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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Neighbourhood socio-economic position, late presentation and outcomes in people living with HIV in Switzerland.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Inequalities and inequities in health are an important public health concern. In Switzerland, mortality in the general population varies according to the socio-economic position (SEP) of neighbourhoods. We examined the influence of neighbourhood SEP on presentation and outcomes in HIV-positive individuals in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).
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Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Coinfection Is Associated With Renal Impairment Among Zambian HIV-Infected Adults.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Among 6789 HIV-infected Zambian adults screened for hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 50-90 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) in 17.6% and <50 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) in 2.5%. Human immunodeficiency virus/HBV coinfection was associated with eGFR <50 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) (adjusted odds ratio, 1.96 [95% confidence interval, 1.34-2.86]), adjusted for age, sex, CD4(+) count, and World Health Organization disease stage.
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[Psychosocial aspects on the treatment of HIV-infection].
Ther Umsch
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Psychological and social factors have a deep impact on the treatment of HIV-infection, from the readiness to start antiretroviral therapy to treatment adherence over time. Among psychological factors, anxiety may affect HIV-infected persons in all stages of disease, from the disclosure of HIV diagnosis to the decision to start and maintain treatment. This is a lifelong challenge for both patients and doctors. Psychiatric comorbidities (depression, addiction) may enhance negative psychological effects of HIV. Among social factors, stigma and discrimination may occur in families and at work, leading to a loss of social support resulting in isolation and poverty. This may prevent HIV-positive individuals from seeking medical care. These aspects are particularly important in some groups of patients as injecting drug users and migrants. Acknowledgment and consideration of psychosocial factors are therefore essential for the long term success of antiretroviral therapy.
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Cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment prevents malaria in children in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT) prevents opportunistic infections in HIV-infected or HIV-exposed children, but estimates of the effectiveness in preventing malaria vary. We reviewed studies that examined the effect of CPT on incidence of malaria in children in sub-Saharan Africa.
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Impact of viral load and the duration of primary infection on HIV transmission: systematic review and meta-analysis.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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HIV 'treatment as prevention' (TasP) describes early treatment of HIV-infected patients intended to reduce viral load and transmission. Crucial assumptions for estimating TasP's effectiveness are the underlying estimates of transmission risk. We aimed to determine transmission risk during primary infection, and describe the relation of HIV transmission risk to viral load.
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Effect of baseline renal function on tenofovir-containing antiretroviral therapy outcomes in Zambia.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Although tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use has increased as part of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) across sub-Saharan Africa, renal outcomes among patients receiving TDF remain poorly understood. We assessed changes in renal function and mortality in patients starting TDF- or non-TDF-containing ART in Lusaka, Zambia.
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Retention in care under universal antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women ('Option B+') in Malawi.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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To explore the levels and determinants of loss to follow-up (LTF) under universal lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pregnant and breastfeeding women ('Option B+') in Malawi.
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Immunodeficiency at the start of combination antiretroviral therapy in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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To describe the CD4 cell count at the start of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in low-income (LIC), lower middle-income (LMIC), upper middle-income (UMIC), and high-income (HIC) countries.
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Tenofovir or zidovudine in second-line antiretroviral therapy after stavudine failure in southern Africa.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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There is debate over using tenofovir or zidovudine alongside lamivudine in second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) following stavudine failure. We analyzed outcomes in cohorts from South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe METHODS: Patients aged ?16 years who switched from a first-line regimen including stavudine to a ritonavir-boosted lopinavir-based second-line regimen with lamivudine or emtricitabine and zidovudine or tenofovir in seven ART programs in southern Africa were included. We estimated the causal effect of receiving tenofovir or zidovudine on mortality and virological failure using Cox proportional hazards marginal structural models. Its parameters were estimated using inverse probability of treatment weights. Baseline characteristics were age, sex, calendar year and country. CD4 cell count, creatinine and hemoglobin levels were included as time-dependent confounders.
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Hepatitis B virus infection is associated with impaired immunological recovery during antiretroviral therapy in the Swiss HIV cohort study.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients worldwide. It is unclear whether HIV-related outcomes are affected by HBV coinfection. We compared virological suppression and immunological recovery during antiretroviral therapy (ART) of patients of different HBV serological status in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. CD4 cell recovery during ART was significantly impaired in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive patients and in those with anti-hepatitis B core antigen alone compared with HBV-uninfected patients, despite similar virological efficacy of ART. CD4 increase in patients with resolved HBV infection was similar to that in HBV-uninfected individuals.
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Risk factors for anal cancer in persons infected with HIV: a nested case-control study in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Although persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), particularly men who have sex with men, are at excess risk for anal cancer, it has been difficult to disentangle the influences of anal exposure to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, immunodeficiency, and combined antiretroviral therapy. A case-control study that included 59 anal cancer cases and 295 individually matched controls was nested in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (1988-2011). In a subset of 41 cases and 114 controls, HPV antibodies were tested. A majority of anal cancer cases (73%) were men who have sex with men. Current smoking was significantly associated with anal cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 2.59, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 5.34), as were antibodies against L1 (OR = 4.52, 95% CI: 2.00, 10.20) and E6 (OR = ?, 95% CI: 4.64, ?) of HPV16, as well as low CD4+ cell counts, whether measured at nadir (OR per 100-cell/?L decrease = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.18, 2.00) or at cancer diagnosis (OR per 100-cell/?L decrease = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.42). However, the influence of CD4+ cell counts appeared to be strongest 6-7 years prior to anal cancer diagnosis (OR for <200 vs. ?500 cells/?L = 14.0, 95% CI: 3.85, 50.9). Smoking cessation and avoidance of even moderate levels of immunosuppression appear to be important in reducing long-term anal cancer risks.
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Zidovudine impairs immunological recovery on first-line antiretroviral therapy: collaborative analysis of cohort studies in southern Africa.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Zidovudine (ZDV) is recommended for first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. ZDV may, however, lead to anemia and impaired immunological response. We compared CD4+ cell counts over 5 years between patients starting ART with and without ZDV in southern Africa.
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Outcomes of antiretroviral treatment programmes in rural Lesotho: health centres and hospitals compared.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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Introduction: Lesotho was among the first countries to adopt decentralization of care from hospitals to nurse-led health centres (HCs) to scale up the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared outcomes between patients who started ART at HCs and hospitals in two rural catchment areas in Lesotho. Methods: The two catchment areas comprise two hospitals and 12 HCs. Patients ?16 years starting ART at a hospital or HC between 2008 and 2011 were included. Loss to follow-up (LTFU) was defined as not returning to the facility for ?180 days after the last visit, no follow-up (no FUP) as not returning after starting ART, and retention in care as alive and on ART at the facility. The data were analysed using logistic regression, competing risk regression and Kaplan-Meier methods. Multivariable analyses were adjusted for sex, age, CD4 cell count, World Health Organization stage, catchment area and type of ART. All analyses were stratified by gender. Results: Of 3747 patients, 2042 (54.5%) started ART at HCs. Both women and men at hospitals had more advanced clinical and immunological stages of disease than those at HCs. Over 5445 patient-years, 420 died and 475 were LTFU. Kaplan-Meier estimates for three-year retention were 68.7 and 69.7% at HCs and hospitals, respectively, among women (p=0.81) and 68.8% at HCs versus 54.7% at hospitals among men (p<0.001). These findings persisted in adjusted analyses, with similar retention at HCs and hospitals among women (odds ratio (OR): 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-1.09) and higher retention at HCs among men (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.20-1.96). The latter result was mainly driven by a lower proportion of patients LTFU at HCs (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.51-0.93). Conclusions: In rural Lesotho, overall retention in care did not differ significantly between nurse-led HCs and hospitals. However, men seemed to benefit most from starting ART at HCs, as they were more likely to remain in care in these facilities compared to hospitals.
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Impact of recommendation updates in well-controlled patients on nonrecommended antiretroviral therapies: the Swiss HIV cohort study.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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HIV treatment recommendations are updated as clinical trials are published. Whether recommendations drive clinicians to change antiretroviral therapy in well-controlled patients is unexplored.
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Monitoring of antiretroviral therapy and mortality in HIV programmes in Malawi, South Africa and Zambia: mathematical modelling study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Mortality in patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is higher in Malawi and Zambia than in South Africa. We examined whether different monitoring of ART (viral load [VL] in South Africa and CD4 count in Malawi and Zambia) could explain this mortality difference.
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Retention in care of HIV-infected children from HIV test to start of antiretroviral therapy: systematic review.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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In adults it is well documented that there are substantial losses to the programme between HIV testing and start of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The magnitude and reasons for loss to follow-up and death between HIV diagnosis and start of ART in children are not well defined.
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A comparison of initial antiretroviral therapy in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and the recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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In order to facilitate and improve the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), international recommendations are released and updated regularly. We aimed to study if adherence to the recommendations is associated with better treatment outcomes in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS).
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Association between white-coat effect and blunted dipping of nocturnal blood pressure.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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In this study, we assessed whether the white-coat effect (difference between office and daytime blood pressure (BP)) is associated with nondipping (absence of BP decrease at night).
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Tuberculosis and the risk of opportunistic infections and cancers in HIV-infected patients starting ART in Southern Africa.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
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To investigate the incidence of selected opportunistic infections (OIs) and cancers and the role of a history of tuberculosis (TB) as a risk factor for developing these conditions in HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Southern Africa.
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Loss to programme between HIV diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
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To assess the proportion of patients lost to programme (died, lost to follow-up, transferred out) between HIV diagnosis and start of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, and determine factors associated with loss to programme.
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Missed opportunities to prevent mother-to-child-transmission: systematic review and meta-analysis.
AIDS
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To determine magnitude and reasons of loss to program and poor antiretroviral prophylaxis coverage in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs in sub-Saharan Africa.
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Hepatitis C virus infections in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: a rapidly evolving epidemic.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has a growing impact on morbidity and mortality in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We assessed trends in HCV incidence in the different HIV transmission groups in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS).
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Tenofovir in second-line ART in Zambia and South Africa: collaborative analysis of cohort studies.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
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Tenofovir (TDF) is increasingly used in second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. We compared outcomes of second-line ART containing and not containing TDF in cohort studies from Zambia and the Republic of South Africa (RSA).
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Viral load monitoring of antiretroviral therapy, cohort viral load and HIV transmission in Southern Africa: a mathematical modelling analysis.
AIDS
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In low-income settings, treatment failure is often identified using CD4 cell count monitoring. Consequently, patients remain on a failing regimen, resulting in a higher risk of transmission. We investigated the benefit of routine viral load monitoring for reducing HIV transmission.
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Determinants of sustained viral suppression in HIV-infected patients with self-reported poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy.
PLoS ONE
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Good adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical for successful HIV treatment. However, some patients remain virologically suppressed despite suboptimal adherence. We hypothesized that this could result from host genetic factors influencing drug levels.
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Tracing of patients lost to follow-up and HIV transmission: Mathematical modelling study based on two large ART programmes in Malawi.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
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Treatment as prevention depends on retaining HIV-infected patients in care. We investigated the effect on HIV transmission of bringing patients lost to follow up (LTFU) back into care.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.