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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Essential role of IRF4 and MYC signaling for survival of anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a distinct entity of T-cell lymphoma that can be divided into two subtypes based on the presence of translocations involving the ALK gene (ALK+ and ALK- ALCL). The transcription factor IRF4 is known to be highly expressed in both ALK+ and ALK- ALCLs. However, the role of IRF4 in the pathogenesis of these lymphomas remains unclear. Here we show that ALCLs of both subtypes are addicted to IRF4 signaling, as knockdown of IRF4 by RNA interference was toxic to ALCL cell lines in vitro and in ALCL xenograft mouse models in vivo. Gene expression profiling following IRF4 knockdown demonstrated a significant downregulation of a variety of known MYC target genes. Our analyses furthermore revealed that MYC is a primary target of IRF4, identifying a novel regulatory mechanism of MYC expression and its target gene network in ALCL. MYC itself is essential for ALCL survival, as both knockdown of MYC as well as pharmacologic inhibition of MYC signaling was toxic to ALCL cell lines. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ALCLs are dependent on IRF4 and MYC signaling and that MYC might represent a promising target for future therapies.
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Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphomas of Immunoblastic Type Are a Major Reservoir for MYC-IGH Translocations.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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The immunoblastic variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (IB-DLBCL) has recently been recognized as an aggressive lymphoma type with inferior prognosis as compared with other DLBCL variants. At the same time, the presence of MYC rearrangements in DLBCL has been shown to indicate shorter survival in R-CHOP-treated patients. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of MYC gene rearrangements in IB-DLBCL versus non-IB-DLBCL in a large series. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization with an MYC break-apart and MYC-IGH fusion probe, we found that 13/39 evaluable IB-DLBCLs (33%) harbor translocations involving MYC, in contrast with only 5/68 (7%) in the non-IB-DLBCL group (P<0.01). The immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH) was the translocation partner in all rearrangements (100%) involving MYC in IB-DLBCL, which is in contrast to what has been reported for DLBCL in the literature (50% to 70%). Moreover, MYC rearrangements occurred as the sole translocation in the majority of cases (77%), whereas across all DLBCLs the majority of MYC-rearranged cases carry additional rearrangements of either BCL2 and/or BCL6 genes (between 58% and 83% of cases). Finally, MYC-rearranged IB-DLBCLs were CD10 positive in 62% (8/13), whereas this was an uncommon feature in MYC germline IB-DLBCLs (15%). In conclusion, IB-DLBCLs are genetically characterized by frequent MYC-IGH translocations that often occur without additional BCL2 and/or BCL6 translocations. The activation of MYC, therefore, may be an important pathogenetic feature in IB-DLBCL.
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Recurrent mutations of NOTCH genes in follicular lymphoma identify a distinctive subset of tumours.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Follicular lymphoma (FL) is one of the most common malignant lymphomas. The t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation is found in about 80% of cases and plays an important role in lymphomagenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the development and transformation of this lymphoma are not fully understood. Gain-of-function mutations of NOTCH1 or NOTCH2 have recently been reported in several B cell lymphoid neoplasms but the role of these mutations in FL is not known. In this study we investigated the mutational status of these genes in 112 FLs. NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 mutations were identified in five and two cases, respectively (total 7/112, 6.3%). All mutations predicted for truncated protein in the PEST domain and were identical to those identified in other B cell lymphoid neoplasms. NOTCH-mutated FL cases were characterized by lower frequency of t(14;18) (14% versus 69%, p = 0.01), higher incidence of splenic involvement (71% versus 25%, p = 0.02) and female predominance (100% versus 55%, p = 0.04). A diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) component was more frequently identified in NOTCH-mutated FL than in wild-type cases (57% versus 18%, p = 0.03). These results indicate that NOTCH mutations are uncommon in FL but may occur in a subset of cases with distinctive, characteristic, clinicopathological features. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Loss of signalling via G?13 in germinal centre B-cell-derived lymphoma.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Germinal centre B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (GCB-DLBCL) is a common malignancy, yet the signalling pathways that are deregulated and the factors leading to its systemic dissemination are poorly defined. Work in mice showed that sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-2 (S1PR2), a G?12 and G?13 coupled receptor, promotes growth regulation and local confinement of germinal centre B cells. Recent deep sequencing studies of GCB-DLBCL have revealed mutations in many genes in this cancer, including in GNA13 (encoding G?13) and S1PR2 (refs 5,6, 7). Here we show, using in vitro and in vivo assays, that GCB-DLBCL-associated mutations occurring in S1PR2 frequently disrupt the receptor's Akt and migration inhibitory functions. G?13-deficient mouse germinal centre B cells and human GCB-DLBCL cells were unable to suppress pAkt and migration in response to S1P, and G?13-deficient mice developed germinal centre B-cell-derived lymphoma. Germinal centre B cells, unlike most lymphocytes, are tightly confined in lymphoid organs and do not recirculate. Remarkably, deficiency in G?13, but not S1PR2, led to germinal centre B-cell dissemination into lymph and blood. GCB-DLBCL cell lines frequently carried mutations in the G?13 effector ARHGEF1, and Arhgef1 deficiency also led to germinal centre B-cell dissemination. The incomplete phenocopy of G?13- and S1PR2 deficiency led us to discover that P2RY8, an orphan receptor that is mutated in GCB-DLBCL and another germinal centre B-cell-derived malignancy, Burkitt's lymphoma, also represses germinal centre B-cell growth and promotes confinement via G?13. These findings identify a G?13-dependent pathway that exerts dual actions in suppressing growth and blocking dissemination of germinal centre B cells that is frequently disrupted in germinal centre B-cell-derived lymphoma.
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Histopathological features and their prognostic impact in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma--a matched pair analysis from the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG).
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare lymphoma entity. We performed a matched-pair analysis to evaluate the prognostic impact of several histopathological features in this distinct Hodgkin lymphoma subtype. Lymph node samples of NLPHL patients were tested for CD15, IgD, phosphorylated STAT6, ICOS and Epstein-Barr virus status of the malignant lymphocyte-predominant cells as well as epithelioid cell clusters and activated T cells in the microenvironment. None of these features was associated with a particular clinical outcome. However, patients presenting with epithelioid cell clusters showed a non-significant trend towards a lower relapse rate, justifying further evaluation of this marker.
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Gene expression signatures delineate biological and prognostic subgroups in peripheral T-cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) encompasses a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with generally poor clinical outcome. Currently 50% of PTCL cases are not classifiable: PTCL-not otherwise specified (NOS). Gene-expression profiles on 372 PTCL cases were analyzed and robust molecular classifiers and oncogenic pathways that reflect the pathobiology of tumor cells and their microenvironment were identified for major PTCL-entities, including 114 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), 31 anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive and 48 ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma, 14 adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and 44 extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma that were further separated into NK-cell and gdT-cell lymphomas. Thirty-seven percent of morphologically diagnosed PTCL-NOS cases were reclassified into other specific subtypes by molecular signatures. Reexamination, immunohistochemistry, and IDH2 mutation analysis in reclassified cases supported the validity of the reclassification. Two major molecular subgroups can be identified in the remaining PTCL-NOS cases characterized by high expression of either GATA3 (33%; 40/121) or TBX21 (49%; 59/121). The GATA3 subgroup was significantly associated with poor overall survival (P = .01). High expression of cytotoxic gene-signature within the TBX21 subgroup also showed poor clinical outcome (P = .05). In AITL, high expression of several signatures associated with the tumor microenvironment was significantly associated with outcome. A combined prognostic score was predictive of survival in an independent cohort (P = .004).
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The reliability of immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor microenvironment in follicular lymphoma: a validation study from the Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The cellular microenvironment in follicular lymphoma is of biological and clinical importance. Studies on the clinical significance of non-malignant cell populations have generated conflicting results, which may partly be influenced by poor reproducibility in immunohistochemical marker quantification. In this study, the reproducibility of manual scoring and automated microscopy based on a tissue microarray of 25 follicular lymphomas as compared to flow cytometry is evaluated. The agreement between manual scoring and flow cytometry was moderate for CD3, low for CD4, and moderate to high for CD8, with some laboratories scoring closer to the flow cytometry results. Agreement in manual quantification across the 7 laboratories was low to moderate for CD3, CD4, CD8 and FOXP3 frequencies, moderate for CD21, low for MIB1 and CD68, and high for CD10. Manual scoring of the architectural distribution resulted in moderate agreement for CD3, CD4 and CD8, and low agreement for FOXP3 and CD68. Comparing manual scoring to automated microscopy demonstrated that manual scoring increased the variability in the low and high frequency interval with some laboratories showing a better agreement with automated scores. Manual scoring reliably identified rare architectural patterns of T-cell infiltrates. Automated microscopy analyses for T-cell markers by two different instruments were highly reproducible and provided acceptable agreement with flow cytometry. These validation results provide explanations for the heterogeneous findings on the prognostic value of the microenvironment in follicular lymphoma. We recommend a more objective measurement, such as computer-assisted scoring, in future studies of the prognostic impact of microenvironment in follicular lymphoma patients.
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Detection of rearrangements and transcriptional up-regulation of ALK in FFPE lung cancer specimens using a novel, sensitive, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The approved dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test for the detection of anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is complex and represents a low-throughput assay difficult to use in daily diagnostic practice. We devised a sensitive and robust routine diagnostic test for the detection of rearrangements and transcriptional up-regulation of ALK.
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Essential role of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex in lymphoma revealed by rare germline polymorphisms.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Constitutive activation of NF-?B is a hallmark of the activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), owing to upstream signals from the B-cell receptor (BCR) and MYD88 pathways. The linear polyubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) attaches linear polyubiquitin chains to I?B kinase-?, a necessary event in some pathways that engage NF-?B. Two germline polymorphisms affecting the LUBAC subunit RNF31 are rare among healthy individuals (?1%) but enriched in ABC DLBCL (7.8%). These polymorphisms alter RNF31 ?-helices that mediate binding to the LUBAC subunit RBCK1, thereby increasing RNF31-RBCK1 association, LUBAC enzymatic activity, and NF-?B engagement. In the BCR pathway, LUBAC associates with the CARD11-MALT1-BCL10 adapter complex and is required for ABC DLBCL viability. A stapled RNF31 ?-helical peptide based on the ABC DLBCL-associated Q622L polymorphism inhibited RNF31-RBCK1 binding, decreased NF-?B activation, and killed ABC DLBCL cells, credentialing this protein-protein interface as a therapeutic target.
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Gastrointestinal involvement in granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis: histological features and outcome.
Int J Rheum Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) or microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is rare.
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Determining cell-of-origin subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using gene expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The assignment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma into cell-of-origin (COO) groups is becoming increasingly important with the emergence of novel therapies that have selective biological activity in germinal center B cell-like or activated B cell-like groups. The Lymphoma/Leukemia Molecular Profiling Project's Lymph2Cx assay is a parsimonious digital gene expression (NanoString)-based test for COO assignment in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET). The 20-gene assay was trained using 51 FFPET biopsies; the locked assay was then validated using an independent cohort of 68 FFPET biopsies. Comparisons were made with COO assignment using the original COO model on matched frozen tissue. In the validation cohort, the assay was accurate, with only 1 case with definitive COO being incorrectly assigned, and robust, with >95% concordance of COO assignment between 2 independent laboratories. These qualities, along with the rapid turnaround time, make Lymph2Cx attractive for implementation in clinical trials and, ultimately, patient management.
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BCL2 antibodies targeted at different epitopes detect varying levels of protein expression and correlate with frequent gene amplification in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Patients with aggressive, BCL2 protein-positive (+) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) often experience rapid disease progression that is refractory to standard therapy. However, there is potential for false-negative staining of BCL2 using the standard monoclonal mouse 124 antibody that hinders the identification of these high-risk DLBCL patients. Herein, we compare 2 alternative rabbit monoclonal antibodies (E17 and SP66) to the 124 clone in staining for BCL2 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded DLBCL tissues. Overall, in 2 independent DLBCL cohorts, E17 and SP66 detected BCL2 expression more frequently than 124. In the context of MYC expression, cases identified as BCL2 (+) with SP66 demonstrated the strongest correlation with worse overall survival. The 124 clone failed to detect BCL2 expression in the majority of translocation (+), amplification (+), and activated B-cell DLBCL cases in which high levels of BCL2 protein are expected. Using dual in situ hybridization as a new tool to detect BCL2 translocation and amplification, we observed similar results as previously reported for fluorescence in situ hybridization for translocation but a higher amplification frequency, indicating that BCL2 amplification may be underreported in DLBCL. Among the discrepant cases, phosphorylation of BCL2 at T69 and/or S70 was more common than in the concordant cases and may contribute to the 124 false negatives, in addition to previously associated mutations within the epitope region. The accurate detection of BCL2 expression is important in the prognosis and treatment of DLBCL particularly with new anti-BCL2 therapies.
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Detection of Puumala hantavirus antigen in human intestine during acute hantavirus infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Puumala virus (PUUV) is the most important hantavirus species in Central Europe. Nephropathia epidemica (NE), caused by PUUV, is characterized by acute renal injury (AKI) with thrombocytopenia and frequently gastrointestinal symptoms.
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Numerical and structural genomic aberrations are reliably detectable in tissue microarrays of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples by fluorescence in-situ hybridization.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Few data are available regarding the reliability of fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), especially for chromosomal deletions, in high-throughput settings using tissue microarrays (TMAs). We performed a comprehensive FISH study for the detection of chromosomal translocations and deletions in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens arranged in TMA format. We analyzed 46 B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL) specimens with known karyotypes for translocations of IGH-, BCL2-, BCL6- and MYC-genes. Locus-specific DNA probes were used for the detection of deletions in chromosome bands 6q21 and 9p21 in 62 follicular lymphomas (FL) and six malignant mesothelioma (MM) samples, respectively. To test for aberrant signals generated by truncation of nuclei following sectioning of FFPE tissue samples, cell line dilutions with 9p21-deletions were embedded into paraffin blocks. The overall TMA hybridization efficiency was 94%. FISH results regarding translocations matched karyotyping data in 93%. As for chromosomal deletions, sectioning artefacts occurred in 17% to 25% of cells, suggesting that the proportion of cells showing deletions should exceed 25% to be reliably detectable. In conclusion, FISH represents a robust tool for the detection of structural as well as numerical aberrations in FFPE tissue samples in a TMA-based high-throughput setting, when rigorous cut-off values and appropriate controls are maintained, and, of note, was superior to quantitative PCR approaches.
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Understanding MYC-driven aggressive B-cell lymphomas: pathogenesis and classification.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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MYC is a potent oncogene initially identified as the target of the t(8;14)(q24;q32) chromosome translocation in Burkitt lymphoma. MYC gene alterations have been identified in other mature B-cell neoplasms that are usually associated with an aggressive clinical behavior. Most of these tumors originate in cells that do not normally express MYC protein. The oncogenic events leading to MYC up-regulation seem to overcome the inhibitory effect of physiological repressors such as BCL6 or BLIMP1. Aggressive lymphomas frequently carry additional oncogenic alterations that cooperate with MYC dysregulation, likely counteracting its proapoptotic function. The development of FISH probes and new reliable antibodies have facilitated the study of MYC gene alterations and protein expression in large series of patients, providing new clinical and biological perspectives regarding MYC dysregulation in aggressive lymphomas. MYC gene alterations in large B-cell lymphomas are frequently associated with BCL2 or BCL6 translocations conferring a very aggressive behavior. Conversely, MYC protein up-regulation may occur in tumors without apparent gene alterations, and its association with BCL2 overexpression also confers a poor prognosis. In this review, we integrate all of this new information and discuss perspectives, challenges, and open questions for the diagnosis and management of patients with MYC-driven aggressive B-cell lymphomas.
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Activation of the STAT3 Signaling Pathway Is Associated With Poor Survival in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With R-CHOP.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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We previously reported that constitutive STAT3 activation is a prominent feature of the activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (ABC-DLBCL). In this study, we investigated whether STAT3 activation can risk stratify patients with DLBCL.
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Biologic characterization of adult MYC-translocation positive mature B-cell lymphomas other than molecular Burkitt lymphoma.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Chromosomal translocations affecting the MYC oncogene are the biologic hallmark of Burkitt lymphomas but also occur in a subset of other mature B-cell lymphomas. If accompanied by a chromosomal break targeting the BCL2 and/or BCL6 oncogene these MYC translocation positive (MYC+) lymphomas are called double-hit lymphomas, otherwise the term single-hit lymphomas is applied. In order to characterize the biologic features of these MYC+ lymphomas other than Burkitt lymphoma we explored, after exclusion of molecular Burkitt lymphoma as defined by gene expression profiling, the molecular, pathological and clinical aspects of 80 MYC-translocation positive lymphomas (31 single-hit, 46 double-hit & 3 MYC+-lymphomas with unknown BCL6 status). Comparison of single-hit and double-hit lymphomas revealed no difference in MYC partner (IG/non-IG), genomic complexity, MYC expression or gene expression profile. Double-hit lymphomas showed more frequent GCB-like gene expression profile and higher IGH and MYC mutation frequencies. Gene expression profiling revealed 130 differentially expressed genes between BCL6+/MYC+ and BCL2+/MYC+ double-hit lymphomas. BCL2+/MYC+ double-hit lymphomas showed a more frequent GCB-like gene expression profile. Analysis of all lymphomas according to MYC partner (IG/non-IG) revealed no substantial differences. In this series of lymphomas, in which immunochemotherapy was administered in only a minority of cases, single-hit and double-hit lymphomas had a similar poor outcome in contrast with molecular Burkitt lymphoma and lymphomas without MYC break. Our data suggest that, after excluding molecular Burkitt lymphoma and pediatric cases, MYC+ lymphomas are biologically quite homogenous with single-hit and double-hit lymphomas as well as IG-MYC and non-IG-MYC+ lymphomas sharing various molecular characteristics.
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Landscape of somatic mutations and clonal evolution in mantle cell lymphoma.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive tumor, but a subset of patients may follow an indolent clinical course. To understand the mechanisms underlying this biological heterogeneity, we performed whole-genome and/or whole-exome sequencing on 29 MCL cases and their respective matched normal DNA, as well as 6 MCL cell lines. Recurrently mutated genes were investigated by targeted sequencing in an independent cohort of 172 MCL patients. We identified 25 significantly mutated genes, including known drivers such as ataxia-telangectasia mutated (ATM), cyclin D1 (CCND1), and the tumor suppressor TP53; mutated genes encoding the anti-apoptotic protein BIRC3 and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2); and the chromatin modifiers WHSC1, MLL2, and MEF2B. We also found NOTCH2 mutations as an alternative phenomenon to NOTCH1 mutations in aggressive tumors with a dismal prognosis. Analysis of two simultaneous or subsequent MCL samples by whole-genome/whole-exome (n = 8) or targeted (n = 19) sequencing revealed subclonal heterogeneity at diagnosis in samples from different topographic sites and modulation of the initial mutational profile at the progression of the disease. Some mutations were predominantly clonal or subclonal, indicating an early or late event in tumor evolution, respectively. Our study identifies molecular mechanisms contributing to MCL pathogenesis and offers potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
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The prognostic impact of variant histology in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG).
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) accounts for approximately 5% of all Hodgkin lymphoma cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic implication of histopathologic NLPHL variants. Biopsies of 423 NLPHL patients treated within 9 prospective clinical trials performed by the German Hodgkin Study Group were classified as tumor cell-rich cases (n = 10), typical NLPHL (n = 308), or histopathologic variants (n = 105). Histopathologic variants were characterized by the presence of lymphoma cells outside the B-cell nodules or B-cell depletion of the microenvironment. Compared with typical NLPHL, histopathologic variants were associated with advanced disease (29.5% vs 14.6%, P = .0012) and a higher relapse rate (18.1% vs 6.5% at 5 years, P = .0009). Variant histology represented an independent prognostic factor (odds ratio = 2.955) in a multivariate model of progression/relapse. A prognostic score, including the risk factors variant histopathologic growth pattern, low serum albumin, and male gender, was derived from this model and allowed the definition of 3 distinct risk groups. NLPHL patients presenting with histopathologic variants have a poorer outcome compared with those showing typical histology. The newly developed prognostic score combining histologic and clinical features allows allocating NLPHL patients to defined risk groups.
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EZH2 mutations are frequent and represent an early event in follicular lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Gain of function mutations in the H3K27 methyltransferase EZH2 represent a promising therapeutic target in germinal center lymphomas. In this study, we assessed the frequency and distribution of EZH2 mutations in a large cohort of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) (n = 366) and performed a longitudinal analysis of mutation during the disease progression from FL to transformed FL (tFL) (n = 33). Mutations were detected at 3 recurrent mutation hot spots (Y646, A682, and A692) in 27% of FL cases with variant allele frequencies (VAF) ranging from 2% to 61%. By comparing VAF of EZH2 with other mutation targets (CREBBP, MLL2, TNFRSF14, and MEF2B), we were able to distinguish patients harboring clonal EZH2 mutation from rarer cases with subclonal mutations. Overall, the high incidence of EZH2 mutations in FL and their stability during disease progression makes FL an appropriate disease to evaluate EZH2 targeted therapy.
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Genome-wide copy number analyses reveal genomic abnormalities involved in transformation of follicular lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Follicular lymphoma (FL), the second most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the western world, is characterized by the t(14;18) translocation, which is present in up to 90% of cases. We studied 277 lymphoma samples [198 FL and 79 transformed FL (tFL)] using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to identify the secondary chromosomal abnormalities that drive the development of FL and its transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Common recurrent chromosomal abnormalities in FL included gains of 2, 5, 7, 6p, 8, 12, 17q, 18, 21, and X and losses on 6q and 17p. We also observed many frequent small abnormalities, including losses of 1p36.33-p36.31, 6q23.3-q24.1, and 10q23.1-q25.1 and gains of 2p16.1-p15, 8q24.13-q24.3, and 12q12-q13.13, and identified candidate genes that may be driving this selection. Recurrent abnormalities more frequent in tFL samples included gains of 3q27.3-q28 and chromosome 11 and losses of 9p21.3 and 15q. Four abnormalities, gain of X or Xp and losses of 6q23.2-24.1 or 6q13-15, predicted overall survival. Abnormalities associated with transformation of the disease likely impair immune surveillance, activate the NF-?B pathway, and deregulate p53 and B-cell transcription factors.
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Understanding MYC-driven aggressive B-cell lymphomas: pathogenesis and classification.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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MYC is a potent oncogene initially identified as the target of the t(8;14)(q24;q32) chromosome translocation in Burkitt lymphoma. MYC gene alterations have been identified in other mature B-cell neoplasms that are usually associated with an aggressive clinical behavior. Most of these tumors originate in cells that do not normally express MYC protein. The oncogenic events leading to MYC up-regulation seem to overcome the inhibitory effect of physiological repressors such as BCL6 or BLIMP1. Aggressive lymphomas frequently carry additional oncogenic alterations that cooperate with MYC dysregulation, likely counteracting its proapoptotic function. The development of FISH probes and new reliable antibodies have facilitated the study of MYC gene alterations and protein expression in large series of patients, providing new clinical and biological perspectives regarding MYC dysregulation in aggressive lymphomas. MYC gene alterations in large B-cell lymphomas are frequently associated with BCL2 or BCL6 translocations conferring a very aggressive behavior. Conversely, MYC protein up-regulation may occur in tumors without apparent gene alterations, and its association with BCL2 overexpression also confers a poor prognosis. In this review, we integrate all of this new information and discuss perspectives, challenges, and open questions for the diagnosis and management of patients with MYC-driven aggressive B-cell lymphomas.
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Two main genetic pathways lead to the transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia to Richter syndrome.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Richter syndrome (RS) occurs in up to 15% of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although RS, usually represented by the histologic transformation to a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), is associated with a very poor outcome, especially when clonally related to the preexisting CLL, the mechanisms leading to RS have not been clarified. To better understand the pathogenesis of RS, we analyzed a series of cases including 59 RS, 28 CLL phase of RS, 315 CLL, and 127 de novo DLBCL. RS demonstrated a genomic complexity intermediate between CLL and DLBCL. Cell-cycle deregulation via inactivation of TP53 and of CDKN2A was a main mechanism in the histologic transformation from CLL phase, being present in approximately one half of the cases, and affected the outcome of the RS patients. A second major subgroup was characterized by the presence of trisomy 12 and comprised one third of the cases. Although RS shared some of the lesions seen in de novo DLBCL, its genomic profile was clearly separate. The CLL phase preceding RS had not a generalized increase in genomic complexity compared with untransformed CLL, but it presented clear differences in the frequency of specific genetic lesions.
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Primary Pulmonary Synovial Sarcoma: A Rare Primary Pulmonary Tumor.
Lung
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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Pulmonary sarcomas overall are very uncommon and comprise only 0.5 % of all primary lung malignancies. The diagnosis is established only after sarcoma-like primary lung malignancies and a metastatic extrathoracic sarcoma have been excluded. Synovial sarcoma accounts for ~8 % of soft-tissue sarcomas. Synovial sarcoma arising from the pleura has rarely been reported.
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Corticomedullary differentiation and maturational arrest in thymomas.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Morphological complexity hampers the histological classification of thymomas. Our aim was to determine whether the use of novel differentiation and maturation markers of cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (cTECs and mTECs) might provide an approach to understanding the underlying biology of these tumours.
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microRNA expression profiles identify subtypes of mantle cell lymphoma with different clinicobiological characteristics.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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microRNAs (miRNA) are posttranscriptional gene regulators that may be useful as diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers. We aim to study the expression profiles of a high number of miRNAs and their relationship with clinicopathologic and biologic relevant features in leukemic mantle cell lymphomas (MCL).
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Genome-wide methylation analyses identify a subset of mantle cell lymphoma with a high number of methylated CpGs and aggressive clinicopathological features.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a B-cell neoplasm with an aggressive clinical behavior characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) and cyclin D1 overexpression. To clarify the potential contribution of altered DNA methylation in the development and/or progression of MCL, we performed genome-wide methylation profiling of a large cohort of primary MCL tumors (n = 132), MCL cell lines (n = 6) and normal lymphoid tissue samples (n = 31), using the Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. DNA methylation was compared to gene expression, chromosomal alterations and clinicopathological parameters. Primary MCL displayed a heterogeneous methylation pattern dominated by DNA hypomethylation when compared to normal lymphoid samples. A total of 454 hypermethylated and 875 hypomethylated genes were identified as differentially methylated in at least 10% of primary MCL. Annotation analysis of hypermethylated genes recognized WNT pathway inhibitors and several tumor suppressor genes as frequently methylated, and a substantial fraction of these genes (22%) showed a significant downregulation of their transcriptional levels. Furthermore, we identified a subset of tumors with extensive CpG methylation that had an increased proliferation signature, higher number of chromosomal alterations and poor prognosis. Our results suggest that a subset of MCL displays a dysregulation of DNA methylation characterized by the accumulation of CpG hypermethylation highly associated with increased proliferation that may influence the clinical behavior of the tumors.
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Somatic hypermutation analysis in follicular lymphoma provides evidence suggesting bidirectional cell migration between lymph node and bone marrow during disease progression and relapse.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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In follicular lymphoma, somatic hypermutation of the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes facilitates the identification of different lymphoma cell clones, and the construction of genealogical trees. To investigate the dissemination of lymphoma cells, and the role of bone marrow in disease progression, we simultaneously analyzed the somatic hypermutation patterns of lymph node and bone marrow specimens taken from three patients at onset and relapse of their disease. Immunoglobulin heavy chain genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, cloned and sequenced. Mutational pedigrees were constructed in a hierarchical order. When direct transition of one mutation pattern into that of a successor clones was not feasible, hypothetical predecessor clones were created, and a probability measurement calculation was introduced. Eighty-five sequenced clones were generated. The average mutation rates were 13.45% for the lymph node specimens, and 9.78% for the bone marrow ones. Forty-two hypothetical predecessor clones were introduced into inter-compartment pedigrees. The genealogical trees showed that early lymphoma clones with a low mutational load quickly migrate from lymph nodes into the bone marrow. Bi-directional lymphoma cell migration was detectable between the two compartments. In one case of follicular lymphoma, a clone identical to the initial lymph node clone was detected 2 years later in the bone marrow. The newly introduced algorithm allows the evaluation of both time and direction of follicular lymphoma cell migration. We found evidence that follicular lymphoma originates in the lymph node, and infiltrates the bone marrow early in the course of the disease. Moreover, inter-compartment migration between lymph nodes and bone marrow occurs in both directions.
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Postoperative survival of lung cancer patients: are there predictors beyond TNM?
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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We report on survival data of 595 patients with stage I-III lung cancer with respect to TNM classification.
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Analysis of ?-klotho, fibroblast growth factor-, vitamin-D and calcium-sensing receptor in 70 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
Kidney Blood Press. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) is known as a very common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease, and G-protein-coupled calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), Vitamin D receptor (VDR) and Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)/Klotho complexes seem to be involved in its development.
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Related F-box proteins control cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans and human lymphoma.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Cell death is a common metazoan cell fate, and its inactivation is central to human malignancy. In Caenorhabditis elegans, apoptotic cell death occurs via the activation of the caspase CED-3 following binding of the EGL-1/BH3-only protein to the antiapoptotic CED-9/BCL2 protein. Here we report a major alternative mechanism for caspase activation in vivo involving the F-box protein DRE-1. DRE-1 functions in parallel to EGL-1, requires CED-9 for activity, and binds to CED-9, suggesting that DRE-1 promotes apoptosis by inactivating CED-9. FBXO10, a human protein related to DRE-1, binds BCL2 and promotes its degradation, thereby initiating cell death. Moreover, some human diffuse large B-cell lymphomas have inactivating mutations in FBXO10 or express FBXO10 at low levels. Our results suggest that DRE-1/FBXO10 is a conserved regulator of apoptosis.
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Interobserver agreement of proliferation index (Ki-67) outperforms mitotic count in pulmonary carcinoids.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Evaluation of proliferative activity is a cornerstone in the classification of endocrine tumors; in pulmonary carcinoids, the mitotic count delineates typical carcinoid (TC) from atypical carcinoid (AC). Data on the reproducibility of manual mitotic counting and other methods of proliferation index evaluation in this tumor entity are sparse. Nine experienced pulmonary pathologists evaluated 20 carcinoid tumors for mitotic count (hematoxylin and eosin) and Ki-67 index. In addition, Ki-67 index was automatically evaluated with a software-based algorithm. Results were compared with respect to correlation coefficients (CC) and kappa values for clinically relevant grouping algorithms. Evaluation of mitotic activity resulted in a low interobserver agreement with a median CC of 0.196 and a median kappa of 0.213 for the delineation of TC from AC. The median CC for hotspot (0.658) and overall (0.746) Ki-67 evaluation was considerably higher. However, kappa values for grouped comparisons of overall Ki-67 were only fair (median 0.323). The agreement of manual and automated Ki-67 evaluation was good (median CC 0.851, median kappa 0.805) and was further increased when more than one participant evaluated a given case. Ki-67 staining clearly outperforms mitotic count with respect to interobserver agreement in pulmonary carcinoids, with the latter having an unacceptable low performance status. Manual evaluation of Ki-67 is reliable, and consistency further increases with more than one evaluator per case. Although the prognostic value needs further validation, Ki-67 might perspectively be considered a helpful diagnostic parameter to optimize the separation of TC from AC.
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Phenotypes of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis--macroscopic appearance, histologic findings, and outcome.
Perit Dial Int
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare but devastating complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD), with clinical signs of abdominal pain, bowel obstruction, and weight loss in late stages.
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Colorimetric in situ hybridization identifies MYC gene signal clusters correlating with increased copy number, mRNA, and protein in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Abnormalities of the MYC oncogene on chromosome 8 are characteristic of Burkitt lymphoma and other aggressive B-cell lymphomas, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We recently described a colorimetric in situ hybridization (CISH) method for detecting extra copies of the MYC gene in DLBCL and the frequent occurrence of excess copies of discrete MYC signals in the context of diploidy or polyploidy of chromosome 8, which correlated with increased mRNA signals. We further observed enlarged MYC signals, which were counted as a single gene copy but, by their dimension and unusual shape, likely consisted of "clusters" of MYC genes. In this study, we sought to further characterize these clusters of MYC signals by determining whether the presence of these correlated with other genetic features, mRNA levels, protein, and overall survival. We found that MYC clusters correlated with an abnormal MYC locus and with increased mRNA. MYC mRNA correlated with protein levels, and both increased mRNA and protein correlated with poorer overall survival. MYC clusters were seen in both the germinal center and activated B-cell subtypes of DLBCL. Clusters of MYC signals may be an underappreciated, but clinically important, feature of aggressive B-cell lymphomas with potential prognostic and therapeutic relevance.
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MYC status in concert with BCL2 and BCL6 expression predicts outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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MYC rearrangements occur in 5% to 10% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and confer an increased risk to cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin, and prednisone (CHOP) and rituximab (R)-CHOP treated patients. We investigated the prognostic relevance of MYC-, BCL2- and BCL6-rearrangements and protein expression in a prospective randomized trial. Paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 442 de novo DLBCL treated within the RICOVER study of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL) were investigated using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect protein expression and breaks of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6. Rearrangements of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 were detected in 8.8%, 13.5%, and 28.7%, respectively. Protein overexpression of MYC (>40%) was encountered in 31.8% of tumors; 79.6% and 82.8% of tumors expressed BCL2 and BCL6, respectively. MYC translocations, MYChigh, BCL2high, and BCL6low protein expressions were associated with inferior survival. In multivariate Cox regression modeling, protein expression patterns of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6, and MYC rearrangements were predictive of outcome and provided prognostic information independent of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) for overall survival and event-free survival. A combined immunohistochemical or FISH/immunohistochemical score predicts outcome in DLBCL patients independent of the IPI and identifies a subset of 15% of patients with dismal prognosis in the high-risk IPI group following treatment with R-CHOP. Registered at http://www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials: RICOVER trial of the DSHNHL is NCT 00052936.
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Involvement of ?-klotho, fibroblast growth factor-, vitamin-D- and calcium-sensing receptor in 53 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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The presentation of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism is often atypical and ranges from normocalcemic, primary hyperparathyroidism to severe, symptomatic hypercalcemia. G-protein-coupled, calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)/klotho complexes seem to be involved in the development of pHPT. Parathyroid glands from 53 patients with pHPT and normal parathyroid tissue from 7 patients were obtained during parathyroidectomy. Conventional detailed morphological and immunohistochemical analyses of parathyroid glands were performed after dividing each slide in a 3 × 3 array. From morphology, the number of lipocytes was significantly lower in parathyroid tissue glands in the pHPT group (p < 0.001). Protein expressions of klotho, CaSR, and VDR were significantly reduced in the pHPT compared with the control group (p = 0.004, p = 0.007, p < 0.001). No differences were seen between the two groups (p = 0.35) regarding expression of FGFR. Correlations between expression showed significant positively correlations between klotho and CaSR and FGFR and VDR. No correlations between klotho expression and serum calcium levels could be detected (R = -0.13, p = 0.66), but there were positive correlations between expressions of CaSR/serum phosphate and klotho/serum phosphate. Impaired protein expression of CaSR and VDR seem to be involved in the development of pHPT. The role of the FGFR/klotho-axis remains still unclear. Correlations between protein expression of CaSR and serum phosphate and klotho and serum phosphate levels could be detected. Whether these findings give new insights into the pathogenesis of the disease is yet unknown and has to be elucidated.
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Gastric antimicrobial peptides fail to eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection due to selective induction and resistance.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Although antimicrobial peptides protect mucus and mucosa from bacteria, Helicobacter pylori is able to colonize the gastric mucus. To clarify in which extend Helicobacter escapes the antimicrobial defense, we systematically assessed susceptibility and expression levels of different antimicrobial host factors in gastric mucosa with and without H. pylori infection.
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MicroRNA profiles of t(14;18)-negative follicular lymphoma support a late germinal center B-cell phenotype.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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A total of 90% of follicular lymphomas (FLs) harbor the translocation t(14;18) leading to deregulated BCL2 expression. Conversely, 10% of FLs lack the t(14;18), and the majority of these FLs do not express BCL2. The molecular features of t(14;18)-negative FLs remain largely unknown. We performed microRNA expression analysis in 32 FL grades 1 to 3A, including 17 t(14;18)-positive FLs, 9 t(14;18)-negative FLs without BCL2 expression, and 6 t(14;18)-negative FLs with BCL2 expression. MicroRNA profiles were correlated with corresponding mRNA expression patterns, and potential targets were investigated by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry in an independent validation series of 83 FLs. Statistical analysis identified 17 microRNAs that were differentially expressed between t(14;18)-positive FLs and t(14;18)-negative FLs. The down-regulation of miR-16, miR-26a, miR-101, miR-29c, and miR138 in the t(14;18)-negative FL subset was associated with profound mRNA expression changes of potential target genes involving cell cycle control, apoptosis, and B-cell differentiation. miR-16 target CHEK1 showed increased expression in t(14;18)-negative FLs, whereas TCL1A expression was reduced, in line with a partial loss of the germinal center B-cell phenotype in this FL subset. In conclusion, t(14;18)-negative FL have distinct microRNA profiles that are associated with an increased proliferative capacity and a "late" germinal center B-cell phenotype.
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Early stages of calciphylaxis: are skin biopsies the answer?
Case Rep Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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Calciphylaxis, nowadays called calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA), is a rare but life-threatening syndrome characterized by systemic medial calcification and arterial occlusion of the arterioles, leading to skin necrosis. Actually, the pathogenesis of CUA is complex and poorly understood. The vast majority of published cases presented with ulcers. We present a 71-year-old male who was referred to the Nephrology Department for evaluation and therapy for refractory edema of both legs. There were no subcutaneous plaques, ulcers or other focal lesions. We performed a deep skin biopsy of the thigh. After the biopsy, the patient developed necrosis around the sampling location. Diagnosing CUA in the early stages of the disease, however, is challenging. Should a skin biopsy be performed in the early stages of CUA in patients without ulcerations, knowing the risk of inducing ulcerations, or should an intensive treatment - after considering clinical manifestations, other noninvasive diagnostic tools (bone scan, X-ray mammography technique) and laboratory tests - be started? Although there are no specific diagnostic laboratory tests for CUA and the clinical manifestations of CUA are similar to those of other disorders, a skin biopsy is not routinely recommended to confirm the diagnosis of early-stage calciphylaxis.
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BCL2 predicts survival in germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with CHOP-like therapy and rituximab.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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We have previously shown the prognostic significance of BCL2 expression in the activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) patients treated with cyclophosphamide-Adriamycin-vincristine-prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-like therapy. However, after the inclusion of rituximab (R) in the CHOP regimen, several conflicting observations about the prognostic value of BCL2 expression have been reported.
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Hantavirus and acute appendicitis--the diagnosis behind the diagnosis?
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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A 33-year-old man with a history of acute lower abdominal pain was admitted to the emergency room. After laparoscopic appendectomy and pathological confirmed acute appendicitis the patient developed thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure. Serological testing for hantaviruses revealed a positive result for PUUV IgG and IgM. Immunohistochemical work-up detected PUUV antigen in endothelial cells of capillaries and larger vessels. The high percentage of patients with hantavirus infection and severe abdominal pain is remarkable and, up to now, unexplained. To our knowledge this is the first report demonstrating PUUV antigen in the human intestine. Further studies are warranted whether hantaviruses are setting the stage for a secondary bacterial infection or cause an inflammation itself.
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Follicular lymphoma grade 3B is a distinct neoplasm according to cytogenetic and immunohistochemical profiles.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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According to the current World Health Organization Classification of Lymphoid Tumours, follicular lymphoma is subclassified into three grades according to the number of centroblasts. Follicular lymphoma grade 3 can be further divided into types A and B. Almost all available genetic data on grade 3B follicular lymphomas have been generated from tumors with an additional diffuse large B-cell lymphoma component. The purely follicular type of follicular lymphoma grade 3B is a rare neoplasm.
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Epigenetic activation of SOX11 in lymphoid neoplasms by histone modifications.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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Recent studies have shown aberrant expression of SOX11 in various types of aggressive B-cell neoplasms. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms leading to such deregulation, we performed a comprehensive SOX11 gene expression and epigenetic study in stem cells, normal hematopoietic cells and different lymphoid neoplasms. We observed that SOX11 expression is associated with unmethylated DNA and presence of activating histone marks (H3K9/14Ac and H3K4me3) in embryonic stem cells and some aggressive B-cell neoplasms. In contrast, adult stem cells, normal hematopoietic cells and other lymphoid neoplasms do not express SOX11. Such repression was associated with silencing histone marks H3K9me2 and H3K27me3. The SOX11 promoter of non-malignant cells was consistently unmethylated whereas lymphoid neoplasms with silenced SOX11 tended to acquire DNA hypermethylation. SOX11 silencing in cell lines was reversed by the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA but not by the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor AZA. These data indicate that, although DNA hypermethylation of SOX11 is frequent in lymphoid neoplasms, it seems to be functionally inert, as SOX11 is already silenced in the hematopoietic system. In contrast, the pathogenic role of SOX11 is associated with its de novo expression in some aggressive lymphoid malignancies, which is mediated by a shift from inactivating to activating histone modifications.
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Primary follicular lymphoma of the duodenum is a distinct mucosal/submucosal variant of follicular lymphoma: a retrospective study of 63 cases.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Small series with limited follow-up have suggested primary follicular lymphoma of the duodenum (FL-D) to be an indolent disease. We report our experience on a large series of patients followed for a median time period of longer than 6 years.
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Accurate classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma into germinal center and activated B-cell subtypes using a nuclease protection assay on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) into cell-of-origin (COO) subtypes based on gene expression profiles has well-established prognostic value. These subtypes, termed germinal center B cell (GCB) and activated B cell (ABC) also have different genetic alterations and overexpression of different pathways that may serve as therapeutic targets. Thus, accurate classification is essential for analysis of clinical trial results and planning new trials by using targeted agents. The current standard for COO classification uses gene expression profiling (GEP) of snap frozen tissues, and a Bayesian predictor algorithm. However, this is generally not feasible. In this study, we investigated whether the qNPA technique could be used for accurate classification of COO by using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. We analyzed expression levels of 14 genes in 121 cases of R-CHOP-treated DLBCL that had previously undergone GEP by using the Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarray and had matching FFPE blocks. Results were evaluated by using the previously published algorithm with a leave-one-out cross-validation approach. These results were compared with COO classification based on frozen tissue GEP profiles. For each case, a probability statistic was generated indicating the likelihood that the classification by using qNPA was accurate. When data were dichotomized into GCB or non-GCB, overall accuracy was 92%. The qNPA technique accurately categorized DLBCL into GCB and ABC subtypes, as defined by GEP. This approach is quantifiable, applicable to FFPE tissues with no technical failures, and has potential for significant impact on DLBCL research and clinical trial development.
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Identification of methylated genes associated with aggressive clinicopathological features in mantle cell lymphoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is genetically characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation and a high number of secondary chromosomal alterations. The contribution of DNA methylation to MCL lymphomagenesis is not well known. We sought to identify epigenetically silenced genes in these tumours that might have clinical relevance.
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The stromal cell marker SPARC predicts for survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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The cellular composition of the tumor microenvironment may affect survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We performed immunostains for 2 stromal cell markers, CD68 and SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine), in 262 patients with DLBCL treated with rituximab and cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-like therapies. Patients with any SPARC+ cells in the microenvironment had a significantly longer overall survival, and patients with high SPARC positivity in the microenvironment also had a significantly longer event-free survival. Survival differences were mainly due to the prognostic effect of SPARC+ cells in activated B-cell (ABC)-type DLBCL, with no effect found in the germinal center B-cell-type DLBCL. Of clinical features examined, only the number of extranodal sites was significantly associated with SPARC expression. Multivariate analysis revealed that SPARC expression predicted patient survival independent of the International Prognostic Index or tumor cell of origin. SPARC expression in the microenvironment of DLBCL can be used for prognostic purposes, determining a subgroup of patients with ABC DLBCL who have significantly longer survival. More aggressive chemotherapy protocols should be considered for patients with ABC DLBCL without SPARC+ stromal cells. CD68 expression by cells in the microenvironment did not predict survival.
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Immunohistochemical methods for predicting cell of origin and survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2010
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Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can be divided into prognostic groups based on the cell of origin of the tumor as determined by microarray analysis. Various immunohistochemical algorithms have been developed to replicate these microarray results and/or stratify patients according to survival. This study compares some of those algorithms and also proposes some modifications.
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A multiplex MALDI-TOF MS approach facilitates genotyping of DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour specimens.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
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The impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on tumour susceptibility and pathogenesis has gained enormous attention. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based genotyping facilitates the analysis of short DNA amplicons and is, therefore, a promising tool for the investigation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples, particularly in targeted genotyping analysis.
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Peripheral T-cell lymphoma with progression to a clonally related, Epstein Barr virus+, cytotoxic aggressive T-cell lymphoma: evidence for secondary EBV infection of an established malignant T-cell clone.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2010
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We report a case of primary Epstein Barr virus (EBV) negative peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) NOS in a 56-year-old female who-after an initially indolent course - simultaneously developed an aggressive, EBV+ cytotoxic large T-cell lymphoma, clonally related to the primary PTCL, and an EBV+, clonal large B-cell lymphoproliferation. The initial, EBV-negative PTCL had shown some features of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and had responded well to steroid therapy. Two years later, rapidly fatal, progressive disease with multivisceral involvement developed. Histologically, extensive infiltrates of EBV+, CD8+ large cells were present, in addition to areas of the initial PTCL. Extensive comparative phenotypic and molecular analyses confirmed the presence of an identical CD8+ T-cell clone in the initial EBV-negative PTCL and the EBV+, CD8+ large cell lymphoma at the time of aggressive transformation. These results also justified the retrospective classification of PTCL, NOS for the initial lymphoma. This case shows that secondary EBV infection of an established malignant T-cell clone can occur and may contribute to aggressive transformation of PTCL.
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Immunoblastic morphology but not the immunohistochemical GCB/nonGCB classifier predicts outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the RICOVER-60 trial of the DSHNHL.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2010
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The survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients varies considerably, reflecting the molecular diversity of tumors. In view of the controversy whether cytologic features, immunohistochemical markers or gene expression signatures may capture this molecular diversity, we investigated which features provide prognostic information in a prospective trial in the R-CHOP treatment era. Within the cohort of DLBCLs patients treated in the RICOVER-60 trial of the German High-Grade Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL), we tested the prognostic impact of IB morphology in 949 patients. The expression of immunohistochemical markers CD5, CD10, BCL2, BCL6, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, interferon regulatory factor-4/multiple myeloma-1 (IRF4/MUM1), and Ki-67 was assessed in 506 patients. Expression of the immunohistochemical markers tested was of modest, if any, prognostic relevance. Moreover, the Hans algorithm using the expression patterns of CD10, BCL6, and interferon regulatory factor-4/multiple myeloma-1 failed to show prognostic significance in the entire cohort as well as in patient subgroups. IB morphology, however, emerged as a robust, significantly adverse prognostic factor in multivariate analysis, and its diagnosis showed a good reproducibility among expert hematopathologists. We conclude, therefore, that IB morphology in DLBCL is likely to capture some of the adverse molecular alterations that are currently not detectable in a routine diagnostic setting, and that its recognition has significant prognostic power.
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Oncogenically active MYD88 mutations in human lymphoma.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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The activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains the least curable form of this malignancy despite recent advances in therapy. Constitutive nuclear factor (NF)-?B and JAK kinase signalling promotes malignant cell survival in these lymphomas, but the genetic basis for this signalling is incompletely understood. Here we describe the dependence of ABC DLBCLs on MYD88, an adaptor protein that mediates toll and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor signalling, and the discovery of highly recurrent oncogenic mutations affecting MYD88 in ABC DLBCL tumours. RNA interference screening revealed that MYD88 and the associated kinases IRAK1 and IRAK4 are essential for ABC DLBCL survival. High-throughput RNA resequencing uncovered MYD88 mutations in ABC DLBCL lines. Notably, 29% of ABC DLBCL tumours harboured the same amino acid substitution, L265P, in the MYD88 Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain at an evolutionarily invariant residue in its hydrophobic core. This mutation was rare or absent in other DLBCL subtypes and Burkitts lymphoma, but was observed in 9% of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. At a lower frequency, additional mutations were observed in the MYD88 TIR domain, occurring in both the ABC and germinal centre B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL subtypes. Survival of ABC DLBCL cells bearing the L265P mutation was sustained by the mutant but not the wild-type MYD88 isoform, demonstrating that L265P is a gain-of-function driver mutation. The L265P mutant promoted cell survival by spontaneously assembling a protein complex containing IRAK1 and IRAK4, leading to IRAK4 kinase activity, IRAK1 phosphorylation, NF-?B signalling, JAK kinase activation of STAT3, and secretion of IL-6, IL-10 and interferon-?. Hence, the MYD88 signalling pathway is integral to the pathogenesis of ABC DLBCL, supporting the development of inhibitors of IRAK4 kinase and other components of this pathway for the treatment of tumours bearing oncogenic MYD88 mutations.
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Pathway discovery in mantle cell lymphoma by integrated analysis of high-resolution gene expression and copy number profiling.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2010
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The genome of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is, in addition to the translocation t(11;14), characterized by a high number of secondary chromosomal gains and losses that probably account for the various survival times of MCL patients. We investigated 77 primary MCL tumors with available clinical information using high-resolution RNA expression and genomic profiling and applied our recently developed gene expression and dosage integrator algorithm to identify novel genes and pathways that may be of relevance for the pathobiology of MCL. We show that copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity is common in MCL and targets regions that are frequently affected by deletions. The molecular consequences of genomic copy number changes appear complex, even in genomic loci with identified tumor suppressors, such as the region 9p21 containing the CDKN2A locus. Moreover, the deregulation of novel genes, such as CUL4A, ING1, and MCPH1, may affect the 2 crucial pathogenetic mechanisms in MCL, the disturbance of the proliferation, and DNA damage response pathways. Deregulation of the Hippo pathway may have a pathogenetic role in MCL because decreased expression of its members MOBKL2A, MOBKL2B, and LATS2 was associated with inferior outcome, including an independent validation series of 32 MCLs.
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Prospective multi-centre study to validate chromogenic in situ hybridisation for the assessment of HER2 gene amplification in specimens from adjuvant and metastatic breast cancer patients.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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As HER2 status is a strong predictor of the response to trastuzumab, clinical guidelines recommend that all breast tumours are first evaluated for HER2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) followed by confirmatory testing for HER2 gene amplification using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) for 2+ cases. Alternatively, chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) offers a simpler, less expensive approach to detect HER2 amplification.
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Cooperative epigenetic modulation by cancer amplicon genes.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2010
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Chromosome band 9p24 is frequently amplified in primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). To identify oncogenes in this amplicon, we screened an RNA interference library targeting amplicon genes and thereby identified JAK2 and the histone demethylase JMJD2C as essential genes in these lymphomas. Inhibition of JAK2 and JMJD2C cooperated in killing these lymphomas by decreasing tyrosine 41 phosphorylation and increasing lysine 9 trimethylation of histone H3, promoting heterochromatin formation. MYC, a major target of JAK2-mediated histone phosphorylation, was silenced after JAK2 and JMJD2C inhibition, with a corresponding increase in repressive chromatin. Hence, JAK2 and JMJD2C cooperatively remodel the PMBL and HL epigenome, offering a mechanistic rationale for the development of JAK2 and JMJD2C inhibitors in these diseases.
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Application of MALDI imaging for the diagnosis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a distinctive lymphoma subtype characterized by rareness of tumor cells [Hodgkins and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in classical HL and lymphocytic and histiocytic cells in lymphocyte predominant HL] as well as the vast majority of the surrounding inflammatory-like cellular infiltrate. Still the onset of this highly variable disease is not completely understood. Proteome analysis can lead to the identification of potential proteins capable of elucidating malignant growth and survival in HL. Especially MALDI imaging could result in pinpointing differentially expressed proteins, which might represent potential marker molecules. In this study, we were able to distinguish between classical Hodgkin lymphoma and lymphadenitis with a sensitivity and specificity of 83.92 and 89.37%, respectively.
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Genomic and gene expression profiling defines indolent forms of mantle cell lymphoma.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is typically a very aggressive disease with poor outcomes, but some cases display an indolent behavior that might not necessitate treatment at diagnosis. To define molecular criteria that might permit recognition of such cases, we compared the clinicopathologic features, gene expression, and genomic profile of patients who had indolent or conventional disease (iMCL or cMCL). Patients with iMCL displayed nonnodal leukemic disease with predominantly hypermutated IGVH and noncomplex karyotypes. iMCL and cMCL shared a common gene expression profile that differed from other leukemic lymphoid neoplasms. However, we identified a signature of 13 genes that was highly expressed in cMCL but underexpressed in iMCL. SOX11 was notable in this signature and we confirmed a restriction of SOX11 protein expression to cMCL. To validate the potential use of SOX11 as a biomarker for cMCL, we evaluated SOX11 protein expression in an independent series of 112 cases of MCL. Fifteen patients with SOX11-negative tumors exhibited more frequent nonnodal presentation and better survival compared with 97 patients with SOX11-positive MCL (5-year overall survival of 78% versus 36%, respectively; P = 0.001). In conclusion, we defined nonnodal presentation, predominantly hypermutated IGVH, lack of genomic complexity, and absence of SOX11 expression as qualities of a specific subtype of iMCL with excellent outcomes that might be managed more conservatively than cMCL.
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Chronic active B-cell-receptor signalling in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2010
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A role for B-cell-receptor (BCR) signalling in lymphomagenesis has been inferred by studying immunoglobulin genes in human lymphomas and by engineering mouse models, but genetic and functional evidence for its oncogenic role in human lymphomas is needed. Here we describe a form of chronic active BCR signalling that is required for cell survival in the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The signalling adaptor CARD11 is required for constitutive NF-kappaB pathway activity and survival in ABC DLBCL. Roughly 10% of ABC DLBCLs have mutant CARD11 isoforms that activate NF-kappaB, but the mechanism that engages wild-type CARD11 in other ABC DLBCLs was unknown. An RNA interference genetic screen revealed that a BCR signalling component, Brutons tyrosine kinase, is essential for the survival of ABC DLBCLs with wild-type CARD11. In addition, knockdown of proximal BCR subunits (IgM, Ig-kappa, CD79A and CD79B) killed ABC DLBCLs with wild-type CARD11 but not other lymphomas. The BCRs in these ABC DLBCLs formed prominent clusters in the plasma membrane with low diffusion, similarly to BCRs in antigen-stimulated normal B cells. Somatic mutations affecting the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) signalling modules of CD79B and CD79A were detected frequently in ABC DLBCL biopsy samples but rarely in other DLBCLs and never in Burkitts lymphoma or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. In 18% of ABC DLBCLs, one functionally critical residue of CD79B, the first ITAM tyrosine, was mutated. These mutations increased surface BCR expression and attenuated Lyn kinase, a feedback inhibitor of BCR signalling. These findings establish chronic active BCR signalling as a new pathogenetic mechanism in ABC DLBCL, suggesting several therapeutic strategies.
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Gray zones around diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Conclusions based on the workshop of the XIV meeting of the European Association for Hematopathology and the Society of Hematopathology in Bordeaux, France.
J Hematop
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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The term "gray-zone" lymphoma has been used to denote a group of lymphomas with overlapping histological, biological, and clinical features between various types of lymphomas. It has been used in the context of Hodgkin lymphomas (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), including classical HL (CHL), and primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma, cases with overlapping features between nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B cell lymphoma, CHL, and Epstein-Barr-virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorders, and peripheral T cell lymphomas simulating CHL. A second group of gray-zone lymphomas includes B cell NHL with intermediate features between diffuse large B cell lymphoma and classical Burkitt lymphoma. In order to review controversial issues in gray-zone lymphomas, a joint Workshop of the European Association for Hematopathology and the Society for Hematopathology was held in Bordeaux, France, in September 2008. The panel members reviewed and discussed 145 submitted cases and reached consensus diagnoses. This Workshop summary is focused on the most controversial aspects of gray-zone lymphomas and describes the panels proposals regarding diagnostic criteria, terminology, and new prognostic and diagnostic parameters.
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Loss of HLA-DR expression and immunoblastic morphology predict adverse outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma - analyses of cases from two prospective randomized clinical trials.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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Research on prognostically relevant immunohistochemical markers in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas has mostly been performed on retrospectively collected clinical data. This is also true for immunohistochemical classifiers that are thought to reflect the cell-of-origin subclassification of gene expression studies. In order to obtain deeper insight into the heterogeneous prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and to validate a previously published immunohistochemical classifier, we analyzed data from a large set of cases from prospective clinical trials with long-term follow-up.
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SOX11 expression is highly specific for mantle cell lymphoma and identifies the cyclin D1-negative subtype.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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Cyclin D1-negative mantle cell lymphoma is difficult to distinguish from other small B-cell lymphomas. The clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with this form of lymphoma have not been well defined. Overexpression of the transcription factor SOX11 has been observed in conventional mantle cell lymphoma. The aim of this study was to determine whether this gene is expressed in cyclin D1-negative mantle cell lymphoma and whether its detection may be useful to identify these tumors.
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A new immunostain algorithm classifies diffuse large B-cell lymphoma into molecular subtypes with high accuracy.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
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Hans and coworkers previously developed an immunohistochemical algorithm with approximately 80% concordance with the gene expression profiling (GEP) classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) into the germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) and activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtypes. Since then, new antibodies specific to germinal center B-cells have been developed, which might improve the performance of an immunostain algorithm.
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MicroRNA expression, chromosomal alterations, and immunoglobulin variable heavy chain hypermutations in Mantle cell lymphomas.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2009
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The contribution of microRNAs (miR) to the pathogenesis of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is not well known. We investigated the expression of 86 mature miRs mapped to frequently altered genomic regions in MCL in CD5(+)/CD5(-) normal B cells, reactive lymph nodes, and purified tumor cells of 17 leukemic MCL, 12 nodal MCL, and 8 MCL cell lines. Genomic alterations of the tumors were studied by single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and comparative genomic hybridization. Leukemic and nodal tumors showed a high number of differentially expressed miRs compared with purified normal B cells, but only some of them were commonly deregulated in both tumor types. An unsupervised analysis of miR expression profile in purified leukemic MCL cells revealed two clusters of tumors characterized by different mutational status of the immunoglobulin genes, proliferation signature, and number of genomic alterations. The expression of most miRs was not related to copy number changes in their respective chromosomal loci. Only the levels of miRs included in the miR-17-92 cluster were significantly related to genetic alterations at 13q31. Moreover, overexpression of miR-17-5p/miR-20a from this cluster was associated with high MYC mRNA levels in tumors with a more aggressive behavior. In conclusion, the miR expression pattern of MCL is deregulated in comparison with normal lymphoid cells and distinguishes two subgroups of tumors with different biological features.
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A cytomorphological and immunohistochemical profile of aggressive B-cell lymphoma: high clinical impact of a cumulative immunohistochemical outcome predictor score.
J Hematop
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
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We analyzed morphological and immunohistochemical features in 174 aggressive B-cell lymphomas of nodal and extranodal origin. Morphological features included presence or absence of a follicular component and cytologic criteria according to the Kiel classification, whereas immunohistochemical studies included expression of CD10, BCL-2, BCL-6, IRF4/MUM1, HLA-DR, p53, Ki-67 and the assessment of plasmacytoid differentiation. Patients were treated with a CHOP-like regimen. While the presence or absence of either CD10, BCL-6 and IRF4/MUM1 reactivity or plasmacytoid differentiation did not identify particular cytomorphologic or site-specific subtypes, we found that expression of CD10 and BCL-6, and a low reactivity for IRF4/MUM1 were favourable prognostic indicators. In contrast, BCL-2 expression and presence of a monotypic cytoplasmic immunoglobulin expression was associated with an unfavourable prognosis in univariate analyses. Meta-analysis of these data resulted in the development of a cumulative immunohistochemical outcome predictor score (CIOPS) enabling the recognition of four distinct prognostic groups. Multivariate analysis proved this score to be independent of the international prognostic index. Such a cumulative immunohistochemical scoring approach might provide a valuable alternative in the recognition of defined risk types of aggressive B-cell lymphomas.
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Follicular lymphomas with and without translocation t(14;18) differ in gene expression profiles and genetic alterations.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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Follicular lymphoma (FL) is genetically characterized by the presence of the t(14;18)(q32;q21) chromosomal translocation in approximately 90% of cases. In contrast to FL carrying the t(14;18), their t(14;18)-negative counterparts are less well studied about their immunohistochemical, genetic, molecular, and clinical features. Within a previously published series of 184 FLs grades 1 to 3A with available gene expression data, we identified 17 FLs lacking the t(14;18). Comparative genomic hybridization and high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array profiling showed that gains/amplifications of the BCL2 gene locus in 18q were restricted to the t(14;18)-positive FL subgroup. A comparison of gene expression profiles showed an enrichment of germinal center B cell-associated signatures in t(14;18)-positive FL, whereas activated B cell-like, NFkappaB, proliferation, and bystander cell signatures were enriched in t(14;18)-negative FL. These findings were confirmed by immunohistochemistry in an independent validation series of 84 FLs, in which 32% of t(14;18)-negative FLs showed weak or absent CD10 expression and 91% an increased Ki67 proliferation rate. Although overall survival did not differ between FL with and without t(14;18), our findings suggest distinct molecular features of t(14;18)-negative FL.
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Commentary on the WHO classification of tumors of lymphoid tissues (2008): indolent B cell lymphomas.
J Hematop
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2009
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The 4th edition of the World Health Organization classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues introduces many new items to the classification scheme of the so-called indolent B cell lymphomas. New proposed entities, such as splenic B cell lymphoma/leukemia, unclassifiable, splenic diffuse red pulp small B cell lymphoma, hairy cell leukemia variant, pediatric follicular lymphoma, and pediatric marginal zone lymphoma have been coined, and some definitions of established diseases, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia or Waldenströms macroglobulinemia have been revised. One aspect of major importance is the recent description of small clonal B cell populations, in part with a CLL phenotype, and their relationship to B-CLL. Some new subtypes or variants of follicular lymphoma with distinct clinicopathologic and/or molecular genetic characteristics have been described, including primary follicular lymphomas of the duodenum and pediatric follicular lymphomas. Furthermore, the impact of some probably early, or precursor lesions, such as follicular lymphoma in situ is discussed. Overall, we succinctly discuss the essential elements of the revisions made in the updated classification, and we identify potential opportunities for refinement of new or provisional categories in subsequent classifications.
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Commentary on the WHO classification of tumors of lymphoid tissues (2008): aggressive B-cell lymphomas.
J Hematop
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2009
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In the novel WHO classification 2008, the classification of aggressive B-cell lymphoma has been revised for several categories with the aim to define "clean" entities. Within large B-cell lymphoma, a few distinct clinico-pathological entities have been recognized with more clinically defined entities than pathologically defined ones. The majority of known morphological variations were not considered to merit more than classification as a variant of DLBCL, not otherwise specified. Specifically, a biological subgrouping of DLBCL on the basis of molecular (activated B-cell versus germinal center B-cell) or immunophenotypic (CD5+) features was felt to be too immature to include at this stage. The role of EBV in aggressive B-cell lymphoma has been explored in more depth with the recognition of several novel and re-defined clinico-pathological entities. Also, in these diseases, clinical definitions play a very dominant role in the WHO classification 2008.
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Commentary on the WHO classification of tumors of lymphoid tissues (2008): "Gray zone" lymphomas overlapping with Burkitt lymphoma or classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
J Hematop
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2009
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The 2008 WHO Classification of Tumors of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues has introduced two new categories of high-grade B-cell lymphomas: entities in which features of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) overlap with Burkitt lymphoma (DLBCL/BL) or classical Hodgkin lymphoma (DLBCL/HL). The DLBCL/BL category encompasses cases that resemble Burkitt lymphoma morphologically, but have one or more immunophenotypic or molecular genetic deviations that would exclude it from the BL category; conversely, some cases have immunophenotypic and/or genetic features of BL, but display cytologic variability unacceptable for BL. Many of the cases in the DLBCL/BL category contain a translocation of MYC as well as either BCL2 or BCL6 (so-called double-hit lymphomas) and have a very aggressive clinical behavior. The DLBCL/HL category encompasses lymphomas that exhibit the morphology of classical Hodgkin lymphoma but the immunophenotype of DLBCL, or vice versa. Most DLBCL/HL cases described present as mediastinal masses, but this category is not limited to mediastinal lymphomas. These new categories acknowledge the increasing recognition of cases that display mixed features of two well-established diseases. Whether the existence of such cases reflects shortcomings of our current diagnostic armamentarium or a true disease continuum in which such hybrid or intermediate neoplasms actually exist remains to be determined.
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