JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Student reflections following exposure to a case-based interprofessional learning experience: preliminary findings.
J Interprof Care
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract This study analyzed students' written reflections following their initial exposure to interprofessional teamwork in case-based problem-solving. A three-hour seminar featuring three sequenced scenarios was developed and offered 12-times over two semesters. A total of 305 students from a variety of healthcare programs worked together with standardized patients in an on-campus laboratory simulating hospital ward and rehabilitation settings. A thematic analysis of students' reflections showed that they valued the shared learning and realistic case study. However, they felt the experience would be strengthened by working in smaller, more representative teams that included students from medicine, psychology, and social work to enable more effective communication and comprehensive case discussion. While useful for future planning, the identified themes did not enable a comparative statistical analysis of what students found helpful and difficult and a re-coding of students' responses now is underway. Implications for measuring the effectiveness of future interprofessional case-based learning center on addressing the identified weaknesses, and establishing a research design that enables a comparison of pre- and post-seminar data, and the effectiveness of the IPE experience compared to profession-specific experiences.
Related JoVE Video
The Prognostic Significance of Postchemoradiotherapy High-Resolution MRI and Histopathology Detected Extramural Venous Invasion in Rectal Cancer.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to determine the prognostic significance of extramural venous invasion (EMVI) after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) by both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (ymrEMVI) and histopathology (ypEMVI).
Related JoVE Video
Preoperative Chemotherapy in Patients With Intermediate-Risk Rectal Adenocarcinoma Selected by High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The GEMCAD 0801 Phase II Multicenter Trial.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The need for preoperative chemoradiation or short-course radiation in all T3 rectal tumors is a controversial issue. A multicenter phase II trial was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant capecitabine and oxaliplatin combined with bevacizumab in patients with intermediate-risk rectal adenocarcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Imaging assessment of early rectal cancer.
Recent Results Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Early rectal cancer (ERC) is defined as invasive adenocarcinoma spreading into, but not beyond, the submucosa or muscularis propria-that is a Dukes'A: T1N0 or T2N0 tumour in the tumour node metastasis (TNM) classification (Taylor et al. 2008). Among these tumours it is suggested that the most superficial T1 tumours least likely to metastasize to local lymph nodes than adenocarcinoma invading deeper where the rich lymphatic and venous plexuses within the submucosa provide a mechanism for tumour spread beyond the rectum. Currently, only about 10 % of patients presenting symptomatically with rectal cancer are diagnosed with early disease; however, up to 30 % of screen detected cancers are being identified as Dukes'A. Thus, the overall detection of early stage tumours is likely to increase following greater implementation in screening programs. The goal of this invited review is to provide recommendations based on the consensus discussion on the information from preoperative imaging that is of relevance for clinical decision-making for patients with early rectal cancer.
Related JoVE Video
A practical review of the performance and interpretation of staging magnetic resonance imaging for rectal cancer.
Top Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this article was to outline key technical considerations in performing rectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) along with a practical, systematic approach to the interpretation of rectal MRI.
Related JoVE Video
Fc?RIIa and Fc?RIIIa polymorphisms and cetuximab benefit in the microscopic disease.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fc?R polymorphisms have been reported to enhance the immune-mediated effects of cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer. There are no data on the relationship between these polymorphisms and cetuximab in the early-stage setting. We performed a pharmacogenomic analysis of EXPERT-C, a randomized phase II trial of neoadjuvant CAPOX followed by chemoradiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant CAPOX±cetuximab in high-risk, locally advanced rectal cancer.
Related JoVE Video
TP53 mutational status and cetuximab benefit in rectal cancer: 5-year results of the EXPERT-C trial.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this updated analysis of the EXPERT-C trial we show that, in magnetic resonance imaging-defined, high-risk, locally advanced rectal cancer, adding cetuximab to a treatment strategy with neoadjuvant CAPOX followed by chemoradiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant CAPOX is not associated with a statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in both KRAS/BRAF wild-type and unselected patients. In a retrospective biomarker analysis, TP53 was not prognostic but emerged as an independent predictive biomarker for cetuximab benefit. After a median follow-up of 65.0 months, TP53 wild-type patients (n = 69) who received cetuximab had a statistically significant better PFS (89.3% vs 65.0% at 5 years; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07 to 0.78; two-sided P = .02 by Cox regression) and OS (92.7% vs 67.5% at 5 years; HR = 0.16; 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.70; two-sided P = .02 by Cox regression) than TP53 wild-type patients who were treated in the control arm. An interaction between TP53 status and cetuximab effect was found (P < .05) and remained statistically significant after adjusting for statistically significant prognostic factors and KRAS.
Related JoVE Video
MR imaging for rectal cancer: the role in staging the primary and response to neoadjuvant therapy.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pre-operative staging is an essential aspect of modern rectal cancer management and radiological assessment is central to this process. An ideal radiological assessment should provide sufficient information to reliably guide pre-operative decision-making. Technical advances allow high-resolution imaging to not only provide prognostic information but to define the anatomy, helping the surgeon to anticipate potential pitfalls during the operation. The main imaging modality for local staging of rectal cancer is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), as it defines the tumour and relevant anatomy providing the most detail on the important prognostic factors that influence treatment choice. In addition, there is an emerging role for MRI in the assessment of the response to neoadjuvant therapy. This article is an evidence-based review of rectal cancer staging focusing on post-treatment assessment of response using MRI. The discussion extends into the implications for reliably assessing response and how this may influence future rectal cancer management.
Related JoVE Video
Development and implementation of a synoptic MRI report for preoperative staging of rectal cancer on a population-based level.
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Colorectal cancer physician champions across the province of Ontario, Canada, reported significant concern about appropriate selection of patients for preoperative chemoradiotherapy because of perceived variation in the completeness and consistency of MRI reports.
Related JoVE Video
Complete mesocolic excision in colorectal cancer: a systematic review.
Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several studies have suggested an increased lymph node yield, reduced loco-regional recurrence and increased disease-free survival (DFS) after complete mesocolic excision (CME) for colorectal cancer. This review was undertaken to assess the use of CME for colon cancer by evaluating the technique and its clinical outcome.
Related JoVE Video
Colorectal cancer with liver metastases: neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgical resection first or palliation alone?
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the commonest cancers with 1.2 million new cases diagnosed each year in the world. It remains the fourth most common cause of cancer-related mortality in the world and accounts for > 600000 cancer-related deaths each year. There have been significant advances in treatment of metastatic CRC in last decade or so, due to availability of new active targeted agents and more aggressive approach towards the management of CRC, particularly with liver-only-metastases; however, these drugs work best when combined with conventional chemotherapy agents. Despite these advances, there is a lack of biomarkers to inform us about the accurate management of the patients with metastatic CRC. It is therefore imperative to carefully select the patients with comprehensive multi-disciplinary team input in order to optimise the management of these patients. In this review we will discuss various treatment options available in management of colorectal liver metastases with potential guidance on how and when to choose these options along with consideration on future directions in management of this disease.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of polyploid wheat genomic diversity using a high-density 90,000 single nucleotide polymorphism array.
Plant Biotechnol. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays are a powerful tool for studying genomic patterns of diversity, inferring ancestral relationships between individuals in populations and studying marker-trait associations in mapping experiments. We developed a genotyping array including about 90,000 gene-associated SNPs and used it to characterize genetic variation in allohexaploid and allotetraploid wheat populations. The array includes a significant fraction of common genome-wide distributed SNPs that are represented in populations of diverse geographical origin. We used density-based spatial clustering algorithms to enable high-throughput genotype calling in complex data sets obtained for polyploid wheat. We show that these model-free clustering algorithms provide accurate genotype calling in the presence of multiple clusters including clusters with low signal intensity resulting from significant sequence divergence at the target SNP site or gene deletions. Assays that detect low-intensity clusters can provide insight into the distribution of presence-absence variation (PAV) in wheat populations. A total of 46 977 SNPs from the wheat 90K array were genetically mapped using a combination of eight mapping populations. The developed array and cluster identification algorithms provide an opportunity to infer detailed haplotype structure in polyploid wheat and will serve as an invaluable resource for diversity studies and investigating the genetic basis of trait variation in wheat.
Related JoVE Video
Learning curve for the management of recurrent and locally advanced primary rectal cancer: a single team's experience.
Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The study aimed to define the learning curve required to gain satisfactory training to perform pelvic exenterative surgery for recurrent or locally advanced primary rectal cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Magnetic resonance imaging defined mucinous rectal carcinoma is an independent imaging biomarker for poor prognosis and poor response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mucinous adenocarcinomas represent a potentially poor prognostic subgroup identifiable by imaging. We compared outcomes between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected rectal mucinous carcinoma and adenocarcinomas. The diagnostic performance of MRI compared with initial biopsy in detecting mucinous adenocarcinoma was also assessed.
Related JoVE Video
Chemoradiotherapy response in recurrent rectal cancer.
Cancer Med
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The efficacy of response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in recurrent versus primary rectal cancer has not been investigated. We compared radiological downsizing between primary and recurrent rectal cancers following CRT and determined the optimal size reduction threshold for response validated by survival outcomes. The proportional change in tumor length for primary and recurrent rectal cancers following CRT was compared using the independent sample t-test. Overall survival (OS) was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method and differences between survival for tumor size reduction thresholds of 30% (response evaluation criteria in solid tumors [RECIST]), 40%, and 50% after CRT in primary and recurrent rectal cancer groups. A total of 385 patients undergoing CRT were analyzed, 99 with recurrent rectal cancer and 286 with primary rectal cancer. The mean proportional reduction in maximum craniocaudal length was significantly higher for primary rectal tumors (33%) compared with recurrent rectal cancer (11%) (P < 0.01). There was no difference in OS for either primary or recurrent rectal cancer when ?30% or ?40% definitions were used. However, for both primary and recurrent tumors, significant differences in median 3-year OS were observed when a RECIST cut-off of 50% was used. OS was 99% versus 77% in primary and 100% versus 42% in recurrent rectal cancer (P = 0.002 and P = 0.03, respectively). Only patients that demonstrated >50% size reduction showed a survival benefit. Recurrent rectal cancer appears radioresistant compared with primary tumors for tumor size after CRT. Further investigation into improving/intensifying chemotherapy and radiotherapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer is justified.
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide association study reveals novel quantitative trait Loci associated with resistance to multiple leaf spot diseases of spring wheat.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Accelerated wheat development and deployment of high-yielding, climate resilient, and disease resistant cultivars can contribute to enhanced food security and sustainable intensification. To facilitate gene discovery, we assembled an association mapping panel of 528 spring wheat landraces of diverse geographic origin for a genome-wide association study (GWAS). All accessions were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium 9K wheat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip and 4781 polymorphic SNPs were used for analysis. To identify loci underlying resistance to the major leaf spot diseases and to better understand the genomic patterns, we quantified population structure, allelic diversity, and linkage disequilibrium. Our results showed 32 loci were significantly associated with resistance to the major leaf spot diseases. Further analysis identified QTL effective against major leaf spot diseases of wheat which appeared to be novel and others that were previously identified by association analysis using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) and bi-parental mapping. In addition, several identified SNPs co-localized with genes that have been implicated in plant disease resistance. Future work could aim to select the putative novel loci and pyramid them in locally adapted wheat cultivars to develop broad-spectrum resistance to multiple leaf spot diseases of wheat via marker-assisted selection (MAS).
Related JoVE Video
Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Circumferential Resection Margin Predicts Disease-Free Survival and Local Recurrence: 5-Year Follow-Up Results of the MERCURY Study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The prognostic relevance of preoperative high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement is unknown. This follow-up study of 374 patients with rectal cancer reports the relationship between preoperative MRI assessment of CRM staging, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM stage, and clinical variables with overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and time to local recurrence (LR).
Related JoVE Video
Using an expanded oral health curriculum by practicing physician assistants.
J Physician Assist Educ
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study evaluated the use of an oral health curriculum in physician assistant (PA) practice.
Related JoVE Video
Direct patient interventions that can reduce maternal mortality in developing countries: a systematic review.
Fam Med
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Maternal mortality is a major concern in developing countries. This study identified and evaluated specific direct patient interventions made in developing countries that could result in a decrease of the maternal mortality rate.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
The use of MR imaging in treatment planning for patients with rectal carcinoma: have you checked the "DISTANCE"?
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rectal cancer is a common and serious disease in the Western hemisphere. Optimal treatment of rectal cancer involves a multidisciplinary approach, with collaboration required between radiologists, oncologists, surgeons, and pathologists to achieve local control and decrease the rate of recurrence. Several studies have been published that show the ability to accurately stage rectal cancer with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Moreover, advances in preoperative therapies require accurate preoperative staging with MR imaging to select those patients who may benefit from more intensive treatment, without subjecting those who will not benefit to unnecessary treatment. As we enter an era of individualized patient care, stratified according to the risk of both local and distant failure, imaging takes on the same importance as the tumor type and genetic susceptibility. MR imaging is now an essential tool to enable the oncology team to make appropriate treatment decisions. However, rectal cancer evaluation with MR imaging remains a challenge in the hands of nonexperts. This article describes a mnemonic device, "DISTANCE," to enable a systematic approach to the interpretation of MR images, thereby enabling all the clinically relevant features to be adequately assessed: DIS, for Distance from the Inferior part of the tumor to the transitional Skin; T, for T staging; A, for Anal complex; N, for Nodal staging; C, for Circumferential resection margin; and E, for Extramural vascular invasion.
Related JoVE Video
Correlations between PANCE performance, physician assistant program grade point average, and selection criteria.
J Physician Assist Educ
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between first-time Physician Assistant National Certifying Exam (PANCE) scores and pass/fail status, physician assistant (PA) program didactic grade point average (GPA), and specific selection criteria.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular characterization of field resistance to Fusarium head blight in two US soft red winter wheat cultivars.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) regions of the US, Fusarium head blight (FHB, caused by Fusarium spp.) resistance derived from locally adapted germplasm has been used predominantly. Two soft red winter wheat cultivars, Massey and Ernie, have moderate resistance to FHB. Mapping populations derived from Becker/Massey (B/M) and Ernie/MO 94-317 (E/MO) were evaluated for FHB resistance and other traits in multiple environments. Eight QTL in B/M and five QTL in E/MO were associated with FHB variables including incidence, severity (SEV), index (IND), Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK), deoxynivalenol (DON), and morphological traits flowering time and plant height. Four QTL were common to both populations. Three of them were located at or near known genes: Ppd-D1 on chromosome 2DS, Rht-B1 on 4BS, and Rht-D1 on 4DS. Alleles for dwarf plant height (Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b) and photoperiod insensitivity (Ppd-D1a) had pleiotropic effects in reducing height and increasing FHB susceptibility. The other QTL detected for FHB variables were on 3BL in both populations, 1AS, 1DS, 2BL, and 4DL in B/M, and 5AL (B1) and 6AL in E/MO. The additive effects of FHB variables ranged from 0.4 mg kg(-1) of DON to 6.2 % for greenhouse (GH) SEV in B/M and ranged from 0.3 mg kg(-1) of DON to 8.3 % for GH SEV in E/MO. The 4DS QTL had epistasis with Ppd-D1, Qdon.umc-6AL, and Qht.umc-4BS, and additive × additive × environment interactions with the 4BS QTL for SEV, IND, and FDK in E/MO. Marker-assisted selection might be used to enhance FHB resistance through selection of favorable alleles of significant QTL, taking into account genotypes at Rht-B1b, Rht-D1a and Ppd-D1a.
Related JoVE Video
EURECCA colorectal: Multidisciplinary management: European consensus conference colon & rectum.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Care for patients with colon and rectal cancer has improved in the last 20years; however considerable variation still exists in cancer management and outcome between European countries. Large variation is also apparent between national guidelines and patterns of cancer care in Europe. Therefore, EURECCA, which is the acronym of European Registration of Cancer Care, is aiming at defining core treatment strategies and developing a European audit structure in order to improve the quality of care for all patients with colon and rectal cancer. In December 2012, the first multidisciplinary consensus conference about cancer of the colon and rectum was held. The expert panel consisted of representatives of European scientific organisations involved in cancer care of patients with colon and rectal cancer and representatives of national colorectal registries.
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide comparative diversity uncovers multiple targets of selection for improvement in hexaploid wheat landraces and cultivars.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Domesticated crops experience strong human-mediated selection aimed at developing high-yielding varieties adapted to local conditions. To detect regions of the wheat genome subject to selection during improvement, we developed a high-throughput array to interrogate 9,000 gene-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a worldwide sample of 2,994 accessions of hexaploid wheat including landraces and modern cultivars. Using a SNP-based diversity map we characterized the impact of crop improvement on genomic and geographic patterns of genetic diversity. We found evidence of a small population bottleneck and extensive use of ancestral variation often traceable to founders of cultivars from diverse geographic regions. Analyzing genetic differentiation among populations and the extent of haplotype sharing, we identified allelic variants subjected to selection during improvement. Selective sweeps were found around genes involved in the regulation of flowering time and phenology. An introgression of a wild relative-derived gene conferring resistance to a fungal pathogen was detected by haplotype-based analysis. Comparing selective sweeps identified in different populations, we show that selection likely acts on distinct targets or multiple functionally equivalent alleles in different portions of the geographic range of wheat. The majority of the selected alleles were present at low frequency in local populations, suggesting either weak selection pressure or temporal variation in the targets of directional selection during breeding probably associated with changing agricultural practices or environmental conditions. The developed SNP chip and map of genetic variation provide a resource for advancing wheat breeding and supporting future population genomic and genome-wide association studies in wheat.
Related JoVE Video
EURECCA colorectal: multidisciplinary mission statement on better care for patients with colon and rectal cancer in Europe.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Care for patients with colon and rectal cancer has improved in the last twenty years however still considerable variation exists in cancer management and outcome between European countries. Therefore, EURECCA, which is the acronym of European Registration of cancer care, is aiming at defining core treatment strategies and developing a European audit structure in order to improve the quality of care for all patients with colon and rectal cancer. In December 2012 the first multidisciplinary consensus conference about colon and rectum was held looking for multidisciplinary consensus. The expert panel consisted of representatives of European scientific organisations involved in cancer care of patients with colon and rectal cancer and representatives of national colorectal registries.
Related JoVE Video
Perfusion CT vascular parameters do not correlate with immunohistochemically derived microvessel density count in colorectal tumors.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine whether perfusion computed tomography (CT)-derived vascular parameters-namely, blood flow, mean transit time (MTT), volume transfer constant (K(trans)), permeability-surface area product (PS), extracellular extravascular space volume, and vascular volume-correlate with the immunohistologic markers of angiogenesis in colorectal tumors.
Related JoVE Video
MRI predictive factors for tumor response in rectal cancer following neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy--implications for induction chemotherapy?
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics at baseline and following chemoradiation therapy (CRT) most strongly associated with histopathologic response were investigated and survival outcomes evaluated in accordance with imaging and pathological response.
Related JoVE Video
Survival after resection of colorectal cancer based on anatomical segment of involvement.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine survival differences for patients undergoing colonic or rectal resection for cancer on the basis of the specific anatomical location of primary tumor.
Related JoVE Video
Magnetic resonance imaging of rectal cancer.
Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Optimal treatment decisions for patients with rectal cancer are based on knowledge of tumor characteristics and prognostic features and any initial treatment must aim to reduce the risk of both local and distant recurrence. The radiologist has become an increasingly important part of multidisciplinary team managing rectal cancer. The primary goal of MRI staging of rectal tumors is to identify prognostic factors in order to offer patients a tailored treatment based on individual risks. Restaging of rectal tumors using MRI after chemoradiation therapy is becoming more relevant issue, since further tailoring of treatment is increasingly being considered after the treatment.
Related JoVE Video
SNP discovery and chromosome anchoring provide the first physically-anchored hexaploid oat map and reveal synteny with model species.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n?=?6x?=?42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources.
Related JoVE Video
Reproducibility of depth of extramural tumor spread and distance to circumferential resection margin at rectal MRI: enhancement of clinical guidelines for neoadjuvant therapy.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of measurements of minimal distance from an invasive tumor to the anticipated circumferential resection margin in prediction of depth of extramural tumor spread in patients with rectal cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Association study of resistance to Soilborne wheat mosaic virus in U.S. winter wheat.
Phytopathology
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) is one of the most important winter wheat pathogens worldwide. To identify genes for resistance to the virus in U.S. winter wheat, association study was conducted using a selected panel of 205 elite experimental lines and cultivars from U.S. hard and soft winter wheat breeding programs. Virus symptoms were evaluated twice in virus-infected fields for the panel at Manhattan, KS in spring 2010 and 2011 and for a subpanel of 137 hard winter wheat accessions at Stillwater, OK in spring 2008. At the two locations, 69.8 and 79.5% of cultivars were resistant or moderately resistant to the disease, respectively. After 282 simple-sequence repeat markers covering all wheat chromosome arms were scanned for association in the panel, marker Xgwm469 on the long arm of chromosome 5D (5DL) showed a significant association with the disease rating. Three alleles (Xgwm469-165bp, -167bp, and -169bp) were associated with resistance and the null allele was associated with susceptibility. Correlations between the marker and the disease rating were highly significant (0.80 in Manhattan at P < 0.0001 and 0.63 in Stillwater at P < 0.0001). The alleles Xgwm469-165bp and Xgwm469-169bp were present mainly in the hard winter wheat group, whereas allele Xgwm469-167bp was predominant in the soft winter wheat. The 169 bp allele can be traced back to Newton, and the 165 bp allele to Aegilops tauschii. In addition, a novel locus on the short arm of chromosome 4D (4DS) was also identified to associate with the disease rating. Marker Xgwm469-5DL is closely linked to SBWMV resistance and highly polymorphic across the winter wheat accessions sampled in the study and, thus, should be useful in marker-assisted selection in U.S. winter wheat.
Related JoVE Video
Reconstruction of the synthetic W7984 x Opata M85 wheat reference population.
Genome
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reference populations are valuable resources in genetics studies for determining marker order, marker selection, trait mapping, construction of large-insert libraries, cross-referencing marker platforms, and genome sequencing. Reference populations can be propagated indefinitely, they are polymorphic and have normal segregation. Described are two new reference populations who share the same parents of the original wheat reference population Synthetic W7984 (Altar84/ Aegilops tauschii (219) CIGM86.940) x Opata M85, an F(1)-derived doubled haploid population (SynOpDH) of 215 inbred lines and a recombinant inbred population (SynOpRIL) of 2039 F(6) lines derived by single-plant self-pollinations. A linkage map was constructed for the SynOpDH population using 1446 markers. In addition, a core set of 42 SSR markers was genotyped on SynOpRIL. A new approach to identifying a core set of markers used a step-wise selection protocol based on polymorphism, uniform chromosome distribution, and reliability to create nested sets starting with one marker per chromosome, followed by two, four, and six. It is suggested that researchers use these markers as anchors for all future mapping projects to facilitate cross-referencing markers and chromosome locations. To enhance this public resource, researchers are strongly urged to validate line identities and deposit their data in GrainGenes so that others can benefit from the accumulated information.
Related JoVE Video
Can a novel MRI staging system for low rectal cancer aid surgical planning?
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Low rectal cancers are associated with worse outcomes in comparison with mid and upper rectal tumors.
Related JoVE Video
Timing of surgery following preoperative therapy in rectal cancer: the need for a prospective randomized trial?
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In rectal cancer, the standard of care after the completion of radiotherapy is surgery at 6 to 8 weeks. However, there is variation regarding the timing of surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Magnetic resonance imaging-detected tumor response for locally advanced rectal cancer predicts survival outcomes: MERCURY experience.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathologic staging after neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer in a prospectively enrolled, multicenter study.
Related JoVE Video
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone for early-stage rectal cancer: an evolving paradigm?
Semin Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current management of early-stage rectal cancer comprises combinations of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, with the presence or absence of several validated high-risk features determining which treatment modalities will be used and the order of administration. In high-risk individuals, most centers have adopted neoadjuvant combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy followed by surgery as the initial approach. However, long-term toxicity, limited survival gains, and high rates of distant failure have called this approach into question, with early data suggesting that neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone may be feasible in selected patient groups. This review discusses the current data and feasibility of managing early stage rectal cancer with neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgical resection.
Related JoVE Video
Rectal cancer: primary staging and assessment after chemoradiotherapy.
Semin Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rectal cancer staging is based on 2 principles. The first is an anatomic definition of the tumor allowing for surgical planning. The second is prognostic stage grouping. A given prognostic stage carries different risks of both local and distant recurrence, a selective and tailored approach to preoperative therapy is appropriate. Increasingly, selective approaches enable an overall reduction in morbidity from overtreatment, while allowing aggressive treatment of high-risk patients. Therefore, the aim of preoperative staging is to accurately and reproducibly differentiate between good and poor prognosis tumors. In the preoperative setting, superficial and flat rectal cancers are probably best initially staged using endoscopic ultrasound, and where available magnetic resonance imaging is used for all other rectal cancers because of its proven high sensitivity and specificity in identifying poor-risk patients based on circumferential margin status, the depth of extramural spread, extramural venous invasion, and nodal status. Restaging after neoadjuvant therapy is a challenge to all modalities because of radiation-induced changes, namely fibrosis, edema, inflammation, and necrosis. However, emerging data suggest that reassessment using a combination of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography/computed tomography scanning may help to provide valuable prognostic information before definitive surgery.
Related JoVE Video
MRI predictive factors for long-term outcomes of low rectal tumours.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Low rectal cancers have poor outcomes. It has been suggested that low tumours are biologically more aggressive and tend to be more locally advanced at presentation. Pre-operative identification of prognostic factors will enable use of selective neoadjuvant therapies and possibly increase sphincter-sparing rates where oncologically safe.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of a major QTL for adult plant resistance to stripe rust in US soft red winter wheat.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of soft red winter wheat in the eastern region of the USA. Pioneer 26R61 has provided effective resistance to stripe rust for 10 years. To elucidate the genetic basis of the resistance, a mapping population of 178 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed using single-seed descent from a cross between Pioneer 26R61 and the susceptible cultivar AGS 2000. A genetic map with 895 markers covering all 21 chromosomes was used for QTL analysis. One major QTL was detected, explaining up to 56.0% of the mean phenotypic variation, flanked by markers Xbarc124 and Xgwm359, and assigned to the distal 22% of the short arm of wheat chromosome 2A. Evidence showed that it was different from Yr17 derived from Ae. ventricosa, the only formally named Yr gene in 2AS, and the QTL was temporarily designated as YrR61. In addition, a minor QTL, QYr.uga-6AS, probably conditioned high-temperature adult plant resistance. The QTL explained 6-7% of the trait variation. Preliminary test of the flanking markers for YrR61, in two cultivars and two promising breeding lines with Pioneer 26R61 in their pedigree, indicated that YrR61 was present in these cultivars and lines, and these markers could therefore be used in marker-assisted selection.
Related JoVE Video
Preoperative high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging can identify good prognosis stage I, II, and III rectal cancer best managed by surgery alone: a prospective, multicenter, European study.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess local recurrence, disease-free survival, and overall survival in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-predicted good prognosis tumors treated by surgery alone.
Related JoVE Video
Adverse features on rectal MRI identify a high-risk group that may benefit from more intensive preoperative staging and treatment.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly accurate in local staging of rectal cancer. It can identify features known to be associated with increased risk of metastatic disease. We evaluated the incidence of synchronous metastatic disease on fludeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) and contrast-enhanced multiple-row detector computed tomography (ceMDCT) in MRI-stratified high- and low-risk rectal cancers. The aim was to determine the incidence of synchronous metastatic disease according to MRI risk features.
Related JoVE Video
A systematic review of cancer related patient outcomes after anterior resection and abdominoperineal excision for rectal cancer in the total mesorectal excision era.
Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is a widely held view that anterior resection (AR) for rectal cancer is an oncologically superior operation to abdominoperineal excision (APE). However, some centres have demonstrated better outcomes with APE. We conducted a systematic review of high-quality studies within the total mesorectal excision (TME) era comparing outcomes of AR and APE.
Related JoVE Video
Model SNP development for complex genomes based on hexaploid oat using high-throughput 454 sequencing technology.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic markers are pivotal to modern genomics research; however, discovery and genotyping of molecular markers in oat has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, and by a scarcity of sequence data. The purpose of this study was to generate oat expressed sequence tag (EST) information, develop a bioinformatics pipeline for SNP discovery, and establish a method for rapid, cost-effective, and straightforward genotyping of SNP markers in complex polyploid genomes such as oat.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnostic accuracy of nodal enhancement pattern of rectal cancer at MRI enhanced with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide: findings in pathologically matched mesorectal lymph nodes.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the pattern of nodal enhancement at MRI enhanced with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) in the nodal classification of rectal cancer in pathologically matched mesorectal lymph nodes.
Related JoVE Video
Developing 21st century models of care for seniors in challenged urban settings.
Nurs Adm Q
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This is an account of the revitalization of an urban area as its hospital closed but was replaced by community involvement, business, and new healthcare services to meet the needs of the aging people in the surrounding community.
Related JoVE Video
Neoadjuvant capecitabine and oxaliplatin before chemoradiotherapy and total mesorectal excision in MRI-defined poor-risk rectal cancer: a phase 2 trial.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with poor-risk rectal cancer defined by MRI can be at high risk of disease recurrence despite standard chemoradiotherapy and optimum surgery. We aimed to assess the safety and long-term efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin before chemoradiotherapy and total mesorectal excision, a treatment strategy developed to enhance the outcome of this population.
Related JoVE Video
Defining the surgical planes on MRI improves surgery for cancer of the low rectum.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer of the low rectum provides a challenge for both preoperative staging and optimum operative management. Current outcomes for patients with low rectal cancer are poor, particularly for those treated by abdominoperineal excision. It has been suggested that this poor outcome is due to an inherent oncological inferiority of the traditional abdominoperineal excision procedure, which might be explained by the unique anatomical features of the low rectum and the lack of clearly defined anatomical excision planes. In this Personal View, we discuss the anatomical and surgical planes available for the management of low rectal cancer, and describe the two-plane approach to low rectal cancer using the mesorectal plane and the extralevator plane.
Related JoVE Video
Dose finding and early efficacy study of gemcitabine plus capecitabine in combination with bevacizumab plus erlotinib in advanced pancreatic cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study evaluated safety and efficacy of chemotherapy (gemcitabine plus capecitabine) plus bevacizumab/erlotinib in advanced pancreatic cancer because dual epidermal growth factor receptor/vascular endothelial growth factor blockade has a rational biologic basis in this malignancy.
Related JoVE Video
Extended lymphadenectomy versus conventional surgery for rectal cancer: a meta-analysis.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lateral pelvic lymph-node metastases occur in 10-25% of patients with rectal cancer, and are associated with higher local recurrence and reduced survival rates. A meta-analysis was undertaken to assess the value of extended lateral pelvic lymphadenectomy in the operative management of rectal cancer.
Related JoVE Video
MRI staging of low rectal cancer.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Low rectal tumours, especially those treated by abdominoperineal excision (APE), have a high rate of margin involvement when compared with tumours elsewhere in the rectum. Correct surgical management to minimise this rate of margin involvement is reliant on highly accurate imaging, which can be used to plan the planes of excision. In this article we describe the techniques for accurate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment and a novel staging system for low rectal tumours. Using this staging system it is possible for the radiologist to demonstrate accurately tumour-free planes for surgical excision of low rectal tumours.
Related JoVE Video
Nanoparticles in rectal cancer imaging.
Cancer Biomark
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nanoparticles have been designed as novel contrast media for the evaluation of diseases. Ultrasmall iron oxide particles (USPIO) is a novel nanoparticle contrast medium, which is currently being evaluated as an MR lymphographic agent for the assessment of tumor spread to lymph nodes. Nodal disease is an independent poor prognostic indicator in patients with rectal cancer. Accurate pre-operative MR identification of patients with nodal disease and other adverse features can prompt the use of chemoradiation to downsize and downstage the disease, with the aim of reducing the long term risk of local and distant recurrence. In this article, we discuss the challenges to accurate nodal staging of patients with rectal cancer, and demonstrate how USPIO may be applied to rectal cancer imaging to identify nodal involvement.
Related JoVE Video
Magnetic resonance imaging prediction of an involved surgical resection margin in low rectal cancer.
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Low rectal cancers (<5 cm from the anal verge), compared with all others, have greater positive resection margin rates, attributed to mesorectal tapering and higher perforation risk. The aim of this study was to assess positive resection margin prediction by using magnetic resonance imaging staging.
Related JoVE Video
Gene-specific markers for the wheat gene Lr34/Yr18/Pm38 which confers resistance to multiple fungal pathogens.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The locus Lr34/Yr18/Pm38 confers partial and durable resistance against the devastating fungal pathogens leaf rust, stripe rust, and powdery mildew. In previous studies, this broad-spectrum resistance was shown to be controlled by a single gene which encodes a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter. Alleles of resistant and susceptible cultivars differed by only three sequence polymorphisms and the same resistance haplotype was found in the three independent breeding lineages of Lr34/Yr18/Pm38. Hence, we used these conserved sequence polymorphisms as templates to develop diagnostic molecular markers that will assist selection for durable multi-pathogen resistance in breeding programs. Five allele-specific markers (cssfr1-cssfr5) were developed based on a 3 bp deletion in exon 11 of the Lr34-gene, and one marker (cssfr6) was derived from a single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 12. Validation of reference genotypes, well characterized for the presence or absence of the Lr34/Yr18/Pm38 resistance locus, demonstrated perfect diagnostic values for the newly developed markers. By testing the new markers on a larger set of wheat cultivars, a third Lr34 haplotype, not described so far, was discovered in some European winter wheat and spelt material. Some cultivars with uncertain Lr34 status were re-assessed using the newly derived markers. Unambiguous identification of the Lr34 gene aided by the new markers has revealed that some wheat cultivars incorrectly postulated as having Lr34 may possess as yet uncharacterised loci for adult plant leaf and stripe rust resistance.
Related JoVE Video
MlAG12: a Triticum timopheevii-derived powdery mildew resistance gene in common wheat on chromosome 7AL.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Wheat powdery mildew is an economically important disease in cool and humid environments. Powdery mildew causes yield losses as high as 48% through a reduction in tiller survival, kernels per head, and kernel size. Race-specific host resistance is the most consistent, environmentally friendly and, economical method of control. The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm line NC06BGTAG12 possesses genetic resistance to powdery mildew introgressed from the AAGG tetraploid genome Triticum timopheevii subsp. armeniacum. Phenotypic evaluation of F(3) families derived from the cross NC06BGTAG12/Jagger and phenotypic evaluation of an F(2) population from the cross NC06BGTAG12/Saluda indicated that resistance to the Yuma isolate of powdery mildew was controlled by a single dominant gene in NC06BGTAG12. Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) revealed simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers specific for chromosome 7AL segregating with the resistance gene. The SSR markers Xwmc273 and Xwmc346 mapped 8.3 cM distal and 6.6 cM proximal, respectively, in NC06BGTAG12/Jagger. The multiallelic Pm1 locus maps to this region of chromosome 7AL. No susceptible phenotypes were observed in an evaluation of 967 F(2) individuals in the cross NC06BGTAG12/Axminster (Pm1a) which indicated that the NC06BGTAG12 resistance gene was allelic or in close linkage with the Pm1 locus. A detached leaf test with ten differential powdery mildew isolates indicated the resistance in NC06BGTAG12 was different from all designated alleles at the Pm1 locus. Further linkage and allelism tests with five other temporarily designated genes in this very complex region will be required before giving a permanent designation to this gene. At this time the gene is given the temporary gene designation MlAG12.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnostic accuracy of serial CT/magnetic resonance imaging review vs. positron emission tomography/CT in colorectal cancer patients with suspected and known recurrence.
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study examined the sensitivity and specificity of CT/magnetic resonance imaging serial review compared to fluoro-2-deoxy glucose positron emission tomography-CT scanning to optimize colorectal cancer follow-up.
Related JoVE Video
Post-anthesis moisture increased Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol levels in North Carolina winter wheat.
Phytopathology
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
ABSTRACT Current models for forecasting Fusarium head blight (FHB) and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in wheat are based on weather near anthesis, and breeding for resistance to FHB pathogens often relies on irrigation before and shortly after anthesis to encourage disease development. The effects of post-anthesis environmental conditions on FHB are poorly understood. We performed a field experiment at Kinston, NC, to explore the effects of increasing duration of post-anthesis moisture on disease incidence, disease severity, Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK), percent infected kernels, and DON. The experiment had a split-plot design, and one trial was conducted in each of two successive years. Main plots consisted of post-anthesis mist durations of 0, 10, 20, or 30 days. Subplots were of eight cultivars in the first year and seven in the second year, two being susceptible to FHB and the remainder each with varying degrees of apparent type I and type II resistance. Plots were inoculated by spraying Fusarium graminearum macroconidia at mid-anthesis. Averaging across years and cultivars, 10 or 20 days of post-anthesis mist had the same effect (P > or = 0.198) and were associated with an approximately fourfold increase in mean disease incidence and eightfold increase in disease severity compared with 0 days of mist (P < or = 0.0002). In both years, mean FDK percentages at 0 and 10 days post-anthesis mist were the same and significantly lower than FDK percentages under 20 or 30 days of post-anthesis mist. Mist duration had a significant effect on percent kernels infected with Fusarium spp. as detected by a selective medium assay of 2007 samples. Averaging across all cultivars, in both years, DON levels increased significantly for 10 days compared with 0 days of mist, and increased again with 20 days of mist (P < or = 0.04). This is the first investigation to show that extended post-flowering moisture can have a significant enhancing effect on FHB, FDK, DON, and percent infected kernels of wheat. For all disease and toxin assays, cultivar rankings were significantly noncorrelated among mist durations in at least 1 year, suggesting that FHB screening programs might rank genotypes differently under extended post-anthesis moisture than without it. Our findings also imply that accurate forecasts of DON in small grains must take account of post-anthesis weather conditions.
Related JoVE Video
Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer.
J R Soc Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Laparoscopic surgery for colonic cancer is a safe and established alternative to traditional open colectomy. The potential advantages of shorter length of stay, faster recovery and fewer operative complications are well documented. The last 5 years has seen an increase in the number of laparoscopic colorectal operations as more surgeons learn this technique. Short and medium term results have been encouraging with respect to oncological outcomes. However, laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer remains a contentious issue. The increased complexity of operating within the confines of the pelvis and the greater risk of oncological compromise, have led to some surgeons urging caution. We present the challenges associated with laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery and explain that appropriate patient selection, surgical planning and laparoscopic experience are the key to successful outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnostic accuracy and value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in planning exenterative pelvic surgery for advanced colorectal cancer.
Eur. J. Cancer
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting colorectal tumour invasion according to seven intrapelvic compartments for planning exenterative pelvic surgery.
Related JoVE Video
MRI after treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer: how to report tumor response--the MERCURY experience.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Rectal Cancer European Equivalence (MERCURY) Study validated the use of MRI for posttreatment staging and its correlation with survival outcomes. As a consequence, reassessment of MRI scans after preoperative therapy has implications for surgical planning, the timing of surgery, sphincter preservation, deferral of surgery for good responders, and development of further preoperative treatments for radiologically identified poor responders.
Related JoVE Video
Greentree white paper: sexual violence, genitoanal injury, and HIV: priorities for research, policy, and practice.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The links between sexual violence, genitoanal injury, and HIV are understudied but potentially significant for understanding the epidemics disproportionate impacts on young women and girls, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, other hyperendemic areas, and conflict-affected regions. A Scientific Research Planning Meeting was convened by the Social Science Research Council at the Greentree Foundation in New York, March 19-20, 2012, bringing together an interdisciplinary group of researchers, clinicians, and policy makers to identify knowledge needs and gaps in three key areas: (1) the role of genitoanal injury on HIV transmission, acquisition, and pathogenesis; (2) the influence of sex and age-related anatomic characteristics on HIV transmission, acquisition, and pathogenesis; and (3) the role of heterosexual anal intercourse in HIV transmission. This article reflects the consensus that emerged from the Greentree Meeting regarding priority scientific research questions in these three areas, associated data collection and measurement challenges and opportunities, and implications for policy and practice.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and histopathological response to chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods for chemoradiotherapy (CRT) response assessment of rectal cancer include posttreatment T staging (ymrT), tumor regression grading (mrTRG), volume reduction posttreatment, and modified RECIST measurement. We compared these methods in identifying good versus poor responders with the histopathological standards of T stage (ypT) and tumor regression grading (TRG).
Related JoVE Video
Diagnostic accuracy of MRI for assessment of T category, lymph node metastases, and circumferential resection margin involvement in patients with rectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used for rectal cancer staging. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of phased array MRI for T category (T1-2 vs. T3-4), lymph node metastases, and circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement in primary rectal cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Indications and Outcome of Pelvic Exenteration for Locally Advanced Primary and Recurrent Rectal Cancer.
Ann. Surg.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
OBJECTIVE:: The outcome of pelvic exenteration was compared in patients with locally advanced primary (LAP) cancer and recurrent rectal cancer (RRC). BACKGROUND:: There are few reports comparing the results of pelvic exenteration for primary advanced rectal cancer and RRC. METHODS:: Consecutive patients undergoing pelvic exenteration between 2006 and 2011 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. The main endpoints were 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and local recurrence-free survival (LRFS). RESULTS:: Of 100 exenterative operations, 55 were for LAP cancer and 45 for RRC. Exenteration of 1 pelvic compartment was required in 30 cases, 2 compartments in 49 cases, and 3 of 4 compartments in 21 cases. R0, R1, and R2 resections were achieved in 78, 15, and 7 cases, respectively. R0 rates were significantly higher in LAP cancer than in RRC (91% vs 62%, P = 0.001). Three-year DFS for R0, R1, and R2 resections was 67%, 49%, and 0%, respectively (P < 0.001). For R0 resections only, DFS in LAP cancer was 76% and 57% in RRC (P = 0.212). On multivariate analysis, a positive resection margin (hazard ratio, 4.04; P < 0.001) and positive lymph node staging (hazard ratio, 2.43; P = 0.022) were significant predictors of reduced DFS. Three-year LRFS for R0 resection was 86% for LAP cancer and 84% for RRC (P = 0.817). On multivariate analysis, only a positive resection margin was a significant predictor of reduced LRFS (hazard ratio, 5.48; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS:: Resection margin status is more important than primary or recurrent cancer in predicting long-term outcome.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.