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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Multisite longitudinal reliability of tract-based spatial statistics in diffusion tensor imaging of healthy elderly subjects.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Large-scale longitudinal neuroimaging studies with diffusion imaging techniques are necessary to test and validate models of white matter neurophysiological processes that change in time, both in healthy and diseased brains. The predictive power of such longitudinal models will always be limited by the reproducibility of repeated measures acquired during different sessions. At present, there is limited quantitative knowledge about the across-session reproducibility of standard diffusion metrics in 3T multi-centric studies on subjects in stable conditions, in particular when using tract based spatial statistics and with elderly people. In this study we implemented a multi-site brain diffusion protocol in 10 clinical 3T MRI sites distributed across 4 countries in Europe (Italy, Germany, France and Greece) using vendor provided sequences from Siemens (Allegra, Trio Tim, Verio, Skyra, Biograph mMR), Philips (Achieva) and GE (HDxt) scanners. We acquired DTI data (2 × 2 × 2 mm(3), b = 700 s/mm(2), 5 b0 and 30 diffusion weighted volumes) of a group of healthy stable elderly subjects (5 subjects per site) in two separate sessions at least a week apart. For each subject and session four scalar diffusion metrics were considered: fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial (AD) diffusivity. The diffusion metrics from multiple subjects and sessions at each site were aligned to their common white matter skeleton using tract-based spatial statistics. The reproducibility at each MRI site was examined by looking at group averages of absolute changes relative to the mean (%) on various parameters: i) reproducibility of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the b0 images in centrum semiovale, ii) full brain test-retest differences of the diffusion metric maps on the white matter skeleton, iii) reproducibility of the diffusion metrics on atlas-based white matter ROIs on the white matter skeleton. Despite the differences of MRI scanner configurations across sites (vendors, models, RF coils and acquisition sequences) we found good and consistent test-retest reproducibility. White matter b0 SNR reproducibility was on average 7 ± 1% with no significant MRI site effects. Whole brain analysis resulted in no significant test-retest differences at any of the sites with any of the DTI metrics. The atlas-based ROI analysis showed that the mean reproducibility errors largely remained in the 2-4% range for FA and AD and 2-6% for MD and RD, averaged across ROIs. Our results show reproducibility values comparable to those reported in studies using a smaller number of MRI scanners, slightly different DTI protocols and mostly younger populations. We therefore show that the acquisition and analysis protocols used are appropriate for multi-site experimental scenarios.
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Mild cognitive impairment in patients with moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis.
Dermatology (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Psoriasis is frequently associated with cardiometabolic comorbidities and depression that are risk factors for cognitive impairment.
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Awake surgery between art and science. Part I: clinical and operative settings.
Funct. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Awake surgery requires coordinated teamwork and communication between the surgeon and the anesthesiologist, as he monitors the patient, the neuroradiologist as he interprets the images for intraoperative confirmation, and the neuropsychologist and neurophysiologist as they evaluate in real-time the patients responses to commands and questions. To improve comparison across published studies on clinical assessment and operative settings in awake surgery, we reviewed the literature, focusing on methodological differences and aims. In complex, interdisciplinary medical care, such differences can affect the outcome and the cost-benefit ratio of the treatment. Standardization of intraoperative mapping and related controversies will be discussed in Part II.
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Brain morphometry reproducibility in multi-center 3T MRI studies: a comparison of cross-sectional and longitudinal segmentations.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Large-scale longitudinal multi-site MRI brain morphometry studies are becoming increasingly crucial to characterize both normal and clinical population groups using fully automated segmentation tools. The test-retest reproducibility of morphometry data acquired across multiple scanning sessions, and for different MR vendors, is an important reliability indicator since it defines the sensitivity of a protocol to detect longitudinal effects in a consortium. There is very limited knowledge about how across-session reliability of morphometry estimates might be affected by different 3T MRI systems. Moreover, there is a need for optimal acquisition and analysis protocols in order to reduce sample sizes. A recent study has shown that the longitudinal FreeSurfer segmentation offers improved within session test-retest reproducibility relative to the cross-sectional segmentation at one 3T site using a nonstandard multi-echo MPRAGE sequence. In this study we implement a multi-site 3T MRI morphometry protocol based on vendor provided T1 structural sequences from different vendors (3D MPRAGE on Siemens and Philips, 3D IR-SPGR on GE) implemented in 8 sites located in 4 European countries. The protocols used mild acceleration factors (1.5-2) when possible. We acquired across-session test-retest structural data of a group of healthy elderly subjects (5 subjects per site) and compared the across-session reproducibility of two full-brain automated segmentation methods based on either longitudinal or cross-sectional FreeSurfer processing. The segmentations include cortical thickness, intracranial, ventricle and subcortical volumes. Reproducibility is evaluated as absolute changes relative to the mean (%), Dice coefficient for volume overlap and intraclass correlation coefficients across two sessions. We found that this acquisition and analysis protocol gives comparable reproducibility results to previous studies that used longer acquisitions without acceleration. We also show that the longitudinal processing is systematically more reliable across sites regardless of MRI system differences. The reproducibility errors of the longitudinal segmentations are on average approximately half of those obtained with the cross sectional analysis for all volume segmentations and for entorhinal cortical thickness. No significant differences in reliability are found between the segmentation methods for the other cortical thickness estimates. The average of two MPRAGE volumes acquired within each test-retest session did not systematically improve the across-session reproducibility of morphometry estimates. Our results extend those from previous studies that showed improved reliability of the longitudinal analysis at single sites and/or with non-standard acquisition methods. The multi-site acquisition and analysis protocol presented here is promising for clinical applications since it allows for smaller sample sizes per MRI site or shorter trials in studies evaluating the role of potential biomarkers to predict disease progression or treatment effects.
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Cerebral perfusion alterations in epileptic patients during peri-ictal and post-ictal phase: PASL vs DSC-MRI.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
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Non-invasive pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) MRI is a method to study brain perfusion that does not require the administration of a contrast agent, which makes it a valuable diagnostic tool as it reduces cost and side effects. The purpose of the present study was to establish the viability of PASL as an alternative to dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC-MRI) and other perfusion imaging methods in characterizing changes in perfusion patterns caused by seizures in epileptic patients. We evaluated 19 patients with PASL. Of these, the 9 affected by high-frequency seizures were observed during the peri-ictal period (within 5hours since the last seizure), while the 10 patients affected by low-frequency seizures were observed in the post-ictal period. For comparison, 17/19 patients were also evaluated with DSC-MRI and CBF/CBV. PASL imaging showed focal vascular changes, which allowed the classification of patients in three categories: 8 patients characterized by increased perfusion, 4 patients with normal perfusion and 7 patients with decreased perfusion. PASL perfusion imaging findings were comparable to those obtained by DSC-MRI. Since PASL is a) sensitive to vascular alterations induced by epileptic seizures, b) comparable to DSC-MRI for detecting perfusion asymmetries, c) potentially capable of detecting time-related perfusion changes, it can be recommended for repeated evaluations, to identify the epileptic focus, and in follow-up and/or therapy-response assessment.
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Effect of memantine on resting state default mode network activity in Alzheimers disease.
Drugs Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Memantine is an approved symptomatic treatment for moderate to severe Alzheimers disease that reduces the excitotoxic effects of hyperactive glutamatergic transmission. However, the exact mechanism of the effect of memantine in Alzheimers disease patients is poorly understood. Importantly, the default mode network (DMN), which plays a key role in attention, is hypoactive in Alzheimers disease and is under glutamatergic control.
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Highly focal BOLD activation on functional MRI in a patient with progressive myoclonic epilepsy and diffuse giant somatosensory evoked potentials.
Epilepsy Behav
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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We analyzed the effect of afferent input on patterns of brain electrical activation in a 31-year-old man with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME) by measuring the somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) amplitude at the scalp after median nerve stimulation and examining the changes in the functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen level-dependent (fMRI BOLD) signal. High-amplitude SSEPs were elicited at the wrist in association with highly focal BOLD activation of the contralateral sensorimotor areas. By contrast, no diffuse activation of either the frontal or the posterior parietal cortical areas was observed, as seen in previously recorded data on SSEPs from a healthy control group. The highly focal BOLD activation in this patient suggests that cortex hyperexcitability might be limited to the sensorimotor cortex in PME. The combined EEG-fMRI findings highlight a dissociation between BOLD activation and neurophysiological findings.
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Word and position interference in stroop tasks: a behavioral and fMRI study.
Exp Brain Res
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2010
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One of the main features of the attentional system is the capability to select between relevant and irrelevant information. However, irrelevant information interferes with the processing of the relevant one. Using high-field magnetic resonance imaging, we examined the interference effect of a verbal (color-word) and a spatial (arrow-position) Stroop task on the activation of cortical areas known to be dedicated to the attentional control. Behaviorally, we found costs from the irrelevant information in both tasks; in the brain, we found a common neural network of activation that mainly involved the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. However, the neural circuits involved in the two tasks overlapped only partially, since processing of words in the color-word Stroop task showed a wider and more right-lateralized activation, while spatial processing in the arrow-position Stroop task resulted in a more restricted and left-lateralized activation.
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Assessment of metabolic brain damage and recovery following mild traumatic brain injury: a multicentre, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic study in concussed patients.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2010
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Concussive head injury opens a temporary window of brain vulnerability due to the impairment of cellular energetic metabolism. As experimentally demonstrated, a second mild injury occurring during this period can lead to severe brain damage, a condition clinically described as the second impact syndrome. To corroborate the validity of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in monitoring cerebral metabolic changes following mild traumatic brain injury, apart from the magnetic field strength (1.5 or 3.0 T) and mode of acquisition, we undertook a multicentre prospective study in which a cohort of 40 athletes suffering from concussion and a group of 30 control healthy subjects were admitted. Athletes (aged 16-35 years) were recruited and examined at three different institutions between September 2007 and June 2009. They underwent assessment of brain metabolism at 3, 15, 22 and 30 days post-injury through proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the determination of N-acetylaspartate, creatine and choline-containing compounds. Values of these representative brain metabolites were compared with those observed in the group of non-injured controls. Comparison of spectroscopic data, obtained in controls using different field strength and/or mode of acquisition, did not show any difference in the brain metabolite ratios. Athletes with concussion exhibited the most significant alteration of metabolite ratios at Day 3 post-injury (N-acetylaspartate/creatine: -17.6%, N-acetylaspartate/choline: -21.4%; P?
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Steady-state activation in somatosensory cortex after changes in stimulus rate during median nerve stimulation.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
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Passive electrical stimulation activates various human somatosensory cortical systems including the contralateral primary somatosensory area (SI), bilateral secondary somatosensory area (SII) and bilateral insula. The effect of stimulation frequency on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activity remains unclear. We acquired 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in eight healthy volunteers during electrical median nerve stimulation at frequencies of 1, 3 and 10 Hz. During stimulation BOLD signal changes showed activation in the contralateral SI, bilateral SII and bilateral insula. Results of fMRI analysis showed that these areas were progressively active with the increase of rate of stimulation. As a major finding, the contralateral SI showed an increase of peak of BOLD activation from 1 to 3 Hz but reached a plateau during 10-Hz stimulation. Our finding is of interest for basic research and for clinical applications in subjects unable to perform cognitive tasks in the fMRI scanner.
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Early MRI changes in glioblastoma in the period between surgery and adjuvant therapy.
J. Neurooncol.
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To investigate the increase in MRI contrast enhancement (CE) occurring in glioblastoma during the period between surgery and initiation of chemo-radiotherapy, thirty-seven patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma were analyzed by early post-operative magnetic resonance (EPMR) imaging within three days of surgery and by pre-adjuvant magnetic resonance (PAMR) examination before adjuvant therapy. Areas of new CE were investigated by use of EPMR diffusion-weighted imaging and PAMR perfusion imaging (by arterial spin-labeling). PAMR was acquired, on average, 29.9 days later than EPMR (range 20-37 days). During this period an increased area of CE was observed for 17/37 patients. For 3/17 patients these regions were confined to areas of reduced EPMR diffusion, suggesting postsurgical infarct. For the other 14/17 patients, these areas suggested progression. For 11/17 patients the co-occurrence of hyperperfusion in PAMR perfusion suggested progression. PAMR perfusion and EPMR diffusion did not give consistent results for 3/17 patients for whom small new areas of CE were observed, presumably because of the poor spatial resolution of perfusion imaging. Before initiation of adjuvant therapy, areas of new CE of resected glioblastomas are frequently observed. Most of these suggest tumor progression, according to EPMR diffusion and PAMR perfusion criteria.
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Enlarged hypothalamic volumes in schizophrenia.
Psychiatry Res
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Hypothalamic abnormalities in schizophrenia have been associated with endocrine dysfunctions and stress response. The hypothalamus is involved in several pathways found disrupted in schizophrenia (e.g., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, HPA axis); however the available results on potential structural hypothalamic alterations are still controversial. The aim of the study was to investigate the volumes of the hypothalamus and the mammillary bodies in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 26 healthy controls underwent a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Hypothalamus and mammillary bodies were manually traced by a rater who was blind to subjects identity. The General Linear Model was used in group comparisons of the volumes of the hypothalamus and the mammillary bodies. The hypothalamus and mammillary body volumes were significantly larger in patients with schizophrenia than controls, with significant enlargement of the left hypothalamus and trends for significantly increased right hypothalamus and right mammillary body. The size of the mammillary bodies was inversely correlated with negative symptoms and directly correlated with anxiety. This study showed abnormally increased sizes of the hypothalamus and the mammillary bodies in schizophrenia. Mammillary bodies volumes were associated to negative symptoms and anxiety. Future longitudinal studies on the volumes of the hypothalamus and the mammillary bodies with respect to the levels of related hormones will clarify their role in modulating HPA axis in schizophrenia.
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A multi-element psychosocial intervention for early psychosis (GET UP PIANO TRIAL) conducted in a catchment area of 10 million inhabitants: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial.
Mirella Ruggeri, Chiara Bonetto, Antonio Lasalvia, Giovanni De Girolamo, Angelo Fioritti, Paola Rucci, Paolo Santonastaso, Giovanni Neri, Francesca Pileggi, Daniela Ghigi, Maurizio Miceli, Silvio Scarone, Angelo Cocchi, Stefano Torresani, Carlo Faravelli, Christa Zimmermann, Anna Meneghelli, Carla Cremonese, Paolo Scocco, Emanuela Leuci, Fausto Mazzi, Massimo Gennarelli, Paolo Brambilla, Sarah Bissoli, Maria Elena Bertani, Sarah Tosato, Katia De Santi, Sara Poli, Doriana Cristofalo, Michele Tansella, , Maria Elena Mirella, Silvia Lunardi, Valentina Negretto, Maria Grazia Zamboni, Mario Ballarin, Luisella Bocchio Chiavetto, Catia Scasselatti, Roberta Zanardini, Marcella Bellani, Alessandra Bertoldo, Veronica Marinelli, Cinzia Perlini, Gianluca Rambaldelli, Mariaelena Bertani, Lorenza Lazzarotto, Sonia Bardella, Francesco Gardellin, Dario Lamonaca, Marco Lunardon, Renato Magnabosco, Marilena Martucci, Stylianos Nicolau, Francesco Nifosì, Michele Pavanati, Massimo Rossi, Carlo Piazza, Gabriella Piccione, Alessandra Sala, Annalisa Sale, Benedetta Stefan, Spyridon Zotos, Mirko Balbo, Ileana Boggian, Enrico Ceccato, Rosa Dall'Agnola, Barbara Girotto, Claudia Goss, Roberta Leoni, Alessia Mai, Annalisa Pasqualini, Stefano Roccato, Alberto Rossi, Stefania Strizzolo, Anna Urbani, Flavia Ald, Barbara Bianchi, Paola Cappellari, Raffaello Conti, Laura De Battisti, Ermanna Lazzarin, Silvia Merlin, Giuseppe Migliorini, Tecla Pozzan, Lucio Sarto, Stefania Visonà, Andrea Brazzoli, Antonella Campi, Roberta Carmagnani, Sabrina Giambelli, Annalisa Gianella, Lino Lunardi, Davide Madaghiele, Paola Maestrelli, Lidia Paiola, Elisa Posteri, Loretta Viola, Valentina Zamberlan, Marta Zenari, Martina Zanoni, Giovanni Bonadonna, Mariacristina Bonomo, Angela Veronese, Patrizia Anderle, Andrea Angelozz, Isabelle Amalric, Gabriella Baron, Enrico Bruttomesso Fabio Candeago, Franco Castelli, Maria Chieco, Enrico Di Costanzo, Mario Derossi, Michele Doriguzzi, Osvaldo Galvano, Marcello Lattanz, Roberto Lezzi, Marisa Marcato, Alessandro Marcolin, Franco Marini, Manlio Matranga, Donato Scalabrin, Maria Zucchetto, Flavio Zadro, Giovanni Austoni, Maria Bianco, Francesca Bordino, Filippo Dario, Alessandro De Risio, Aldo Gatto, Simona Granà, Emanuele Favero, Anna Franceschin, Silvia Friederici, Vanna Marangon, Michela Pascolo, Luana Ramon, Stefania Zambolin, Rossana Riolo, Antonella Buffon, Elena Di Bortolo, Stefania Fortin, Francesco Matarrese, Simona Mogni, Novella Codemo, Alessio Russi, Alessandra Silvestro, Elena Turella, Paola Viel, Anna Dominoni, Lorenzo Andreose, Mario Boemio, Loretta Bressan, Arianna Cabbia, Elisabetta Canesso, Romina Cian, Claudia Dal Piccol, Maria Manuela Dalla Pasqua, Anna Di Prisco, Lorena Mantellato, Monica Luison, Sandra Morgante, Mirna Santi, Moreno Sacillotto, Mauro Scabbio, Patrizia Sponga, M Luisa Sguotto, Flavia Stach, M Grazia Vettorato, Giorgio Martinello, Francesca Dassie, Stefano Marino, Linda Cibiniel, Ilenia Masetto, Oscar Cabianca, Amalia Valente, Livio Caberlotto, Alberto Passoni, Patrizia Flumian, Luigino Daniel, Massimo Gion, Stanziale Stanziale, Flora Alborino, Vladimiro Bortolozzo, Lucio Bacelle, Leonarda Bicciato, Daniela Basso, Filippo Navaglia, Fabio Manoni, Mauro Ercolin, Franco Giubilini, Massimiliano Imbesi, Enrico Semrov, Castel S Giovanni, Valli Taro e Ceno, Polo Ovest, Silvio Anelli, Mario Amore, Laura Bigi, Welsch Britta, Giovanna Barazzoni Anna, Uobes Bonatti, Maria Borziani, Isabella Crosato, Raffaele Galluccio, Margherita Galeotti, Mauro Gozzi, Vanna Greco, Emanuele Guagnini, Stefania Pagani, Malvasi Maccherozzi, Francesco Marchi, Ermanno Melato, Elena Mazzucchi, Franco Marzullo, Pietro Pellegrini, Nicoletta Petrolini, Paolo Volta, Franca Bonara, Elisabetta Brusamonti, Roberto Croci, Ivana Flamia, Francesca Fontana, Romina Losi, Roberto Marchioro, Luigi Raffaini, Luca Ruju, Antonio Saginario, M Grazia Tondelli, Donatella Marrama, Lucia Bernardelli, Federica Bonacini, Annaluisa Florindo, Marina Merli, Patrizia Nappo, Lorena Sola, Ornella Tondelli, Matteo Tonna, M Teresa Torre, Morena Tosatti, Gloria Venturelli, Daria Zampolla, Antonia Bernardi, Cinzia Cavalli, Lorena Cigala, Cinzia Ciraudo, Antonia Di Bari, Lorena Ferri, Fabiana Gombi, Sonia Leurini, Elena Mandatelli, Stefano Maccaferri, Mara Oroboncoide, Barbara Pisa, Cristina Ricci, Enrica Poggi, Corrado Zurlini, Monica Malpeli, Rossana Colla, Elvira Teodori, Luigi Vecchia, Rocco D'Andrea, Tommaso Trenti, Paola Paolini, Paolo Carpeggiani, Mariateresa Gagliostro, Michela Pratelli, S Lazzaro, Antonio Antonelli, Luana Battistini, Francesca Bellini, Eva Bonini, Caterina Bruschi Rossella Capelli, Cinzia DiDomizio, Chiara Drei, Giuseppe Fucci, Alessandra Gualandi, Maria Rosaria Grazia, Anna M Losi, Federica Mazzanti Paola Mazzoni, Daniela Marangoni, Giuseppe Monna, Marco Morselli, Alessandro Oggioni, Silvio Oprandi, Walter Paganelli, Morena Passerini, Maria Piscitelli, Gregorio Reggiani, Gabriella Rossi, Federica Salvatori, Simona Trasforini, Carlo Uslenghi, Simona Veggetti, Giovanna Bartolucci, Rosita Baruffa, Raffaella Bertelli, Lidia Borghi, Patrizia Ciavarella, Elisabetta Paltrinieri, Francesco Rizzardi, Piera Serra, Damiano Suzzi, Uslenghi Carlo, Paolo Arienti, Fabio Aureli, Rosita Avanzi, Vincenzo Callegari, Alessandra Corsino, Paolo Host, Rossella Michetti, Francesco Rizzo, Paola Simoncelli, Elena Soldati, Eraldo Succi, Massimo Bertozzi, Elisa Canetti, Luca Cavicchioli, Elisa Ceccarelli, Stefano Cenni, Glenda Marzola, Vanessa Gallina, Carla Leoni, Andrea Olivieri, Elena Piccolo, Sabrina Ravagli, Rosaria Russo, Daniele Tedeschini, Marina Verenini, Walter Abram, Veronica Granata, Alessandro Curcio, Giovanni Guerra, Samuela Granini, Lara Natali, Enrica Montanari, Fulvia Pasi, Umbertina Ventura, Stefania Valenti, Masi Francesca, Rossano Farneti, Paolo Ravagli, Romina Floris, Otello Maroncelli, Gianbattista Volpones, Donatella Casali, Andrea Bencini, Massimo Cellini, Luca De Biase, Leonardo Barbara, Liedl Charles, Cristina Pratesi, Andrea Tanini, Riccardo Loparrino, Cinzia Ulivelli, Cristina Cussoto, Nico Dei, Enrico Fumanti, Manuela Pantani, Gregorio Zeloni, Rossella Bellini, Roberta Cellesi, Nadia Dorigo, Patrizia Gullì, Luisa Ialeggio, Maria Pisanu, Graziella Rinaldi, Angela Konze, Mario Bianco, Litta Modignani, Maria Frova, Emiliano Monzani, Alberto Zanobio, Marina Malagoli, Roberto Pagani, Simona Barbera, Carla Morganti, Elisabetta Sarzi Amadè, Virginia Brambilla, Anita Montanari, Giori Caterina, Carmelo López, Alessandro Marocchi, Andrea Moletta, Maurizio Sberna, M Teresa Cascio, Maria Laura Manzone, Barbera Barbara, Luisa Mari, Maria L Manzone, Edoardo Razzini, Yvonne Bianchi, M Rosa Pellizzer, Antonella Verdecchia, M Gabriella Sferrazza, M Laura Manzone, Rosa Pismataro, Gian Vico Melzi d'Eril, Alessandra Barassi, Rosana Pacciolla, Gloria Faraci, Bolzano Rosmini, Fabio Carpi, Margit Soelva, Monica Anderlan, Michele De Francesco, Efi Duregger, Carla Vettori, Sabrina Doimo, Erika Kompatscher, Michael Forer, Helene Kerschbaumer, Anna Gampe, Maira Nicoletti, Chiara Acerbi, Daniele Aquilino, Silvia Azzali, Luca Bensi, Davide Cappellari, Elisa Casana, Nadia Campagnola, Elisa Dal Corso, Elisabetta Di Micco, Erika Gobbi, Laura Ferri, Laura Mairaghi, Sara Malak, Luca Mesiano, Federica Paterlini, Michela Perini, Elena Maria Puliti, Rosaria Rispoli, Elisabetta Rizzo, Chiara Sergenti, Manuela Soave, Andrea Alpi, Laura Bislenghi, Tiziana Bolis, Francesca Colnaghi, Simona Fascendini, Silvia Grignani, Giovanni Patelli, Silvia Casale, Giuseppe Deledda, Mariangela Mazzi, Michela Rimondini, Catia Scassellati, Cristian Bonvicini, Sara Longo, Mariacarla Ventriglia, Rosanna Squitti, Giovanni Frisoni, Michela Pievani, Matteo Balestrieri, Manfredo Atzori, Alberto Beltramello, Franco Alessandrini, Francesca Pizzini, Giada Zoccatelli, Pierluigi Politi, Enzo Emanuele, Natascia Brondino, Gianvito Martino, Alessandra Bergami, Roberto Zarbo, Marco Andrea Riva, Fabio Fumagalli, Raffaella Molteni, Francesca Calabrese, Gianluigi Guidotti, Alessia Luoni, Flavia Macchi, Stefania Artioli, Marco Baldetti, Milena Bizzocchi, Donatella Bolzon, Elisa Bonello, Giorgia Cacciari, Claudia Carraresi, Gabriele Caselli, Karin Furlato, Sara Garlassi, Alessandro Gavarini, Fabio Macchetti, Valentina Marteddu, Giorgia Plebiscita, Stefano Totaro, Paul Bebbington, Max Birchwood, Paola Dazzan, Elisabeth Kuipers, Graham Thornicroft, Carmine Pariante, Steve Lawrie, Jair C Soares.
Trials
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Multi-element interventions for first-episode psychosis (FEP) are promising, but have mostly been conducted in non-epidemiologically representative samples, thereby raising the risk of underestimating the complexities involved in treating FEP in real-world services.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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