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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Dependence on the CCR5 coreceptor for viral replication explains the lack of rebound of CXCR4-predicted HIV variants in the Berlin patient.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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The "Berlin patient" is the first patient cured of HIV-1 infection after allogeneic transplantation with nonfunctional CCR5 coreceptor stem cells. We demonstrate that CXCR4-predicted minority viruses present prior to transplantation were unable to rebound after transplantation due to their dependence on CCR5 for replication and high genetic barrier toward CXCR4 usage.
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HIV antibody characterization as a method to quantify reservoir size during curative interventions.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Quantitative humoral profiling of recent samples from a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adult who was cured following a delta32/delta32 CCR5 stem cell transplant in 2007 revealed no antibodies against p24, matrix, nucleocapsid, integrase, protease, and gp120, but low levels of antibodies against reverse transcriptase, tat, and gp41. Antibody levels to these HIV proteins persisted at high and stable levels in most noncontrollers, elite controllers, and antiretroviral-treated subjects, but a rare subset of controllers had low levels of antibodies against matrix, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and/or protease. Comprehensive HIV antibody profiles may prove useful for monitoring curative interventions.
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CCR5 as a Natural and Modulated Target for Inhibition of HIV.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of target cells requires CD4 and a co-receptor, predominantly the chemokine receptor CCR5. CCR5-delta32 homozygosity results in a truncated protein providing natural protection against HIV infection-this without detrimental effects to the host-and transplantation of CCR5-delta32 stem cells in a patient with HIV ("Berlin patient") achieved viral eradication. As a more feasible approach gene-modification strategies are being developed to engineer cellular resistance to HIV using autologous cells. We have developed a dual therapeutic anti-HIV lentiviral vector (LVsh5/C46) that down-regulates CCR5 and inhibits HIV-1 fusion via cell surface expression of the gp41-derived peptide, C46. This construct, effective against multiple strains of both R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1, is being tested in Phase I/II trials by engineering HIV-resistant hematopoietic cells.
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Coregulation of HIV-1 dependency factors in individuals heterozygous to the CCR5-delta32 deletion.
AIDS Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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CCR5-delta32 heterozygous individuals are susceptible to HIV-1. However, it is not clear if there is a relevant protective effect against transmission and a beneficial effect in terms of HIV progression which cannot be attributed to CCR5 surface density alone. Therefore we investigated HIV-1 dependency factors (HDF) which might be differently regulated in CCR5 wild type (WT) and CCR5-delta32 heterozygous individuals.
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Challenges in detecting HIV persistence during potentially curative interventions: a study of the Berlin patient.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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There is intense interest in developing curative interventions for HIV. How such a cure will be quantified and defined is not known. We applied a series of measurements of HIV persistence to the study of an HIV-infected adult who has exhibited evidence of cure after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant from a homozygous CCR5?32 donor. Samples from blood, spinal fluid, lymph node, and gut were analyzed in multiple laboratories using different approaches. No HIV DNA or RNA was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), spinal fluid, lymph node, or terminal ileum, and no replication-competent virus could be cultured from PBMCs. However, HIV RNA was detected in plasma (2 laboratories) and HIV DNA was detected in the rectum (1 laboratory) at levels considerably lower than those expected in ART-suppressed patients. It was not possible to obtain sequence data from plasma or gut, while an X4 sequence from PBMC did not match the pre-transplant sequence. HIV antibody levels were readily detectable but declined over time; T cell responses were largely absent. The occasional, low-level PCR signals raise the possibility that some HIV nucleic acid might persist, although they could also be false positives. Since HIV levels in well-treated individuals are near the limits of detection of current assays, more sensitive assays need to be developed and validated. The absence of recrudescent HIV replication and waning HIV-specific immune responses five years after withdrawal of treatment provide proof of a clinical cure.
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Skewed X-inactivation patterns in ageing healthy and myelodysplastic haematopoiesis determined by a pyrosequencing based transcriptional clonality assay.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Investigation of X-chromosome inactivation patterns (XCIP) by determination of differential CpG-methylation has been widely applied for investigation of female cell clonality. Using this approach the clonal origin of various tumours has been corroborated. Controversially, strong age-related increase of peripheral blood (PB) cell clonality in haematologically healthy female subjects was reported. Recently, transcriptional XCIP ratio analysis challenged these results and questioned the suitability of methylation based clonality assays.
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The effect of the CCR5-delta32 deletion on global gene expression considering immune response and inflammation.
J Inflamm (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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The natural function of the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is poorly understood. A 32 base pair deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5-delta32) located on chromosome 3 results in a non-functional protein. It is supposed that this deletion causes an alteration in T-cell response to inflammation. For example, the presence of the CCR5-delta32 allele in recipients of allografts constitutes as an independent and protective factor associated with a decreased risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft rejection. However, the mechanism of this beneficial effect of the deletion regarding GVHD is unknown. In this survey we searched for a CCR5-delta32 associated regulation of critical genes involved in the immune response and the development of GVHD.
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The CCR5-delta32 polymorphism as a model to study host adaptation against infectious diseases and to develop new treatment strategies.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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Humans respond differently toward exposure against pathogens and some individuals are completely resistant against transmission due to a genetically determined susceptibility. A rising number of such, so-called, host factors have been described during the last years, but their role for diagnostic or therapeutic application is still to be clarified. Here, we describe the biology of the chemokine receptor CCR5 and its polymorphism in the context of host adaptation and immune system function. Furthermore, the first clinical applications exploiting our knowledge of this chemokine receptor as a host factor are described.
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Eradication of HIV by transplantation of CCR5-deficient hematopoietic stem cells.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
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Today, 30 years after the onset of the HIV pandemic, although treatment strategies have considerably improved, there is still no cure for the disease. Recently, we described a successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in an HIV-1-infected patient, transferring donor-derived cells with a natural resistance against HIV infection. These hematopoietic stem cells engrafted, proliferated, and differentiated into mature myeloid and lymphoid cells. To date, the patient has not required any antiretroviral treatment, more than 4 years after allogeneic transplantation. In the analysis of peripheral blood cells and different tissue samples, including gut, liver, and brain, no viral load or proviral DNA could be detected. Our report raises the hope for further targeted treatment strategies against HIV and represents a successful personalized treatment with allogeneic stem cells carrying a beneficial gene. However, this case has ignited a controversy regarding the question of whether this patient has achieved complete eradication of HIV or not. Here we give an update on open questions, unsolved aspects, and clinical consequences concerning this unique case.
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Evidence for the cure of HIV infection by CCR5?32/?32 stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2010
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HIV entry into CD4(+) cells requires interaction with a cellular receptor, generally either CCR5 or CXCR4. We have previously reported the case of an HIV-infected patient in whom viral replication remained absent despite discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy after transplantation with CCR5?32/?32 stem cells. However, it was expected that the long-lived viral reservoir would lead to HIV rebound and disease progression during the process of immune reconstitution. In the present study, we demonstrate successful reconstitution of CD4(+) T cells at the systemic level as well as in the gut mucosal immune system after CCR5?32/?32 stem cell transplantation, while the patient remains without any sign of HIV infection. This was observed although recovered CD4(+) T cells contain a high proportion of activated memory CD4(+) T cells, ie, the preferential targets of HIV, and are susceptible to productive infection with CXCR4-tropic HIV. Furthermore, during the process of immune reconstitution, we found evidence for the replacement of long-lived host tissue cells with donor-derived cells, indicating that the size of the viral reservoir has been reduced over time. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that cure of HIV has been achieved in this patient.
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Epigenetic regulation of PAX5 expression in acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
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The analysis of genomic alterations in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has provided new insights for prognosis and possible targets of novel therapies. In T-ALL the role of molecular abnormalities has still to be determined. Deregulated promoter hypermethylation of critical genes like PAX5 may have a significant impact on the course of ALL. Samples derived from 75 patients with ALL (B-ALL = 24, T-ALL = 51) and from healthy volunteers were analyzed. PAX5 expression was assessed by micro-array analysis (HG-U133plus 2.0) and correlated with promoter CpG island methylation of PAX5 using a pyrosequencing approach. The analyzed CpG marks in the promoter region of PAX5 were completely and uniformly unmethylated in the control group of healthy individuals. The T-ALL cases featured even higher methylation levels (median: 20%) with a strong variation of values of up to 85% methylation. Analysis of the association of altered methylation levels with gene expression data indicated a differential epigenetic regulation of PAX5 through promoter methylation which may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease.
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The hematology of anorexia nervosa.
Int J Eat Disord
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2009
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Changes of the peripheral blood cell count in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are frequent. Anemia and leukopenia are observed in one-third of these patients. Examination of the bone marrow reveals in almost 50% of the patients with AN signs of bone marrow atrophy and can additionally suffer from a gelatinous bone marrow transformation.
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Transplantation of selected or transgenic blood stem cells - a future treatment for HIV/AIDS?
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2009
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Interaction with the chemokine receptor, CCR5, is a necessary precondition for maintaining HIV-1 infection. Individuals with the CCR5-delta32 deletion who lack this receptor are highly resistant to infection by the most common forms of HIV-1. We recently reported on the successful transplantation in an HIV-1-positive patient of allogeneic stem cells homozygous for the CCR5-delta32 allele, which stopped viral replication for more than 27 months without antiretroviral therapy.Here, we report on the results of a meeting regarding the potential implications and future directions of stem cell-targeted HIV treatments. The meeting drew together an international panel of hematologists, immunologists, HIV specialists and representatives from bone marrow donor registries.The meeting came to an agreement to support further attempts to use CCR5-delta32 deleted stem cells, for example, prescreened cord blood stem cells, to treat probable HIV-1-positive patients with malignancies. Furthermore, improvement of HIV-1 therapy that interferes with the entry mechanism seems to be a promising approach in HIV-1-infected patients with no matching CCR5-delta32 deleted donor.
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Long-term control of HIV by CCR5 Delta32/Delta32 stem-cell transplantation.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2009
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Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires the presence of a CD4 receptor and a chemokine receptor, principally chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). Homozygosity for a 32-bp deletion in the CCR5 allele provides resistance against HIV-1 acquisition. We transplanted stem cells from a donor who was homozygous for CCR5 delta32 in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia and HIV-1 infection. The patient remained without viral rebound 20 months after transplantation and discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. This outcome demonstrates the critical role CCR5 plays in maintaining HIV-1 infection.
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High correlation of the proteome patterns in bone marrow and peripheral blood blast cells in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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When comparing myelogenous blasts from bone marrow and peripheral blood, immunophenotyping usually show a strong correlation of expression of surface antigens. However, it remains to be determined, whether this correlation also exists on the level of protein expression.
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SNP array analysis of acute promyelocytic leukemia may be of prognostic relevance and identifies a potential high risk group with recurrent deletions on chromosomal subband 1q31.3.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
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To search for new copy number alterations (CNAs) in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), we analyzed DNA from leukemic blasts of 93 acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients with Genome-Wide SNP 6.0 arrays (SNP-A). We identified 259 CNAs consisting of 170 heterozygous deletions, 82 amplifications, and 7 regions of copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity. One of the most common CNAs was a deletion on chromosomal subband 1q31.3 in 13 of 93 (14%) patients encompassing the coding regions for the microRNAs mir181a1/b1. In multivariable analysis with the covariates age, white blood cell count, platelet count, and FLT3-ITD/FLT3 D835 mutations we found that after adjustment for patients age (P<0.0001), patients with 2 or more CNAs detected by SNP-A had a higher risk of death (hazard ratio=5.942, P=0.0015) than patients with 0 or 1 CNA. Deletions of 1q31.3 were associated with a higher number of CNAs (median 2 vs. 8, P<0.0001) and were a strong independent prognostic factor for an increased risk of relapse (hazard ratio=28.9, P=0.0031). This study presents a comprehensive assessment of new CNAs as pathomechanistically relevant targets and possible prognostic factors which could refine risk stratification of APL.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.