-1, HSV-2, and HHV-8 were detected only infrequently in tumor cells. Nef protein was detected in tumor cells in 7 of 21 (33.3%) cases; p24 was not detectable in 6 tumors studied. There were no significant associations between HPV positive tumors and co-infections with other viruses. This study is consistent with other reports that suggest an increased incidence of laryngeal carcinoma for HIV+ patients. HPV was detected in 24% of HIV+ HNSCC, however, the number of tumors with amplifiable DNA (n = 25) is too small to allow for conclusions. EBV, HSV-1, HSV-2, and HHV-8 are uncommon in HIV+ HNSCC; it is unlikely that these viruses have a promoting effect. MNTCG are significantly common in HIV+ HNSCC, but there is overlap in MNTCG counts with the control group and therefore this finding cannot be used as a biomarker of HIV infection.
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Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus involving the cervix: some cases probably represent independent primaries.
Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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The majority of endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas involving the cervix have tumor morphology that is similar in the endometrium and the endocervix. There are, however, some cases in which the morphology of the tumor in the endocervix is different from the endometrial carcinoma, in which it is more invasive than the endometrial carcinoma, or in which invasion only occurs in the endocervix while there is no or only minimal myometrial invasion. The goal of this study was to investigate whether tumors involving the endometrium and the endocervix are similar or 2 independent primaries by hematoxylin and eosin stain, immunohistochemistry (IHC), human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in situ hybridization, RNA reverse transcriptase in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses to reveal HPV, and DNA clonality studies. We selected 14 cases of endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas involving the cervix with complete pathology material available from the years between 1968 and 2004. Immunohistochemical studies for vimentin, carcinoembryonic antigen, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and p16 were performed in 12 cases; HPV DNA/RNA analyses in 4 cases; and clonality studies in 9 cases. The patients ages ranged from 42 to 81 years (mean: 62 y). Follow-up information was obtained in 11 patients. Histologic features varied between the tumors in the endometrium and the endocervix in 8 cases, and 5 of these cases had uniform, dilated glands having a microcystic appearance in the cervix. In 6 cases, the tumors in the endometrium and the endocervix had similar histologic features. The immunohistochemical studies showed some differences between the endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinomas in 8 of the 12 cases, independent of differing or similar histologic features. HPV testing in 4 of the cases (3 with similar and 1 with different histology) yielded similar results in the endometrium and endocervix: 2 cases were negative, 1 was positive and 1 was equivocal for HPV DNA/RNA analyses. Clonality studies showed differences between the adenocarcinoma in the endometrium and the endocervix in 7 cases, including 5 cases with different histologic appearances; 2 cases had similar loss of heterozygosity patterns. In conclusion, as suggested by clonality studies, coexisting endometrial and endocervical carcinomas with different histologic features are most likely independent neoplasms. Endometrial and endocervical carcinomas that have similar appearances can represent either the same neoplasm or independent primaries. Clonality tests may help determine their relationship. IHC studies may not be helpful for synchronous endometrial and endocervical tumors, especially those of endometrioid type. It is possible that IHC identifies cell differentiation, rather than site of origin. HPV studies are important to identify endocervical tumors associated with high-risk HPV. However, endometrial tumors involving the cervix and endocervical tumors unrelated to HPV are both negative for high-risk HPV.
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MicroRNA-451 regulates LKB1/AMPK signaling and allows adaptation to metabolic stress in glioma cells.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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To sustain tumor growth, cancer cells must be able to adapt to fluctuations in energy availability. We have identified a single microRNA that controls glioma cell proliferation, migration, and responsiveness to glucose deprivation. Abundant glucose allows relatively high miR-451 expression, promoting cell growth. In low glucose, miR-451 levels decrease, slowing proliferation but enhancing migration and survival. This allows cells to survive metabolic stress and seek out favorable growth conditions. In glioblastoma patients, elevated miR-451 is associated with shorter survival. The effects of miR-451 are mediated by LKB1, which it represses through targeting its binding partner, CAB39 (MO25 alpha). Overexpression of miR-451 sensitized cells to glucose deprivation, suggesting that its downregulation is necessary for robust activation of LKB1 in response to metabolic stress. Thus, miR-451 is a regulator of the LKB1/AMPK pathway, and this may represent a fundamental mechanism that contributes to cellular adaptation in response to altered energy availability.
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Hepatitis C virus proteins modulate microRNA expression and chemosensitivity in malignant hepatocytes.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is highly resistant to chemotherapy and is associated with poor prognosis. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of HCC. However, the effect of viral proteins in mediating chemosensitivity in tumor cells is unknown. We postulated that HCV viral proteins could modulate therapeutic responses by altering host cell microRNA (miRNA) expression.
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Interleukin-29 binds to melanoma cells inducing Jak-STAT signal transduction and apoptosis.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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Interleukin-29 (IL-29) is a member of the type III IFN family that has been shown to have antiviral activity and to inhibit cell growth. Melanoma cell lines were tested for expression of the IL-29 receptor (IL-29R) and their response to IL-29. Expression of IL-28R1 and IL-10R2, components of IL-29R, was evaluated using reverse transcription-PCR. A combination of immunoblot analysis and flow cytometry was used to evaluate IL-29-induced signal transduction. U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays and real-time PCR were used to evaluate gene expression. Apoptosis was measured using Annexin V/propridium iodide staining. In situ PCR for IL-29R was done on paraffin-embedded melanoma tumors. Both IL-28R1 and IL-10R2 were expressed on the A375, 1106 MEL, Hs294T, 18105 MEL, MEL 39, SK MEL 5, and F01 cell lines. Incubation of melanoma cell lines with IL-29 (10-1,000 ng/mL) led to phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT2. Microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed a marked increase in transcripts of IFN-regulated genes after treatment with IL-29. In the F01 cell line, bortezomib-induced and temozolomide-induced apoptosis was synergistically enhanced following the addition of IL-29. In situ PCR revealed that IL-10R2 and IL-28R1 were present in six of eight primary human melanoma tumors but not in benign nevi specimens. In conclusion, IL-29 receptors are expressed on the surface of human melanoma cell lines and patient samples, and treatment of these cell lines with IL-29 leads to signaling via the Jak-STAT pathway, the transcription of a unique set of genes, and apoptosis.
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A summary of the 25th International Papillomavirus Conference 2009: vaccines, screening, epidemiology and therapeutics.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2010
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The 25th International Papillomavirus Conference was held in Malmo, Sweden, on May 8-14, 2009. The conference encompassed all areas of papillomavirus (PV) research, from clinical vaccinology to molecular biology. This review highlights some of the 237 presentations and 887 abstracts which were presented and summarizes sessions on prophylactic vaccines, screening, epidemiology and therapeutics. Important advances included identification of variants in four genes associated with HPV persistence, new HPV detection are likely new infections and not latency reactivation, and development of effective DNA vaccines that targets E6/E7 genes of HPV11. Also, many studies from different countries demonstrated that HPV vaccination provided sustained protection and substantial reduction of disease burden in both women and men, and in HIV-infected neonates. All the references cited are from the abstract book of the IPV Conference. See http://www.hpv2009.org/.
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Diagnostic microRNA markers for screening sporadic human colon cancer and active ulcerative colitis in stool and tissue.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2009
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By routinely and systematically being able to perform quantitative stem-loop reverse transcriptase followed by TaqMan PCR expression analysis on stool and tissue samples using fifteen human (Homo sapiens, hsa) micro(mi)RNA genes selected by careful analysis of the peer-reviewed literature, we were able to monitor changes at various stages of CRC, allowing for reliable diagnostic screening of colon cancer particularly at the early, pre-malignant stages, and for difficult-to-treat active ulcerative colitis (UC). Although the expression of some of the miRNA genes tested in tissue showed less variability in CRC or UC patients than in stool, the stool by itself appears well-suited to screening. A miRNA approach using stool samples promises to offer more sensitivity and specificity than currently used screening genomic, methylomic or proteomic methods for colon cancer. Larger prospective clinical studies utilizing stool derived from many control, colon cancer or UC patients, to allow for a statistically valid analysis, are now urgently required to standardize test performance and determine the true sensitivity and specificity of the miRNA screening approach, and to provide a numerical underpinning for these diseases as a function of total RNA. Moreover, when a miRNA screening test is combined with analysis of a messenger(m)RNA expression test, which has also been considered in earlier studies to be a highly sensitive and a very specific and reliable transcriptomic approach, as outlined in this article, bioinformatics can be used to correlate microRNA seed data with mRNA target data in order to gain a mechanistic understanding of how miRNAs regulate gene expression, enabling understanding of why these miRNA genes should be informative in a screening test.
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Chromosome 21-derived microRNAs provide an etiological basis for aberrant protein expression in human Down syndrome brains.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2009
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Down syndrome (DS), or Trisomy 21, is the most common genetic cause of cognitive impairment and congenital heart defects in the human population. Bioinformatic annotation has established that human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) harbors five microRNA (miRNAs) genes: miR-99a, let-7c, miR-125b-2, miR-155, and miR-802. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that Hsa21-derived miRNAs are overexpressed in DS brain and heart specimens. The aim of this study was to identify important Hsa21-derived miRNA/mRNA target pairs that may play a role, in part, in mediating the DS phenotype. We demonstrate by luciferase/target mRNA 3-untranslated region reporter assays, and gain- and loss-of-function experiments that miR-155 and -802 can regulate the expression of the predicted mRNA target, the methyl-CpG-binding protein (MeCP2). We also demonstrate that MeCP2 is underexpressed in DS brain specimens isolated from either humans or mice. We further demonstrate that, as a consequence of attenuated MeCP2 expression, transcriptionally activated and silenced MeCP2 target genes, CREB1/Creb1 and MEF2C/Mef2c, are also aberrantly expressed in these DS brain specimens. Finally, in vivo silencing of endogenous miR-155 or -802, by antagomir intra-ventricular injection, resulted in the normalization of MeCP2 and MeCP2 target gene expression. Taken together, these results suggest that improper repression of MeCP2, secondary to trisomic overexpression of Hsa21-derived miRNAs, may contribute, in part, to the abnormalities in the neurochemistry observed in the brains of DS individuals. Finally these results suggest that selective inactivation of Hsa21-derived miRNAs may provide a novel therapeutic tool in the treatment of DS.
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MicroRNA-122 inhibits tumorigenic properties of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and sensitizes these cells to sorafenib.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2009
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MicroRNAs are negative regulators of protein coding genes. The liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) is frequently suppressed in primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). In situ hybridization demonstrated that miR-122 is abundantly expressed in hepatocytes but barely detectable in primary human HCCs. Ectopic expression of miR-122 in nonexpressing HepG2, Hep3B, and SK-Hep-1 cells reversed their tumorigenic properties such as growth, replication potential, clonogenic survival, anchorage-independent growth, migration, invasion, and tumor formation in nude mice. Further, miR-122-expressing HCC cells retained an epithelial phenotype that correlated with reduced Vimentin expression. ADAM10 (a distintegrin and metalloprotease family 10), serum response factor (SRF), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf1R) that promote tumorigenesis were validated as targets of miR-122 and were repressed by the microRNA. Conversely, depletion of the endogenous miR-122 in Huh-7 cells facilitated their tumorigenic properties with concomitant up-regulation of these targets. Expression of SRF or Igf1R partially reversed tumor suppressor function of miR-122. Further, miR-122 impeded angiogenic properties of endothelial cells in vitro. Notably, ADAM10, SRF, and Igf1R were up-regulated in primary human HCCs compared with the matching liver tissue. Co-labeling studies demonstrated exclusive localization of miR-122 in the benign livers, whereas SRF predominantly expressed in HCC. More importantly, growth and clonogenic survival of miR-122-expressing HCC cells were significantly reduced upon treatment with sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor clinically effective against HCC. Collectively, these results suggest that the loss of multifunctional miR-122 contributes to the malignant phenotype of HCC cells, and miR-122 mimetic alone or in combination with anticancer drugs can be a promising therapeutic regimen against liver cancer.
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Hepatic damage associated with dengue-2 virus replication in liver cells of BALB/c mice.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2009
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One difficulty in studying dengue virus (DENV) is the lack of an experimental model that reproduces the human disease. In a previous work, we have shown that BALB/c mice intraperitoneally inoculated with a DENV-2 isolate presented viremia and mild focal areas of liver injuries. In this study, mice were inoculated by the intravenous route and presented extensive damage areas in the liver tissue, which were evaluated by histopathological and ultrastructural analysis. Hepatic injury was noted mainly around the central vein and portal tracts. Damages consist of hepatocyte injury, including steatosis, swelling and necrosis. Further, erythrophagocytosis, intercellular edema and vascular damages were evident, including hemorrhage, which is characteristic of the dengue-induced hepatitis in human liver. Hepatic lesions were already noted 2 days post infection (p.i.), although effects were more extensive after the seventh day p.i. An increase in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels was detected 7 and 14 days p.i., respectively, and had correlation to hepatic lesions. Alterations caused by the DENV infection were self-limiting, with a remarkable reduction of all liver damages 49 days p.i. Virus antigens were detected in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and vascular endothelium, suggesting virus replication in these cells. In situ hybridization, using a probe that anneals in the virus negative RNA strand, showed positive reaction in hepatocytes and vascular endothelium cells of infected mice, thus confirming virus replication in such cells. In general, results revealed that this mouse model reproduces some histopathological effects observed in humans and supports previous findings indicating virus replication in the hepatic tissue.
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Role of microRNA-155 at early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis induced by choline-deficient and amino acid-defined diet in C57BL/6 mice.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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MicroRNAs (miRs) are conserved, small (20-25 nucleotide) noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate expression of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) at the posttranscriptional level. Aberrant expression of certain microRNAs plays a causal role in tumorigenesis. Here, we report identification of hepatic microRNAs that are dysregulated at early stages of feeding C57BL/6 mice choline-deficient and amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet that is known to promote nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis after 84 weeks. Microarray analysis identified 30 hepatic microRNAs that are significantly (P < or = 0.01) altered in mice fed CDAA diet for 6, 18, 32, and 65 weeks compared with those fed choline-sufficient and amino acid-defined (CSAA) diet. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated up-regulation of oncogenic miR-155, miR-221/222, and miR-21 and down-regulation of the most abundant liver-specific miR-122 at early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. Western blot analysis showed reduced expression of hepatic phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta), respective targets of miR-21 and miR-155, in these mice at early stages. DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) that transactivates miR-155 gene was significantly (P = 0.002) elevated in the liver nuclear extract of mice fed CDAA diet. Furthermore, the expression of miR-155, as measured by in situ hybridization and real-time RT-PCR, correlated with diet-induced histopathological changes in the liver. Ectopic expression of miR-155 promoted growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, whereas its depletion inhibited cell growth. Notably, miR-155 was significantly (P = 0.0004) up-regulated in primary human HCCs with a concomitant decrease (P = 0.02) in C/EBPbeta level compared with matching liver tissues.
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MicroRNA 133B targets pro-survival molecules MCL-1 and BCL2L2 in lung cancer.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2009
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Lung cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer-related death in this country for men and women. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small non-coding RNAs (approximately 21-25nt long) capable of targeting genes for either degradation of mRNA or inhibition of translation. We identified aberrant expression of 41 miRNAs in lung tumor versus uninvolved tissue. MiR-133B had the lowest expression of miRNA in lung tumor tissue (28-fold reduction) compared to adjacent uninvolved tissue. We identified two members of the BCL-2 family of pro-survival molecules (MCL-1 and BCL2L2 (BCLw)) as predicted targets of miR-133B. Selective over-expression of miR-133B in adenocarcinoma (H2009) cell lines resulted in reduced expression of both MCL-1 and BCL2L2. We then confirmed that miR-133B directly targets the 3UTRs of both MCL-1 and BCL2L2. Lastly, over-expression of miR-133B induced apoptosis following gemcitabine exposure in these tumor cells. To our knowledge, this represents the first observation of decreased expression of miR-133B in lung cancer and that it functionally targets members of the BCL-2 family.
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Detection of human papillomavirus infection in trichilemmomas and verrucae using in situ hybridization.
J. Cutan. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2009
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It is hypothesized that trichilemmomas are burned out verrucae. By performing in situ hybridization using HPV type-specific probes, we explored this concept.
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Fulminant and accelerated presentation of dermatomyositis in two previously healthy young adult males: a potential role for endotheliotropic viral infection.
J. Cutan. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
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Dermatomyositis (DM) is a prototypic autoimmune syndrome, whereby immune-based microvascular injury is critical in the pathogenesis of skin lesions and the myopathy. Although not widely recognized or accepted as a pathogenetic trigger, endotheliotropic viral triggers including parvovirus B19 and cytomegalovirus have been linked to DM. At times, the clinical manifestations in DM can be fulminant with acute renal failure because of rhabdomyolysis, respiratory failure and gastrointestinal infarcts.
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MicroRNAs in the pathogenesis of Lung Cancer.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2009
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. It is estimated that in 2008 there were 215,000 new diagnoses of lung cancer and 163,000 deaths. Despite emerging technologies for potential early diagnosis and discovery of novel targeted therapies, the overall 5-year survival remains a disappointing 15%. Explanations for the poor survival include late presentation of disease, a lack of markers for early detection, and both phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity within patients of similar histologic classification. To further understand this heterogeneity and thus complexity of lung cancer, investigators have applied various technologies including high throughput analysis of both the genome and proteome. Such approaches have been successful in identifying signatures that may clarify molecular differences in tumors, identify new targets, and improve prognostication. In the last decade, investigators have identified a new mode of gene regulation in the form of noncoding RNAs termed microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs). First determined to be of importance in larval development, microRNAs are approximately 19-22 nucleotide single stranded RNAs that regulate genes by either inducing mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. MiRNAs have been implicated in several cellular processes including apoptosis, development, proliferation, and differentiation. By regulating hundreds of genes simultaneously, miRNAs have the capacity for regulation of biologic networks. Global alterations in miRNA expression in both solid organ and hematological malignancies suggest their importance in the pathogenesis of disease. To date, both in vivo and in vitro studies in lung cancer demonstrate a dysregulation of miRNA expression. Furthermore, investigators are beginning to identify individual targets and pathways of miRNAs relevant to lung tumorigenesis. Thus, miRNAs may identify critical targets and be important in the pathogenesis of lung cancer.
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Pralatrexate-induced tumor cell apoptosis in the epidermis of a patient with HTLV-1 adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia causing skin erosions.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2009
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Pralatrexate is a novel antifolate, which shows increased antitumor activity in human tumor xenograft studies in mice compared with methotrexate. We investigated the effects of pralatrexate in a patient with adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia with significant skin involvement. Atypical lymphocytes in epidermal Pautrier microabscesses were positive for HTLV-1. After the patient presented with leukemic conversion and with worsening of an erythematous generalized papular rash, he received one dose of pralatrexate. Within one week, his skin developed innumerable small erosions limited to the areas of the papular rash, sparing unaffected skin. Here we present in vivo evidence that pralatrexate-induced erosions in skin affected by adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia are a manifestation of apoptosis of tumor cells infiltrating the epidermis and are not the result of cytotoxicity by pralatrexate on keratinocytes. This distinction is critical and may profoundly influence the clinical decision to continue pralatrexate treatment. Pralatrexate-induced skin erosions may indicate response to treatment.
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In situ detection of mature microRNAs by labeled extension on ultramer templates.
BioTechniques
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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We describe a new method for the in situ detection of a mature microRNA (miRNA) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. The method involves the labeled extension of miRNA hybridized to an approximately 100-nucleotide-long ultramer template containing the complementary sequence of the miRNA at its 3 terminus. Pretreatment of the tissue involves incubation with protease to expose the genomic DNA to DNase digestion, thereby eliminating the ultramer-independent DNA synthesis process inherent in paraffin-embedded tissue. By direct comparison with real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, RT in situ PCR, and standard in situ hybridization using a locked nucleic acid (LNA) probe, it was evident that the ultramer extension method detects only the mature miRNA, is easier to optimize, results generally in a stronger signal, and is much less expensive than the LNA probe method currently used.
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The utility of HPV in situ hybridization and the PAS test in improving the specificity of the diagnosis of CIN 1.
Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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The histologic features of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 1), caused by infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV), can overlap with those of its mimics that can lead to an over diagnosis of this sexually transmitted disease. In this study, 67 consecutive cervical biopsies that were diagnosed as CIN 1 from the surgical files of Ohio State University Medical Center were analyzed. Twenty controls (10 CIN 1 cervical biopsies and 10 normal cervical tissues) were also studied. The 87 biopsies were reevaluated blinded to the original diagnosis and the results were correlated with detection of HPV DNA by in situ hybridization and glycogen by the periodic acid solution (PAS)/PAS-D stain, respectively. HPV was detected by in situ hybridization in 55/67 cases (82%); no virus was evident in the negative controls whereas each of the 10 CIN 1 controls was virus positive. A PAS test demonstrated in the mature squamous component of the negative controls a strong signal in cells with prominent and uniform halos, which was lost with diastase treatment, indicative of abundant glycogen. The PAS/PAS-D tests in the CIN 1 lesions showed rare variable sized glycogen deposits in the dysplastic cells. Nine (15%) cases initially diagnosed as CIN 1 were HPV negative by in situ hybridization and had halolike cells that were strongly and uniformly positive for glycogen. This data underscores the value of glycogen and HPV analyses in improving the specificity of the diagnosis of CIN 1.
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Stage 3 immature human natural killer cells found in secondary lymphoid tissue constitutively and selectively express the TH 17 cytokine interleukin-22.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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Considerable functional heterogeneity within human natural killer (NK) cells has been revealed through the characterization of distinct NK-cell subsets. Accordingly, a small subset of CD56(+)NKp44(+)NK cells, termed NK-22 cells, was recently described within secondary lymphoid tissue (SLT) as IL-22(-) when resting, with a minor fraction of this population becoming IL-22(+) when activated. Here we discover that the vast majority of stage 3 immature NK (iNK) cells in SLT constitutively and selectively express IL-22, a T(H)17 cytokine important for mucosal immunity, whereas earlier and later stages of NK developmental intermediates do not express IL-22. These iNK cells have a surface phenotype of CD34(-)CD117(+)CD161(+)CD94(-), largely lack expression of NKp44 and CD56, and do not produce IFN-gamma or possess cytolytic activity. In summary, stage 3 iNK cells are highly enriched for IL-22 and IL-26 messenger RNA, and IL-22 protein production, but do not express IL-17A or IL-17F.
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miR-221&222 regulate TRAIL resistance and enhance tumorigenicity through PTEN and TIMP3 downregulation.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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Lung and liver cancers are among the most deadly types of cancer. Despite improvements in treatment over the past few decades, patient survival remains poor, underlining the need for development of targeted therapies. MicroRNAs represent a class of small RNAs frequently deregulated in human malignancies. We now report that miR-221&222 are overexpressed in aggressive non-small cell lung cancer and hepatocarcinoma cells, as compared with less invasive and/or normal lung and liver cells. We show that miR-221&222, by targeting PTEN and TIMP3 tumor suppressors, induce TRAIL resistance and enhance cellular migration through the activation of the AKT pathway and metallopeptidases. Finally, we demonstrate that the MET oncogene is involved in miR-221&222 activation through the c-Jun transcription factor.
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Palifermin-associated papular eruption.
Arch Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2009
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Palifermin is a recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor that is used to reduce the duration and severity of oral mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after myelotoxic therapy. Cutaneous adverse reactions associated with keratinocyte growth factor are reported to be rash, pruritus, and erythema.
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Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor inhibits breast cancer growth and metastasis by invoking an anti-angiogenic program in tumor-educated macrophages.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Tumor-educated macrophages facilitate tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. We discovered that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) blocked macrophages vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) activity by producing soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) and determined the effect on tumor-associated macrophage behavior and tumor growth. We show GM-CSF treatment of murine mammary tumors slowed tumor growth and slowed metastasis. These tumors had more macrophages, fewer blood vessels, and lower oxygen concentrations. This effect was sVEGFR-1 dependent. In situ hybridization and flow cytometry identified macrophages as the primary source of sVEGFR-1. These data suggest that GM-CSF can re-educate macrophages to reduce angiogenesis and metastases in murine breast cancer.
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Integrating the MicroRNome into the study of lung disease.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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Over the last 15 years, investigators have identified small noncoding RNAs as regulators of gene expression. One type of noncoding RNAs are termed microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are evolutionary conserved, approximately 22-nucleotide single-stranded RNAs that target genes by inducing mRNA degradation or by inhibiting translation. miRNAs are implicated in many critical cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. Furthermore, it is estimated that miRNAs may be responsible for regulating the expression of nearly one-third of the human genome. Despite the identification of greater than 500 mature miRNAs, very little is known about their biological functions and functional targets. In the last 5 years, researchers have increasingly focused on the functional relevance and role that miRNAs play in the pathogenesis of human disease. miRNAs are known to be important in solid organ and hematological malignancies, heart disease, as potential modulators of the immune response, and organ development. It is anticipated that miRNA analysis will emerge as an important complement to proteomic and genomic studies to further our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Despite the application of genomics and proteomics to the study of human lung disease, few studies have examined miRNA expression. This perspective is not meant to be an exhaustive review of miRNA biology but will provide an overview of both miRNA biogenesis and our current understanding of the role of miRNAs in lung disease as well as a perspective on the importance of integrating this analysis as a tool for identifying and understanding the biological pathways in lung-disease pathogenesis.
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