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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Visual Fields and OCT Role in Diagnosis of Glaucoma.
Optom Vis Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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To evaluate the clinical performance of visual field (VF) tests and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in diagnosing glaucoma.
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A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Normal-Tension Glaucoma Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters.
J. Glaucoma
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) is a heterogenous disease, and there is still controversy about subclassifications of this disorder. On the basis of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), we subdivided NTG with hierarchical cluster analysis using optic nerve head (ONH) parameters and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses.
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Relationship between visual acuity and retinal structures measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography in patients with open-angle glaucoma.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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We assessed the relationship between retinal structures measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and visual acuity in open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients.
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Instability of 24-hour intraocular pressure fluctuation in healthy young subjects: a prospective, cross-sectional study.
BMC Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor for the development and/or progression of glaucoma, and a large diurnal IOP fluctuation has been identified as an independent risk factor of glaucoma progression. However, most previous studies have not considered the repeatability of 24-hour IOP measurements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the instability of 24-hour IOP fluctuations in healthy young subjects.
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Hierarchical cluster analysis of progression patterns in open-angle glaucoma patients with medical treatment.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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To classify medically treated open-angle glaucoma (OAG) by the pattern of progression using hierarchical cluster analysis, and to determine OAG progression characteristics by comparing clusters.
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Adjusted color probability codes for peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in healthy Koreans.
BMC Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Though a newly developed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) is at the center of interests for many ophthalmologic researchers and clinicians, its own characteristics are not fully evaluated yet. The main purpose of this study was to establish the adjusted color probability codes for peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in healthy Koreans and to compare them with original color codes provided by spectral domain OCT.
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Chronic ocular hypertensive rat model using microbead injection: comparison of polyurethane, polymethylmethacrylate, silica and polystyene microbeads.
Curr. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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To establish and assess an ocular hypertensive rat model using intracameral injection with various microbeads of different sizes and materials.
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Neuroprotective and neurite outgrowth effects of maltol on retinal ganglion cells under oxidative stress.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To evaluate the neuroprotective and neurite outgrowth effects of maltol, a natural aroma compound, on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) under oxidative stress in vitro.
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Systemic hypertension as a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma: a meta-analysis of population-based studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Systemic hypertension is thought to increase the risk for developing open-angle glaucoma (OAG) through several mechanisms. However, previous epidemiological studies have shown conflicting results regarding this potential association. We systematically evaluated this issue by conducting a meta-analysis of population-based studies.
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Comparison of the optic nerve imaging by time-domain optical coherence tomography and Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography in distinguishing normal eyes from those with glaucoma.
J. Glaucoma
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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To assess agreement in cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) estimation between stereoscopic optic disc photography, time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and Fourier-domain OCT, and to compare the discriminating ability of optic nerve head (ONH) parameters by time-domain OCT and Fourier-domain OCT for glaucoma detection.
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Comparison of macular ganglion cell complex thickness by Fourier-domain OCT in normal tension glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma.
J. Glaucoma
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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To compare perimacular ganglion cell complex (GCC) parameters between patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).
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Agmatine: clinical applications after 100 years in translation.
Drug Discov. Today
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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Agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) has been known as a natural product for over 100 years, but its biosynthesis in humans was left unexplored owing to long-standing controversy. Only recently has the demonstration of agmatine biosynthesis in mammals revived research, indicating its exceptional modulatory action at multiple molecular targets, including neurotransmitter systems, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and polyamine metabolism, thus providing bases for broad therapeutic applications. This timely review, a concerted effort by 16 independent research groups, draws attention to the substantial preclinical and initial clinical evidence, and highlights challenges and opportunities, for the use of agmatine in treating a spectrum of complex diseases with unmet therapeutic needs, including diabetes mellitus, neurotrauma and neurodegenerative diseases, opioid addiction, mood disorders, cognitive disorders and cancer.
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Long-term results of deep sclerectomy with small collagen implant in Korean.
Korean J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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To describe the long-term results of deep sclerectomy with collagen implant (DSCI) with or without adjuvant mitomycin C in Korean patients with primary or secondary open-angle glaucoma (OAG).
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Effect of signal strength on agreements for retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurement and its color code classification between Stratus and Cirrus optical coherence tomography.
J. Glaucoma
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2011
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To assess the effect of signal strength (SS) on concordance rate or agreement on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement (measurement agreement) and its color code classification (classification agreement) between Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Cirrus OCT.
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Short-term effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on peripapillary retinal blood flow in normal tension glaucoma.
Korean J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Based on the vascular theory of glaucoma pathogenesis, we wanted to evaluate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on peripapillary blood flow in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG).
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Cyclosporine A induces nerve growth factor expression via activation of MAPK p38 and NFAT5.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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We investigated the effects of cyclosporine A (CsA) on the mechanism of nerve growth factor (NGF) expression using a cultured human corneal epithelial cell line (HCECL).
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Attenuated age-related thinning of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer in long eyes.
Korean J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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To assess the impact of axial length on the age-related peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning.
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Effect of signal strength on reproducibility of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurement and its classification by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.
Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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To assess the effect of signal strength (SS) on the reproducibility of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness measurement (measurement agreement) and its color-coded classification (classification agreement) by Cirrus spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT).
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Comparisons of nerve fiber layer thickness measurements between Stratus, Cirrus, and RTVue OCTs in healthy and glaucomatous eyes.
Optom Vis Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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To compare retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements obtained by two spectral-domain optical coherence tomographies (SD OCTs; Cirrus-HD OCT and RTVue) and a time domain OCT (TD OCT; Stratus OCT). The diagnostic ability of the three instruments for glaucoma has also been compared.
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Prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma among Korean adults.
Korean J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma in the population of the rural Korean town, Sangju.
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Inter-device agreement of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using spectral domain cirrus HD OCT.
Korean J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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To assess the inter-device agreement of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements by 2 spectral domain Cirrus HD optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices in healthy Korean subjects.
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Comparison of goldmann applanation tonometer, noncontact tonometer, and TonoPen XL for intraocular pressure measurement in different types of glaucomatous, ocular hypertensive, and normal eyes.
Curr. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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To compare intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements by Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), noncontact tonometer (NCT), and TonoPen XL in glaucomatous, ocular hypertensive (OHT), and normal eyes, all with various central corneal thickness (CCT).
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Intraocular pressure reduction in normal-tension glaucoma patients in South Korea.
Int Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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To evaluate the potential benefit of intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients in South Korea. A retrospective, multi-center analysis of Korean NTG patients with 5-years follow-up, typical glaucomatous optic disc and/or visual field changes and no recorded IOP >21 mmHg. Progression was identified by Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study visual field scoring. There were 90 (42%) progressed patients and 127 (58%) stable patients included in the study. Mean IOP measured higher in the progressed (14.3 ± 2.2 mmHg) than stable patients (14.0 ± 1.9 mmHg), but was not statistically different between the groups (P = 0.29). The mean IOP that best discriminated stable patients was ?15 mmHg, but no statistical difference existed in the numbers of progressed versus stable patients at ?15 mmHg compared to >15 mmHg (P = 0.07). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the baseline number of glaucoma medicines and visual field as well as mean, peak and fluctuation of IOP were significant risk factors for glaucomatous progression (P < 0.01). This study suggests that in Korean NTG patients, despite relatively similar IOPs between progressed and stable patients, and based on multivariate regression analysis, IOP may be a risk factor for glaucomatous progression.
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Prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma in central South Korea the Namil study.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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To assess the prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in the Namil-myon area in central South Korea.
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Factors associated with false positives in retinal nerve fiber layer color codes from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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To determine the factors that contribute to false-positive retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) color code results from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT).
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Determinants of perimacular inner retinal layer thickness in normal eyes measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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To determine the effects of age, sex, spherical equivalent, axial length, anterior chamber depth, optic disc area, and central corneal thickness on perimacular inner retinal layer thickness in the normal human eye as measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT).
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Comparison of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by spectral vs. time domain optical coherence tomography.
Curr. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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To compare the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by spectral and time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT).
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Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for detection of localized retinal nerve fiber layer defects in patients with open-angle glaucoma.
Arch. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
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To evaluate and compare time-domain (Stratus) and spectral-domain (Cirrus; both Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, California) optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the detection of localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects in patients with open-angle glaucoma.
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Comparing the ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fibre layer measurements by Fourier domain OCT to detect glaucoma in high myopia.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2010
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To compare the diagnostic ability to detect glaucomatous changes between peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) in highly myopic patients using Fourier domain optical coherence tomography.
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Phacoemulsification alone versus phacoemulsification combined with trabeculectomy for primary angle-closure glaucoma.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2010
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Surgical outcomes of phacoemulsification only and phacoemulsification combined with trabeculectomy were compared in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Clinical records of 41 consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed, and there was no difference in best-corrected visual acuity and intraocular pressure preoperatively and at the final follow-up in both study groups. Regarding the number of anti-glaucoma medications, it was higher in the phacoemulsification combined with trabeculectomy group preoperatively than the phacoemulsification only group (p = 0.045), but both groups were taking similar quantities of medication at the final follow-up (p = 0.6). In addition, postoperative hypotony (two cases) occurred only after phacoemulsification combined with trabeculectomy, but not after phacoemulsification only. In one case after phacoemulsification only, a second operation was needed. There were no additional postoperative complications. In conclusion, both phacoemulsification only and phacoemulsification combined with trabeculectomy showed good surgical outcomes in PACG patients. Both procedures might be equally effective in treating patients with PACG.
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Unilateral recession-resection surgery with inferior displacement combined with augmented anterior transposition of inferior oblique muscle.
Korean J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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We report the effects of unilateral recession-resection surgery of the horizontal recti muscles with inferior displacement and augmented anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscle with a posterior intermuscular suture in a patient with large exotropia and considerable hypertropia.
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Structure-function relationship and diagnostic value of macular ganglion cell complex measurement using Fourier-domain OCT in glaucoma.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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To assess the relationship between visual function and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to evaluate the diagnostic value of GCC thickness for detecting early, moderate, and severe glaucoma.
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Idiopathic Hypertrophic Pachymeningitis Presenting with Uveitic Glaucoma.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2010
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A 73-year-old man presented with uveitic glaucoma associated with headache. Because there were no active inflammatory signs, synechiolysis and cataract extraction were performed. Even after lowering intraocular pressure, he repeatedly complained of headache, but no neuroimaging was performed. Acute bilateral visual loss was occurred 3 months after cataract surgery. Ophthalmologic examination revealed bilateral optic neuritis and a Gd-DPTA-enhanced cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed thickened enhancement of the dura and optic nerve sheath. A final clinical diagnosis of idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis associated with optic neuritis was made.
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Limbal Stem Cell Transplantation for Limbal Dermoid.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2010
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Limbal dermoids are benign peripheral corneal neoplasms, which cause cosmetic problems and visual impairment. Deep dermoids may require corneal and scleral dissections such as a lamellar or even a penetrating keratoscleroplasty. In these 2 cases, the authors used an autologous limbal stem cell transplantation and achieved good results.
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Adjusted peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements based on the optic nerve head scan angle.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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To verify the effect of the scan angle of the optic nerve head (ONH) on measurements of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT).
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Drug attitude and adherence to anti-glaucoma medication.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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The purpose of this study is to assess patient attitudes towards anti-glaucoma medication and their association with adherence, visual quality of life, and personality traits.
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Reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness with spectral domain cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography in normal eyes.
Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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To assess the reproducibility of the new spectral domain Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) for analysis of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in healthy eyes.
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A case of decreased visual field after uneventful cataract surgery: nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.
Korean J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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The purpose of this article is to report a case of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) after uneventful cataract surgery. A 53-year-old Filipina underwent cataract surgery. She had a small optic disc with cup-to-disc ratio of 0.2 in the left eye and 0.3 in the right eye. On the first postoperative day, the uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was 20/20, with an intraocular pressure (IOP) of 20 mmHg in the left eye. At one week after operation, the UCVA was 20/20 and the IOP was 15 mmHg. Three weeks later, she underwent cataract surgery in the right eye. On the first postoperative day, her UCVA was 20/20 in both eyes, but she complained of a visual field decrease in the left eye. A relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) was noted and the optic disc was pallid and swollen diffusely. A red-free photo showed defect surrounding the optic disc. A visual field test showed tunnel vision sparing the central vision. In this report, the authors hypothesize an association between cataract extraction and delayed NAION. Since the risk of NAION in the fellow eye is 30-50%, visual acuity, visual field, fundus exam and RAPD should be routinely checked.
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Modified Siepser sliding knot technique for scleral fixation of subluxated posterior chamber intraocular lens.
J Cataract Refract Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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We describe a new technique of scleral fixation for the management of dislocated intraocular lenses (IOL). A suture is tied inside the eye around the dislocated haptic to prevent slippage of the IOL after surgery. The technique, which is safe and less invasive than previous methods, was used in 3 patients and the results are presented.
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Detection of occludable angles with the Pentacam and the anterior segment optical coherence tomography.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
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To assess efficacy of the Pentacam (PTC) and the anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AOCT) for detection of occludable angles.
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Level of vascular endothelial growth factor in aqueous humor and surgical results of ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in patients with neovascular glaucoma.
J. Glaucoma
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2009
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To determine the associations between the levels of growth factors in aqueous humor and the surgical outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in patients with neovascular glaucoma (NVG).
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TGF-beta-induced interleukin-6 participates in transdifferentiation of human Tenons fibroblasts to myofibroblasts.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2009
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To gain a better understanding of the roles of interleukins (ILs) in subconjunctival fibrosis, we investigated their expression in transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-stimulated Tenons fibroblasts and examined their association with the transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts.
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Inaccuracy of intraocular lens power prediction for cataract surgery in angle-closure glaucoma.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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To assess the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power predictions for cataract surgery in eyes with primary angle-closure glaucoma (ACG). Because of shifting of the capsular bag apparatus and shortening of the axial length, preoperative calculation of IOL power may be inaccurate for eyes with ACG.
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Ocular hypotensive effects of topically administered agmatine in a chronic ocular hypertensive rat model.
Exp. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2009
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Agmatine, a primary polyamine and potential neuromodulator, exhibits a high affinity to the alpha2-adrenergic receptor as well as imidazoline receptors. As alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists display positive ocular hypotensive effects, we assessed whether agmatine effectively lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) using a chronic ocular hypertensive rat model. We raised IOP in unilateral eyes of Sprague-Dawley rats by cauterizing three episcleral veins per eye. Four weeks later, we topically administered 10(-3) M agmatine solution 4 times a day for 6 consecutive weeks. After confirming the recovery of IOP to pretreatment level at 13 weeks after cauterization, the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were retrogradely labeled and counted. Eyes subjected to episcleral vein cauterization (EVC) demonstrated significant increases in IOP (48.39% increase over baseline IOP), and the elevated IOP was well maintained until 12 weeks. Topically administered agmatine powerfully lowered IOP to 30.29% of its pretreatment level, and the associated washout period was about two weeks. EVC was associated with a 55.44% loss of RGCs in the control group, but agmatine appeared to attenuate this RGC loss to 18.65%. Overall, topically administered agmatine appeared to effectively lower IOP and rescue RGCs in a chronic ocular hypertensive rat model. Although the mechanism underlying these effects is not yet established, it is possible that agmatine offers a powerful new ocular hypotensive agent for eyes with chronic ocular hypertension and/or glaucoma.
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Agmatine protects cultured retinal ganglion cells from tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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We investigated the protective effects of agmatine against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced apoptosis in transformed rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5 cell line).
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Potential benefit of intraocular pressure reduction in normal-tension glaucoma in South Korea.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential benefit of intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) Asian adult patients in South Korea.
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Neuroprotective effects of agmatine on oxygen-glucose deprived primary-cultured astrocytes and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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To better understand the neuroprotective actions of agmatine in ischemic insults, its effects on astrocytes were investigated using an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model. After primary culture, cortical astrocytes were moved into a closed anaerobic chamber and incubated in glucose-free culture media. 4 h later, the cells were restored to normoxic conditions and supplied with glucose for 20 h. The ability of agmatine to rescue astrocytes from OGD only and OGD followed by restoration (OGD-R) was assessed. Cell viability was monitored with or without 100 muM agmatine, using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and annexin V flow cytometric assay. For morphological analysis, Hoechst 33258 and propidium iodide double nuclear staining was performed. Expression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) family proteins were also investigated by immunoblotting. Results showed that astrocytes had decreased viability following OGD and OGD-R and that agmatine treatment increased cell viability and induced NF-kappaB translocation into the nucleus. Finally, our studies revealed that agmatine can rescue astrocytes from death caused by ischemic and/or ischemic-perfusion neuronal injuries in vitro. Our findings provide new insights that may lead to a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce these kinds of neuronal injuries.
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Isolation of primary mouse retinal ganglion cells using immunopanning-magnetic separation.
Mol. Vis.
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To establish an effective system for isolating primary retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from newborn mice.
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Scleral fixation of standard capsular tension ring and in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation in patients with severe lens subluxation.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging
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The authors introduce a new technique for scleral fixation using a standard capsular tension ring for in-the-bag use in patients with a lens dislocated by more than 180°. Three patients with zonulysis and phacodonesis underwent surgery with this technique, and all of the patients showed stable maintenance in visual acuity after an average of 22.7 months (range: 14 to 30 months) of follow-up. None of them showed any serious postoperative complications. This technique appears to be safe and effective in terms of lens stability and visual rehabilitation.
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Role of heat shock protein 47 in transdifferentiation of human tenons fibroblasts to myofibroblasts.
BMC Ophthalmol
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Heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47) is a well-known molecular chaperone in collagen synthesis and maturation. The aim of this study is to investigate its putative role in the transdifferentiation of Tenons fibroblasts to myofibroblasts.
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The role of focal adhesion kinase in the TGF-?-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation of human Tenons fibroblasts.
Korean J Ophthalmol
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To investigate the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in transforming growth factor (TGF)-?-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation of human Tenons fibroblasts.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.