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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The contribution of veterinary medicine to public health and poverty reduction in developing countries.
Vet. Ital.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Few studies have explicitly examined the linkages between human health, animal disease control and poverty alleviation. This paper reviews the contribution that veterinary medicine can make to poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. Our analysis attempts to explore aspects of this contribution under five themes: food production; food safety; impact and control of zoonotic infections; promotion of ecotourism; and environmental protection. While these areas of human activity have, more or less, fallen under the influence of the veterinary profession to varying degrees, we attempt to unify this mandate using a 'One Health' narrative, for the purpose of providing clarity on the linkages between the veterinary and other professions, livestock production and poverty alleviation. Future opportunities for improving health and reducing poverty in the context of developing African countries are also discussed. We conclude that veterinary science is uniquely positioned to play a key role in both poverty reduction and the promotion of health, a role that can be enhanced through the reorientation of the profession's goals and the creation of synergies with allied and related professions.
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Serological survey of Brucella canis in dogs in urban Harare and selected rural communities in Zimbabwe.
J S Afr Vet Assoc
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to detect antibodies for Brucella canis (B. canis) in dogs from urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to B. canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 17.6% of sera samples tested (57/324, 95% CI: 13.5-21.7) were positive for B. canis antibodies. For rural dogs, seroprevalence varied from 11.7% - 37.9%. Rural dogs recorded a higher seroprevalence (20.7%, 95% CI: 15.0-26.4) compared with Harare urban dogs (12.7%, 95% CI: 6.9-18.5) but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07). Female dogs from both sectors had a higher seroprevalence compared with males, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Five and two of the positive rural dogs had titres of 1:800 and 1:1600, respectively, whilst none of the positive urban dogs had a titre above 1:400. This study showed that brucellosis was present and could be considered a risk to dogs from the studied areas. Further studies are recommended in order to give insight into the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in Zimbabwe. Screening for other Brucella spp. (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis) other than B. canis is also recommended.
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Microbial quality of frozen Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) meat samples from three selected farms in Zimbabwe.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Microbial quality of frozen Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) meat from three farms in Zimbabwe was assessed based on 2051 samples collected for pre-export testing during 2006 to 2011. Data were perused by season and year in terms of aerobic plate (APC), coliform (CC), Escherichia coli (ECC) and Listeria monocytogenes (LMC) counts and the presence of Salmonella spp. The log10-transformed data were compared among the farms and seasons using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Microbial quality of the samples was graded based on the EC No. 2073.2005 criteria for beef. The mean APC and CC for the crocodile meat differed significantly (P=0.000) among the farms with the highest APC (3.2±0.05log10cfu/g) and the lowest (2.7±0.05log10cfu/g) recorded from farms A and C, respectively. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in ECC and LMC among the farms, while Salmonella spp. were only isolated from one farm. Although the microbial quality of frozen crocodile meat from these farms was generally within acceptable limits, the isolation of E. coli and Salmonella spp. is of public health concern. Thus, implementing of measures to control the pasteurizing process and to minimize bacterial contamination of crocodile meat after pasteurization need to be carefully considered.
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Prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows from smallholder farms in Zimbabwe.
Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-clinical if no apparent signs were present but they had a positive bacterial isolation and a somatic cell count of at least 300 x 103 cells/mL. Farm-level factors were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of mastitis and animal- and herd-level factors were analysed using logistic regression. A total of 584 animals from 73 farms were tested. Overall, 21.1%(123/584) had mastitis, 16.3%(95/584) had sub-clinical mastitis and 4.8% (28/584) had clinical mastitis. Herd-level prevalence was 49.3%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.6%),  Escherichia coli (25.2%),  Staphylococcus aureus(16.3%), Klebsiella spp. (15.5%) and Streptococcus spp. (1.6%) were the most common isolates. In individual cows, pure dairy herds (OR = 6.3) and dairy crosses (OR = 3.1) were more likely to have mastitis compared to Mashona cows. Farms that used pre-milking teat dipping were associated with reduced mastitis prevalence. Further research is needed on the prevalence of mastitis and a comparison of data for both smallholder and commercial dairy farms in all regions of Zimbabwe should be undertaken.
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Aerobic bacterial, coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus counts of raw and processed milk from selected smallholder dairy farms of Zimbabwe.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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A cross sectional study was conducted to enumerate total viable bacteria (TBC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in raw (n=120) and processed (n=20) milk from individual farms from three smallholder dairy schemes of Zimbabwe between October, 2009 and February, 2010. Data on management factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. A standard pour plate technique was used to enumerate total viable bacteria, while for coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, counts were assessed by the spread plate technique. The association of total viable bacterial counts and management factors was assessed using univariable and a linear regression model. The log?? TBC for raw milk differed significantly (P<0.05) amongst the schemes with the lowest (5.6±4.7 log?? cfu/ml) and highest (6.7±5.8 log?? cfu/ml) recorded from Marirangwe and Nharira respectively. The mean log?? of TBC of processed milk (6.6±6.0 log?? cfu/ml) were marginally higher than those of raw milk (6.4±5.6 log?? cfu/ml) but not significant (P>0.05). The coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts for raw milk significantly differed (P<0.05) amongst the study areas. The variation in TBC, coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus counts amongst the schemes could be attributed to differences in milking hygiene where farms with more access to training and monitoring of microbiological quality of milk had lower counts. Linear regression analysis revealed dairy scheme, delivery time and season of milking as independently associated with increased TBC of raw milk. The high TBC of raw and processed milk generally indicated low levels of milking hygienic practices, and high level of post-processing contamination, respectively. The high TBC, coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts of both raw and processed milk may present a public health hazard. Thus, educating the farmers on general hygienic practices, quickening the delivery of milk to collection centres, or availing cooling facilities on-farm will improve the microbiological quality and safety of milk.
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Temporal and spatial distribution of cattle anthrax outbreaks in Zimbabwe between 1967 and 2006.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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This retrospective study aimed to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of anthrax and to identify risk areas in Zimbabwe. The data were extracted from the monthly and annual reports of the Division of Livestock Production and Veterinary Services for the period 1967 to 2006. The data were analyzed in relation to temporal and spatial factors. The hot-dry season was found to be significantly (X (2)=847.8, P<0.001) associated with the occurrence of anthrax in cattle, and the disease was found to be approximately three times more likely to occur during this season compared to other seasons. Anthrax outbreaks demonstrated a gradual temporal increase from an annual mean of three outbreaks for the 5-year period (1967-1971) to 42 for the 5-year period (2002-2006). Similarly, the data demonstrated a spatial increase in the number of districts affected by anthrax between 1967 and 2006, with 12 districts affected for the 10-year period (1967-1976) that expanded to 42 districts for the 10-year period (1997-2006). The majority of outbreaks (83.7%) were recorded in rural areas, and 11 districts were found to be at a higher risk than others. There is need to develop differential vaccination strategy, other control strategies and preventive recommendations to reduce anthrax in high-risk districts. In the medium- to low-risk districts, maintenance of effective surveillance systems and improvement of awareness is very important to detect and contain outbreaks early.
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Seroprevalence of brucellosis and its associated risk factors in cattle from smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence of brucellosis and the associated risk factors in cattle from smallholder dairy farms in Gokwe, Marirangwe, Mushagashe, Nharira, Rusitu and Wedza areas of Zimbabwe. A total of 1,440 cattle from 203 herds were tested serially for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal test and the competitive ELISA. Weighted seroprevalence estimates were calculated and risk factors in individual cattle investigated using logistic regression analysis. The overall individual animal brucellosis seroprevalence was low, with mean of 5.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.4%, 6.8%). Gokwe had the highest individual (12.6%; 95% CI, 3.9%, 21.4%) and herd-level (40.0%; 95% CI, 22.1%, 58.0%), while Wedza had the lowest individual (2.3%; 95% CI, 0%, 5.3%) and herd-level (8.0%; 95% CI, 0.0%, 18.9%) brucellosis seroprevalence, respectively. In individual cattle, the area of origin, age and history of abortion were independently associated with brucellosis seroprevalence. While the seroprevalence was independent of sex, it decreased with increasing age. Cattle 2-4 years old had higher odds (odds ratio (OR)?=?3.2; 95% CI, 1.1%, 9.1%) of being seropositive compared to those >7 years. Cows with a history of abortion were more likely to be seropositive (OR?=?7.9; 95% CI, 3.1, 20.1) than controls. In conclusion, the area-to-area variation of brucellosis may be linked to ecological factors and differences in management practices. The implementation of stamping out policy, bleeding and testing animals before movement and promoting the use self-contained units are likely to significantly reduce the public health risks associated with Brucella infections in cattle.
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Milk producers awareness of milk-borne zoonoses in selected smallholder and commercial dairy farms of Zimbabwe.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2010
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A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted to assess milk producers awareness of milk-borne zoonoses in selected smallholder and commercial dairy farms of Zimbabwe. The questionnaire was designed to obtain information on dairy breeds, milk production, dairy farmers knowledge and awareness of zoonoses with particular emphasis on milk-borne zoonoses and farmers behavioural practices that may lead to increased risk of milk-borne zoonoses transmission. A total of 119 dairy farmers were interviewed, and 41.5% were aware of milk-borne zoonoses with a significantly (P<0.01) higher percentage of commercial dairy farmers (65.0%) being aware compared to smallholder dairy farmers (36.7%). The behavioural practices of dairy farmers observed to increase the risk of milk-borne zoonoses transmission were; consumption of raw milk (68.1%), sale of raw milk to the local public (25.2%), lack of cooling facilities by smallholder farmers (98%), and no routine testing (84.9%) and medical check-ups (89.1%) for milk-borne zoonoses. General hygienic and disease control practices need to be integrated in the milk production process particularly at the smallholder level. Awareness, teaching and training programmes for smallholder dairy farmers can improve disease control in animals and reduce the public health risk of milk-borne zoonoses.
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Serosurvey of Brucella spp. infection in the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) of the Kafue flats in Zambia.
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2010
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One of the diseases of veterinary and public health importance affecting the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) on the Kafue flats is brucellosis, for which only scant information is available. During the 2003 (October), 2004 (December), and 2008 (July-December) hunting seasons in the Kafue flats, we conducted a study to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp. in the Kafue lechwe and to evaluate serologic tests for detection of Brucella spp. antibodies in lechwe. The Rose Bengal Test (RBT), competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) were used. A total of 121 Kafue lechwe were hunted for disease investigations in 2003, 2004, and 2008 in the Kafue Flat Game Management Area. Of these, 21.6%, (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.2-29.1%) had detectable antibodies to Brucella spp. The Kafue lechwe in Lochnivar National Park had higher antibody results than those in Blue Lagoon National Park (odds ratio=3.0; 95% CI: 0.94-9.4). Infection levels were similar in females (21.6%) and males (21.7%). Results were similar among RBT, FPA, cELISA tests, suggesting that these could effectively be used in diagnosing brucellosis in the Kafue lechwe. Our study demonstrates the presence of Brucella infections in the Kafue lechwe in two national parks located in the Kafue flats and further highlights the suitability of serologic assays for testing the Kafue lechwe. Because the Kafue lechwe is the most hunted wildlife species in Zambia, hunters need to be informed of the public health risk of Brucella spp. infection.
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A comparative study of the seroprevalence of brucellosis in commercial and small-scale mixed dairy-beef cattle enterprises of Lusaka province and Chibombo district, Zambia.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
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A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2007 and February 2008 to estimate seroprevalence of brucellosis and identify risk factors associated with Brucella infections in commercial cattle in three districts of Lusaka province (Chongwe, Luangwa, and Kafue; n = 849) and in one rural district from the Central province (n = 48). A total of 897 serum samples were randomly collected from 55 farms along with animal-level data such as sex, age, and parity. Sera were screened for presence of anti-Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test, and positive samples were confirmed using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At the animal level, seroprevalence was estimated at 7.9% (95% CI = 4.4-11.4%) in the Lusaka province and 18.7% (95% CI = 7.5-29.9%) for Chibombo district. Brucellosis seroprevalence varied according to district, with Chongwe district recording the highest compared to other districts. Seroprevalence also varied according to sex with bulls (n = 96) having higher seroprevalence (12.5%; 95% CI = 3.8-21.1%) compared to females (8.1%; 95% CI = 4.6-11.6). Similarly, seroprevalence varied according to age groups, with the age category 1-4 years recording the highest (10.7%). The study recorded relatively low Brucella seroprevalence in commercial farms in Lusaka, compared to the traditional small-scale farms. We suggest that testing and stamping out of infected animals is likely to improve the situation and significantly reduce the public health risk associated with Brucella infections in animals.
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Characterization of some Brucella species from Zimbabwe by biochemical profiling and AMOS-PCR.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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Bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus is endemic in most large commercial and smallholder cattle farms of Zimbabwe, while brucellosis in other domestic animals is rare. The diagnosis of brucellosis is mainly accomplished using serological tests. However, some Brucella spp. have been isolated from clinical cases in the field and kept in culture collection but their biochemical profiles were not documented. We report biochemical profiling and AMOS-PCR characterization of some of these field isolates of Brucella originating from both commercial and smallholder cattle farming sectors of Zimbabwe.
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Seroprevalence of leptospirosis in dogs in urban Harare and selected rural communities in Zimbabwe.
Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res.
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A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence of canine leptospirosis in urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe and to assess public awareness of the disease. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to the serovars Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona of Leptospira interrogans using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical chemistry was performed on all seropositive and selected seronegative sera to screen for hepatic and renal insufficiency. A questionnaire- based survey was conducted in Harare to assess dog owners awareness of leptospirosis and other zoonoses. Overall, 15.6% of sera samples tested (39 out of 250; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.0% - 20.2%) were positive for leptospiral antibodies. A significantly higher (p < 0.05) seroprevalence was recorded in urban dogs than in rural dogs (25% vs. 11.2%). No significant difference in seroprevalence was observed amongst dogs from different rural communities or between sexes of dogs. There was a significant association between seropositivity and hepatic and/or renal insufficiency (p < 0.01), with dogs having hepatic and/or renal insufficiency being approximately twice as likely to be seropositive (relative risk = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.3-3.0). Of the dog owners, 78.8% (119/151) were aware of zoonoses. Except for rabies (92.4%), awareness of leptospirosis (5.0%) and other zoonoses amongst these owners was low. This study showed that leptospirosis was present and represented a risk to dogs from urban Harare and the selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Availing training programmes for dog owners would be beneficial in improving disease control and reducing the public health risk of pet zoonoses.
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Detection of Salmonella spp., Candida albicans, Aspergillus spp., and Antimicrobial Residues in Raw and Processed Cow Milk from Selected Smallholder Farms of Zimbabwe.
Vet Med Int
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A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the presence of Salmonella spp., Candida albicans, Aspergillus spp., and antimicrobial residues in raw milk (n = 120) and processed cow milk (n = 20) from smallholder dairy farms from three sites in Zimbabwe. Culture and isolation of Salmonella spp., C. albicans, and Aspergillus spp. were performed using selective media, while antimicrobial residues were detected by a dye reduction test. No Salmonella, but C. albicans (17.5%; 21/120), Aspergillus spp. (0.8%; 1/120), and antimicrobial residues (2.5%; 3/120) were detected from raw milk. C. albicans was isolated from all three sites, while Aspergillus spp. and antimicrobial residues were detected from sites 1 and 3, respectively. From processed milk, only C. albicans (5%) was isolated while Aspergillus spp. and antimicrobial residues were not detected. These results suggested low prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Aspergillus spp. and a relatively high prevalence of C. albicans in raw milk from the smallholder farms. The potential public health risks of C. albicans and the detected antimicrobial residues need to be considered. Thus, educating farmers on improving milking hygiene and storage of milk and establishing programmes for monitoring antimicrobial residues may help to improve the safety of milk from smallholder farms.
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A "One Health" surveillance and control of brucellosis in developing countries: moving away from improvisation.
Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
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Although a "One Health" approach has been successfully implemented for emerging infectious zoonotic diseases with pandemic potential, we still lack a conceptual framework to address enzootic diseases like brucellosis. The vast majority of published brucellosis studies in the developing world rely solely on serology. An important shortcoming of brucellosis serology is the impossibility to infer which (smooth) Brucella spp. induced antibodies in the host. In this respect, mixed farming and especially raising small ruminants along with cattle, a common practice in the developing world, is reported to be a risk factor and a central question that has to be answered is whether cattle are infected with B. melitensis or with B. abortus or with both Brucella species. Therefore the isolation, identification and molecular characterization of Brucella spp. in human and the different livestock species needs to be undertaken to define a sound conceptual framework, identify the source of infection and plan appropriate control measures.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.