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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Italian consensus guidelines for the diagnostic work-up and follow-up of cystic pancreatic neoplasms.
Dig Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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This report contains clinically oriented guidelines for the diagnostic work-up and follow-up of cystic pancreatic neoplasms in patients fit for treatment. The statements were elaborated by working groups of experts by searching and analysing the literature, and then underwent a consensus process using a modified Delphi procedure. The statements report recommendations regarding the most appropriate use and timing of various imaging techniques and of endoscopic ultrasound, the role of circulating and intracystic markers and the pathologic evaluation for the diagnosis and follow-up of cystic pancreatic neoplasms.
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Retrospective comparison between preoperative diagnosis by International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria and histological diagnosis in patients with focal autoimmune pancreatitis who underwent surgery with suspicion of cancer.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The objective of this study was to compare the preoperative diagnosis by International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria (ICDC) with histological diagnosis in patients with focal autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) who underwent surgery.
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Incidental diagnosis as prognostic factor in different tumor stages of nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Incidentally discovered nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors (NF-pNETs) increasingly are being detected, and their management is debated. Moreover, the prognostic importance of incidental diagnosis for locally advanced or metastatic NF-pNETs is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the outcomes of incidentally discovered/symptomatic NF-pNETs stratified by tumor stage. A preliminary experience with nonoperative treatment of incidental NF-pNETs is reported.
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The role of (18)fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in resectable pancreatic cancer.
Dig Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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The role of (18)fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is debated. We retrospectively assessed the value of (18)fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in addition to conventional imaging as a staging modality in pancreatic cancer.
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Targeted next-generation sequencing of cancer genes dissects the molecular profiles of intraductal papillary neoplasms of the pancreas.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Intraductal neoplasms are important precursors to invasive pancreatic cancer and provide an opportunity to detect and treat pancreatic neoplasia before an invasive carcinoma develops. The diagnostic evaluation of these lesions is challenging, as diagnostic imaging and cytological sampling do not provide accurate information on lesion classification, the grade of dysplasia or the presence of invasion. Moreover, the molecular driver gene mutations of these precursor lesions have yet to be fully characterized. Fifty-two intraductal papillary neoplasms, including 48 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and four intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms (ITPNs), were subjected to the mutation assessment in 51 cancer-associated genes, using ion torrent semiconductor-based next-generation sequencing. P16 and Smad4 immunohistochemistry was performed on 34 IPMNs and 17 IPMN-associated carcinomas. At least one somatic mutation was observed in 46/48 (96%) IPMNs; 29 (60%) had multiple gene alterations. GNAS and/or KRAS mutations were found in 44/48 (92%) of IPMNs. GNAS was mutated in 38/48 (79%) IPMNs, KRAS in 24/48 (50%) and these mutations coexisted in 18/48 (37.5%) of IPMNs. RNF43 was the third most commonly mutated gene and was always associated with GNAS and/or KRAS mutations, as were virtually all the low-frequency mutations found in other genes. Mutations in TP53 and BRAF genes (10% and 6%) were only observed in high-grade IPMNs. P16 was lost in 7/34 IPMNs and 9/17 IPMN-associated carcinomas; Smad4 was lost in 1/34 IPMNs and 5/17 IPMN-associated carcinomas. In contrast to IPMNs, only one of four ITPNs had detectable driver gene (GNAS and NRAS) mutations. Deep sequencing DNA from seven cyst fluid aspirates identified 10 of the 13 mutations detected in their associated IPMN. Using next-generation sequencing to detect cyst fluid mutations has the potential to improve the diagnostic and prognostic stratification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms.
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Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma reveal epigenetic deregulation of SLIT-ROBO, ITGA2 and MET signaling.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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The importance of epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation in tumorigenesis is increasingly being appreciated. To define the genome-wide pattern of DNA methylation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC), we captured the methylation profiles of 167 untreated resected PDACs and compared them to a panel of 29 adjacent nontransformed pancreata using high-density arrays. A total of 11,634 CpG sites associated with 3,522 genes were significantly differentially methylated (DM) in PDAC and were capable of segregating PDAC from non-malignant pancreas, regardless of tumor cellularity. As expected, PDAC hypermethylation was most prevalent in the 5' region of genes (including the proximal promoter, 5'UTR and CpG islands). Approximately 33% DM genes showed significant inverse correlation with mRNA expression levels. Pathway analysis revealed an enrichment of aberrantly methylated genes involved in key molecular mechanisms important to PDAC: TGF-?, WNT, integrin signaling, cell adhesion, stellate cell activation and axon guidance. Given the recent discovery that SLIT-ROBO mutations play a clinically important role in PDAC, the role of epigenetic perturbation of axon guidance was pursued in more detail. Bisulfite amplicon deep sequencing and qRT-PCR expression analyses confirmed recurrent perturbation of axon guidance pathway genes SLIT2, SLIT3, ROBO1, ROBO3, ITGA2 and MET and suggests epigenetic suppression of SLIT-ROBO signaling and up-regulation of MET and ITGA2 expression. Hypomethylation of MET and ITGA2 correlated with high gene expression, which was associated with poor survival. These data suggest that aberrant methylation plays an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis affecting core signaling pathways with potential implications for the disease pathophysiology and therapy.
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The identification of a small but significant subset of patients still targetable with anti-HER2 inhibitors when affected by triple negative breast carcinoma.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Triple (ER-, PR-, HER2-) negative breast carcinoma lack targeted therapies, making this group of tumors difficult to treat. By definition, the lack of HER2 expression means a case scoring 0 or 1+ after immunophenotypical analysis and makes the patients avoiding therapeutical chances with anti-HER2 inhibitors. We sought to recruit from a group of triple negative breast carcinoma, patients eligible for effective personalized targeted therapy with anti-HER therapies on the basis of their HER2 gene status.
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P16 but not retinoblastoma expression is related to clinical outcome in no-special-type triple-negative breast carcinomas.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Triple-negative breast carcinomas represent a tumor group of pivotal clinical importance given the lack of target therapies. The prognostic significance of triple-negative breast carcinomas remains unclear because of their histological and molecular heterogeneity. Currently, neither prognostic nor predictive factors are available for these tumors. Retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway loss has been linked to clinical outcome in various cancer types, including breast cancer. We investigated the association between Rb and p16 protein expression and clinical outcome in no-special-type triple-negative breast carcinomas. Immunohistochemical staining for Rb, p16, p53 and CK5 was carried out on a section from archival specimens of 117 no-special-type triple-negative breast carcinomas. Immunopositive p16 (p16+) and immunonegative Rb (Rb-) staining were seen in 49.5% and in 24.8% of tumors, respectively. There was an inverse correlation between p16+ and Rb- (P<0.001). P16+ was correlated with G3 grade (P<0.001), high Ki-67 (P=0.03), p53 overexpression (P<0.001) and CK5 immunopositivity (P=0.01). Rb- was not associated with any clinicopathologic variable. Follow-up and therapy data were available in 95 patients. In 20 patients treated with surgery only, neither p16+ nor Rb- immunostaining were associated with disease-free survival and overall survival. In 75 patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, p16+ was associated with good response to therapy with significant increased disease-free survival (P=0.001) and showed a trend towards a statistical significance for increased overall survival (P=0.056); Rb- were not associated with disease-free survival and overall survival. In multivariate analysis, p16+ was independently associated with disease-free and overall survival, with a hazard ratio of 0.18 (95% CI: 0.06-0.51; P=0.001) and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.06-0.74; P=0.015), respectively. In patients with no-special-type triple-negative breast carcinomas, p16+ is related to good response to adjuvant chemotherapy and can be considered the best surrogate marker for Rb pathway loss.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 26 July 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.137.
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Adequacy of lymph node retrieval for ampullary cancer and its association with improved staging and survival.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal number of lymph nodes (LN) examined to stage pN0 tumors after surgery for ampulla of Vater carcinoma (AVC).
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ISL1 expression is not restricted to pancreatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms, but is also commonly found in well and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms of extrapancreatic origin.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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The human insulin gene enhancer-binding protein islet-1 (ISL1) is a transcription factor involved in the differentiation of the neuroendocrine pancreatic cells. Recent studies identified ISL1 as a marker for pancreatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms. However, little is known about ISL1 expression in pancreatic poorly differentiated and in extrapancreatic well and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of ISL1 in 124 neuroendocrine neoplasms. Among pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, 12/13 with poor differentiation were negative, whereas 5/7 with good differentiation but a Ki67 >20% were positive. In extrapancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, strong positivity was found in Merkel cell carcinomas (25/25), pulmonary small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (21/23), medullary thyroid carcinomas (9/9), paragangliomas/pheochromocytomas (6/6), adrenal neuroblastomas (8/8) and head and neck neuroendocrine carcinomas (4/5), whereas no or only weak staining was recorded in pulmonary carcinoids (3/15), olfactory neuroblastomas (1/4) and basaloid head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (0/15). ISL1 stained the neuroendocrine carcinoma component of 5/8 composite carcinomas and also normal neuroendocrine cells in the thyroid, adrenal medulla, stomach and colorectum. Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms, regardless of their ISL1 expression, were usually TP53 positive. Our results show the almost ubiquitous expression of ISL1 in extrapancreatic poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms and neuroblastic malignancies and its common loss in pancreatic poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms. These findings modify the role of ISL1 as a marker for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms and suggest that ISL1 has a broader involvement in differentiation and growth of neuroendocrine neoplasms than has so far been assumed.
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Precancerous lesions of the pancreas.
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Pancreatic cancer has a very poor prognosis, with a five year survival of only 5%. New studies have shown that it takes over 11 years for cells to develop invasive capability. This provides an opportunity to intervene if precursor lesions can be detected. This paper reviews the molecular, pathological, clinical findings and management of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), intraductal pancreatic mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN), three precursor lesions which can give rise to invasive carcinoma of the pancreas.
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Synchronous pancreatic solid pseudopapillary neoplasm and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) is a rare and low-grade malignant pancreatic neoplasm composed of poorly cohesive monomorphic neoplastic cells forming solid and pseudopapillary structures with frequent hemorrhagic-cystic degeneration. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a pancreatic exocrine tumor composed of intraductal papillary growth of mucin containing neoplastic cells in the main pancreatic duct or its major branches. In the case presented here, a 53-year-old, Japanese man was found to have multiple cystic lesions and dilatation of the main pancreatic duct in the neck of the pancreas. Histological examination revealed a main-duct and branch-duct type IPMN, of the gastric-type, involving the neck of the pancreas, associated with a 0.5 cm SPN in the caudal side of the IPMN. We diagnosed this case as synchronous SPN and IPMN. As far as we know, only one other case of synchronous SPN and IPMN has been reported. Both the present case and the previously reported case showed abnormal nuclear expression of ?-catenin in SPN, whereas IPMN showed no abnormal nuclear expression. These results suggest that ?-catenin abnormality is not a common pathogenetic factor of synchronous SPN and IPMN.
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Histopathology of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms.
Front Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs) arise from neuroendocrine cells distributed mainly in the mucosa and submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of NENs of the digestive system was changed, categorizing these tumors as grade 1 neuroendocrine tumor (NET), grade-2NET, neuroendocrine carcinoma (large- or small-cell type), or mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Such a classification is based on the Ki-67 index and mitotic count in histological material. For the accurate pathological diagnosis and grading of NENs, it is important to clearly recognize the characteristic histological features of GI-NENs and to understand the correct method of counting Ki-67 and mitoses. In this review, we focus on the histopathological features of GI-NENs, particularly regarding biopsy and cytological diagnoses, neuroendocrine markers, genetic and molecular features, and the evaluation of the Ki-67 index and mitotic count. In addition, we will address the histological features of GI-NEN in specific organs.
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Mucinous cystic neoplasms of the liver: a clinicopathological study and comparison with intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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Mucinous cystic neoplasm of the liver has been a controversial entity, in particular, regarding differentiation from intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. In this study, we compared the characteristics of hepatic mucinous cystic neoplasms with ovarian-like stroma (n=29) to those of cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct (n=12). Radiological or macroscopic appearance, histological grade of malignancy, and postoperative clinical course were recorded. Immunohistochemistry for biliary or gastrointestinal markers was performed to characterize cell phenotypes. The patients with hepatic mucinous cystic neoplasm were all female and ranged in age from 21 to 67 years, which was significantly younger than that in the patients with biliary intraductal papillary neoplasm. Eighteen mucinous cystic neoplasms (76%) were located in the left lobe, with 13 (54%) in segment IV. Mucinous cystic neoplasms were significantly larger than intraductal papillary neoplasms (median diameter: 110 vs 50 mm, P=0.008). In contrast to intraductal papillary neoplasms that were all histologically malignant, 26 mucinous cystic neoplasms (90%) were adenomas, 2 (7%) were borderline malignant, and 1 (3%) was a carcinoma in situ. Benign mucinous cystadenomas had the pure biliary immunophenotype, whereas gastrointestinal markers including cytokeratin 20 and mucin core proteins 2, 5AC, and 6 were more frequently expressed in borderline or malignant mucinous cystic neoplasms and biliary intraductal papillary neoplasms. There was no mortality in the patients with mucinous cystic neoplasm, whereas one patient with intraductal papillary neoplasm died of cancer. In conclusion, hepatic mucinous cystic neoplasms and biliary intraductal papillary neoplasms have different clinicopathological characteristics as evidenced by differences in the age and gender of patients, macroscopic appearance, immunophenotypes, and grades of malignancy.
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Primary retroperitoneal acinar cell cystadenoma.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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In this report, we describe a case of hitherto unreported primary retroperitoneal acinar cell cystadenoma that morphologically and immunophenotypically resembled pancreatic acinar cell cystadenoma. Pancreatic acinar cell cystadenoma is a very uncommon benign lesion characterized by acinar cell differentiation, the evidence of pancreatic exocrine enzyme production, and the absence of cellular atypia. Our case occurred in a 55-year-old woman presenting a 10-cm multilocular cystic lesion in the retroperitoneum thought to be a mucinous cystic neoplasm. At laparotomy, the cystic mass, which showed no connection with any organ, was completely resected with a clinical diagnosis of cystic lymphangioma. The diagnosis of retroperitoneal acinar cell cystadenoma was based on the recognition of morphological acinar differentiation, the immunohistochemical demonstration of the acinar marker trypsin, and the absence of cellular atypia. These peculiar features can be used in the differential diagnosis with all the other cystic lesions of the retroperitoneum.
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Carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas: the histology report.
Dig Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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The Italian Group of Gastrointestinal Pathologists has named a committee to develop recommendations concerning the surgical pathology report for pancreatic cancer. The committee, formed by individuals with special expertise, wrote the recommendations, which were reviewed and approved by council of the Group. The recommendations are divided into several areas including an informative gross description, gross specimen handling, histopathologic diagnosis, immunohistochemistry, molecular findings, and a checklist. The purpose of these recommendations is to provide a fully informative report for the clinician.
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Comparison of hormonal receptor and HER-2 status between breast primary tumours and relapsing tumours: clinical implications of progesterone receptor loss.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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Differences in hormone receptor and HER-2 status between primary tumour and corresponding relapse could have a substantial impact on clinical management of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate change in expression of hormone receptors and HER-2 status between primary tumour and corresponding local recurrence or distant metastasis. We analysed 140 primary tumours and related recurrent or metastatic samples. Hormone receptors status was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, while HER-2 status by immunohistochemistry and silver in situ hybridisation. A change in HER-2 was rare; 3.7% of cases by immunohistochemistry and only 0.7% by silver in situ hybridisation analysis. A change in estrogen and progesterone receptors was seen in 6.4% and 21.4% of cases, respectively. Estrogen receptor change was not affected by adjuvant therapy, whereas progesterone receptor was influenced by adjuvant chemotherapy associated to hormone therapy (P?=?0.0005). A change in progesterone receptor was more frequent in distant metastases than in local recurrences (P?=?0.03). In the setting of estrogen receptor positive tumours, patients with progesterone receptor loss in local recurrence had a statistically significant lower median metastasis free survival compared to others patients; progesterone receptor positive, 112 months; progesterone receptor negative, 24 months (P?=?0.005). A change between primary tumour and corresponding relapse is frequent for progesterone receptor, infrequent for estrogen receptor and rare for HER-2. In cases with changes in HER-2, it is worthwhile reassessing HER-2 status with both immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation analysis. Progesterone receptor loss seems to be influenced by therapy and to correlate with a worse prognosis.
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Deposition of complement C3c, immunoglobulin (Ig)G4 and IgG at the basement membrane of pancreatic ducts and acini in autoimmune pancreatitis.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2010
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Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a type of pancreatitis whose immunopathogenesis is still unknown. It has been reported that renal biopsy specimens from patients diagnosed with both AIP and tubulointerstitial nephritis reveal deposits containing complement C3, immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgG4 at the tubular basement membranes (BMs). The aim was to investigate the deposition of complement and immunoglobulins in pancreatic tissue from AIP patients compared to non-AIP patients.
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Italian consensus guidelines for chronic pancreatitis.
Dig Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
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This paper gives practical guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of chronic pancreatitis. Statements have been elaborated by working teams of experts, by searching for and analysing the literature, and submitted to a consensus process by using a Delphi modified procedure. The statements report recommendations on clinical and nutritional approach, assessment of pancreatic function, treatment of exocrine pancreatic failure and of secondary diabetes, treatment of pain and prevention of painful relapses. Moreover, the role of endoscopy in approaching pancreatic pain, pancreatic stones, duct narrowing and dilation, and complications was considered. Recommendations for most appropriate use of various imaging techniques and of ultrasound endoscopy are reported. Finally, a group of recommendations are addressed to the surgical treatment, with definition of right indications, timing, most appropriate procedures and techniques in different clinical conditions and targets, and clinical and functional outcomes following surgery.
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Autoimmune pancreatitis: the clinicopathological characteristics of the subtype with granulocytic epithelial lesions.
J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
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Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been established as a distinct form of chronic pancreatitis that is distinguishable from other types such as alcoholic, hereditary or obstructive chronic pancreatitis. AIP seems to be a global disease, since it has been reported in many different countries, especially from Japan, USA and Europe (Germany, Italy, United Kingdom). Typical histopathological findings in the pancreas in AIP include a periductal lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with fibrosis, causing narrowing of the involved ducts. The typical clinical features include presentation with obstructive jaundice/pancreatic mass and a dramatic response to steroids. However, while the reports from Japan describe uniform changes called lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP) in the pancreas from AIP patients, the reports from Europe and USA distinguish two histopathologic patterns in AIP patients: one with the characteristics of LPSP and another with slightly different histological features, called idiopathic duct centric pancreatitis (IDCP) or AIP with granulocytic epithelial lesions (GELs). This article reviews the evidence that GEL-positive AIP or IDCP is a second type of AIP, distinct from LPSP, in regard to pancreatic pathology, immunology and epidemiology.
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Exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function in 21 patients suffering from autoimmune pancreatitis before and after steroid treatment.
Pancreatology
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) responds rapidly and dramatically to steroid therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate pancreatic exocrine and endocrine function in patients suffering from AIP both before and after steroid therapy.
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International network of cancer genome projects.
, Thomas J Hudson, Warwick Anderson, Axel Artez, Anna D Barker, Cindy Bell, Rosa R Bernabé, M K Bhan, Fabien Calvo, Iiro Eerola, Daniela S Gerhard, Alan Guttmacher, Mark Guyer, Fiona M Hemsley, Jennifer L Jennings, David Kerr, Peter Klatt, Patrik Kolar, Jun Kusada, David P Lane, Frank Laplace, Lu Youyong, Gerd Nettekoven, Brad Ozenberger, Jane Peterson, T S Rao, Jacques Remacle, Alan J Schafer, Tatsuhiro Shibata, Michael R Stratton, Joseph G Vockley, Koichi Watanabe, Huanming Yang, Matthew M F Yuen, Bartha M Knoppers, Martin Bobrow, Anne Cambon-Thomsen, Lynn G Dressler, Stephanie O M Dyke, Yann Joly, Kazuto Kato, Karen L Kennedy, Pilar Nicolás, Michael J Parker, Emmanuelle Rial-Sebbag, Carlos M Romeo-Casabona, Kenna M Shaw, Susan Wallace, Georgia L Wiesner, Nikolajs Zeps, Peter Lichter, Andrew V Biankin, Christian Chabannon, Lynda Chin, Bruno Clément, Enrique De Alava, Françoise Degos, Martin L Ferguson, Peter Geary, D Neil Hayes, Amber L Johns, Arek Kasprzyk, Hidewaki Nakagawa, Robert Penny, Miguel A Piris, Rajiv Sarin, Aldo Scarpa, Marc van de Vijver, P Andrew Futreal, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Mònica Bayés, David D L Botwell, Peter J Campbell, Xavier Estivill, Sean M Grimmond, Ivo Gut, Martin Hirst, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Partha Majumder, Marco Marra, John D McPherson, Zemin Ning, Xose S Puente, Yijun Ruan, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Harold Swerdlow, Victor E Velculescu, Richard K Wilson, Hong H Xue, Liu Yang, Paul T Spellman, Gary D Bader, Paul C Boutros, Paul Flicek, Gad Getz, Roderic Guigo, Guangwu Guo, David Haussler, Simon Heath, Tim J Hubbard, Tao Jiang, Steven M Jones, Qibin Li, Nuria López-Bigas, Ruibang Luo, Lakshmi Muthuswamy, B F Francis Ouellette, John V Pearson, Víctor Quesada, Benjamin J Raphael, Chris Sander, Terence P Speed, Lincoln D Stein, Joshua M Stuart, Jon W Teague, Yasushi Totoki, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Alfonso Valencia, David A Wheeler, Honglong Wu, Shancen Zhao, Guangyu Zhou, Mark Lathrop, Gilles Thomas, Teruhiko Yoshida, Myles Axton, Chris Gunter, Linda J Miller, Junjun Zhang, Syed A Haider, Jianxin Wang, Christina K Yung, Anthony Cros, Anthony Cross, Yong Liang, Saravanamuttu Gnaneshan, Jonathan Guberman, Jack Hsu, Don R C Chalmers, Karl W Hasel, Terry S H Kaan, William W Lowrance, Tohru Masui, Laura Lyman Rodriguez, Catherine Vergely, David D L Bowtell, Nicole Cloonan, Anna deFazio, James R Eshleman, Dariush Etemadmoghadam, Brooke B Gardiner, Brooke A Gardiner, James G Kench, Robert L Sutherland, Margaret A Tempero, Nicola J Waddell, Peter J Wilson, Steve Gallinger, Ming-Sound Tsao, Patricia A Shaw, Gloria M Petersen, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay, Ronald A DePinho, Sarah Thayer, Kamran Shazand, Timothy Beck, Michelle Sam, Lee Timms, Vanessa Ballin, Youyong Lu, Jiafu Ji, Xiuqing Zhang, Feng Chen, Xueda Hu, Qi Yang, Geng Tian, Lianhai Zhang, Xiaofang Xing, Xianghong Li, Zhenggang Zhu, Yingyan Yu, Jun Yu, Jörg Tost, Paul Brennan, Ivana Holcatova, David Zaridze, Alvis Brazma, Lars Egevard, Egor Prokhortchouk, Rosamonde Elizabeth Banks, Mathias Uhlén, Juris Viksna, Fredrik Ponten, Konstantin Skryabin, Ewan Birney, Ake Borg, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Carlos Caldas, John A Foekens, Sancha Martin, Jorge S Reis-Filho, Andrea L Richardson, Christos Sotiriou, Giles Thoms, Laura van't Veer, Daniel Birnbaum, Hélène Blanché, Pascal Boucher, Sandrine Boyault, Jocelyne D Masson-Jacquemier, Iris Pauporté, Xavier Pivot, Anne Vincent-Salomon, Eric Tabone, Charles Theillet, Isabelle Treilleux, Paulette Bioulac-Sage, Thomas Decaens, Dominique Franco, Marta Gut, Didier Samuel, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Roland Eils, Benedikt Brors, Jan O Korbel, Andrey Korshunov, Pablo Landgraf, Hans Lehrach, Stefan Pfister, Bernhard Radlwimmer, Guido Reifenberger, Michael D Taylor, Christof von Kalle, Partha P Majumder, Paolo Pederzoli, Rita A Lawlor, Massimo Delledonne, Alberto Bardelli, Thomas Gress, David Klimstra, Giuseppe Zamboni, Yusuke Nakamura, Satoru Miyano, Akihiro Fujimoto, Elias Campo, Silvia de Sanjosé, Emili Montserrat, Marcos Gonzalez-Díaz, Pedro Jares, Heinz Himmelbauer, Heinz Himmelbaue, Sílvia Beà, Samuel Aparicio, Douglas F Easton, Francis S Collins, Carolyn C Compton, Eric S Lander, Wylie Burke, Anthony R Green, Stanley R Hamilton, Olli P Kallioniemi, Timothy J Ley, Edison T Liu, Brandon J Wainwright.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
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The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumours from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of more than 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic levels will reveal the repertoire of oncogenic mutations, uncover traces of the mutagenic influences, define clinically relevant subtypes for prognosis and therapeutic management, and enable the development of new cancer therapies.
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Familial pancreatic cancer in Italy. Risk assessment, screening programs and clinical approach: a position paper from the Italian Registry.
Dig Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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In Italy, pancreatic cancer is the fifth leading cause of tumor related death with about 7000 new cases per year and a mortality rate of 95%. In a recent prospective epidemiological study on the Italian population, a family history was found in about 10% of patients suffering from a ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (PDAC). A position paper from the Italian Registry for Familial Pancreatic Cancer was made to manage these high-risk individuals. Even though in the majority of high-risk individuals a genetic test to identify familial predisposition is not available, a screening protocol seems to be reasonable for subjects who have a >10-fold greater risk for the development of PDAC. However this kind of screening should be included in clinical trials, performed in centers with high expertise in pancreatic disease, using the least aggressive diagnostic modalities.
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Preferential expression of MUC6 in oncocytic and pancreatobiliary types of intraductal papillary neoplasms highlights a pyloropancreatic pathway, distinct from the intestinal pathway, in pancreatic carcinogenesis.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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The expression of different MUC glycoproteins has helped define cellular lineage in variety of pancreatic neoplasms, and has helped identify distinct carcinogenic pathways such as the intestinal pathway characterized by diffuse/strong MUC2/CDX2 expression in intestinal-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and their associated colloid carcinomas (CCs). In this study, the expression profile of MUC6, a pyloric-type mucin, was investigated in both preinvasive and invasive pancreatic neoplasia. Florid papillary ("in-situ") components of 9 intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms (IOPNs), 24 IPMNs, and 7 mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), were analyzed immunohistochemically for MUC6 expression, as were 15 PanINs, 112 usual invasive ductal adenocarcinomas (DAs), and 14 CCs. In PanINs, MUC6 expression was limited to the very early areas of PanIN-1A that typically have pyloric features. Expression was lost in later stages. Similarly, in IOPNs or IPMNs or MCNs, MUC6 expression was detectable in the cystic or flat areas that have pyloric-like histology. However, in the more advanced (papillary) components of these neoplasms, MUC6 expression was mostly limited to the "cuboidal-cell" but was not seen in the "columnar-cell" phenotype: there was diffuse or strong expression in 8/9 IOPN and, relatively weaker but consistent expression in all 6/6 pancreatobiliary-type IPMNs; whereas virtually no expression in villous or intestinal-type IPMNs. The 7/8 gastric or foveolar-type IPMNs were also negative; in the single case with positivity, the labeling was limited to high-grade dysplastic areas. Interestingly, the papillae in MCNs were also mostly negative. Among invasive carcinomas, 39/112 DAs and only 1/14 CC expressed MUC6. In DA, the expression did not correlate with survival (P=0.94), or any of the markers of aggressiveness: more than 2-cm tumor size (P=0.76), positive surgical margins (P=0.27), lymph node metastasis (P=0.82), or high grade (P=0.08). In conclusion: (1) The expression of MUC6 in oncocytic and pancreatobiliary-type neoplasms but not in villous or intestinal-type neoplasms supports the presence of a pyloropancreatic pathway distinct from the MUC2/CDX2 expressing intestinal pathway in intraductal papillary neoplasia. (2) MUC6 expression is present in the earliest (nonpapillary) form of any type of preinvasive neoplasia regardless of whether it is PanIN or IOPN or IPMN or MCN suggesting that these entities may share some characteristics early on, but evolve along divergent pathways as they progress.
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Molecular pathology of lymphangioleiomyomatosis and other perivascular epithelioid cell tumors.
Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2010
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Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a cystic lung disease that can be included in the wide group of proliferative lesions named PEComas (perivascular epithelioid cell tumors). These proliferative tumors are characterized by the coexpression of myogenic and melanogenesis-related markers. In all these lesions, genetic alterations related to the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) have been demonstrated. Striking improvements in the understanding of the genetic basis of this autosomal dominant genetic disease are coupled to the understanding of the mechanisms that link the loss of TSC1 (9q34) or TSC2 (16p13.3) genes with the regulation of the Rheb/m-TOR/p70S6K pathway. These data have opened a new era in the comprehension of the pathogenesis of LAM and have also suggested new therapeutic strategies for this potentially lethal disease.
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Autoimmune pancreatitis: differences between the focal and diffuse forms in 87 patients.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2009
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Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a particular type of chronic pancreatitis that can be classified into diffuse and focal forms. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical and instrumental features of patients suffering from the diffuse and focal forms of AIP.
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Nonneoplastic mimickers of pancreatic neoplasms.
Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2009
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A variety of nonneoplastic conditions may form pancreatic masses that mimic carcinoma. Approximately 5% to 10% of pancreatectomies performed with the clinical diagnosis of pancreatic cancer prove on microscopic evaluation to be pseudotumors.
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FGFR-1 amplification in metastatic lymph-nodal and haematogenous lobular breast carcinoma.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
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Lobular breast carcinoma usually shows poor responsiveness to chemotherapies and often lacks targeted therapies. Since FGFR1 expression has been shown to play pivotal roles in primary breast cancer tumorigenesis, we sought to analyze the status of FGFR1 gene in a metastatic setting of lobular breast carcinoma, since promising FGFR1 inhibitors has been recently developed.
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Ridge augmentation with mineralized block allografts: clinical and histological evaluation of 8 cases treated with the 3-dimensional block technique.
Implant Dent
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Bone augmentation is frequently used to create sufficient bone volume for ideal implant placement. Severely resorbed ridges require extensive bone augmentation in the form of block allografts. A 3-dimensional graft technique has been developed to augment atrophic areas. This technique involves modifying the graft on a sterile prototype of the recipient site before the surgery. This article investigates the clinical and histological outcomes of ridge augmentation using this technique.
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Diagnostic and prognostic significance of miRNA signatures in tissues and plasma of endometrioid endometrial carcinoma patients.
Int. J. Cancer
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The aim of our study was to define tissue and plasma miRNA signatures, which could potentially serve as diagnostic and prognostic markers in endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) and to investigate miRNA profiles in regard to clinicopathological characteristics. Tissue and plasma samples were collected from 122 women (77 EEC and 45 controls). Expression profiling of 866 human miRNAs and 89 human viral miRNAs was performed in 24 samples and was followed by qPCR validation in 104 patients. Expression of 16 miRNAs was analyzed in 48 plasma samples. Microarray study revealed regulation of 21 miRNAs in EEC tissues comparing to normal endometrium. Altered expression of 17 miRNAs was confirmed by qPCR performed in 104 tissue samples. Seven miRNAs were upregulated and two were downregulated in EEC plasma samples. Expression of a number of miRNAs was associated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, grade, relapse and nodal metastases. Two miRNA signatures: miR-92a/miR-410 and miR-92a/miR-205/miR-410 classified tumor tissues with higher accuracy in comparison to single miRNAs (AUC: 0.977, 95% CI: 0.927-0.996 and 0.984, 95% CI: 0.938-0.999, respectively). miRNA signature composed of miR-205 and miR-200a predicted relapse with AUC of 0.854 (95% CI: 0.691-0.951). Tissue miRNA signatures were independent prognostic markers of overall (miR-1228/miR-200c/miR-429, HR: 2.98) and progression-free survival (miR-1228/miR-429, HR: 2.453). Plasma miRNA signatures: miR-9/miR-1228 and miR-9/miR-92a, classified EEC plasma samples with high accuracy yielding AUCs of 0.909 (95% CI: 0.789-973) and 0.913 (95% CI: 0.794-0.976), respectively. We conclude that miRNA signatures hold a great promise to become noninvasive biomarkers for early EEC detection and prognosis.
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Deregulation of miR-100, miR-99a and miR-199b in tissues and plasma coexists with increased expression of mTOR kinase in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma.
BMC Cancer
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Alterations of mTOR gene expression have been implicated in the pathogenesis of endometrioid endometrial cancer however only few studies explored the cause of increased mTOR activation in this malignancy. miRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs, which were proven to regulated gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. The study aimed to explore deregulation of miRNAs targeting mTOR kinase (miR-99a, miR-100 and miR-199b) as a possible cause of its altered expression in EEC tissues. In addition expression of the three miRNAs was investigated in plasma of EEC patients and was assessed in terms of diagnostic and prognostic utility.
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Invasive mucinous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
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Mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) of the pancreas both appear to have been included and intermixed in some early reports of pancreatic cystic neoplasms. Recognition of their distinguishing features evolved during the last decade of the twentieth century. One legacy of the early period is the statement that mucinous cystic neoplasms sometimes progress to invasive colloid carcinoma. It is now recognized that colloid carcinomas characteristically arise from IPMN. We set out to see if we could find MCN that invaded as colloid carcinomas and found no examples in MCN collected in two academic medical centers. We then sought to expand the number of MCN by evaluating series from additional centers. This yielded no examples of colloid carcinomas associated with 291 MCN, however one MCN exhibited a minor component with colloid (non-cystic mucinous) growth pattern within the fibrous wall of the neoplasm. The expression of CDX2, a marker of intestinal differentiation that is found in colloid carcinomas was examined by immunostaining in the original MCN series and in the MCN with the intratumoral colloid growth pattern. Focal expression of CDX2 was found in 22 of 43 MCN including the MCN that exhibited the intratumoral colloid growth pattern. Overall, the data suggest that MCN rarely, if ever, invade as colloid carcinoma but the expression of CDX2 by some MCN and the observation of intratumoral colloid growth pattern in one MCN seems to leave open the possibility that MCN might rarely invade as colloid carcinoma. The majority of malignant MCN invade with a tubular (ductal) pattern, and rarely the invasive component was anaplastic.
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Poorly differentiated resectable pancreatic cancer: is upfront resection worthwhile?
Surgery
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Poorly differentiated, resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is associated with early recurrence and may benefit from neoadjuvant treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma according to histologic grading.
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Clinical features and relapse rates after surgery in type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis differ from type 2: a study of 114 surgically treated European patients.
Pancreatology
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At the recent consensus conference on autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) in Honolulu, we presented preliminary data from our study of surgically treated AIP patients. Our data strongly supported the separation of AIP into type 1 and type 2. Our study is based on a total of 114 surgically treated European AIP patients. Our aims were to elucidate serum IgG4 elevation, other organ involvement, relapse of disease, steroid treatment and diabetes after surgery in 114 surgically treated European AIP patients.
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Consensus statement on the pathology of IgG4-related disease.
Mod. Pathol.
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IgG4-related disease is a newly recognized fibro-inflammatory condition characterized by several features: a tendency to form tumefactive lesions in multiple sites; a characteristic histopathological appearance; and-often but not always-elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. An international symposium on IgG4-related disease was held in Boston, MA, on 4-7 October 2011. The organizing committee comprising 35 IgG4-related disease experts from Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Holland, Canada, and the United States, including the clinicians, pathologists, radiologists, and basic scientists. This group represents broad subspecialty expertise in pathology, rheumatology, gastroenterology, allergy, immunology, nephrology, pulmonary medicine, oncology, ophthalmology, and surgery. The histopathology of IgG4-related disease was a specific focus of the international symposium. The primary purpose of this statement is to provide practicing pathologists with a set of guidelines for the diagnosis of IgG4-related disease. The diagnosis of IgG4-related disease rests on the combined presence of the characteristic histopathological appearance and increased numbers of IgG4? plasma cells. The critical histopathological features are a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, a storiform pattern of fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. We propose a terminology scheme for the diagnosis of IgG4-related disease that is based primarily on the morphological appearance on biopsy. Tissue IgG4 counts and IgG4:IgG ratios are secondary in importance. The guidelines proposed in this statement do not supplant careful clinicopathological correlation and sound clinical judgment. As the spectrum of this disease continues to expand, we advocate the use of strict criteria for accepting newly proposed entities or sites as components of the IgG4-related disease spectrum.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.