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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Anoctamin 1 is apically expressed on thyroid follicular cells and contributes to ATP- and calcium-activated iodide efflux.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Iodide efflux from thyroid cells into the follicular lumen is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, however, the pathways mediating this transport have only been partially identified. A calcium-activated pathway of iodide efflux has long been recognized, but its molecular identity unknown. Anoctamin 1 (ANO1) is a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), and this study aims to investigate its contribution to iodide fluxes in thyroid cells.
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Ectopic Thyroid Tissue in the Adrenal Gland: Report of a Case.
Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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Foci of ectopic thyroid tissue are uncommon. Most sites of thyroid ectopia are confined to the neck region. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue outside the migration pathway of the primitive thyroid in other locations is exceptional. Given that any disease of the thyroid gland may also affect ectopic thyroid tissue, pathologists has to recognize benign or malignant conditions that may develop in the ectopic focus. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with ectopic thyroid parenchyma in the adrenal gland. Clinically, postoperative thyroid ultrasound echography and computed tomography scans did not reveal any thyroid tumor. The ectopic tissue was a cyst bordered by mature follicular thyroid structures and was histologically benign, without the molecular alterations associated with malignant tumors of follicular cell derivation (BRAFV600E, N-RAS, H-RAS, K-RAS). Review of the literature reveals that adrenal ectopic thyroid tissue is nearly always cystic and has distinctive pathologic features.
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High-sensitivity BRAF mutation analysis: BRAF V600E is acquired early during tumor development but is heterogeneously distributed in a subset of papillary thyroid carcinomas.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The homogeneous distribution of BRAF V600E in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been called into question by recent reports. These studies claim that BRAF V600E is heterogeneous and is limited to tumor cell subsets in the majority of PTCs.
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Post progression survival in glioblastoma: where are we?
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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The optimal end point for phase II studies for recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) is unclear and a matter of debate. Moreover, data about post-progression survival (PPS) after the first disease progression in GBM patients treated according to EORTC 26981/22981/NCIC CE.3 trial are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PPS in GBM patients. The analysis was made with a database on 1,006 GBM patients followed prospectively between 06/2005 and 06/2010. Eligibility criteria for the study were: age ?18 years; PS: 0-2; chemotherapy given at disease progression after RT/TMZ. 232 patients (mean age 52 years, range 18-77 years) were enrolled. The median PFS following second line chemotherapy (PFS2) was 2.5 months (95 % CI 2.1-2.9) and the rate of patients free of progression at 6 months (PFS2-6 mo), was 21.6 % (95 % CI 16.3-26.9 %). The median PPS was 8.6 months (95 % CI 7.4-9.8), PPS rates were: PPS-6: 66 % (95 % CI 60.3-72.9 %), PPS-9: 48.2 % (95 % CI 41.5-54.9 %) and PPS-12: 31.7 % (95 % CI 25.2-38.2 %). PPS in unselected patients treated with alkylating agents is about 8 months. PPS rates could be of interest as an end point in future studies in recurrent GBM.
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Tensegrity model hypothesis: may this paradigm be useful to explain hepatic and pancreatic carcinogenesis in patients with persistent hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection?
JOP
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) possess well-known oncogenic properties and may promote carcinogenesis in liver. However antigens and replicative sequences of HBV/HCV have been also detected in different extra-hepatic tissues, including the pancreas. Although epidemiological studies and meta-analyses have recently suggested that HBV/HCV may be also risk factors for pancreatic cancer and several researches have investigated the possible mechanisms and intra-/extra-cellular paths involved in pancreatic and hepatic carcinogenesis, to date, these complex processes remain largely unexplained.
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Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is up-regulated in thyroid carcinoma and drives the development of an immunosuppressant tumor microenvironment.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a single chain oxidoreductase that catalyzes tryptophan degradation to kynurenine. In cancer, it appears to exert an immunosuppressive function as part of an acquired mechanism of immune escape mediated by the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and survival and by the induction of FoxP3+ T regulatory cells.
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Mutant BRAF in low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors and focal cortical dysplasia.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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BRAF alterations, namely BRAF fusion and BRAF V600E mutation, have been recently reported in low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors. Twenty low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors were retrieved to evaluate the BRAF mutational status. BRAF mutations were present in 10 tumors and concomitantly in associated dysplastic tissue of three patients. We here show for the first time that BRAF mutations are present not only in low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors but, in some cases, also in the associated focal cortical dysplasia.
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Molecular diagnosis of carcinomas of the thyroid gland.
Front Biosci (Elite Ed)
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Our understanding of the molecular pathology of thyroid cancer has progressed significantly. It is now apparent that thyroid tumors show a very good correlation between genotype and phenotype, a correlation that is much stronger than that observed in tumors of many other organs. Activation of classic oncogenes (BRAF, RAS, RET) activate MAPK signalling. Other pathways like the PI3K/PTEN/AKT cascade are also active in many thyroid tumors. The analysis of molecular profiles is generating data that can be applied to improve patient management. The common occurrence of thyroid nodules in the general population and the widespread use of fine needle aspiration for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules creates an unprecedented opportunity to apply what we have learnt from the molecular alterations of thyroid cancer to the clinical arena.
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Next generation sequencing improves the accuracy of KRAS mutation analysis in endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration pancreatic lesions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The use of endoscopic ultrasonography has allowed for improved detection and pathologic analysis of fine needle aspirate material for pancreatic lesion diagnosis. The molecular analysis of KRAS has further improved the clinical sensitivity of preoperative analysis. For this reason, the use of highly analytical sensitive and specific molecular tests in the analysis of material from fine needle aspirate specimens has become of great importance. In the present study, 60 specimens from endoscopic ultrasonography fine needle aspirate were analyzed for KRAS exon 2 and exon 3 mutations, using three different techniques: Sanger sequencing, allele specific locked nucleic acid PCR and Next Generation sequencing (454 GS-Junior, Roche). Moreover, KRAS was also tested in wild-type samples, starting from DNA obtained from cytological smears after pathological evaluation. Sanger sequencing showed a clinical sensitivity for the detection of the KRAS mutation of 42.1%, allele specific locked nucleic acid of 52.8% and Next Generation of 73.7%. In two wild-type cases the re-sequencing starting from selected material allowed to detect a KRAS mutation, increasing the clinical sensitivity of next generation sequencing to 78.95%. The present study demonstrated that the performance of molecular analysis could be improved by using highly analytical sensitive techniques. The Next Generation Sequencing allowed to increase the clinical sensitivity of the test without decreasing the specificity of the analysis. Moreover we observed that it could be useful to repeat the analysis starting from selectable material, such as cytological smears to avoid false negative results.
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Tall Cell Variant of Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma: Clinicopathologic Features with BRAF(V600E) Mutational Analysis.
Thyroid
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Background: The tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is an aggressive subtype that generally presents as a large tumor in the advanced stage; however, little is known about the tall cell variant of microcarcinoma (tumors measuring <1?cm). In this study, we compare the tall cell variant of microcarcinoma (microTCV) with classic papillary microcarcinomas to examine the hypothesis that, despite the small size, the microTCV may be more aggressive than the classic papillary microcarcinoma. Methods: We identified 27 microTCV patients and compared their clinicopathologic features and BRAF(V600E) mutational status with classic papillary microcarcinomas matched by age and size. The patients with microTCV included 22 women and 5 men aged 33 to 74 years (median age, 56 years). All patients underwent total thyroidectomy; 20 patients had lymph node dissection. Results: Tumor size in microTCV patients ranged from 2?mm to 10?mm (median, 7?mm). Extrathyroidal extension and lymphovascular invasion were seen in 9 (33%) and 4 (15%) tumors, respectively. Thirteen patients (48%) harbored multifocal papillary carcinomas. Metastasis to central compartment lymph nodes was seen in 8 patients and to lateral cervical nodes in 3 patients. Nine of the 25 patients (36%) presented at an advanced stage (stage III/IVA). The BRAF(V600E) mutation was detected in 25 of 27 tumors (92.6%). In contrast, age- and size-matched classic papillary microcarcinomas (n=26) showed no extrathyroidal extension (p=0.002), lymphovascular invasion in 1, central compartment lymph node metastasis in 2, lateral cervical node metastasis in 1, multifocal tumors in 10 (38.5%), the BRAF(V600E) mutation in 20 (76.9%), and it infrequently presented in stage III/IVA (7.7%, p=0.02). Conclusions: The microTCV form is associated with aggressive features at presentation, and it should be differentiated from other papillary thyroid microcarcinomas.
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Multiple KRAS mutations in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: molecular features of neoplastic clones indicate the selection of divergent populations of tumor cells.
Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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KRAS is one of the most common genes mutated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Multiple KRAS mutations may be detected within the same pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but it is usually unclear whether the different mutations represent biologically irrelevant molecular events or whether they indicate the coexistence of distinct sizable neoplastic clones within a given tumor. We identified a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with 5 different mutations in the KRAS gene and have been able to characterize the allelic distribution of the KRAS mutations and the size of the neoplastic clones using allele-specific locked nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing (454 GS-Junior). The results indicate that the tumor is composed of 5 distinct cell populations: one is KRAS G12V mutated (~38% of neoplastic cells), the second is KRAS G12V in one allele and KRAS G12D in the other (~32%), the third is KRAS G12V in one allele and KRAS G12R in the other (~24%), and the fourth is KRAS G12V in one allele and KRAS G12C in the other (~6%). The fifth clone, representing a minority of neoplastic cells, has a KRAS Q61H mutation in addition to one of the above alterations. Microsatellite analysis identified mutation of the NR21 marker out of the 13 tested, indicating that the tumor has a defect in maintaining DNA integrity different from loss of conventional DNA mismatch repair. These results are consistent with the successive selection of divergent populations of tumor cells and underscore the relevance of nucleotide instability in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
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Where Birt-Hogg-Dubé meets Cowden syndrome: mirrored genetic defects in two cases of syndromic oncocytic tumours.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Birt-Hogg-Dubè (BHD) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by skin fibrofolliculomas, lung cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax and renal cancer. The association of benign cutaneous lesions and increased cancer risk is also a feature of Cowden Syndrome (CS), an autosomal dominant disease caused by PTEN mutations. BHD and CS patients may develop oncocytomas, rare neoplasias that are phenotypically characterised by a prominent mitochondrial hyperplasia. We here describe the genetic analysis of a parotid and a thyroid oncocytoma, developed by a BHD and a CS patient, respectively. The BHD lesion was shown to maintain the wild-type allele of FLCN, while losing one PTEN allele. On the other hand, a double heterozygosity for the same two genes was found to be the only detectable tumorigenic hit in the CS oncocytoma. Both conditions occurred in a context of high chromosomal stability, as highlighted by comparative genomic hybridisation analysis. We conclude that, similarly to PTEN, FLCN may not always follow the classical Two Hits model of tumorigenesis and may hence belong to a class of non-canonical tumour suppressor genes. We hence introduce a role of PTEN/FLCN double heterozygosity in syndromic oncocytic tumorigenesis, suggesting this to be an alternative determinant to pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations, which are instead the genetic hallmark of sporadic oncocytic tumours.
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Next-Generation Sequencing of Lung Cancer EGFR Exons 18-21 Allows Effective Molecular Diagnosis of Small Routine Samples (Cytology and Biopsy).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Selection of lung cancer patients for therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors directed at EGFR requires the identification of specific EGFR mutations. In most patients with advanced, inoperable lung carcinoma limited tumor samples often represent the only material available for both histologic typing and molecular analysis. We defined a next generation sequencing protocol targeted to EGFR exons 18-21 suitable for the routine diagnosis of such clinical samples. The protocol was validated in an unselected series of 80 small biopsies (n=14) and cytology (n=66) specimens representative of the material ordinarily submitted for diagnostic evaluation to three referral medical centers in Italy. Specimens were systematically evaluated for tumor cell number and proportion relative to non-neoplastic cells. They were analyzed in batches of 100-150 amplicons per run, reaching an analytical sensitivity of 1% and obtaining an adequate number of reads, to cover all exons on all samples analyzed. Next generation sequencing was compared with Sanger sequencing. The latter identified 15 EGFR mutations in 14/80 cases (17.5%) but did not detected mutations when the proportion of neoplastic cells was below 40%. Next generation sequencing identified 31 EGFR mutations in 24/80 cases (30.0%). Mutations were detected with a proportion of neoplastic cells as low as 5%. All mutations identified by the Sanger method were confirmed. In 6 cases next generation sequencing identified exon 19 deletions or the L858R mutation not seen after Sanger sequencing, allowing the patient to be treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In one additional case the R831H mutation associated with treatment resistance was identified in an EGFR wild type tumor after Sanger sequencing. Next generation sequencing is robust, cost-effective and greatly improves the detection of EGFR mutations. Its use should be promoted for the clinical diagnosis of mutations in specimens with unfavorable tumor cell content.
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454 next generation-sequencing outperforms allele-specific PCR, Sanger sequencing, and pyrosequencing for routine KRAS mutation analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Detection of KRAS mutations in archival pathology samples is critical for therapeutic appropriateness of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in colorectal cancer. We compared the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Sanger sequencing, ARMS-Scorpion (TheraScreen®) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pyrosequencing, chip array hybridization, and 454 next-generation sequencing to assess KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutations in 60 nonconsecutive selected cases of colorectal cancer. Twenty of the 60 cases were detected as wild-type KRAS by all methods with 100% specificity. Among the 40 mutated cases, 13 were discrepant with at least one method. The sensitivity was 85%, 90%, 93%, and 92%, and the accuracy was 90%, 93%, 95%, and 95% for Sanger sequencing, TheraScreen real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, and chip array hybridization, respectively. The main limitation of Sanger sequencing was its low analytical sensitivity, whereas TheraScreen real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, and chip array hybridization showed higher sensitivity but suffered from the limitations of predesigned assays. Concordance between the methods was k = 0.79 for Sanger sequencing and k > 0.85 for the other techniques. Tumor cell enrichment correlated significantly with the abundance of KRAS-mutated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), evaluated as ?Ct for TheraScreen real-time PCR (P = 0.03), percentage of mutation for pyrosequencing (P = 0.001), ratio for chip array hybridization (P = 0.003), and percentage of mutation for 454 next-generation sequencing (P = 0.004). Also, 454 next-generation sequencing showed the best cross correlation for quantification of mutation abundance compared with all the other methods (P < 0.001). Our comparison showed the superiority of next-generation sequencing over the other techniques in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Next-generation sequencing will replace Sanger sequencing as the reference technique for diagnostic detection of KRAS mutation in archival tumor tissues.
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T([20]) repeat in the 3-untranslated region of the MT1X gene: a marker with high sensitivity and specificity to detect microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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Stratifying patients defective in mismatch repair (dMMR) with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) in colorectal cancer (CRC) is of increasing relevance and may provide a more tailored approach to CRC adjuvant therapy. Here, we describe the discovery of a new MSI marker for colorectal cancer located in the 3-untranslated region (3UTR, T20 mononucleotide repeat) of the metallothionein 1X gene (MT1XT20).
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Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Are we there yet?
Endocr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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The article reviews the controversial area of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Consensus criteria that define poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma have been published in 2007. According to these, poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma is a distinct histotype and the term "poorly differentiated" should not be used as a synonym for high-grade thyroid cancer. Data in the literature show that tumor necrosis and high mitotic activity, but not growth pattern or histologic subtype, are prognostic markers for thyroid tumors. This underscores the importance of grading to identify thyroid carcinomas that behave aggressively. The issue of grading versus typing thyroid tumors is discussed.
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BRAF(V600E) mutation and expression of proangiogenic molecular markers in papillary thyroid carcinomas.
Eur. J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are evaluated for treatment of radioiodine refractory thyroid cancer. Their effects in this setting are based on blockade of proangiogenic signaling mediated by receptors for vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF). Most TKIs also block other cancer-relevant kinases, such as B-type Raf kinase (BRAF), which are constitutively activated in approximately half of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), but the impact of these effects is not clear.
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Sunitinib inhibits tumor vascularity and growth but does not affect Akt and ERK phosphorylation in xenograft tumors.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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Sunitinib is a multikinase inhibitor approved for use in some human solid malignancies, including renal clear cell and gastrointestinal stromal cancer, and under investigation for many other neoplasias. In many preclinical cancer models sunitinib has shown anti-angiogenic and antitumor effects, acting mainly by inhibiting the activity of pro-angiogenic growth factor receptors. However, a percentage of tumors develop resistance to this treatment. The aim of this study was to identify novel potential molecular targets for the non- responsive tumors. The effects of sunitinib were investigated in xenograft tumors obtained by injecting HEK293 cells into NOD-SCID mice, focusing on the activity of growth-regulating pathways involved in tumorigenesis. During 11 days of oral administration of sunitinib (40 mg/kg/day), the growth of tumors was monitored by measuring the mass volume by a caliper. At the end of the treatment, tumor specimens were histologically examined for microvessel density (MVD) and presence of necrosis, and the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt was analyzed in protein extracts by Western blotting. Moreover, the mRNA levels of VEGF and its receptor genes were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Treatment with sunitinib elicited a clear reduction of the tumor growth, associated with a reduction of MVD, correlated with an increased number of necrotic cells. In contrast, the levels of phosphorylated Akt and ERK proteins were similar in treated and non-treated animals. The VEGF and VEGFR-1 and 2 transcripts were not affected by sunitinib treatment. In conclusion, these findings confirm the anti-angiogenic action as the major effect of sunitinib against tumor growth. In contrast, other important growth regulatory pathways involved in malignant trans-formation, such as the ERK-MAPK and Akt/mTOR pathways are not affected by such a treatment, suggesting the use of specific inhibitors of these pathways as valid candidates for combinatorial therapies in sunitinib-resistant malignancies.
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Fine-needle aspiration and intraoperative consultation in thyroid pathology: when and how?
Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and frozen section evaluation are traditional components of the management of thyroid lesions. Their role and usefulness are dictated by some basic facts about thyroid pathology: (a) nodules are very common; (b ) they are benign in the majority of cases; and (c) the diagnosis of malignancy is primarily based on cytologic features in the case of papillary carcinoma, and on the presence of invasion of the tumor capsule or of blood vessels in the case of follicular carcinoma. The common occurrence of benign thyroid nodules mandates a cost-effective effective method for preoperative screening. Since, as already stated, the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (by far the most common thyroid malignancy) is based on the identification of characteristic cytologic features, FNA has easily emerged in the past 30 years as the most accurate and cost-effective tool-indeed a true cornerstone-for the preoperative management of thyroid nodules. Standardized terminology to report cytologic diagnoses is highly recommended and is being implemented worldwide. Conversely, the importance of intraoperative frozen section diagnosis has been constantly decreasing over the past years, as a direct consequence of the widespread application of FNA. It may, however, be very useful in cases that are suspicious for papillary carcinoma on FNA and in selected cases with an indeterminate cytologic diagnosis.
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Genomic profiling of mitochondrion-rich breast carcinoma: chromosomal changes may be relevant for mitochondria accumulation and tumour biology.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Oncocytic carcinomas are composed of mitochondrion-rich cells. Though recognised by the WHO classification as a histological special type of breast cancer, their status as a discrete pathological entity remains a matter of contention. Given that oncocytic tumours of other anatomical sites display distinct clinico-pathological and molecular features, we sought to define the molecular genetic features of mitochondrion-rich breast tumours and to compare them with a series of histological grade- and oestrogen receptor status-matched invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type. Seventeen mitochondrion-rich breast carcinomas, including nine bona fide oncocytic carcinomas, were profiled with antibodies against oestrogen, progesterone and androgen receptors, HER2, Ki67, GCDFP-15, chromogranin, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 14, CD68 and mitochondria antigen. These tumours were microdissected and DNA extracted from samples with >70% of tumour cells. Fourteen cases yielded DNA of sufficient quality/quantity and were subjected to high-resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridisation analysis. The genomic profiles were compared to those of 28 grade- and oestrogen receptor status-matched invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type. Oncocytic and other mitochondrion-rich tumours did not differ significantly between themselves. As a group, mitochondrion-rich carcinomas were immunophenotypically heterogenous. Recurrent copy number changes were similar to those described in unselected breast cancers. However, unsupervised and supervised analysis identified a subset of mitochondrion-rich cancers, which often displayed gains of 11q13.1-q13.2 and 19p13. Changes in the latter two chromosomal regions have been shown to be associated with oncocytic tumours of the kidney and thyroid, respectively, and host several nuclear genes with specific mitochondrial function. Our results indicate that in a way akin to oncocytic tumours of other anatomical sites, at least a subset of mitochondrion-rich breast carcinomas may be underpinned by a distinct pattern of chromosomal changes potentially relevant for mitochondria accumulation and constitute a discrete molecular entity.
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Oncocytic carcinoma of the breast: frequency, morphology and follow-up.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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Oncocytic breast carcinomas are tumors composed of no fewer than 70% of oncocytic cells (World Health Organization). The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency, morphologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical features of invasive oncocytic carcinoma in a large series. Twenty-eight cases of putative oncocytic breast carcinoma (selected cases group) and 76 consecutive cases of invasive breast carcinoma (consecutive cases group) were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry for mitochondria, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15, chromogranin, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, HER2/Neu, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 14, epithelial membrane antigen, and differentiation cluster 68 was performed. Score for mitochondria was based on intensity and percentage of immunopositive cells. Classes were as follows: (1) oncocytic carcinoma: at least 70%, 3+; (2) mitochondrion-rich carcinoma: 50% to 70%, 3+, or more than 50%, 2+; and (3) all the other cases were referred to as invasive breast carcinoma. Ultrastructural examination was available for 6 cases of oncocytic carcinoma. Morphologic and immunohistochemical features of the 3 groups were compared using Fisher exact test (P < .05). For overall survival analysis, Kaplan-Maier curves were compared using log-rank and Wilcoxon tests (P < .05). Our results suggest that oncocytic breast carcinoma is a morphologic entity with distinctive histologic and ultrastructural features. Mitochondrion-rich carcinomas are histologically similar to oncocytic carcinomas and constitute 19.7% of all invasive carcinomas, indicating that cytoplasmic eosinophilia in breast cancer cells is often due to accumulation of mitochondria. Oncocytic carcinomas and mitochondrion-rich carcinomas are more often grade III tumors and show human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression. Clinical features and overall survival of oncocytic carcinomas are not distinctive because they are similar to those of the other cases when matched for grade and stage.
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Encapsulated well-differentiated follicular-patterned thyroid carcinomas do not play a significant role in the fatality rates from thyroid carcinoma.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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A cohort of 1039 consecutive cases of thyroid carcinoma treated at a single institution and followed for an average of 11.9 years or until death included 102 encapsulated well-differentiated follicular-patterned tumors that had been diagnosed as carcinoma because of complete capsular invasion and/or papillary carcinoma-type nuclei. None of these cases were among the 67 patients from the cohort who died as a result of their thyroid carcinoma. The results of this study and a critical review of the pertinent literature indicate that tumors with these features are associated with an extremely favorable outcome and that they do not play a significant role in the fatality rate of thyroid carcinoma.
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Promoter methylation analysis of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in glioblastoma: detection by locked nucleic acid based quantitative PCR using an imprinted gene (SNURF) as a reference.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Epigenetic silencing of the MGMT gene by promoter methylation is associated with loss of MGMT expression, diminished DNA-repair activity and longer overall survival in patients with glioblastoma who, in addition to radiotherapy, received alkylating chemotherapy with carmustine or temozolomide. We describe and validate a rapid methylation sensitive quantitative PCR assay (MS-qLNAPCR) using Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) modified primers and an imprinted gene as a reference.
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Molecular features of thyroid oncocytic tumors.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2010
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Thyroid oncocytic neoplasms are tumors composed of cells characterized by an aberrant increase of mitochondrial mass. They represent a subset of thyroid tumors whose classification and clinical features has been a matter of controversy for clinicians and pathologists alike. The prevalence of oncocytic tumors in the thyroid gland, the relevance of the issues debated, and the obvious cellular derangement of oncocytic cells, namely a complete deregulation of the mitochondrial mass and metabolism, have spurred many investigators to study the molecular mechanism underlying the genesis of this peculiar cancer phenotype. Their findings, which are unraveling the tumor pathobiology, are the subject of the present review.
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Genetic Predisposition to Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer: An Update of Molecular Findings and State-of-the-Art Studies.
J Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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Familial thyroid cancer has become a well-recognized entity in patients with thyroid cancer originating from follicular cells, that is, nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma. The diagnosis of familial thyroid cancer provides an opportunity for early detection and possible prevention in family members. Understanding the syndromes associated with familial thyroid cancer allows clinicians to evaluate and treat patients for coexisting pathologic conditions. About five percents of patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma have a familial disease. Patients with familial non-medullalry thyroid cancer have more aggressive tumors with increased rates of extrathyroid extension, lymph node metastases, and frequently show the phenomenon of "anticipation" (earlier age at disease onset and increased severity in successive generations). So far, four predisposition loci have been identified in relatively rare extended pedigrees, and association studies have identified multiple predisposing variants for differentiated thyroid cancer. This suggests that there is a high degree of genetic heterogeneity and that the development of this type of tumor is a multifactorial and complex process in which predisposing genetic variants interact with a number of incompletely understood environmental risk factors. Thus, the search for the causative variants is still open and will surely benefit from the new technological approaches that have been developed in recent years.
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The genetic and metabolic signature of oncocytic transformation implicates HIF1alpha destabilization.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2009
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We previously showed that disruptive complex I mutations in mitochondrial DNA are the main genetic hallmark of oncocytic tumors of the thyroid and kidney. We here report a high frequency of homoplasmic disruptive mutations in a large panel of oncocytic pituitary and head-and-neck tumors. The presence of such mutations implicates disassembly of respiratory complex I in vivo which in turn contributes to the inability of oncocytic tumors to stabilize HIF1alpha and to display pseudo-hypoxia. By utilizing transmitochondrial cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids), we induced the shift to homoplasmy of a truncating mutation in the mitochondria-coded MTND1 gene. Such shift is associated with a profound metabolic impairment leading to the imbalance of alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate, the Krebs cycle metabolites which are the main responsible for HIF1alpha stabilization. We conclude that the main hallmarks of oncocytic transformation, namely the occurrence of homoplasmic disruptive mutations and complex I disassembly, may explain the benign nature of oncocytic neoplasms through lack of HIF1alpha stabilization.
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RET/PTC rearrangement occurring in primary peritoneal carcinoma.
Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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RET/PTC rearrangements are initiating events in the development of a significant proportion of papillary thyroid carcinomas. Activated RET/PTC mutations are thought to be restricted to thyroid disease, but this study proposes that these events may also occur in nonthyroid tumors. A total of 57 nonthyroid papillary tumors were examined for RET/PTC rearrangements using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization, Taqman reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. Taqman single nucleotide polymorphism detection was used to analyze for expression of mutated BRAF T1799A. In all, 20% (3/15) of primary peritoneal carcinoma had detectable RET/PTC1 rearrangements by all 3 methodologies. A further case of similar histotype had an alternate RET/ PTC rearrangement. No RET/PTC1 rearrangements were detected in the remaining tumor cohort. All 57 tumors were homozygous for wild-type BRAF. The results indicate that RET/PTC rearrangements occur in a small subset of nonthyroid papillary tumors. These rearrangements may not be directly implicated in tumor growth; rather representing "passenger" mutations reflecting RET instability in secondary tumor subclones.
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Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma with fatal outcome: evidence of tumor progression in lymph node metastases: report of 3 cases, with morphological and molecular analysis.
Hum. Pathol.
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Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma generally carries an excellent prognosis, and fatal cases are becoming increasingly rare. Their pathologic and molecular features, however, remain largely unknown. We describe 3 cases of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma that, despite surgical and radioiodine treatment, recurred, metastasized, and eventually caused the death of the patients. In addition to morphology, immunohistochemical (cyclin D1 and p53) and molecular analyses (BRAF [v-raf Murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1], KRAS [V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog], HRAS [v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog], NRAS [neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog], and PIK3CA [phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide]) were performed. Interestingly, all 3 cases presented with massive lymph node metastases that showed morphological evidence of "tumor progression" (tall cell features, poorly differentiated areas, and high-grade cytologic features). Cyclin D1 was consistently immunoreactive in both primary and metastatic site, whereas p53 was negative. BRAF V600E was absent in both sites, and KRAS, HRAS, NRAS, and PIK3CA were consistently wild type. These data suggest that, in cases of metastatic papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, an accurate morphologic analysis of the metastatic deposits could contribute to a more accurate prediction of tumor behavior.
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Somatic complex I disruptive mitochondrial DNA mutations are modifiers of tumorigenesis that correlate with low genomic instability in pituitary adenomas.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations leading to the disruption of respiratory complex I (CI) have been shown to exhibit anti-tumorigenic effects, at variance with those impairing only the function but not the assembly of the complex, which appear to contribute positively to cancer development. Owing to the challenges in the analysis of the multi-copy mitochondrial genome, it is yet to be determined whether tumour-associated mtDNA lesions occur as somatic modifying factors or as germ-line predisposing elements. Here we investigated the whole mitochondrial genome sequence of 20 pituitary adenomas with oncocytic phenotype and identified pathogenic and/or novel mtDNA mutations in 60% of the cases. Using highly sensitive techniques, namely fluorescent PCR and allele-specific locked nucleic acid quantitative PCR, we identified the most likely somatic nature of these mutations in our sample set, since none of the mutations was detected in the corresponding blood tissue of the patients analysed. Furthermore, we have subjected a series of 48 pituitary adenomas to a high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis, which revealed that CI disruptive mutations, and the oncocytic phenotype, significantly correlate with low number of chromosomal aberrations in the nuclear genome. We conclude that CI disruptive mutations in pituitary adenomas are somatic modifiers of tumorigenesis most likely contributing not only to the development of oncocytic change, but also to a less aggressive tumour phenotype, as indicated by a stable karyotype.
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Simultaneous occurrence of PAX8-PPARg and RET-PTC3 rearrangements in a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
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Specific genotype-phenotype correlations have been identified in conventional-type papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). In contrast, the genetic alterations underlying the pathogenesis of the follicular variant of PTC (FV-PTC), which shares some clinicopathologic and molecular features with both PTC and FTC, remain to be clarified. This entity shows a PAX8-PPARg fusion gene (associated with FTC), more frequently than BRAF or RET-PTC alterations (associated with PTC). Herein, we report, for the first time, an FV-PTC with the simultaneous occurrence of both RET-PTC and PAX8-PPARg alterations. Neoplastic cells were of the wild type for BRAF and H,K,N-RAS, had an apparently normal karyotype by conventional cytogenetics, and had a balanced genome by array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. In fact, submicroscopic chromosome rearrangements producing RET-PTC3 and PAX8-PPARg chimeric genes were found by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. We demonstrated that these 2 genetic alterations coexisted in the same tumor and were confined to 2 different clones. Our findings indicate that molecular heterogeneity, although an uncommon phenomenon, may occur in thyroid carcinoma and demonstrate the coexistence in a case of FV-PTC not only of the histologic but also of the molecular features of both PTC (RET-PTC) and FTC (PAX8-PPARg).
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Increased expression of pro-angiogenic factors and vascularization in thyroid hyperfunctioning adenomas with and without TSH receptor activating mutations.
Endocrine
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Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTN) are known to receive an increased blood influx necessary to sustain their high rate of growth and hormone production. Here, we investigated the expression of hematic and lymphatic vases in a series of 20 AFTN compared with the contralateral non-tumor tissues of the same patients, and the transcript levels of proteins involved in the control of vascular proliferation, including the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) and their receptors and the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). In parallel, the expression of the differentiation markers sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), thyroperoxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), and TSH receptor (TSHR) was also investigated. The data were further analyzed comparing subgroups of tumors with or without mutations in the TSHR gene. Analysis by means of CD31 and D2-40 immunostaining showed in AFTN an increased number of hematic, but not lymphatic, vessels in parallel with an enhanced proliferation rate shown by increased Ki67 staining. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed an increase of VEGF, VEGFR1 and 2, PDGF-A, PDGF-B, and eNOS expression in tumor versus normal tissues. Also, higher transcript levels of NIS, TPO, and Tg were detected. Comparison of the two subgroups of samples revealed only few differences in the expression of the genes examined. In conclusion, these data demonstrate an increased expression of angiogenesis-related factors associated with an enhanced proliferation of hematic, but not lymphatic, vessels in AFTNs. In this context, the presence of TSHR mutations may only slightly influence the expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors.
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Allele specific locked nucleic acid quantitative PCR (ASLNAqPCR): an accurate and cost-effective assay to diagnose and quantify KRAS and BRAF mutation.
PLoS ONE
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The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) requires the testing for hot spot mutations of the molecular effectors downstream the membrane-bound tyrosine kinases since their wild type status is expected for response to TKI therapy. We report a novel assay that we have called Allele Specific Locked Nucleic Acid quantitative PCR (ASLNAqPCR). The assay uses LNA-modified allele specific primers and LNA-modified beacon probes to increase sensitivity, specificity and to accurately quantify mutations. We designed primers specific for codon 12/13 KRAS mutations and BRAF V600E, and validated the assay with 300 routine samples from a variety of sources, including cytology specimens. All were analyzed by ASLNAqPCR and Sanger sequencing. Discordant cases were pyrosequenced. ASLNAqPCR correctly identified BRAF and KRAS mutations in all discordant cases and all had a mutated/wild type DNA ratio below the analytical sensitivity of the Sanger method. ASLNAqPCR was 100% specific with greater accuracy, positive and negative predictive values compared with Sanger sequencing. The analytical sensitivity of ASLNAqPCR is 0.1%, allowing quantification of mutated DNA in small neoplastic cell clones. ASLNAqPCR can be performed in any laboratory with real-time PCR equipment, is very cost-effective and can easily be adapted to detect hot spot mutations in other oncogenes.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.