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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing for routine identification of clinically relevant mutations in colorectal cancer patients.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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To evaluate the accuracy, consumable cost and time around testing (TAT) of a next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay, the Ion Torrent AmpliSeq Colon and Lung Cancer Panel, as an alternative to Sanger sequencing to genotype KRAS, NRAS and BRAF in colorectal cancer patients.
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Analysis of differential miRNA expression in primary tumor and stroma of colorectal cancer patients.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Microarray technology was used to profile miRNA expression in primary tumor and stromal tissue from paraffin embedded material of 51 patients with colorectal cancer. 26 miRNAs resulted differentially expressed with at least 2-fold change in tumor tissue with respect to stroma (16 more expressed in the tumor and 10 more expressed in the stroma). 10/26 were confirmed as differentially expressed at qRTPCR: miR-200c-3p, miR-141-3p, miR-200b-3p, miR-200a-3p, miR-1246, miR-92a-3p, miR-194-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-3651-5p, and miR-574-3p. No significant association was found between miRNA expressions and stage at diagnosis, site of primary tumor, first site of metastasis, progression-free, or overall survival.
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Epidermal growth factor-receptor activation modulates Src-dependent resistance to lapatinib in breast cancer models.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Src tyrosine kinase overactivation has been correlated with a poor response to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) inhibitors in breast cancer. To identify the mechanism by which Src overexpression sustains this resistance, we tested a panel of breast cancer cell lines either sensitive or resistant to lapatinib.
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Controversies in the surgical management of thyroid follicular neoplasms. Retrospective analysis of 721 patients.
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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The most appropriate surgical management of "follicular neoplasm/suspicious for follicular neoplasm" lesions, is still controversial. Analysing and comparing the experience of two units for endocrine surgery, we retrospectively evaluated 721 patients, surgically treated after a follicular neoplasm diagnosis. Total thyroidectomy was routinely performed in one Institution, while in the other one it was selectively carried out. The main criteria leading to hemythyroidectomy were a single nodule, the age ?45 years, the absence of thyroiditis or clinical/intraoperative suspicion of malignancy. Total thyroidectomy was performed in 402/721 patients (55.7%), hemythyroidectomy in 319/721 cases (44.2%) and a completion thyroidectomy in 51/319 cases (15.9%). The overall malignancy rate was 24% (176/721 patients), respectively 16% (51/319 patients) following hemythyroidectomy, and 31% (125/402 patients) following total thyroidectomy. Definitive recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis and permanent hypoparathyroidism were not reported in hemythyroidectomy patients in which lower mean hospitalization and costs were observed. Considering the low-risk of follicular neoplasm solitary lesions, hemythyroidectomy is still the safest standard of care with lower hospitalization and costs. In case of multiglandular disease or thyroiditis, that might be associated with a higher risk of cancer, total thyroidectomy should be recommended. Further investigation is warranted to achieve a better preoperative follicular neoplasm diagnostic accuracy in order to reduce the amount of unnecessary surgical operations with a diagnostic aim.
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Effects of combined administration of rapamycin, tolvaptan, and AEZ-131 on the progression of polycystic disease in PCK rats.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Both experimental and clinical studies have suggested that any potential treatment of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) should start early and last for a long time to be effective, with unavoidable side reactions and considerable costs. The aim of the present study was to test how low doses of rapamycin (RAPA; 0.15 mg/kg ip for 4 days/wk), tolvaptan (TOLV; 0.005% in diet), or AEZ-131 (AEZ; a novel ERK inhibitor, 30 mg/kg for 3 days/wk by gavage), alone and in association, affect the progression of polycystic renal disease in PCK rats. Rats were treated for 8 wk starting at 4-6 wk of age. The efficacy of low doses of such drugs in inhibiting their respective targets was confirmed by immunoblot experiments. Compared with rats in the control (CON) group, RAPA treatment caused a significant reduction in cyst volume density (CVD; -19% vs. the CON group) and was numerically similar to that in TOLV-treated rats (-18%, not significiant), whereas AEZ treatment was not effective. RAPA + TOLV treatment resulted in a significantly lower CVD (-49% vs. the CON group) and was associated with a striking decrease in cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation, and similar data were detected in RAPA + AEZ-treated rats (-42%), whereas TOLV + AEZ treatment had virtually no effect. RAPA administration significantly lessened body weight gain, whereas TOLV administration resulted a mild increase in diuresis and a significant increase in cAMP urinary excretion. Histological data of tubular proliferation were in full agreement with CVD data. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the association of low doses of RAPA, TOLV, and AEZ slows the progression of PKD with limited side effects, suggesting the use of combined therapies also in clinical trials.
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EGFR analysis: Current evidence and future directions.
Diagn. Cytopathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Until a few years ago, only lung cancer histological specimens were considered suitable for testing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Then, several retrospective studies were designed to test EGFR mutation on a sizeable number of parallel cytological and histological samples obtained from the same patients and, even more recently, several institutions reported their prospective clinical experiences on routine specimens. Basing on these studies the College of American Pathologists, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, and the Association for Molecular Pathology have recently considered cytological samples suitable for EGFR testing. Therefore, it seems timely to draw together the threads of this large body of information in order that cytopathologists can be knowledgeable partners in the multidisciplinary process of targeted cancer therapy and to help refine current testing guidelines. This review addresses (1) the more common proposed techniques including the use of direct cytologic smears cell blocks and liquid based cytology; (2) the issues related to current practice, which in Europe is external centralized testing that is usually done on samples containing very few cells; and (3) the future directions based on the implementation on lung cytology of next generation sequencing approaches. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:984-992. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Applications and limitations of oncogene mutation testing in clinical cytopathology.
Semin Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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In an increased number of settings, cytology represents the only source of sampling and it often substitutes histology as an independent diagnostic modality. Thus, DNA molecular targets to stratify patients for targeted therapy are often evaluated on cytology. In addition, DNA mutational tests may refine indeterminate thyroid and pancreas cytology. This review discusses the applications and limitations of DNA mutational testing on cytology. With respect to histology, most cytological samples have the advantages of a purer population of tumor cells, with low stromal component, a better preserved DNA, and assessing at the same time of sample collection cellular adequacy for DNA testing. However, since in vitro diagnostic tests are licensed only for paraffin-tissue, all mutational assays on cytology are "home brew," requiring a rigorous validation process. This should take into account not only the performance characteristics of the molecular assay but also features inherent to any given cytological samples, such as its source, preparation type, fixation and staining modalities, and the most effective tumor cell enrichment methods. This calls for a change of cytotechnologists and cytopathologists mentality to collect and process the cytological samples not only for microscopy but also to assess clinically relevant molecular markers.
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KRAS testing in metastatic colorectal carcinoma: challenges, controversies, breakthroughs and beyond.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Metastatic colorectal cancer harbouring a mutation in codon 12 or 13 of the KRAS gene does not benefit from therapy with antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The implementation of community KRAS testing is generating a rapid flow of new data that have implications for the pathologist and testing guidelines besides the physician. Therefore, it seems timely to draw together the threads of this large body of information in order that pathologists can be knowledgeable partners in the multidisciplinary process of targeted cancer therapy and to help refine current testing guidelines. This review addresses (1) the most relevant methodological and technical aspects of KRAS testing in terms of sample site (primary/metastatic), test specimens (resection/biopsy/cytology) and the diverse molecular methods available; (2) the issues related to daily practice, namely, the timing of the test, its turnaround time and the quality control procedures; and (3) the evidence related to the relationship between KRAS genetic intratumoural heterogeneity, clinical sensitivity of mutational detection tools and anti-EGFR treatment outcome. Hopefully, in the near future, elucidation of the potential of biomarker panels and of the mechanisms underlying primary and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR therapy will refine even further personalised treatment regimens for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
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Cytologically undetermined thyroids follicular lesions: surgical procedures and histological outcome in 472 cases.
Ann Ital Chir
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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Fine needle cytology (FNC) of thyroid nodules is not always diagnostic. Most of FNCs undeterminated for malignancy belong to the cytological class of "follicular neoplasm/suspicious for follicular neoplasm" lesions (FN). In this group only 10-30% of cases are malignant and the most appropriate surgical management is still controversial. Here, this issue was addressed and the more reliable predictive criteria of malignancy were also evaluated.
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EGFR mutation detection by microfluidic technology: a validation study.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Advanced non-small cell lung cancer samples are tested for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations. Their detection by direct sequencing is time-consuming. Conversely, the length analysis of fluorescently labelled PCR products is easier. To avoid labelled primers and the automated capillary electrophoresis apparatus, we validated a fast and sensitive chip-based microfluidic technology. The limit of detection of fragment length assay on microfluidic device was 5%, more sensitive than direct sequencing (12.5%). The novel methodology showed high accuracy in the analysis of samples whose mutational status was known. The accuracy in quantifying mutated alleles (mA) was evaluated by PCR products subcloning; the mA% provided by direct sequencing of subcloned PCR products showed a close correlation with the mA% provided by the microfluidic technology for both exon 19 (R(2)=0.9) and 21 (R(2)=0.9). Microfluidic-based on-chip electrophoresis makes EGFR testing more rapid, sensitive and cost-effective.
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DNA methylation state of the galectin-3 gene represents a potential new marker of thyroid malignancy.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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In order to supplement the cytopathological assessment of thyroid tumors, there is a need for new markers to correctly diagnose malignant thyroid lesions and avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful therapies for patients. The immunohistochemical expression of galectin-3 is currently considered to be the most accurate stand-alone marker for thyroid cancer diagnosis. The aim of this study was to establish whether the methylation state of the galectin-3 gene is a candidate molecular marker for thyroid malignancy. Thyroid specimens from 50 patients were analyzed, including 5 normal thyroid, 3 goiters, 39 papillary and 3 anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cases. High-resolution methylation analyses was performed to investigate the methylation state of a large genomic region (from -89 to +408) encompassing the galectin-3 transcriptional start site. Within this region, 5 CpG sites (nucleotide positions +134, +137, +142, +147 and +156) were observed to be differentially methylated among the samples and were further analyzed by the quantitative pyrosequencing technique. The hypomethylation of the +134, +137, +142, +147 and +156 CpG sites was observed to be markedly associated with cancer. Although the methylation degree of each single site was highly variable in non-neoplastic tissues, the average methylation state of the 5 CpG sites clearly distinguished cancer from the nonneoplastic thyroid tissues.
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Warthin tumor with signet-ring cell features as a pitfall in salivary gland cytopathology.
Acta Cytol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Warthin tumor (WT) is a common parotid lesion reliably diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Worrisome metaplastic changes may occur in WT. Their interpretation as mucoepidermoid carcinoma represents a diagnostic pitfall. Moreover, WT and mucoepidermoid carcinoma may coexist, making this distinction difficult. So it is worthwhile to report unusual WT features. We describe a WT with signet-ring cells (SRCs).
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EGFR mutations detected on cytology samples by a centralized laboratory reliably predict response to gefitinib in non-small cell lung carcinoma patients.
Cancer Cytopathol
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are reliably detected by referral laboratories, even if most lung cancer cytology specimens sent to such laboratories contain very few cells. However, EGFR mutations may be distributed heterogeneously within tumors, thereby raising concerns that mutations detected on cytology are not representative of the entire tumor and, thus, are less reliable in predicting response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment than mutations detected on histology. To address this issue, the authors reviewed their clinical practice archives and compared the outcome of TKI treatment among patients who were selected by cytology versus patients who were selected by histology.
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Next-Generation Sequencing of Lung Cancer EGFR Exons 18-21 Allows Effective Molecular Diagnosis of Small Routine Samples (Cytology and Biopsy).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Selection of lung cancer patients for therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors directed at EGFR requires the identification of specific EGFR mutations. In most patients with advanced, inoperable lung carcinoma limited tumor samples often represent the only material available for both histologic typing and molecular analysis. We defined a next generation sequencing protocol targeted to EGFR exons 18-21 suitable for the routine diagnosis of such clinical samples. The protocol was validated in an unselected series of 80 small biopsies (n=14) and cytology (n=66) specimens representative of the material ordinarily submitted for diagnostic evaluation to three referral medical centers in Italy. Specimens were systematically evaluated for tumor cell number and proportion relative to non-neoplastic cells. They were analyzed in batches of 100-150 amplicons per run, reaching an analytical sensitivity of 1% and obtaining an adequate number of reads, to cover all exons on all samples analyzed. Next generation sequencing was compared with Sanger sequencing. The latter identified 15 EGFR mutations in 14/80 cases (17.5%) but did not detected mutations when the proportion of neoplastic cells was below 40%. Next generation sequencing identified 31 EGFR mutations in 24/80 cases (30.0%). Mutations were detected with a proportion of neoplastic cells as low as 5%. All mutations identified by the Sanger method were confirmed. In 6 cases next generation sequencing identified exon 19 deletions or the L858R mutation not seen after Sanger sequencing, allowing the patient to be treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In one additional case the R831H mutation associated with treatment resistance was identified in an EGFR wild type tumor after Sanger sequencing. Next generation sequencing is robust, cost-effective and greatly improves the detection of EGFR mutations. Its use should be promoted for the clinical diagnosis of mutations in specimens with unfavorable tumor cell content.
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PAX8 is expressed in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration: a study of three cases with histological correlates.
Eur. J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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It is difficult to diagnose anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) in a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) sample because, given the loss of morphological and immunophenotypical follicular thyroid features, its cytology resembles that of other undifferentiated neoplasms. Recent studies have shown that immunostaining for paired box gene 8 (PAX8), a transcription factor expressed in normal thyroid, is effective for diagnosing ATCs on histology. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether PAX8 could be used to identify ATCs on cytology also.
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miR-191 down-regulation plays a role in thyroid follicular tumors through CDK6 targeting.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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Well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas include papillary (PTC) and follicular (FTC) carcinomas. FTC is usually a more aggressive form of cancer than the more common papillary type. miR-191 expression is frequently altered in several neoplasias, being up-regulated in some cases, such as pancreatic carcinomas, and down-regulated in other carcinomas, such as melanomas.
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EGFR and KRAS mutations detection on lung cancer liquid-based cytology: a pilot study.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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In advanced non-small-cell lung carcinomas epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS testing is often performed on cytology. Liquid-based cytology (LBC), which eliminates the need for slide preparation by clinicians, may be very useful. In 42 LBC DNA was extracted twice. One sample was obtained directly from CytoLyt solution, whereas the other DNA sample was derived after smear preparation and laser capture microdissection (LCM) of Papanicolaou-stained cells. EGFR and KRAS mutational analyses were performed by direct sequencing. On CytoLyt-derived DNA four EGFR (9%) and five KRAS (12%) gene mutations were found. When direct sequencing was performed after LCM, the rate of cases that displayed either EGFR or KRAS mutations increased from 21% to 40%. Although time-consuming, LCM makes direct sequencing highly sensitive even on LBC preparations containing only a few cells.
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Multicentric encapsulated papillary oncocytic neoplasm of the thyroid: A case diagnosed by a combined cytological, histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular approach.
Diagn. Cytopathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis of oncocytic lesions is challenging. In fact, oncocytic changes occur in inflammatory, hyperplastic, and neoplastic settings, including both benign and malignant tumors. The rare oncocytic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), shows papillae composed by cells with large oncocytic granular cytoplasm featuring clear PTC nuclear features. A morphological similar, but biologically distinct lesion, is the encapsulated papillary oncocytic neoplasia. Here, we first report on FNA, its cytological features together with histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular correlates.
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MicroRNA-449a overexpression, reduced NOTCH1 signals and scarce goblet cells characterize the small intestine of celiac patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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MiRNAs play a relevant role in regulating gene expression in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions including autoimmune disorders. MiRNAs are also important in the differentiation and function of the mouse intestinal epithelium. Our study was aimed to look for miRNA-based modulation of gene expression in celiac small intestine, and particularly for genes involved in cell intestinal differentiation/proliferation mechanisms. A cohort of 40 children (20 with active CD, 9 on a gluten-free diet (GFD), and 11 controls), were recruited at the Paediatrics Department (University of Naples Federico II). The expression of 365 human miRNAs was quantified by TaqMan low-density arrays. We used bioinformatics to predict putative target genes of miRNAs and to select biological pathways. The presence of NOTCH1, HES1, KLF4, MUC-2, Ki67 and beta-catenin proteins in the small intestine of CD and control children was tested by immunohistochemistry. The expression of about 20% of the miRNAs tested differed between CD and control children. We found that high miR-449a levels targeted and reduced both NOTCH1 and KLF4 in HEK-293 cells. NOTCH1, KLF4 signals and the number of goblet cells were lower in small intestine of children with active CD and in those on a GFD than in controls, whereas more nuclear beta-catenin staining, as a sign of the WNT pathway activation, and more Ki67 staining, as sign of proliferation, were present in crypts from CD patients than in controls. In conclusion we first demonstrate a miRNA mediated gene regulation in small intestine of CD patients. We also highlighted a reduced NOTCH1 pathway in our patients, irrespective of whether the disease was active or not. We suggest that NOTCH pathway could be constitutively altered in the celiac small intestine and could drive the increased proliferation and the decreased differentiation of intestinal cells towards the secretory goblet cell lineage.
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Detection of erbB2 copy number variations in plasma of patients with esophageal carcinoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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Mortality is high in patients with esophageal carcinoma as tumors are rarely detected before the disease has progressed to an advanced stage. Here, we sought to isolate cell-free DNA released into the plasma of patients with esophageal carcinoma, to analyze copy number variations of marker genes in the search for early detection of tumor progression.
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Mass spectrometry-based identification of the tumor antigen UN1 as the transmembrane CD43 sialoglycoprotein.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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The UN1 monoclonal antibody recognized the UN1 antigen as a heavily sialylated and O-glycosylated protein with the apparent molecular weight of 100-120 kDa; this antigen was peculiarly expressed in fetal tissues and several cancer tissues, including leukemic T cells, breast, and colon carcinomas. However, the lack of primary structure information has limited further investigation on the role of the UN1 antigen in neoplastic transformation. In this study, we have identified the UN1 antigen as CD43, a transmembrane sialoglycoprotein involved in cell adhesion, differentiation, and apoptosis. Indeed, mass spectrometry detected two tryptic peptides of the membrane-purified UN1 antigen that matched the amino acidic sequence of the CD43 intracellular domain. Immunological cross-reactivity, migration pattern in mono- and bi-dimensional electrophoresis, and CD43 gene-dependent expression proved the CD43 identity of the UN1 antigen. Moreover, the monosaccharide GalNAc-O-linked to the CD43 peptide core was identified as an essential component of the UN1 epitope by glycosidase digestion of specific glycan branches. UN1-type CD43 glycoforms were detected in colon, sigmoid colon, and breast carcinomas, whereas undetected in normal tissues from the same patients, confirming the cancer-association of the UN1 epitope. Our results highlight UN1 monoclonal antibody as a suitable tool for cancer immunophenotyping and analysis of CD43 glycosylation in tumorigenesis.
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Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 overexpression has a role in the development of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a histone lysine methyltransferase belonging to the polycomb group protein family. Overexpression of EZH2 has been found in several human malignancies including hematological and solid tumors.
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The tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZD6474 blocks proliferation of RET mutant medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.
Endocr. Relat. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2010
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Oncogenic conversion of the RET tyrosine kinase is a frequent feature of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). ZD6474 (vandetanib) is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of RET, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors kinases. In this study, we have studied ZD6474 mechanism of action in TT and MZ-CRC-1 human MTC cell lines, carrying cysteine 634 to tryptophan (C634W) and methionine 918 to threonine (M918T) RET mutation respectively. ZD6474 blunted MTC cell proliferation and RET, Shc and p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Single receptor knockdown by RNA interference showed that MTC cells depended on RET for proliferation. Adoptive expression of the ZD6474-resistant V804M RET mutant rescued proliferation of TT cells under ZD6474 treatment, showing that RET is a key ZD6474 target in these MTC cells. Upon RET inhibition, adoptive stimulation of EGFR partially rescued TT cell proliferation, MAPK signaling, and expression of cell-cycle-related genes. This suggests that simultaneous inhibition of RET and EGFR by ZD6474 may overcome the risk of MTC cells to escape from RET blockade through compensatory over-activation of EGFR.
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Cytology-based gene mutation tests to predict response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy: a review.
Diagn. Cytopathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2010
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Recent therapeutic progresses in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and in colorectal cancer (CRC) are based on agents that specifically target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). To identify the patients most likely to benefit from such therapies, EGFR or KRAS gene mutation tests are mandatory, respectively, in NSCLC and in CRC. In patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease, exploiting cytological samples for these tests avoids not curative surgery. Here, we review the studies that have applied gene mutation assays on cytological samples of NSCLC and CRC to select patients for anti-EGFR therapy. We argue that the standard of quality of gene mutation tests on cytological samples is closely dependent on the extent of the cytopathologists involvement.
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UbcH10 expression on thyroid fine-needle aspirates.
Cancer Cytopathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples belonging to the follicular neoplasm/suspicious for malignancy classes are controversial. The authors identified UbcH10 as a marker useful in the diagnosis of several neoplasms, including thyroid cancer. Here, analysis of UbcH10 expression by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry was applied to FNAs.
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Impact of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in lymph nodal and mediastinal lesions: a multicenter experience.
Diagn. Cytopathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is an established procedure in lung cancer (LC) staging and in the diagnosis of mediastinal masses. Most of the experiences reported refer to single specialized centers where dedicated teams of endoscopists and pathologists perform the procedure. We report the EUS-FNA experience of a cooperation group involving clinicians and cytopathologists from three hospitals. Fifty-seven consecutive EUS-FNA of mediastinal nodes in LC patients, eight mediastinal and two subdiaphragmatic masses were collected in 3 years. EUS-FNA was performed by two endoscopists and three experienced pathologists. On-site evaluation was performed in all cases by the three cytopathologists. Lymph node negative cases underwent surgery, which confirmed the cytological diagnoses but also detected two false negatives. Four of the 10 EUS cytological diagnoses of mediastinal and subdiaphragmatic masses were histologically confirmed. All EUS diagnoses were blindly reviewed by three pathologists to assess intra and interpersonal reproducibility. FNA-EUS diagnoses were: 10 inadequate (17%), 10 negative (17%), 4 suspicious (7%) and 33 positive (59%). Diagnoses of mediastinal and subdiaphragmatic masses were: relapse of lung carcinoma (3), mesenchimal tumor not otherwise specifiable (3), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) (1), esophageal carcinoma (2) and paraganglioma (1). The sensitivity attained was 85% and the specificity 100%; revision of the slides demonstrated a significant diagnostic reproducibility of the three cytopathologists (P < 0.5). The sensitivity and specificity attained were similar to those reported in the literature suggesting that experienced cytopathologists and endoscopists from different institutions can employ the same procedure reaching comparable results.
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Metastasis of colon cancer to the thyroid gland: a case diagnosed on fine-needle aspirate by a combined cytological, immunocytochemical, and molecular approach.
Diagn. Cytopathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) with cytological evaluation reliably diagnoses primary and secondary thyroid neoplasms. However, identifying the primary origin of a metastatic process involving the thyroid gland is challenging. In particular, metastasis of colon cancer to the thyroid gland is very rare. In this case report, a right lobe solid thyroid nodule in a 66-year-old male was aspirated. FNA cytology showed necrosis and atypical tall columnar cells; since, the patient at age 60 had undergone surgery for a sigmoid-rectal cancer metastasizing to the liver and subsequently to the lung, a suspicion of metastasis from colon cancer was raised. This was corroborated by cell-block immunocytochemistry showing a cytokeratin (CK) 7 negative/CK20-positive staining pattern; thyreoglobulin and TTF-1 were both negative. Since KRAS codon 12/13 mutations frequently occur in colon cancer, whereas they are extremely uncommon in primary thyroid tumors, DNA was extracted from the aspirated cells, and KRAS mutational analysis was carried out. The codon 12 G12D mutation was found; the same mutation was evident in the primary cancer of the colon and in its liver and lung metastasis. Thus, a combined cytological, immunocytochemical and molecular approach unquestionably correlated metastatic adenocarcinoma cells aspirated from the thyroid to a colo-rectal origin.
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Identification of a New Pathway for Tumor Progression: MicroRNA-181b Up-Regulation and CBX7 Down-Regulation by HMGA1 Protein.
Genes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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High mobility group A (HMGA) overexpression plays a critical role in neoplastic transformation. To investigate whether HMGA acts by regulating the expression of microRNAs, we analyzed the microRNA expression profile of human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7) transfected with the HMGA1 gene, which results in a highly malignant phenotype. Among the microRNAs induced by HMGA1, we focused on miR-181b, which was overexpressed in several malignant neoplasias including breast carcinomas. We show that miR-181b regulates CBX7 protein levels, which are down-regulated in cancer, and promotes cell cycle progression. We also demonstrate that CBX7, being negatively regulated by HMGA, is able to negatively regulate miR-181b expression. Finally, there was a direct correlation between HMGA1 and miR-181b expression and an inverse correlation between HMGA1 and CBX7 expression in human breast carcinomas. These data indicate the presence of a novel pathway involving HMGA1, miR-181b, and CBX7, which leads to breast cancer progression.
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The loss of the CBX7 gene expression represents an adverse prognostic marker for survival of colon carcinoma patients.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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We have previously shown that CBX7 expression is associated with a more malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer. On this basis, we decided to investigate its possible prognostic value in colorectal cancer (CRC). CBX7 expression has been analysed by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarray (TMA) specimens obtained from a large series of sporadic CRC resections (n=1420). The CBX7 expression data have been correlated with several clinico-pathological parameters. CBX7 expression is reduced or absent in a significant number of CRC samples in comparison to the normal colonic mucosa and the loss of CBX7 expression correlates with a poor outcome of CRC (p<0.001). The block of CBX7 expression seems to occur at a transcriptional level since quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed a reduced CBX7-specific mRNA levels in CRC samples versus normal counterpart tissue (up to more than 50-fold). Finally, the restoration of CBX7 expression in two CRC cell lines reduces their proliferation rate suggesting a role of the loss of CBX7 expression in the progression step of colon carcinogenesis. Therefore, the data reported here indicate that the evaluation of CBX7 expression may represent a valid tool in the prognosis of colon cancer since a reduced survival of CRC patients is associated with the loss of CBX7 expression.
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KRAS mutation analysis on cytological specimens of metastatic colo-rectal cancer.
Diagn. Cytopathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
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Recent evidences showed that metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with tumors harboring a KRAS gene mutation do not derive benefit from the administration of epidermal growth factor receptor-directed monoclonal antibodies. Typically, the specimens available for KRAS mutational analysis are formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary tumor tissue blocks. However, in patients with rectal tumours undergoing neoadjuvant therapy, the source of FFPE material is limited. In this setting, CRC cytological samples taken from the metastatic site may be exploited. However, these specimens show at least some degree of necrosis; thus, their suitability for the KRAS assay needs to be tested. Here, we show that 18/19 (94.7%) metastatic CRC smears were perfectly adequate for codon 12 and 13 KRAS mutational analysis by direct gene sequencing. Only one case (5.3%) showing abundant necrotic debris and poor cellular preservation was not informative for KRAS status. Codon 12 gene mutations were found in 4/18 (22.2%) of the adequate cases (c35G>T n = 2; c34G>T n = 1; c35G>A n = 1). Concordance between cytological and FFPE samples, both available in 13 patients, occurred in 92.3% (12/13) of the cases. Thus, whenever histological specimens of CRC are notavailable, KRAS testing may be reliably performed on cytological specimens.
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Effects of mycophenolate mofetil on acute ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rats and its consequences in the long term.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2009
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Renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) acutely decreases glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and impairs kidney function in the long term. Pre-treatment with chaetomellic acid (KM), an inhibitor of membrane-bound Ha-Ras, has demonstrated beneficial effects on acute renal ischaemia.
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Cyclin D1 and D3 overexpression predicts malignant behavior in thyroid fine-needle aspirates suspicious for Hurthle cell neoplasms.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2009
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Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples that feature a follicular-patterned, monotonous Hurthle (oncocytic) cell population cannot be diagnosed reliably. The authors of this report recently identified cyclin D3 overexpression on histologic sections of Hurthle cell carcinoma. In this study, they assessed the diagnostic value of cyclin D3 immunohistochemistry added to routine cytology.
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Chromobox protein homologue 7 protein, with decreased expression in human carcinomas, positively regulates E-cadherin expression by interacting with the histone deacetylase 2 protein.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
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Chromobox protein homologue 7 (CBX7) is a chromobox family protein encoding a novel polycomb protein, the expression of which shows a progressive reduction, well related with the malignant grade of the thyroid neoplasias. Indeed, CBX7 protein levels decreased in an increasing percentage of cases going from benign adenomas to papillary, follicular, and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. To elucidate the function of CBX7 in carcinogenesis, we searched for CBX7 interacting proteins by a proteomic analysis. By this approach, we identified several proteins. Among these proteins, we selected histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), which is well known to play a key role in neoplastic cell transformation and down-regulation of E-cadherin expression, the loss of which is a critical event in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation that CBX7 physically interacts with the HDAC2 protein and is able to inhibit its activity. Then, we showed that both these proteins bind the E-cadherin promoter and that CBX7 up-regulates E-cadherin expression. Consistent with these data, we found a positive statistical correlation between CBX7 and E-cadherin expression in human thyroid carcinomas. Finally, we showed that the expression of CBX7 increases the acetylation status of the histones H3 and H4 on the E-cadherin promoter. Therefore, the ability of CBX7 to positively regulate E-cadherin expression by interacting with HDAC2 and inhibiting its activity on the E-cadherin promoter would account for the correlation between the loss of CBX7 expression and a highly malignant phenotype.
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Morphological ultrasound microimaging of thyroid in living mice.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
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The objective of the study was to explore high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) for noninvasive microimaging of thyroid in living mice. Thyroid examination was performed by HFUS in 10 normal C57BL/6 mice, eight mice treated by propylthiouracil, and 22 Tg-TRK-T1 transgenic mice. The dimension of the gland and the presence of nodules were evaluated. Nodules were classified as malignant (hypoechogenicity, poorly defined margins, internal microcalcification, irregular shapes, and extra glandular extension) or not, and the findings were compared with histological data. Thyroid images were successfully obtained in all the animals analyzed. Normal thyroid reached a volume of 4.92 microl (range 2.11-4.92 microl). Mice with propylthiouracil-induced goiter showed diffuse thyroid enlargement (median volume 6.67 microl, range 4.09-8.82 microl). In 19 of 22 Tg-TRK-T1 mice (86%), HFUS identified a nodular process (the smallest detected nodule had a diameter of 0.46 mm). Eleven nodules were classified as malignant and eight as benign. Compared with histological analysis, HFUS showed a sensitivity of 100% in the detection of thyroid nodules and a specificity of 60% (two of the nodules identified by HFUS were not confirmed at the histology). The specificity and sensitivity of HFUS in predicting the malignancy of the thyroid nodules were 83 and 91%, respectively. Thus, HFUS is an accurate imaging modality that can potentially replace more invasive techniques, and, therefore, it represents a significant advancement in phenotypic assessment of mouse models of thyroid cancer.
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Clonal B-cell population in a reactive lymph node in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
Diagn. Cytopathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2009
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A 40-year-old female, HIV positive, stage C, since 4 years, complained of a right cervical lymph node swelling. Two years before, the patient had been diagnosed with follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (FL); she had been treated with four cycles of multiagent chemotherapy plus rituximab, the last cycle being administered 10 months before coming to our attention. An ultrasound (US) guided fine-needle cytology (FNC) showed an atypical lymphoid cell proliferation. The phenotype evidenced by flow cytometry (FC) analysis was D5: 10%, CD19: 49%, CD23: 10%, FMC7: 0%, CD10: 40%, CD10/19: 40%, lambda light chain 40%, kappa light chain 0%. FDG-positron emission tomography (PET/CT) scan showed positivity in the corresponding cervical area. Since low LDH values and a reduced lymph node size were observed, the lymph node was therefore excised; the histology revealed a reactive hyperplastic lymph node with florid follicular pattern. A subsequent PCR analysis, performed on DNA extracted from a whole histological section, did not evidence IgH rearrangement. The patient is currently undergoing strict clinical and instrumental follow-up, including PET every 3 months; after 13 months, she is alive without recurrence of lymphoma. Clonal B-cell populations in non-lymphomatous processes have been described in mucosa-associated lymphoid cell populations and reactive lymph nodes, and are considered non-malignant, antigen driven, proliferations of B-lymphocytes determined by an abnormal response to bacterial or viral antigen stimulation. The present case occurred in an HIV patient and was clinically complex because of the patients history of FL. This experience suggests much attention in the evaluation of radiological, cytological, and FC data and in clinical correlation in patients suffering from autoimmune or immunodeficiency syndromes.
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The meningococcal ABC-Type L-glutamate transporter GltT is necessary for the development of experimental meningitis in mice.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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Experimental animal models of bacterial meningitis are useful to study the host-pathogen interactions occurring at the cerebral level and to analyze the pathogenetic mechanisms behind this life-threatening disease. In this study, we have developed a mouse model of meningococcal meningitis based on the intracisternal inoculation of bacteria. Experiments were performed with mouse-passaged serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis. Survival and clinical parameters of infected mice and microbiological and histological analysis of the brain demonstrated the establishment of meningitis with features comparable to those of the disease in humans. When using low bacterial inocula, meningococcal replication in the brain was very efficient, with a 1,000-fold increase of viable counts in 18 h. Meningococci were also found in the blood, spleens, and livers of infected mice, and bacterial loads in different organs were dependent on the infectious dose. As glutamate uptake from the host has been implicated in meningococcal virulence, mice were infected intracisternally with an isogenic strain deficient in the ABC-type L-glutamate transporter GltT. Noticeably, the mutant was attenuated in virulence in mixed infections, indicating that wild-type bacteria outcompeted the GltT-deficient meningococci. The data show that the GltT transporter plays a role in meningitis and concomitant systemic infection, suggesting that meningococci may use L-glutamate as a nutrient source and as a precursor to synthesize the antioxidant glutathione.
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UbcH10 expression in human lymphomas.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
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The UbcH10 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme plays a key role in regulating mitosis completion. We have previously reported that UbcH10 overexpression is associated with aggressive thyroid, ovarian and breast carcinomas. The aim of this study was to investigate UbcH10 expression in human lymphomas.
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Cytologic, flow cytometry, and molecular assessment of lymphoid infiltrate in fine-needle cytology samples of Hashimoto thyroiditis.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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The thyroidal lymphoid infiltrate (TLI) in Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) represents the substrate from which thyroid lymphoma may arise. The objective of the current study was to classify the TLI in HT by comparing the cytologic features with flow cytometry (FC) data and evaluating the kappa/lambda light chain ratio and its molecular assessment.
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Characterization of carbonic anhydrase IX interactome reveals proteins assisting its nuclear localization in hypoxic cells.
J. Proteome Res.
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Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a transmembrane protein affecting pH regulation, cell migration/invasion, and survival in hypoxic tumors. Although the pathways related to CA IX have begun to emerge, molecular partners mediating its functions remain largely unknown. Here we characterize the CA IX interactome in hypoxic HEK-293 cells. Most of the identified CA IX-binding partners contain the HEAT/ARM repeat domain and belong to the nuclear transport machinery. We show that the interaction with two of these proteins, namely XPO1 exportin and TNPO1 importin, occurs via the C-terminal region of CA IX and increases with protein phosphorylation. We also demonstrate that nuclear CA IX is enriched in hypoxic cells and is present in renal cell carcinoma tissues. These data place CA IX among the cell-surface signal transducers undergoing nuclear translocation. Accordingly, CA IX interactome involves also CAND1, which participates in both gene transcription and assembly of SCF ubiquitin ligase complexes. It is noteworthy that down-regulation of CAND1 leads to decreased CA IX protein levels apparently via affecting its stability. Our findings provide the first evidence that CA IX interacts with proteins involved in nuclear/cytoplasmic transport, gene transcription, and protein stability, and suggest the existence of nuclear CA IX protein subpopulations with a potential intracellular function, distinct from the crucial CA IX role at the cell surface.
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Sphingosine kinase 1 overexpression contributes to cetuximab resistance in human colorectal cancer models.
Clin. Cancer Res.
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Although the anti-EGF receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody cetuximab is an effective strategy in colorectal cancer therapy, its clinical use is limited by intrinsic or acquired resistance. Alterations in the "sphingolipid rheostat"-the balance between the proapoptotic molecule ceramide and the mitogenic factor sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-due to sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) overactivation have been involved in resistance to anticancer-targeted agents. Moreover, cross-talks between SphK1 and EGFR-dependent signaling pathways have been described. Experimental design: We investigated SphK1 contribution to cetuximab resistance in colorectal cancer, in preclinical in vitro/in vivo models, and in tumor specimens from patients.
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Prognostic value of KRAS genotype in metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC) patients treated with intensive triplet chemotherapy plus bevacizumab (FIr-B/FOx) according to extension of metastatic disease.
BMC Med
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Bevacizumab (BEV) plus triplet chemotherapy can increase efficacy of first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC), particularly integrated with secondary liver surgery in liver-limited (L-L) patients. The prognostic value of the KRAS genotype in L-L and other or multiple metastatic (O/MM) MCRC patients treated with the FIr-B/FOx regimen was retrospectively evaluated.
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UbcH10 overexpression in human lung carcinomas and its correlation with EGFR and p53 mutational status.
Eur. J. Cancer
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UbcH10 codes for the cancer related E2 Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme, an enzymatic molecule with a key role in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Current studies have suggested a critical role of UbcH10 in a variety of malignancies, including human thyroid, breast, ovarian and colorectal carcinomas. The aim of this study has been to extend the analysis of UbcH10 expression to lung cancer. This neoplasia represents one of the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, and new tools for an accurate diagnosis/prognosis are needed.
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Cytological and molecular features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with prominent hobnail features: a case report.
Acta Cytol.
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Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with prominent hobnail features is a recently recognized PTC variant. Its histological hallmark is represented by elongated cells showing a high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio and a hobnail appearance. Few histological studies have been performed showing aggressive clinical and pathological features. Thus, a better patient management might benefit from its early diagnosis on fine needle aspiration (FNA) samples. To date, the FNA cytology of PTC with prominent hobnail features has not been described.
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CD66c is a novel marker for colorectal cancer stem cell isolation, and its silencing halts tumor growth in vivo.
Cancer
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Despite the well recognized expression of the cell surface markers cluster of differentiation 44 (homing cell adhesion molecule) and CD133 (Prominin 1) on human colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs), these molecules do not appear to be effective targets for stem cell-directed therapies. Because the surface marker CD66c (also known as carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6) has demonstrated promise as a therapeutic target in pancreatic malignancy, the authors evaluated its potential as a target for stem cell-directed treatment of colorectal cancer.
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Radiation therapy following surgery for localized breast cancer: outcome prediction by classical prognostic factors and approximated genetic subtypes.
J. Radiat. Res.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome prediction power of classical prognostic factors along with surrogate approximation of genetic signatures (AGS) subtypes in patients affected by localized breast cancer (BC) and treated with postoperative radiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed 468 consecutive female patients affected by localized BC with complete immunohistochemical and pathological information available. All patients underwent surgery plus radiotherapy. Median follow-up was 59 months (range, 6-132) from the diagnosis. Disease recurrences (DR), local and/or distant, and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) were registered and analyzed in relation to subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, HER-2, and basal), and classical prognostic factors (PFs), namely age, nodal status (N), tumor classification (T), grading (G), estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors and erb-B2 status. Bootstrap technique for variable selection and bootstrap resampling to test selection stability were used. Regarding AGS subtypes, HER-2 and basal were more likely to recur than luminal A and B subtypes, while patients in the basal group were more likely to have CBC. However, considering PFs along with AGS subtypes, the optimal multivariable predictive model for DR consisted of age, T, N, G and ER. A single-variable model including basal subtype resulted again as the optimal predictive model for CBC. In patients bearing localized BC the combination of classical clinical variables age, T, N, G and ER was still confirmed to be the best predictor of DR, while the basal subtype was demonstrated to be significantly and exclusively correlated with CBC.
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Foamy gland pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma diagnosed on EUS-FNA: a histochemical, immunohistochemical, and molecular report.
Diagn. Cytopathol.
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The foamy gland pattern (FGP) may impart to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) a deceptively benign appearance. Thus, its diagnosis on FNA is challenging. A case of PDA with FGP, that was suspected on Diff Quik smears, diagnosed on cell-block preparation and confirmed by ancillary stains and molecular techniques, is here reported. The diagnostic interpretation of foamy atypical cells on direct smears may benefit from cell block preparation and from ancillary techniques.
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?-Catenin regulates deiodinase levels and thyroid hormone signaling in colon cancer cells.
Gastroenterology
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Activation of the ?-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) complex occurs in most colon tumors, and its actions correlate with the neoplastic phenotype of intestinal epithelial cells. Type 3 deiodinase (D3), the selenoenzyme that inactivates thyroid hormone (3,5,3 triiodothyronine [T3]), is frequently expressed by tumor cells, but little is known about its role in the regulation of T3 signaling in cancer cells.
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Immunoglobulin heavy-chain fluorescence in situ hybridization-chromogenic in situ hybridization DNA probe split signal in the clonality assessment of lymphoproliferative processes on cytological samples.
Cancer Cytopathol
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The human immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) locus at chromosome 14q32 is frequently involved in different translocations of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and the detection of any breakage involving the IGH locus should identify a B-cell NHL. The split-signal IGH fluorescence in situ hybridization-chromogenic in situ hybridization (FISH-CISH) DNA probe is a mixture of 2 fluorochrome-labeled DNAs: a green one that binds the telomeric segment and a red one that binds the centromeric segment, both on the IGH breakpoint. In the current study, the authors tested the capability of the IGH FISH-CISH DNA probe to detect IGH translocations and diagnose B-cell lymphoproliferative processes on cytological samples.
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EGFR mutations detection on liquid-based cytology: is microscopy still necessary?
J. Clin. Pathol.
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Currently, there is a trend towards an increasing use of liquid-based cytology (LBC) to diagnose non-small cell lung cancer. In this study, to detect epidermal growth factor receptor mutations, different molecular techniques were applied to LBC samples with and without laser capture microdissection (LCM). In 58 LBCs, DNA was extracted twice. One sample was obtained directly from CytoLyt solution, whereas the other DNA sample was derived after slide preparation and LCM of Papanicolaou-stained cells. The rate of mutant cases obtained by direct sequencing was discordant between CytoLyt-derived (10.3%) and LCM-derived (17.2%) DNA. However, the same mutant rate (17.2%) was achieved on the matched samples by high-resolution melting analysis, fragment and TaqMan assays. Thus, LCM and direct sequencing may be replaced by more sensitive non-sequencing methods directly performed on CytoLyt-derived DNA, an easier and faster approach to improve epidermal growth factor receptor testing standardisation on LBCs.
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Fine-needle cytology and flow cytometry assessment of reactive and lymphoproliferative processes of the breast.
Acta Cytol.
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The breast may be affected by reactive and lymphoproliferative processes such as primary (PBL) or secondary (SBL) lymphoma, reactive intramammary lymph nodes and sclerosing lobulitis; imaging may be not specific and surgical treatment not indicated. We report an experience with fine-needle cytology (FNAC) combined with flow cytometry (FC) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) in the diagnosis of these processes.
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