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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mechanical, hormonal, and hypertrophic adaptations to 10weeks of eccentric and stretch-shortening cycle exercise training in old males.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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The growth promoting effects of eccentric (ECC) contractions are well documented but it is unknown if the rate of stretch per se plays a role in such muscular responses in healthy aging human skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training of the quadriceps muscle with low rate ECC and high rate ECC contractions in the form of stretch-shortening cycles (SSCs) but at equal total mechanical work would produce rate-specific adaptations in healthy old males age 60-70. Both training programs produced similar improvements in maximal voluntary isometric (6%) and ECC torque (23%) and stretch-shortening cycle function (reduced contraction duration [24%] and enhanced elastic energy storage [12%]) (p<0.05). The rate of torque development increased 30% only after SSC exercise (p<0.05). Resting testosterone and cortisol levels were unchanged but after each program the acute exercise-induced cortisol levels were 12-15% lower (p<0.05). Both programs increased quadriceps size 2.5% (p<0.05). It is concluded that both ECC and SSC exercise training produces favorable adaptations in healthy old males' quadriceps muscle. Although the rate of muscle tension during the SSC vs. ECC contractions was about 4-fold greater, the total mechanical work seems to regulate the hypetrophic, hormonal, and most of the mechanical adaptations. However, SSC exercise was uniquely effective in improving a key deficiency of aging muscle, i.e., its ability to produce force rapidly.
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Changes of Migraine-Related White Matter Hyperintensities After 3 Years: A Longitudinal MRI Study.
Headache
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate changes of migraine-related brain white matter hyperintensities 3 years after an initial study. Baseline quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of migraine patients with hemispheric white matter hyperintensities performed in 2009 demonstrated signs of tissue damage within the hyperintensities. The hyperintensities appeared most frequently in the deep white matter of the frontal lobe with a similar average hyperintensity size in all hemispheric lobes. Since in this patient group the repeated migraine attacks were the only known risk factors for the development of white matter hyperintensities, the remeasurements of migraineurs after a 3-year long follow-up may show changes in the status of these structural abnormalities as the effects of the repeated headaches.
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Alexithymia is associated with low level of vitamin D in young healthy adults.
Nutr Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Vitamin D plays an important role in brain development and functioning. Low levels of vitamin D have been described in several psychiatric and neurologic conditions including autism spectrum disorder. Alexithymia that shows high comorbidity with autism is also present in the general population as well as hypovitaminosis D.
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Intracranial volume inversely correlates with serum 25(OH)D level in healthy young women.
Nutr Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Objectives Vitamin D is important in normal brain development. In animals low vitamin D level is associated with brain morphological alterations including enlargement of the brain. Whether a similar association exists in humans is unknown. Here we investigated the relationship between vitamin D and total intracranial volume as well as total volume of the cortical grey and cerebral white matter and that of the ventricles in young healthy women. Methods To assess volumes we applied semi-automatic user-independent MR volumetry. For the vitamin D measurements automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay was used. Results We found a significant negative correlation between vitamin D and total intracranial volume as well as total cortical grey and cerebral white matter volumes. Discussion This association may reflect a trait-like relationship between vitamin D and brain size possibly determined in early development.
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Are there any gender differences in the hippocampus volume after head-size correction? A volumetric and voxel-based morphometric study.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Previous findings on normal sexual dimorphism in hippocampal volume have not always been consistent. This study investigated gender differences in hippocampal volume using different head-size correction strategies. T1-weighted MR images were collected in 99 healthy, Caucasian, university students (66 female subjects; mean age: 23.1 ± 2.3, range: 19-31 years). Sexual dimorphism in hippocampus was investigated by automated MRI volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using both general linear model (GLM) and proportion head-size correction strategies. Absolute hippocampal volumes were larger in men than women. After adjusting for head-size, the proportion method indicated larger hippocampi in women than men, while no gender differences were found using the GLM approach. Investigating absolute hippocampal volumes in 15 head-size matched pairs of males and females indicated no gender differences. We suggest that there is no sexual dimorphism in hippocampal size and the apparent gender differences found by the proportion method may have more to do with head-size than with sex. The GLM and proportion head-size correction strategies are not interchangeable and may yield different results. The importance of the present findings is mostly related to scientific reproducibility across MRI volumetry or VBM studies.
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Differentiating white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis and migraine using monoexponential and biexponential diffusion measurements.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To compare the white matter lesions seen in multiple sclerosis and migraine using monoexponential and high b-value biexponential diffusion measurements.
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Effects of spinal cord stimulation on heart rate variability in patients with chronic pain.
Ideggyogy Sz
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Spinal cord stimulation has become an established clinical option for treatment of refractory chronic pain and angina pectoris, but its precise mechanism of action is unclear. We investigated the effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) on heart rate variability (HRV) and evaluating its influence on the sympathetic/parasympathetic balance in chronic pain. MATERIALS AND PURPOSE: Seven patients (three men, four women) with SCS due to chronic pain were included. The SCS was programmed in three different ways: (i) to stimulate at an amplitude known to generate paresthesias (ON-state), (ii) at a subliminal level (SUB state), or (iii) switched off (OFF-state). HRV analysis was based on 5-min segments of the consecutive normal RR intervals and was performed with custom software (Kubios HRV Analysis).
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White-matter microstructure and language lateralization in left-handers: a whole-brain MRI analysis.
Brain Cogn
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Most people are left-hemisphere dominant for language. However the neuroanatomy of language lateralization is not fully understood. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we studied whether language lateralization is associated with cerebral white-matter (WM) microstructure. Sixteen healthy, left-handed women aged 20-25 were included in the study. Left-handers were targeted in order to increase the chances of involving subjects with atypical language lateralization. Language lateralization was determined by fMRI using a verbal fluency paradigm. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis of DTI data was applied to test for WM microstructural correlates of language lateralization across the whole brain. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were used as indicators of WM microstructural organization. Right-hemispheric language dominance was associated with reduced microstructural integrity of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and left-sided parietal lobe WM. In left-handed women, reduced integrity of the left-sided language related tracts may be closely linked to the development of right hemispheric language dominance. Our results may offer new insights into language lateralization and structure-function relationships in human language system.
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A Miniature Optical Neuronavigation System for CT-Guided Stereotaxy.
Stereotact Funct Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Background and Objective: Neuronavigation devices have progressed over the past 2 decades, but logistical limitations remain for many stereotactic procedures. We describe our technique and accuracy for a novel miniature optical tracking system which overcomes these limitations. Method: The minioptical tracking system uses a miniature video camera mounted on a rigid cannula to determine cannula location and orientation relative to a patient-attached sticker containing reference markers. A CT scan is used to register these markers to the anatomy and a user-selected target. A computer displays the cannula guidance information to the target. Bench testing was performed on 225 targets in a custom test phantom and additional testing was performed on 20 small targets in an anthropomorphic head phantom to determine the practical accuracy and workflow. Results: The phantom study demonstrated that 3-D navigation accuracy is 1.41 ± 0.53 mm. There was a 100% head phantom study success rate for the 20 small targets. Conclusions: The resulting accuracy data demonstrated good correlation with the CT data, and the clinical simulation workflow indicated its potential usefulness for common neurosurgical applications. Furthermore, this small-footprint tracking technology does not experience the traditional environmentally induced issues or the requirement of pin-based head fixation, allowing for use in the neurointensive care unit and the emergency department. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Neural correlates of Machiavellian strategies in a social dilemma task.
Brain Cogn
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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In spite of having deficits in various areas of social cognition, especially in mindreading, Machiavellian individuals are typically very successful in different tasks, including solving social dilemmas. We assume that a profound examination of neural structures associated with decision-making processes is needed to learn more about Machiavellians abilities in exploiting other people. More specifically, we predicted that high-Mach people would show elevated activity in the brain areas involved in reward-seeking, anticipation of risky situations, and inference making. To test this hypothesis, we used an fMRI technique to examine individuals as they played the Trust Game. In accordance with our predictions, we found consistent activation in high-Machs thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex (player 1), and dorsal anterior insula/inferior frontal gyrus (player 2). We suggest that Machiavellians conduct specific neural operations in social dilemma situations that make them successful in exploiting others. Machiavellians may have cognitive heuristics that enable them to make predictions about the future reward in a basically risky and unpredictable situation.
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Quantitative MRI analysis of the brain after twenty-two years of neuromyelitis optica indicates focal tissue damage.
Eur. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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The long-term effect of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) on the brain is not well established.
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Disconnection mechanism and regional cortical atrophy contribute to impaired processing of facial expressions and theory of mind in multiple sclerosis: a structural MRI study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Successful socialization requires the ability of understanding of others mental states. This ability called as mentalization (Theory of Mind) may become deficient and contribute to everyday life difficulties in multiple sclerosis. We aimed to explore the impact of brain pathology on mentalization performance in multiple sclerosis. Mentalization performance of 49 patients with multiple sclerosis was compared to 24 age- and gender matched healthy controls. T1- and T2-weighted three-dimensional brain MRI images were acquired at 3Tesla from patients with multiple sclerosis and 18 gender- and age matched healthy controls. We assessed overall brain cortical thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis and the scanned healthy controls, and measured the total and regional T1 and T2 white matter lesion volumes in patients with multiple sclerosis. Performances in tests of recognition of mental states and emotions from facial expressions and eye gazes correlated with both total T1-lesion load and regional T1-lesion load of association fiber tracts interconnecting cortical regions related to visual and emotion processing (genu and splenium of corpus callosum, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus). Both of these tests showed correlations with specific cortical areas involved in emotion recognition from facial expressions (right and left fusiform face area, frontal eye filed), processing of emotions (right entorhinal cortex) and socially relevant information (left temporal pole). Thus, both disconnection mechanism due to white matter lesions and cortical thinning of specific brain areas may result in cognitive deficit in multiple sclerosis affecting emotion and mental state processing from facial expressions and contributing to everyday and social life difficulties of these patients.
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[Functional MRI investigation of brain activity triggered by taste stimulation].
Magy Seb
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of morbid obesity, and the central nervous system - as one of those - also has an important role. Numerous studies focus on the central regulation of eating and metabolism, since associated problems like obesity, anorexia, diabetes or metabolic syndrome put an increasing burden on the health system of modern societies. Neither the pathophysiologic changes, nor the normal regulation of these systems are known adequately. Functional MR (fMRI) imaging, which has certainly gained popularity recently, aims to better understand these mechanisms. In this series we studied the brain fMRI activity changes of normal and obese persons, triggered by gustatory stimulation.
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Coffee consumption may influence hippocampal volume in young women.
Brain Imaging Behav
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Caffeine is the most often used psychoactive substance. Caffeine may influence neuroplasticity in animals. We investigated the relationship between caffeine intake (coffee consumption) and brain morphology. Forty-five healthy, non-smoking women aged 19-30 were included in the present study. We used semi-automatic user-independent MR volumetry and voxel-based morphometry. We investigated the relationship between caffeine intake (coffee consumption) and the volumes of the cortical brain structures where caffeine is supposed to act. We found that high-level and low-level caffeine intake was associated with a larger hippocampus compared to moderate-level caffeine intake. The other brain structures showed no association with coffee consumption or caffeine intake. The U-shape association between caffeine concentration and its effect has already been described in some experimental studies. To our knowledge this is one of the very first studies, which tries to find an association between brain morphology and coffee consumption or caffeine intake in humans using MR imaging.
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Reorganization of motor system in Parkinsons disease.
Eur. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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We investigated adaptive reorganization in Parkinsons disease (PD) by fMRI using a passive movement task and compared the brain activation patterns of 10 patients with left- versus right-sided dominant symptoms. Five healthy controls were also investigated with the same settings.
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Body weight and the reward system: the volume of the right amygdala may be associated with body mass index in young overweight men.
Brain Imaging Behav
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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We aimed to investigate the relationship between BMI (body mass index) and the volumes of the structures of the reward system (hippocampus, amygdala, accumbens, caudatum, putamen, and orbitofrontal cortex). The right and left structures were examined separately. Their volumes were assessed using a 3-T MRI scanner and Freesurfer software. Ninety-two healthy subjects were involved (mean BMI: 22.3?±?3.4 kg/m(2), mean age: 23.2?±?2.7). We found that the volume of the right amygdala positively correlated with the BMI in men but not in women. Moreover, we could demonstrate this association only in the overweight male sub-population. We suggest that an association between body weight and the morphological variability of the reward system can be demonstrated by MRI. This may be further evidence for a different body-weight regulation in the two sexes. The potential relationship between the volume of the right amygdala and the BMI in heavier individuals requires further studies with larger samples.
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The influence of benzamil hydrochloride on the evolution of hyponatremic brain edema as assessed by in vivo MRI study in rats.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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The present study was undertaken to reveal the influence of intracerebroventricular (ICV) benzamil on the dynamics of brain water accumulation in hyponatremic rats. Parameters of brain water homeostasis were continuously monitored, using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods. The results were compared with those obtained in a previous study by tissue desiccation.
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A biexponential DWI study in rat brain intracellular oedema.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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To examine the changes in MR parameters derived from diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) biexponential analysis in an in vivo intracellular brain oedema model, and to apply electron microscopy (EM) to shed more light on the morphological background of MR-related observations.
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Quantitative MRI studies of chronic brain white matter hyperintensities in migraine patients.
Headache
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The aim of this study was to examine chronic brain white matter hyperintensities in migraine and to gain data on the characteristics of the lesions.
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[Brain tissue water content determination based on T1 relaxation time of water and quantitative cerebral 1H MRS at 3T using water as an internal reference].
Ideggyogy Sz
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Application of a quantitative MR-spectroscopic method for 3T clinical scanners based on tissue water content as an internal reference.
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Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging in the acute and sub-acute phase of mild traumatic brain injury: can we see the difference?
J. Neurotrauma
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Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods were shown to be able to detect the subtle structural consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The objective of this study was to investigate the acute structural alterations and recovery after mTBI, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to reveal axonal pathology, volumetric analysis, and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) to detect microhemorrhage. Fourteen patients with mTBI who had computed tomography with negative results underwent MRI within 3 days and 1 month after injury. High resolution T1-weighted imaging, DTI, and SWI, were performed at both time points. A control group of 14 matched volunteers were also examined following the same imaging protocol and time interval. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) were performed on DTI data to reveal group differences. T1-weighted images were fed into Freesurfer volumetric analysis. TBSS showed fractional anisotropy (FA) to be significantly (corrected p<0.05) lower, and mean diffusivity (MD) to be higher in the mTBI group in several white matter tracts (FA=40,737; MD=39,078 voxels) compared with controls at 72 hours after injury and still 1month later for FA. Longitudinal analysis revealed significant change (i.e., normalization) of FA and MD over 1 month dominantly in the left hemisphere (FA=3408; MD=7450 voxels). A significant (p<0.05) decrease in cortical volumes (mean 1%) and increase in ventricular volumes (mean 3.4%) appeared at 1 month after injury in the mTBI group. SWI did not reveal microhemorrhage in our patients. Our findings present dynamic micro- and macrostructural changes occurring in the acute to sub-acute phase in mTBI, in very mildly injured patients lacking microhemorrhage detectable by SWI. These results underscore the importance of strictly defined image acquisition time points when performing MRI studies on patients with mTBI.
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Bi-exponential diffusion signal decay in normal appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis.
Magn Reson Imaging
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Our aim was to characterize bi-exponential diffusion signal changes in normal appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.
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Gustatory perception alterations in obesity: an fMRI study.
Brain Res.
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The background of feeding associated and metabolic diseases is not sufficiently understood yet. Since gustatory alterations may be of particular significance in the above illnesses, in the present experiments, cerebral activation was detected by fMRI in twelve obese patients and twelve, age and gender matched healthy subjects. The gustatory stimulus solutions were delivered via intraorally positioned polyvinyl tubes. Each session consisted of three runs. Sucrose was used as a pleasant; quinine HCl as an aversive; and a high-calorie, vanilla flavored nourishment solution as a complex taste of high palatability. In each run, only one taste was used as a stimulus. During all runs, distilled water served as a neutral stimulus. Group analysis was made by using the FSL software package. The taste stimuli elicited characteristic and distinct activity changes of the two groups. In contrast to the controls, in the obese patients, stronger activation was detected in various cortical (anterior cingulate cortex, insular and opercular cortices, orbitofrontal cortex) and subcortical (amygdala, nucleus accumbens, putamen and pallidum) structures in case of all three stimuli. The present examinations elucidated differential activation of various brain structures to pleasant and unpleasant gustatory stimuli in obese patients compared to control subjects. These taste alterations are supposed to be of particular significance in obesity, and our findings may contribute to develop better strategies for prevention and effective therapies in the future.
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Volumetric comparisons of supratentorial white matter hyperintensities on FLAIR MRI in patients with migraine and multiple sclerosis.
J Clin Neurosci
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Migraine and multiple sclerosis (MS) can both cause white matter lesions that appear similar on conventional MRI. This study aimed to compare these abnormalities, and to find anatomical biomarkers specific for migraine. Supratentorial white matter hyperintensities (WMH) of 17 migraineurs and 15 patients with MS were counted, volumetrically analyzed, and their lobar distribution assessed on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI. We found that migraine WMH affected mainly the deep white matter and subcortical U-fibers, belonged to the anterior circulation, appeared more frequently in the frontal and parietal lobes, showed no difference in average size between lobes, and were smaller and fewer than in MS. Most of the MS WMH were in the frontal lobe and were the smallest average size, while the fewest WMH with the largest size were in the occipital lobe. The pattern of supratentorial WMH appearance differs between the two groups; however, accurate differential diagnosis of WMH by conventional MRI is probably not possible in individual patients.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.