JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effectiveness of Trastuzumab in First-Line HER2+ Metastatic Breast Cancer After Failure in Adjuvant Setting: A Controlled Cohort Study.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The evidence supporting the use of trastuzumab (T) in a metastatic setting comes from studies that included (almost) only patients who never received prior T. We investigated the effectiveness of T as first-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer (mBC) in women previously treated with T in the adjuvant setting.
Related JoVE Video
Blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol targets for prevention of recurrent strokes and cognitive decline in the hypertensive patient: design of the European Society of Hypertension-Chinese Hypertension League Stroke in Hypertension Optimal Treatment randomized trial.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The SBP values to be achieved by antihypertensive therapy in order to maximize reduction of cardiovascular outcomes are unknown; neither is it clear whether in patients with a previous cardiovascular event, the optimal values are lower than in the low-to-moderate risk hypertensive patients, or a more cautious blood pressure (BP) reduction should be obtained. Because of the uncertainty whether 'the lower the better' or the 'J-curve' hypothesis is correct, the European Society of Hypertension and the Chinese Hypertension League have promoted a randomized trial comparing antihypertensive treatment strategies aiming at three different SBP targets in hypertensive patients with a recent stroke or transient ischaemic attack. As the optimal level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level is also unknown in these patients, LDL-C-lowering has been included in the design.
Related JoVE Video
Blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol lowering for prevention of strokes and cognitive decline: a review of available trial evidence.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is well established by a large number of randomized controlled trials that lowering blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by drugs are powerful means to reduce stroke incidence, but the optimal BP and LDL-C levels to be achieved are largely uncertain. Concerning BP targets, two hypotheses are being confronted: first, the lower the BP, the better the treatment outcome, and second, the hypothesis that too low BP values are accompanied by a lower benefit and even higher risk. It is also unknown whether BP lowering and LDL-C lowering have additive beneficial effects for the primary and secondary prevention of stroke, and whether these treatments can prevent cognitive decline after stroke.
Related JoVE Video
Statins and the risk of diabetes: evidence from a large population-based cohort study.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the relationship between adherence with statin therapy and the risk of developing diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Duration of postoperative delirium is an independent predictor of 6-month mortality in older adults after hip fracture.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the association between number of days with delirium and 6-month mortality in elderly adults after hip fracture surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Are generic and brand-name statins clinically equivalent? Evidence from a real data-base.
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Use of generic drugs can help contain drug spending. However, there is concern among patients and physicians that generic drugs may be clinically inferior to brand-name ones. This study aimed to compare patients treated with generic and brand-name statins in terms of therapeutic interruption and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Factors involved in the discontinuation of antihypertensive drug therapy: an analysis from real life data.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have previously shown that in Italian region of Lombardy (about 10 million citizens), adherence to antihypertensive treatment is low, and that this is associated with a greater risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular events. In this study, we used a healthcare database to study the factors involved in discontinuation of antihypertensive drug prescriptions in real life.
Related JoVE Video
[Epidemiology of heart failure].
G Ital Cardiol (Rome)
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heart failure is a common and clinically relevant disease, whose prevalence is progressively increasing with the ageing of the population and the improvement in treatments. Within this condition, acute heart failure (AHF) has at present the higher burden on mortality and hospitalization rates. This results from both suboptimal management and difficulties in estimating the actual frequency of AHF. This paper is focused on AHF epidemiology based on reliable Italian national and regional data.
Related JoVE Video
Burden of new hospitalization for heart failure: a population-based investigation from Italy.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heart failure has been described as one of the emerging pandemics of the 21st century. This report aims to measure the burden of new hospitalization for heart failure in the population of an Italian region of nearly 10 million inhabitants.
Related JoVE Video
Cost-effectiveness of enhancing adherence with oral bisphosphonates treatment in osteoporotic women: an empirical approach based on healthcare utilisation databases.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adherence with bisphosphonates therapy is generally low. Enhancing adherence with bisphosphonates would be effective in achieving the full benefits of therapy albeit a growth in the expenditure for supporting incremented drug use is expected. The cost-effectiveness of enhancing adherence with oral bisphosphonates in a large population of osteoporotic women has been assessed in the current study.
Related JoVE Video
Alcohol drinking and risk of leukemia-a systematic review and meta-analysis of the dose-risk relation.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The association between alcohol and leukemia risk has been addressed in several studies in the past two decades, but results have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the dose-risk relation. Through the literature search up to August 2013, we identified 18 studies, 10 case-control and 8 cohorts, carried out in a total of 7142 leukemia cases. We derived pooled meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models, taking into account the correlation between estimates, and we performed a dose-risk analysis using a class of nonlinear random-effects meta-regression models. Stratified analyses were carried out on leukemia subtypes and groups, in order to identify possible etiologic differences. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risks (RRs) for all leukemia were 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-1.03], 0.90 (95% CI, 0.80-1.01) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.81-1.02) for any, light (? 1 drink/day) and moderate to heavy (>1 drink/day) alcohol drinking, respectively. The summary RRs for any alcohol drinking were 1.47 (95% CI, 0.47-4.62) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 0.94 (95% CI 0.77-1.15) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.86-1.21) for acute myeloid leukemia and 0.93 (95% CI 0.75-1.14) for chronic myeloid leukemia. The subgroup analysis on geographical area for all leukemia combined showed RRs of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.76-0.93), 0.92 (95% CI, 0.83-1.01) and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.02-1.70) for studies conducted in America, Europe and Asia, respectively. We did not find an increased risk of leukemia among alcohol drinkers. If any, a modest favorable effect emerged for light alcohol drinking, with a model-based risk reduction of approximately 10% in regular drinkers.
Related JoVE Video
Long term survival of HER2-positive early breast cancer treated with trastuzumab-based adjuvant regimen: A large cohort study from clinical practice.
Breast
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trastuzumab-based regimens for the adjuvant treatment of HER2-positive early breast cancer significantly prolonged overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) in large randomized trials, with sustained benefits at four-year follow-up. We assessed long-term survival estimates and predictors in a large cohort of Italian women with early breast cancer treated with trastuzumab in clinical practice. Through a record linkage between five regional healthcare databases, we identified women treated with trastuzumab for early breast cancer in Lombardy (2006-2009). DFS and OS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and independent predictors were assessed using proportional hazard models. 2046 women received trastuzumab in early breast cancer adjuvant setting. Overall, the proportion of patients surviving free of disease was 93.9% at one year, 85.8% at 2 years, 79.4% at 3 years, and 75.0% at 4 years. OS estimates were 98.7%, 95.4%, 91.5% and 89.4% at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years, respectively. Significant independent predictors of worse survival outcomes were age <40 or ?70 years compared to age 40-69 years, positive nodal status, radical breast surgery, combination therapy with paclitaxel, having at least one comorbidity (i.e. diabetes, cardiovascular disease), and a trastuzumab-based regimen lasting less than six months. Long term survival rates of women treated with trastuzumab for early breast cancer in clinical practice were consistent with estimates from clinical trials testing the drug in the adjuvant setting.
Related JoVE Video
Similarity between generic and brand-name antihypertensive drugs for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: evidence from a large population-based study.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although generic and earlier brand-name counterparts are bioequivalent, their equivalence in preventing relevant clinical outcomes is of concern.
Related JoVE Video
Medication persistence and the use of generic and brand-name blood pressure-lowering agents.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Because of their lower cost, healthcare systems recommend physicians to prefer generic products, rather than brand-name medicaments. There is then considerable interest and debate concerning safety and effectiveness of generic products. Few studies have compared patients treated with brand-name and generic drugs for adherence to treatment, with somewhat inconsistent results. The primary objective of this study was to compare the risk of discontinuing antihypertensive drug therapy in patients treated with generic or brand-name agents.
Related JoVE Video
High-potency statins increase the risk of acute kidney injury: evidence from a large population-based study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the association between acute kidney injury and exposure to either high-potency statins or low-potency statins.
Related JoVE Video
Do apolipoproteins improve coronary risk prediction in subjects with metabolic syndrome? Insights from the North Italian Brianza cohort study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We assessed predictive abilities and clinical utility of CVD risk algorithms including ApoB and ApoAI among non-diabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Related JoVE Video
Alcohol drinking and multiple myeloma risk--a systematic review and meta-analysis of the dose-risk relationship.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The role of alcohol intake in the risk for multiple myeloma (MM) is unclear, although some recent findings suggest an inverse relationship. To summarize the information on the topic, we carried out a systematic review and a dose-risk meta-analysis of published data. Through the literature search until August 2013, we identified 18 studies, eight case-control and 10 cohort studies, carried out in a total of 5694 MM patients. We derived pooled meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models, taking into account the correlation between estimates, and we carried out a dose-risk analysis using a class of nonlinear random-effects meta-regression models. The relative risk for alcohol drinkers versus non/occasional drinkers was 0.97 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-1.10] overall, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.74-1.24) among case-control studies, and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.89-1.13) among cohort studies. Compared with nondrinkers, the pooled relative risks were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.81-1.13) for light (i.e. ? 1 drink/day) and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.74-1.07) for moderate-to-heavy (i.e. >1 drink/day) alcohol drinkers. The dose-risk analysis revealed a model-based MM risk reduction of about 15% at two to four drinks/day (i.e. 25-50 g of ethanol). The present meta-analysis of published data found no strong association between alcohol drinking and MM risk, although a modest favorable effect emerged for moderate-to-heavy alcohol drinkers.
Related JoVE Video
Effectiveness of oral bisphosphonates for primary prevention of osteoporotic fractures: evidence from the AIFA-BEST observational study.
Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Osteoporosis is a chronic disease of the bone, whose incidence increases progressively with aging. The main consequences of osteoporosis are fragility fractures, which have considerable medical, social, and economic implications. Adequate treatment of osteoporosis must be considered as a compelling public health intervention. Bisphosphonates (BPs) represent the most significant advance in this field in the past decade, and they are widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis. However, evidence for their effectiveness is limited to secondary prevention, whereas their effect in primary prevention is uncertain and needs further investigation.
Related JoVE Video
User-only design to assess drug effectiveness in clinical practice: application to bisphosphonates and secondary prevention of fractures.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Different strategies applicable to control for confounding by indication in observational studies were compared in a large population-based study regarding the effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) for secondary prevention of fractures.
Related JoVE Video
Oral bisphosphonates do not increase the risk of severe upper gastrointestinal complications: a nested case-control study.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Data on the effect of oral bisphosphonates (BPs) on risk of upper gastrointestinal complications (UGIC) are conflicting. We conducted a large population-based study from a network of Italian healthcare utilization databases aimed to assess the UGIC risk associated with use of BPs in the setting of secondary prevention of osteoporotic fractures.
Related JoVE Video
Statins and primary liver cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Statins are among the most commonly prescribed drugs used to manage dyslipidemia. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third leading cause of cancer mortality and its rates have recently been increasing in central and northern Europe and USA. To quantify the association between statin use and risk for HCC, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies. We conducted a MEDLINE search for observational studies reporting the association between exposure to statins and risk for incident liver cancer until March 2012. Fixed-effect and random-effect models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Moreover, between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed using adequate statistical tests. Five observational studies (two case-control and three cohort studies) based on 2574 cases of HCC were included. Statin treatment, compared with no treatment, was inversely related to HCC (summary RR=0.58; 95% CI 0.46-0.74). Between-study heterogeneity was significant (P<0.001) and numerically relevant (I=65%). When only longest statin use was considered, the RR was 0.66 (95% CI 0.55-0.80). Influence analysis on the overall estimate showed that heterogeneity was largely because of one study; when omitting it, the I dropped to 27% (P=0.240), whereas the summary RR was only marginally modified (RR=0.52; 95% CI 0.44-0.62). There was no evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis suggests a favorable effect of statins on HCC, in the absence, however, of a duration-risk relationship.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term effect of high dose omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for secondary prevention of cardiovascular outcomes: A meta-analysis of randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trials.
Atheroscler Suppl
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although omega-3 fatty acids have well documented properties which would reduce the cardiovascular (CV) disease risk, the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remains inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of the available RCTs for investigating the CV preventive effect of administrating at least 1 gram/day, and for at least 1 year, omega-3 fatty acid supplements to patients with existing CV disease.
Related JoVE Video
Trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity in early breast cancer: a cohort study.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Concerns have been raised about the cardiac safety profile of trastuzumab for the adjuvant treatment of early stage breast cancer in clinical practice. We assessed trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity and its predictors in a large cohort of Italian women.
Related JoVE Video
Cost-effectiveness of enhancing adherence to therapy with blood pressure-lowering drugs in the setting of primary cardiovascular prevention.
Value Health
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To estimate the cost-effectiveness of enhancing adherence to blood pressure (BP)-lowering drug therapy in a large population without signs of preexisting cardiovascular (CV) disease.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term use of statins reduces the risk of hospitalization for dementia.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dementia is a major public health problem because of its high prevalence in elderly individuals, particularly in the growing category of subjects aged 80 years or more. There is accumulating evidence that cholesterol may be implicated in the pathogenesis of dementia, and this has led us to assess the relationship between time spent with statins available and the risk of hospitalization for dementia.
Related JoVE Video
Cancer risk for patients using thiazolidinediones for type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To clarify and quantify the effect of thiazolidinediones (TZDs; e.g., pioglitazone, rosiglitazone) on the risk of bladder cancer, other selected cancers, and overall cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
Related JoVE Video
Risk of Severe Upper Gastrointestinal Complications among Oral Bisphosphonate Users.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oral bisphosphonates (BPs) are the primary agents for the treatment of osteoporosis. Although BPs are generally well tolerated, serious gastrointestinal adverse events have been observed.
Related JoVE Video
Cardiovascular protection by initial and subsequent combination of antihypertensive drugs in daily life practice.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Guidelines recommend a combination of 2 drugs to be used as first-step treatment strategy in high-risk hypertensive individuals to achieve timely blood pressure control and avoid early events. The evidence that this is associated with cardiovascular (CV) benefits compared with initial monotherapy is limited, however. The objective of this study was to assess whether, compared with antihypertensive monotherapy, a combination of antihypertensive drugs provides a greater CV protection in daily clinical practice. A population-based, nested case-control study was carried out by including the cohort of 209 650 patients from Lombardy (Italy) aged 40 to 79 years who were newly treated with antihypertensive drugs between 2000 and 2001. Cases were the 10 688 patients who experienced a hospitalization for CV disease from initial prescription until 2007. Three controls were randomly selected for each case. Logistic regression was used to model the CV risk associated with starting on and/or continuing with combination therapy. A Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis was performed to account for unmeasured confounders. Patients starting on combination therapy had an 11% CV risk reduction with respect to those starting on monotherapy (95% CI: 5% to 16%). Compared with patients who maintained monotherapy also during follow-up, those who started on combination therapy and kept it along the entire period of observation had 26% reduction of CV risk (95% CI: 15% to 35%). In daily life practice, a combination of antihypertensive drugs is associated with a great reduction of CV risk. The indication for using combination of blood pressure drugs should be broadened.
Related JoVE Video
Better compliance to antihypertensive medications reduces cardiovascular risk.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effect of compliance with antihypertensive medications on the risk of cardiovascular outcomes in a population without a known history of cardiovascular disease has been addressed by a large population-based prospective, cohort study carried out by linking Italian administrative databases.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Alcohol drinking and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with focus on light-drinkers and never-smokers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Quantification of the association between alcohol drinking and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an open issue, particularly among light alcohol drinkers, never-smokers, and Asian populations, in which some high-risk polymorphisms in alcohol metabolizing genes are more prevalent. To address these issues, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis using 40 case-control and 13 cohort studies that reported on the risk associated with alcohol drinking for at least three levels of consumption. In studies adjusted for age, sex, and tobacco smoking, the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between light alcohol drinking (? 12.5 g/d) and risk of ESCC was 1.38 (1.14-1.67). The association was slightly stronger in Asian countries than in other populations. The adjusted RRs (95% CIs) were 2.62 (2.07-3.31) for moderate drinking (>12.5-<50 g/d) and 5.54 (3.92-7.28) for high alcohol intake (?50 g/d); the RRs were slightly higher in non-Asian populations. In prospective studies, the RR (95% CI) was 1.35 (0.92-1.98) for light, 2.15 (1.55-2.98) for moderate, and 3.35 (2.06-5.46) for high alcohol intakes; light drinking showed an association with ESCC in Asia (five studies) but not in other regions (three studies). Among never-smokers (nine studies), the RR (95% CI) was 0.74 (0.47-1.16) for light, 1.54 (1.09-2.17) for moderate, and 3.09 (1.75-5.46) for high intakes. This meta-analysis further corroborates the association of moderate and high alcohol intake with risk of ESCC and provides risk estimates based on multiple prospective studies. Light alcohol intake appears to be associated to ESCC mainly in studies in Asia, which suggests a possible role of genetic susceptibility factors.
Related JoVE Video
Heterogeneity in antihypertensive treatment discontinuation between drugs belonging to the same class.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Discontinuation of antihypertensive treatment is known to be different for different classes of antihypertensive drugs. No information is available on whether this phenomenon differs for drugs belonging to the same class. This is clinically relevant because treatment discontinuation is mainly responsible for poor blood pressure control in the antihypertensive population.
Related JoVE Video
Venous thromboembolism after major orthopaedic surgery: a population-based cohort study.
Intern Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following major orthopaedic surgery. However, the incidence of VTE and the role of additional risk factors have not yet been well explored in Italian clinical practice. The objective of the study is to estimate the incidence of VTE in the 3 months following elective hip and knee replacement (HR, KR) in a large cohort of patients, and the association between some selected risk factors and the occurrence of VTE. A large cohort study based on the record linkage between automated archives of the National Health System was analysed. In particular, all the residents in the Lombardy Region (Italy) who underwent HR and KR between 2005 and 2008 were followed for 3 months after surgery. The odds ratio (OR) of VTE associated with selected known risk factors was estimated by multivariate logistic regression. Amongst the 69,770 patients included in the study, 2,393 experienced at least one VTE event during the follow-up; the overall risk of VTE after HR or KR was 3.4%. The adjusted odds of experiencing a VTE event was higher in male patients (OR 1.11; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.21), aged 60 years or older (1.30; 1.00-1.68), undergoing KR (1.47; 1.35-1.61), with previous deep vein thrombosis (1.96; 1.20-3.19), pulmonary embolism (3.25; 1.84-5.75) or cancer (1.21; 1.00-1.46). In conclusion, the incidence of VTE after elective HR and KR in the Italian clinical practice is high. Our results suggest the need of optimising the management of thromboprophylaxis to further reduce postoperative VTE.
Related JoVE Video
Gender differences in the association between education and the incidence of cardiovascular events in Northern Italy.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The educational differences in the incidence of major cardiovascular events are under-studied in Southern Europe and among women.
Related JoVE Video
Alcohol, less is better project: outcomes of an Italian community-based prevention programme on reducing per-capita alcohol consumption.
Addiction
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate differences in the individual alcohol consumption after a community-based prevention programme.
Related JoVE Video
Random-effects meta-regression models for studying nonlinear dose-response relationship, with an application to alcohol and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A fundamental challenge in meta-analyses of published epidemiological dose-response data is the estimate of the function describing how the risk of disease varies across different levels of a given exposure. Issues in trend estimate include within studies variability, between studies heterogeneity, and nonlinear trend components. We present a method, based on a two-step process, that addresses simultaneously these issues. First, two-term fractional polynomial models are fitted within each study included in the meta-analysis, taking into account the correlation between the reported estimates for different exposure levels. Second, the pooled dose-response relationship is estimated considering the between studies heterogeneity, using a bivariate random-effects model. This method is illustrated by a meta-analysis aimed to estimate the shape of the dose-response curve between alcohol consumption and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Overall, 14 case-control studies and one cohort study, including 3000 cases of esophageal SCC, were included. The meta-analysis provided evidence that ethanol intake was related to esophageal SCC risk in a nonlinear fashion. High levels of alcohol consumption resulted in a substantial risk of esophageal SCC as compared to nondrinkers. However, a statistically significant excess risk for moderate and intermediate doses of alcohol was also observed, with no evidence of a threshold effect.
Related JoVE Video
A meta-analysis of alcohol drinking and oral and pharyngeal cancers. Part 2: results by subsites.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oral and pharyngeal cancers are strongly related to alcohol drinking. We combined findings from all case-control and cohort studies published up to September 2009 and presented analyses by subsites, using a meta-analytic approach. Summary measures were obtained using random-effects models, and taking into account the correlation between estimates from the same study. We also performed a dose-risk analysis, using a random-effects meta-regression model. Compared to non- or occasional drinkers, the overall relative risks (RR) for light drinkers were 1.17 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.01-1.35) for oral (nine studies) and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.87-1.73) for pharyngeal (five studies) cancer, with no significant heterogeneity between the two sites (p=0.793). RRs for heavy drinkers were 4.64 (95% CI, 3.78-5.70) for oral (17 studies) and 6.62 (95% CI, 4.72-9.29) for pharyngeal (17 studies) cancer (p of heterogeneity between the two sites=0.075). The summary RRs for heavy drinkers were 4.11 (95% CI, 2.46-6.87) for tongue (five studies), 7.76 (95% CI, 4.77-12.62) for oropharyngeal (four studies), and 9.03 (95% CI, 4.46-18.27) for hypopharyngeal (four studies) cancer. In conclusion, the alcohol-related RRs are higher for pharyngeal than for oral cancer, particularly at higher doses, while the association with cancer of the tongue was similar to that for oral cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Alcohol drinking and laryngeal cancer: overall and dose-risk relation--a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alcohol drinking is a known risk factor for laryngeal cancer. However, little information is available on the risk associated with light alcohol drinking. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis using two methods: (i) random-effects models with reconstruction of alcohol consumption categories and calculation of risk estimates associated with predefined consumption levels using Hamling method and (ii) random-effects meta-regression models. The PubMed database was searched for all case-control or cohort studies published in the English language on the association between alcohol consumption and risk of laryngeal cancer. Forty studies (38 case-control, 2 cohort) reporting on at least three levels of consumption were included. Overall, alcohol drinking versus non-drinking was associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in risk of laryngeal cancer (RR=1.90; 95% CI: 1.59-2.28). While light alcohol drinking (?1 drink/day) did not show any significant association with risk of laryngeal cancer (12 studies. RR=0.88; 95% CI: 0.71-1.08), moderate drinking (>1 to <4drinks/day) was associated with a 1.5-fold increase in risk (35 studies. RR=1.47; 95% CI: 1.25-1.72) and heavy drinking (?4drinks/day) was associated with a 2.5-fold increased risk (33 studies. RR=2.62; 95% CI: 2.13-3.23). Subgroup analyses for studies that adjusted for main potential confounding factors (age, sex, and tobacco use) and several further subgroup analyses showed similar results, which suggest the robustness of the results.
Related JoVE Video
Reduced discontinuation of antihypertensive treatment by two-drug combination as first step. Evidence from daily life practice.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To measure persistence with antihypertensive drug therapy in patients initiating treatment with mono or combination therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Combining electronic healthcare databases in Europe to allow for large-scale drug safety monitoring: the EU-ADR Project.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this proof-of-concept paper we describe the framework, process, and preliminary results of combining data from European electronic healthcare record (EHR) databases for large-scale monitoring of drug safety.
Related JoVE Video
Setting of methods for analysis of mucosal antibodies in seminal and vaginal fluids of HIV seropositive subjects from Cambodian and Italian cohorts.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genital mucosae play a key role in protection from STD and HIV infection, due to their involvement in both horizontal and vertical disease transmission. High variability of published observations concerning IgA isolation and quantification underlies the strong requirement of specific methods able to maximize investigation on HIV-specific IgA.
Related JoVE Video
Multiple outcomes associated with the use of metformin and sulphonylureas in type 2 diabetes: a population-based cohort study in Italy.
Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the effect of metformin and sulphonylureas on the risks of switching to insulin therapy, hospitalisation for macrovascular disease and all-cause mortality.
Related JoVE Video
A meta-analysis of alcohol drinking and oral and pharyngeal cancers. Part 1: overall results and dose-risk relation.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alcohol consumption, together with tobacco, is the best recognised risk factor for oral and pharyngeal cancers (OPC), but several important aspects of this association need to be further explored. In order to provide up to date and more precise quantification of the association between alcohol drinking and OPC risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of available data. We performed a PubMed search of articles published up to September 2009, and we identified 43 case-control and two cohort studies presenting results for at least three categories of alcohol drinking, including a total of 17,085 OPC cases. We derived meta-analytic summary estimates using random-effects models, and taking into account correlation between estimates. We also performed a dose-risk analysis using non-linear random-effects meta-regression models. The pooled relative risk (RR) was 1.21 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.10-1.33) for or=4 drinks per day). The dose-risk analysis resulted in RR of 1.29 for 10g ethanol/day, 3.24 for 50g ethanol/day, 8.61 for 100g ethanol/day, and 13.02 for 125g ethanol/day. This meta-analysis provides more precise evidence of a gross excess of OPC risk for heavy alcohol drinkers. It also indicates an increased risk for moderate doses, i.e.,
Related JoVE Video
Results of a retrospective database analysis of adherence to statin therapy and risk of nonfatal ischemic heart disease in daily clinical practice in Italy.
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies have reported that statin use was associated with reductions in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with dyslipidemia, even without established cardiovascular disease. However, inadequate adherence may reduce statins protective effects.
Related JoVE Video
Management of antihypertensive drugs in three European countries.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare rates of treatment discontinuation of and changes in initial antihypertensive drug therapy in the natural setting of treatment dispensation of Italy, Sweden and the Netherlands.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of macrolide and fluoroquinolone antibacterials on the risk of ventricular arrhythmia and cardiac arrest: an observational study in Italy using case-control, case-crossover and case-time-control designs.
Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the effect of macrolide and fluoroquinolone antibacterials on the onset of ventricular arrhythmia and cardiac arrest using three different observational designs.
Related JoVE Video
External adjustment for unmeasured confounders improved drug-outcome association estimates based on health care utilization data.
J Clin Epidemiol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Health care utilization (HCU) databases are widespread sources of data for pharmacoepidemiologic investigations. Possible confounders are typically not measured in such databases. We show how to assess the impact of confounders in a study aimed at comparing cardiovascular (CV) risk according to drug regimen prescribed at starting antihypertensive therapy, nominally one agent (monotherapy) or a combination of agents in a unique tablet (fixed-dose combination) or in at least two distinct tablets (extemporaneous combination).
Related JoVE Video
The combined effect of ADL impairment and delay in time from fracture to surgery on 12-month mortality: an observational study in orthogeriatric patients.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Delayed surgery (ie, >48 hours from arrival in hospital) and pre-fracture disability are thought to be long-term risk factors for mortality in patients with hip fracture (HF). However, the combined effect on mortality of these two conditions has not been satisfactorily assessed in previous studies.
Related JoVE Video
Cancer risk associated with use of metformin and sulfonylurea in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.
Oncologist
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oral antidiabetic drugs (including metformin and sulfonylurea) may play a role in the relationship between type 2 diabetes and cancer. To quantify the association between metformin and sulfonylurea and the risk of cancer, we performed a meta-analysis of available studies on the issue.
Related JoVE Video
Diabetes mellitus and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies.
Nutr Cancer
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetes has been associated to the risk of a few cancer sites, though quantification of this association in various populations remains open to discussion. We analyzed the relation between diabetes and the risk of various cancers in an integrated series of case-control studies conducted in Italy and Switzerland between 1991 and 2009. The studies included 1,468 oral and pharyngeal, 505 esophageal, 230 gastric, 2,390 colorectal, 185 liver, 326 pancreatic, 852 laryngeal, 3,034 breast, 607 endometrial, 1,031 ovarian, 1,294 prostate, and 767 renal cell cancer cases and 12,060 hospital controls. The multivariate odds ratios (OR) for subjects with diabetes as compared to those without-adjusted for major identified confounding factors for the cancers considered through logistic regression models-were significantly elevated for cancers of the oral cavity/pharynx (OR = 1.58), esophagus (OR = 2.52), colorectum (OR = 1.23), liver (OR = 3.52), pancreas (OR = 3.32), postmenopausal breast (OR = 1.76), and endometrium (OR = 1.70). For cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus, colorectum, liver, and postmenopausal breast, the excess risk persisted over 10 yr since diagnosis of diabetes. Our data confirm and further quantify the association of diabetes with colorectal, liver, pancreatic, postmenopausal breast, and endometrial cancer and suggest forthe first time that diabetes may also increase the risk of oral/pharyngeal and esophageal cancer.
Related JoVE Video
A meta-analysis on alcohol drinking and the risk of Hodgkin lymphoma.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The role of alcohol intake in the risk of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is still largely unclear. To summarize the evidence on the issue, we carried out a meta-analysis of the available studies. We identified eight case-control and two cohort studies, including a total of 1488 cases of HL. We derived meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models, taking into account the correlation between estimates, and carried out a dose-risk analysis using nonlinear random-effects metaregression models. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risk for alcohol consumers was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60-0.81] overall, 0.66 (95% CI, 0.56-0.78) among case-control, and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.63-1.33) among cohort studies. Compared with nondrinkers, the pooled relative risks were 0.71 (95% CI, 0.57-0.89) for light (i.e. ?1 drink/day) and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.60-0.87) for moderate-to-heavy (i.e. >1 drink/day) alcohol drinking. This meta-analysis suggests a favourable effect of alcohol on HL, in the absence, however, of a dose-risk relationship. The inverse association was restricted to--or greater in--case-control as compared with cohort studies. This indicates caution in the interpretation of results.
Related JoVE Video
Alcohol drinking and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Gynecol. Oncol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to provide an updated quantification of the association between alcohol drinking and epithelial ovarian cancer risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of published observational studies.
Related JoVE Video
Electronic healthcare databases for active drug safety surveillance: is there enough leverage?
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To provide estimates of the number and types of drugs that can be monitored for safety surveillance using electronic healthcare databases.
Related JoVE Video
Incidence of cardiovascular events in Italian patients with early discontinuations of antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, and antidiabetic treatments.
Am. J. Hypertens.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aim of the present investigation was to quantify the early discontinuation phenomenon in patients treated for hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetes, and to assess their clinical characteristics and incidence of cardiovascular (CV) outcomes to see whether an incorrect diagnosis was involved or treatment continuation might have been indicated.
Related JoVE Video
Relationships of different types of event to cardiovascular death in trials of antihypertensive treatment: an aid to definition of total cardiovascular disease risk in hypertension.
J. Hypertens.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Guidelines for management of cardiovascular diseases stratify absolute cardiovascular risk into categories with a high-risk threshold defined at a 20% cardiovascular events risk in 10 years, but it is unclear whether only major events or the Framingham-extended definition should be considered. The 2013 ESH-ESC hypertension guidelines, instead, define cardiovascular risk as a risk of cardiovascular death in 10 years, as in the SCORE model, setting the threshold for high risk at the 5% level. It would be therefore convenient to know the quantitative relationship between the risks of the different outcomes adopted by the different guidelines, especially because some outcome definitions include serious nonfatal cardiovascular events relevant in cardiovascular prevention. We have therefore analysed these relationships in trials of antihypertensive therapy as an aid to defining total cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.