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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Hyperbaric oxygen pretreatment and preconditioning.
Undersea Hyperb Med
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Exposure to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) before a crucial event, with the plan to create a preventing therapeutic situation, has been defined "preconditioning" and is emerging as a useful adjunct both in diving medicine as well before ischemic or inflammatory events. Oxygen pre-breathing before diving has been extensively documented in recreational, technical, commercial and military diving for tissue denitrogenation, resulting in reduced post-diving bubble loads, reduced decompression requirements and more rapid return to normal platelet function after a decompression. Preoxygenation at high atmospheric pressure has also been used in patients before exposure to clinical situations with beneficial effects, but the mechanisms of action have not yet been ascertained. During the reperfusion of ischemic tissue, oxygenated blood increases numbers and activities of oxidants generated in tissues. Previous reports showed that HBO2 preconditioning caused the activation of antioxidative enzymes and related genes in the central nervous system, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase-1. Despite the increasing number of basic science publications on this issue, studies describing HBO2 preconditioning in the clinical practice remain scarce. To date, only a few studies have investigated the preconditioning effects of HBO2 in relation to the human brain and myocardium with robust and promising results.
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Mechanisms of action of hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
Undersea Hyperb Med
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Therapeutic mechanisms of action for hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy are based on elevation of both the partial pressure of inspired O2 and of the hydrostatic pressure. This last mechanism contributes to a compression of all gas-filled spaces in the body (Boyle's Law) and is relevant to treat conditions where gas bubbles are present in the body and cause the disease (e.g., intravascular embolism; decompression sickness with intravascular or intra-tissue bubbles). However, the majority of patients treated with HBO2 do not suffer from bubble-induced injuries, but derive clinical improvements from the elevated O2 partial pressures. High O2 partial pressures in various tissues increase the production of reactive O2 species (ROS) and also of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) because of hyperoxia. Most controlled studies have verified that the clinical efficacy from HBO2 derives from modulation of intracellular transduction cascades, leading to synthesis of growth factors and promoting wound healing and ameliorating post-ischemic and post-inflammatory injuries.
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Preconditioning with hyperbaric oxygen in pancreaticoduodenectomy: a randomized double-blind pilot study.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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In a prospective randomized double-blind study, we evaluated the post-operative biological and clinical effects of a single preoperative hyperbaric-treatment the day before surgery for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
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Ketogenic diet in neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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An increasing number of data demonstrate the utility of ketogenic diets in a variety of metabolic diseases as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. In regard to neurological disorders, ketogenic diet is recognized as an effective treatment for pharmacoresistant epilepsy but emerging data suggests that ketogenic diet could be also useful in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer, Parkinson's disease, and some mitochondriopathies. Although these diseases have different pathogenesis and features, there are some common mechanisms that could explain the effects of ketogenic diets. These mechanisms are to provide an efficient source of energy for the treatment of certain types of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by focal brain hypometabolism; to decrease the oxidative damage associated with various kinds of metabolic stress; to increase the mitochondrial biogenesis pathways; and to take advantage of the capacity of ketones to bypass the defect in complex I activity implicated in some neurological diseases. These mechanisms will be discussed in this review.
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Effects of repetitive exposure to anesthetics and analgesics in the Tg2576 mouse Alzheimer's model.
Neurotox Res
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The use of anesthetics and sedatives has been suggested to be a contributor to Alzheimer's disease neuropathogenesis. We wanted to address the in vivo relevance of those substances in the Tg2576 Alzheimer's mouse model. Tg7526 mice were anesthesia-sedated for 90 min once a week for 4 weeks. Y maze, Congo Red, and amyloid beta (A?) immunochemistry were performed. We did not find any significant change in the navigation behavior of the exposed mice compared to the controls. Significantly less deposition of A? in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice exposed to isoflurane, propofol, diazepam, ketamine, and pentobarbital was observed. In the dentate gyrus, A? deposition was significantly greater in the group treated with pentobarbital. Congo Red staining evidenced significantly fewer fibrils in the cortex of mice exposed to diazepam, ketamine, or pentobarbital. The adopted repetitive exposure did not cause a significant detriment in Tg7526 mouse.
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Acute effects of whole-body vibration on running gait in marathon runners.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) on running gait. The running kinematic of sixteen male marathon runners was assessed on a treadmill at iso-efficiency speed after 10 min of WBV and SHAM (i.e. no WBV) conditions. A high-speed camera (210 Hz) was used for the video analysis and heart rate (HR) was also monitored. The following parameters were investigated: step length (SL), flight time (FT), step frequency (SF), contact time (CT), HR and the internal work (WINT). Full-within one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the randomised crossover design indicated that when compared to SHAM conditions, WBV decreased the SL and the FT by ~4% (P < 0.0001) and ~7.2% (P < 0.001), respectively, and increased the SF ~4% (P < 0.0001) while the CT was not changed. This effect occurred during the first minute of running: the SL decreased ~3.5% (P < 0.001) and SF increased ~3.3% (P < 0.001). During the second minute the SL decreased ~1.2% (P = 0.017) and the SF increased ~1.1% (P = 0.02). From the third minute onwards, there was a return to the pre-vibration condition. The WINT was increased by ~4% (P < 0.0001) during the WBV condition. Ten minutes of WBV produced a significant alteration of the running kinematics during the first minutes post exposure. These results provide insights on the effects of WBV on the central components controlling muscle function.
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Isoflurane prevents learning deficiencies caused by brief hypoxia and hypotension in adult Sprague Dawley rats.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Abstract Context: Hypotension causes histologic changes in the hippocampal CA1 area, while behavior remains unchanged. We believe that an even stronger insult may also cause behavioral changes. Objective: We used a rat hemorrhagic shock model plus temporary hypoxia to assess functional outcome at different time points post-injury. Our hypothesis is that the damage can be attenuated by the use of isoflurane. Materials and methods: Rats were subjected to brief hypotension. Animals were evaluated at different time points after receiving hypoxia and hypotension, with and without isoflurane treatment. Results: The administration of isoflurane after the insult protected the animals from memory alterations. No histopatologic changes were found in any of the groups. Discussion and conclusions: This observation suggests that in this model of hypotension plus hypoxia there is mild cerebral damage that is reflected by memory changes. Exposure to isoflurane after the insult can prevent the onset of memory deficits.
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Hyperbaric air exposure at 2.5 ATA does not affect respiratory mechanics and lung histology in the rat.
Lung
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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We previously demonstrated that the exposure to hyperbaric hyperoxia increased respiratory system elastance and both the "ohmic" and viscoelastic components of inspiratory resistances, probably because of increased oxygen tension toxic effects. We presently investigated the possible consequences of a single exposure to 2.5-atmospheres absolute air (hyperbarism) lasting 90 min.
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Hippocampal cellular loss after brief hypotension.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2013
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Brief episodes of hypotension have been shown to cause acute brain damage in animal models. We used a rat hemorrhagic shock model to assess functional outcome and to measure the relative neuronal damage at 1, 4 and 14 days post-injury (3 min of hypotension). All rats underwent a neurological assessment including motor abilities, sensory system evaluation and retrograde memory at post-hypotensive insult. Brains were harvested and stained for Fluorojade C and Nissl. Stereology was used to analyze Fluorojade C and Nissl stained brain sections to quantitatively detect neuronal damage after the hypotensive insult. Statistical analysis was performed using Graphpad Prism 5 with the Bonferroni test at a 95% confidence interval after ANOVA. A Mixed Effect Model was used for the passive avoidance evaluation. Stereologically counted fluorojade positive cells in the hippocampus revealed significant differences in neuronal cell injury between control rats and rats that received 3 min of hypotension one day after insult. Quantification of Nissl positive neuronal cells showed a significant decrease in the number hippocampal cells at day 14. No changes in frontal cortical cells were evident at any time, no significative changes in neurological assessments as well. Our observations show that brief periods of hemorrhage-induced hypotension actually result in neuronal cell damage in Sprague-Dawley rats even if the extent of neuronal damage that was incurred was not significant enough to cause changes in motor or sensory behavior.
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Effect of hyperbaric oxygenation and gemcitabine on apoptosis of pancreatic ductal tumor cells in vitro.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Gemcitabine is first-line therapy for advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with a poor survival and response rate. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) enhances delivery of oxygen to hypoxic tumor cells and increases their susceptibility to cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy. We hypothesized that the anticancer activity of gemcitabine (GEM) may be enhanced if tumor cells are placed in an oxygen-rich environment. The present study evaluated the effects of gemcitabine, HBO and their combination on apoptosis of tumor cells.
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Long term successful weight loss with a combination biphasic ketogenic mediterranean diet and mediterranean diet maintenance protocol.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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Weight loss protocols can only be considered successful if they deliver consistent results over the long term-a goal which is often elusive, so much so that the term "yo-yo" is used to describe the perennial weight loss/weight regain battle common in obesity. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts (KEMEPHY) combined with the acknowledged health benefits of traditional Mediterranean nutrition may favor long term weight loss. We analysed 89 male and female obese subjects, aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from being overweight. The subjects followed a staged diet protocol over a period of 12 months: 20 day of KEMEPHY; 20 days low carb-non ketogenic; 4 months Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition; a second 20 day ketogenic phase followed by 6 months of Mediterranean normocaloric nutrition. For the majority of subjects (88.25%) there was significant loss of weight (from 100.7 ± 16.54 to 84.59 ± 9.71 kg; BMI from 35.42 ± 4.11 to 30.27 ± 3.58) and body fat (form 43.44% ± 6.34% to 33.63% ± 7.6%) during both ketogenic phases followed by successful maintenance, without weight regain, during the 6 month stabilization phase with only 8 subjects failing to comply. There were also significant and stable decreases in total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides and glucose levels over the 12 month study period. HDLc showed small increases after the ketogenic phases but over the full 12 months there was no significant change. No significant changes were observed in ALT, AST, Creatinine or BUN. The combination of a biphasic KEMEPHY diet separated by longer periods of maintenance nutrition, based on the traditional Mediterranean diet, led to successful long term weight loss and improvements in health risk factors in a majority of subjects; compliance was very high which was a key determinant of the results seen.
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The effect of body cooling on respiratory system mechanics and hysteresis in rats.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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Literature reports and theoretical considerations suggest that body cooling may affect respiratory mechanics in vivo. To examine this hypothesis, healthy rats were studied using the end-inflation occlusion method under control conditions and after total body cooling. Respiratory mechanics parameters, hysteresis areas, the inspiratory work of breathing, and its elastic and resistive components, were calculated. After body cooling (mean rectal temperature from 36.6 ± 0.25 to 32.1 ± 0.26 °C), the ohmic and the additional visco-elastic respiratory system resistances, the hysteresis, the total inspiratory work of breathing, and its resistive components, were all increased. No significant changes were detected for the static and dynamic respiratory system elastance mean values, and the related elastic component of the work of breathing. These data indicate that body cooling increases the mechanical inspiratory work of breathing by increasing the resistive pressures dissipation. This effect is evident even for limited temperature variations, and it is suggested that it may occur in the event of accidental or therapeutic hypothermia.
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The effect of acute exposure to hyperbaric oxygen on respiratory system mechanics in the rat.
Lung
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of acute hyperbaric hyperoxia on respiratory mechanics of anaesthetised, positive-pressure ventilated rats.
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Effects of alpha lipoic acid and its R+ enantiomer supplemented to hyperbaric oxygen therapy on interleukin-6, TNF-? and EGF production in chronic leg wound healing.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Abstract Context: Lipoic acid (LA) and hyperbaric oxygenation therapy (HBOT) improve chronic wound healing. Objective: We compared the effects of LA or its enantiomer R-(+)-lipoic acid (RLA) on wound healing. Materials and methods: Groups LA?+?HBOT (L), RLA?+?HBOT (R) and placebo?+?HBOT (P). Lesion areas measured before treatment and on 20th and 40th day. The biopsies and plasma were harvested before treatment and on 7th and 14th (measurements of VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; EGF, epidermal growth factor, TNF-? and IL-6). Results: Ulcers improved more on RLA. In both L and R groups, EGF and VEFG increased in time. RLA decreased IL-6 on T(7) and T(14), which did not happen with LA. TNF-? levels decreased on T(14) in both LA and RLA. Discussion: The improved wound healing is associated with increased EGF and VEGF and reduced plasma TNF-? and IL-6. Conclusion: RLA may be more effective than LA in improving chronic wound healing in patients undergoing HBO therapy.
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The effect of body temperature on the dynamic respiratory system compliance-breathing frequency relationship in the rat.
J Biol Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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The mechanical inhomogeneity of the respiratory system is frequently investigated by measuring the frequency dependence of dynamic compliance, but no data are currently available describing the effects of body temperature variations. The aim of the present report was to study those effects in vivo. Peak airway pressure was measured during positive pressure ventilation in eight anesthetized rats while breathing frequency (but not tidal volume) was altered. Dynamic compliance was calculated as the tidal volume/peak airway pressure, and measurements were taken in basal conditions (mean rectal temperature 37.3 °C) as well as after total body warming (mean rectal temperature 39.7 °C). Due to parenchymal mechanical inhomogeneity and stress relaxation-linked effects, the normal rat respiratory system exhibited frequency dependence of dynamic lung compliance. Even moderate body temperature increments significantly reduced the decrements in dynamic compliance linked to breathing rate increments. The results were analyzed using Students and Wilcoxons tests, which yielded the same results (p?
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Effect of in-water oxygen prebreathing at different depths on decompression-induced bubble formation and platelet activation.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2010
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Effect of in-water oxygen prebreathing at different depths on decompression-induced bubble formation and platelet activation in scuba divers was evaluated. Six volunteers participated in four diving protocols, with 2 wk of recovery between dives. On dive 1, before diving, all divers breathed normally for 20 min at the surface of the sea (Air). On dive 2, before diving, all divers breathed 100% oxygen for 20 min at the surface of the sea [normobaric oxygenation (NBO)]. On dive 3, before diving, all divers breathed 100% O2 for 20 min at 6 m of seawater [msw; hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) 1.6 atmospheres absolute (ATA)]. On dive 4, before diving, all divers breathed 100% O2 for 20 min at 12 msw (HBO 2.2 ATA). Then they dove to 30 msw (4 ATA) for 20 min breathing air from scuba. After each dive, blood samples were collected as soon as the divers surfaced. Bubbles were measured at 20 and 50 min after decompression and converted to bubble count estimate (BCE) and numeric bubble grade (NBG). BCE and NBG were significantly lower in NBO than in Air [0.142+/-0.034 vs. 0.191+/-0.066 (P<0.05) and 1.61+/-0.25 vs. 1.89+/-0.31 (P<0.05), respectively] at 20 min, but not at 50 min. HBO at 1.6 ATA and 2.2 ATA has a similar significant effect of reducing BCE and NBG. BCE was 0.067+/-0.026 and 0.040+/-0.018 at 20 min and 0.030+/-0.022 and 0.020+/-0.020 at 50 min. NBG was 1.11+/-0.17 and 0.92+/-0.16 at 20 min and 0.83+/-0.18 and 0.75+/-0.16 at 50 min. Prebreathing NBO and HBO significantly alleviated decompression-induced platelet activation. Activation of CD62p was 3.0+/-0.4, 13.5+/-1.3, 10.7+/-0.9, 4.5+/-0.7, and 7.6+/-0.8% for baseline, Air, NBO, HBO at 1.6 ATA, and HBO at 2.2 ATA, respectively. The data show that prebreathing oxygen, more effective with HBO than NBO, decreases air bubbles and platelet activation and, therefore, may be beneficial in reducing the development of decompression sickness.
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Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in femoral head necrosis.
J Arthroplasty
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
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We evaluated hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on a cohort of patients with femoral head necrosis (FHN). This double-blind, randomized, controlled, prospective study included 20 patients with unilateral FHN. All were Ficat stage II, treated with either compressed oxygen (HBO) or compressed air (HBA). Each patient received 30 treatments of HBO or HBA for 6 weeks. Range of motion, stabilometry, and pain were assessed at the beginning of the study and after 10, 20, and 30 treatments by a blinded physician. After the initial 6-week treatment, the blind was broken; and all HBA patients were offered HBO treatment. At this point, the study becomes observational. Pretreatment, 12-month. and 7 year-follow-up magnetic resonance images were obtained. Statistical comparisons were obtained with nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Significant pain improvement for HBO was demonstrated after 20 treatments. Range of motion improved significantly during HBO for all parameters between 20 and 30 treatments. All patients remain substantially pain-free 7 years later: none required hip arthroplasty. Substantial radiographic healing of the osteonecrosis was observed in 7 of 9 hips. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy appears to be a viable treatment modality in patients with Ficat II FHN.
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A subpopulation of rat muscle fibers maintains an assessable excitation-contraction coupling mechanism after long-standing denervation despite lost contractility.
J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2009
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To define the time course and potential effects of electrical stimulation on permanently denervated muscle, we evaluated excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) of rat leg muscles during progression to long-term denervation by ultrastructural analysis, specific binding to dihydropyridine receptors, ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR-1), Ca channels and extrusion Ca pumps, gene transcription and translation of Ca-handling proteins, and in vitro mechanical properties and electrophysiological analyses of sarcolemmal passive properties and L-type Ca current (ICa) parameters. We found that in response to long-term denervation: 1) isolated muscle that is unable to twitch in vitro by electrical stimulation has very small myofibers but may show a slow caffeine contracture; 2) only roughly half of the muscle fibers with "voltage-dependent Ca channel activity" are able to contract; 3) the ECC mechanisms are still present and, in part, functional; 4)ECC-related gene expression is upregulated; and 5) at any time point, there are muscle fibers that are more resistant than others to denervation atrophy and disorganization of the ECC apparatus. These results support the hypothesis that prolonged "resting" [Ca] may drive progression of muscle atrophy to degeneration and that electrical stimulation-induced [Ca] modulation may mimic the lost nerve influence, playing a key role in modifying the gene expression of denervated muscle. Hence, these data provide a potential molecular explanation for the muscle recovery that occurs in response to rehabilitation strategies developed based on empirical clinical observations.
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Effects of local vibrations on skeletal muscle trophism in elderly people: mechanical, cellular, and molecular events.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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Several studies have examined the effects of vibrations on muscle mass and performance in young healthy people. We studied the effects of vibrations on muscles of elderly male and female volunteers (65-85 years of age) diagnosed with sarcopenia. We applied mechanical vibrations locally (local vibrational training) to the thigh muscles at 300 Hz for a period of 12 weeks, starting with a session of 15 min stimulation once a week and increasing to three sessions of 15 min per week. Treated muscles displayed enhanced maximal isometric strength and increased content of fast MyHC-2X myosin. Single muscle fiber analysis did not show any change in cross-sectional area or in specific tension. Analysis of transcriptional profiles by microarray revealed changes in gene expression after 12 weeks of local vibrational training. In particular, pathways related with energy metabolism, sarcomeric protein balance and oxidative stress response were affected. We conclude that vibration treatment is effective in counteracting the loss of muscular strength associated with sarcopenia and the mode of action of vibration is based on cellular and molecular changes which do not include increase in fiber or muscle size.
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Identification and Measurement of Carbonic Anhydrase-II Molecule Numbers in the Rat Carotid Body.
Open Respir Med J
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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Carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the carotid body (CB) plays an important role in the maintenance of blood PO2 and PCO2/pH homeostasis by regulating ventilation. It has been observed that the activity of CA in the rabbit CB is stronger under hypoxic conditions than under normoxic and hyperoxic conditions. In conditions of chronic hypoxia, the volume of the CB increases significantly because the number of type I and II cells increases. So far, the number of CA molecules in the CB has not been assessed. We develop a technique to quantify the number of CA molecules in the CB. The CBs were dissected out from 8 rats, immediately frozen with liquid nitrogen, pulverized and centrifuged. The proteins extracted from CB tissue were heat-denatured and separated by electrophoresis on a 12.5% denatured-polyacrylamide gel (SDSPAGE); a 31 kDa protein band was determined which reacted with a rabbit polyclonal antibody specific for rat CA-II in Western blot analysis. The immunoreactive 31 kDa CA-II protein was detected and quantified by laser scanner densitometry using (125)I-rProtein A as a tracer. The mean (125)I radioactivity emitted by the antibody bound CA-II was 31277 cpm. This value corresponds to 4.57 ng CA-II. When compared with a rat CA-II calibration curve, an average of number of 3.54 x 10(7) CA-II molecules were quantified for 1 microg of whole CB tissue. This is a sensitive and accurate radioimmunoassay technique and may be useful in future studies on the role of CA-II in different pathophysiologic conditions.
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Repetitive intraperitoneal caspase-3 inhibitor and anesthesia reduces neuronal damage.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem
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Caspase inhibitors are usually administered intracranially. Theres very limited evidence showing that they can be used intraperitoneally, and still have a beneficial effect. We tested the hypothesis that, during focal cerebral ischemia, caspase inhibitors when used in combination with an anesthetic agent results in a significantly reduction in the neuronal damage. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six different groups: control, Isoflurane, Propofol, Isoflurane and Caspase-3 inhibitor intraperitoneally (IP), propofol and Caspase-3 inhibitor IP and only caspase-3 inhibitor, during post-ischemia. Neurological evaluation and histochemical analysis was assessed post-ischemia. The treatment proposed, resulted in a significant decrease in the cerebral infarction volume. Combination of treatments, and caspase-3 inhibitor alone significantly decreased the number of TUNEL and cleaved caspase-3 positive cells in the boundary area of cortical infarction. IP administration appears to reach cerebral targets similarly to intracerebral model. This combination reduces the neurological damage caused by focal cerebral ischemia.
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