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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Nutritional quality of salmon products available from major retailers in the UK: content and composition of n-3 long-chain PUFA.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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In the present study, salmon products available from UK retailers were analysed to determine the levels of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA), a key determinant of nutritional quality. There was a wide variation in the proportions and absolute contents of EPA and DHA in the products. Relatively high contents of 18 : 1n-9, 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3, characteristic of vegetable oils (VO), were found in several farmed salmon products, which also had generally lower proportions of EPA and DHA. In contrast, farmed salmon products with higher levels of 16 : 0 and 22 : 1, characteristic of fish oil (FO), had higher proportions of EPA and DHA. Therefore, there was a clear correlation between the levels of VO and FO in feeds and the proportions of n-3 LC-PUFA in products. Although wild salmon products were characterised by higher proportions of n-3 LC-PUFA (20-40%) compared with farmed fish (9-26%), they contained lower total lipid contents (1-6% compared with 7-17% in farmed salmon products). As a result, farmed salmon products invariably had higher levels of n-3 LC-PUFA in absolute terms (g/100 g fillet) and, therefore, delivered a higher 'dose' of EPA and DHA per portion. Overall, despite the finite and limiting supply of FO and increasing use of VO, farmed salmon continue to be an excellent source of and delivery system for n-3 LC-PUFA to consumers.
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Feasibility and efficacy of a 12-week supervised exercise intervention for colorectal cancer survivors.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Exercise training improves health-related physical fitness and patient-reported outcomes in cancer survivors, but few interventions have targeted colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. This investigation aimed to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a 12-week supervised exercise training program for CRC survivors. Feasibility was assessed by tracking participant recruitment, loss to follow-up, assessment completion rates, participant evaluation, and adherence to the intervention. Efficacy was determined by changes in health-related physical fitness. Over a 1-year period, 72 of 351 (21%) CRC survivors screened were eligible for the study and 29 of the 72 (40%) were enrolled. Two participants were lost to follow-up (7%) and the completion rate for all study assessments was ?93%. Mean adherence to the exercise intervention was 91% (standard deviation = ±18%), with a median of 98%. Participants rated the intervention positively (all items ? 6.6/7) and burden of testing low (all tests ? 2.4/7). Compared with baseline, CRC survivors showed improvements in peak oxygen uptake (mean change (MC) = +0.24 L·min(-1), p < 0.001), upper (MC = +7.0 kg, p < 0.001) and lower (MC = +26.5 kg, p < 0.001) body strength, waist circumference (MC = -2.1 cm, p = 0.005), sum of skinfolds (MC = -7.9 mm, p = 0.006), and trunk forward flexion (MC = +2.5 cm, p = 0.019). Exercise training was found to be feasible and improved many aspects of health-related physical fitness in CRC survivors that may be associated with improved quality of life and survival in these individuals.
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Test-retest reliability of a continuous glucose monitoring system in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Technol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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This study determined the test-retest reliability of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) (iPro™2; Medtronic, Northridge, CA) under standardized conditions in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
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Interactions between dietary docosahexaenoic acid and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on performance and fatty acid retention in post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).
Fish Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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A study with varying dietary inclusion levels (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g kg(-1)) of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) was conducted with post-smolt (111 ± 2.6 g; mean ± S.) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) over a 9-week period. In addition to the series of DHA inclusion levels, the study included further diets that had DHA at 10 g kg(-1) in combination with either eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) or arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n-6), both also included at 10 g kg(-1). An additional treatment with both EPA and DHA included at 5 g kg(-1) (total of 10 g kg(-1) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, LC-PUFA) was also included. After a 9-week feeding period, fish were weighed, and carcass, blood and tissue samples collected. A minor improvement in growth was seen with increasing inclusion of DHA. However, the addition of EPA further improved growth response while addition of ARA had no effect on growth. As with most lipid studies, the fatty acid composition of the whole body lipids generally reflected that of the diets. However, there were notable exceptions to this, and these implicate some interactions among the different LC-PUFA in terms of the fatty acid biochemistry in this species. At very low inclusion levels, DHA retention was substantially higher (~250%) than that at all other inclusion levels (31-58%). The inclusion of EPA in the diet also had a positive effect on the retention efficiency of DHA. However, EPA retention was highly variable and at low DHA inclusion levels there was a net loss of EPA as this fatty acid was most likely elongated to produce DHA, consistent with increased DHA retention with additional EPA in the diet. Retention of DPA (22:5n-3) was high at low levels of DHA, but diminished with increasing DHA inclusion, similar to that seen with DHA retention. The addition of EPA to the diet resulted in a substantial increase in the efficiency of DPA retention; the inclusion of ARA had the opposite effect. Retention of ARA was unaffected by DHA inclusion, but the addition of either EPA or ARA to the diet resulted in a substantial reduction in the efficiency of ARA retention. No effects of dietary treatment were noted on the retention of either linolenic (18:3n-3) or linoleic (18:2n-6) acids. When the total n-3 LC-PUFA content of the diet was the same but consisted of either DHA alone or as a combination of EPA plus DHA, the performance effects were similar.
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Influence of Molecular Structure on the Size, Shape, and Nanostructure of Nonionic CnEm Surfactant Micelles.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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Nonionic alkyl ethoxylates (CnEm) have been extensively studied for their adsorption, aggregation, and solubilization individually and in small groups. In this work, we report a more systematic study of the effects of alkyl chain (tail) and ethoxylate (head) length on the size, shape, and extent of intermixing within the CnEm micelles in aqueous solution. Data from small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were combined to undertake the structural characterization of micelles formed from the two separate series of surfactants CnE6 (n = 10, 12, 14) and C12Em (m = 5, 6, 8, 10, 12). The micellar core volume (Vcore) could be well determined with reasonable accuracy and linked to the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of the surfactant, with a sharp size and shape transition occurring around HLB = 12.5. NOESY NMR results revealed protrusions of the terminal methylene groups into the ethoxylate shell, thus providing direct experimental evidence for the phenomenon of "roughness" or intermixing of the core-shell interface. These detailed studies are compared with previous investigations on this model surfactant system.
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Changes in motivational outcomes after a supervised resistance exercise training intervention in lung cancer survivors.
Cancer Nurs
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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Short-term supervised exercise interventions improve health-related fitness in lung cancer survivors; however, sustained exercise is required to maintain the health benefits. The impact of exercise interventions on motivational outcomes may be important for long-term exercise adoption.
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Dose Response of Whey Protein Isolate in Addition to a Typical Mixed Meal on Blood Amino Acids and Hormonal Concentrations.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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The purpose was to investigate the effects of a controlled typical one day diet supplemented with two different doses of whey protein isolate on blood amino acid profiles and hormonal concentrations following the final meal. Nine males (age: 29.6 ± 6.3 yrs) completed four conditions in random order: a control (C) condition of a typical mixed diet containing ~10% protein (0.8 g·kg-1), 65% carbohydrate and 25% fat; a placebo (P) condition calorically matched with carbohydrate to the whey protein conditions; a low dose condition of 0.8 grams of whey protein isolate per kilogram body mass per day (g·kg-1·d-1; W1) in addition to the typical mixed diet; or a high dose condition of 1.6 g·kg-1·d-1 (W2) of supplemental whey protein in addition to the typical mixed diet. Following the final meal, significant (p<0.05) increases in total amino acids, essential amino acids (EAA), branch-chained amino acids (BCAA), and leucine were observed in plasma with whey protein supplementation while no changes were observed in the control and placebo conditions. There was no significant group difference for glucose, insulin, testosterone, cortisol, or growth hormone. In conclusion, supplementing a typical daily food intake consisting of 0.8 g of protein·kg-1·d-1 with a whey protein isolate (an additional 0.8 or 1.6 g·kg-1·d-1) significantly elevated total amino acids, EAA, BCAA, and leucine but had no effect on glucose, insulin, testosterone, cortisol, or growth hormone following the final meal. Future acute and chronic supplementation research examining the physiological and health outcomes associated with elevated amino acid profiles is warranted.
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Oral L-Arginine Prior To Resistance Exercise Blunts Growth Hormone in Strength Trained Males.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Acute resistance exercise and L-arginine have both been shown to independently elevate plasma growth hormone (GH) concentrations; however, their combined effect is controversial. The purpose was to investigate the combined effects of resistance exercise and L-arginine supplementation on plasma L-arginine, GH, GH secretagogues, and IGF-1 in strength trained participants. Fourteen strength trained males [age: 25±4 y; body mass: 81.4±9.0 kg; height: 179.4±6.9 cm; and training experience: 6.3±3.4 y] participated in a randomized double blind crossover design (separated by ~7 days). Subjects reported to the laboratory at 08:00 in a fasted state, consumed L-arginine (ARG; 0.075 g·kg-1 body mass) or a placebo (PLA) prior to performing an acute bout of resistance exercise (3 sets of 8 exercises, 10 repetitions at ~75% 1RM). Blood samples were collected at rest, before exercise, and at 0, 15, 30, 60 min of rest-recovery. The ARG condition significantly increased plasma L-arginine concentrations (~120%) while no change was detected in the PLA condition. There were no differences between conditions for GH, GH-releasing hormone, ghrelin, or IGF-1 at any time point. GH-inhibiting hormone was significantly lower in the ARG condition. However; integrated area under the curve for GH was blunted in the ARG condition (L-arginine = 288.4±368.7 vs. placebo = 487.9±482.0 min·ng·mL-1, p<0.05). L-arginine ingested prior to resistance exercise significantly elevated plasma L-arginine concentration but attenuated plasma GH in strength trained individuals despite a lower GHIH. Furthermore our data shows that the GH suppression was not due to a GH or IGF-1 induced autonegative feedback loop.
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Physiological demands of womens rugby union: time-motion analysis and heart rate response.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the physical demands of womens rugby union match play using time-motion analysis and heart rate (HR) response. Thirty-eight premier club level female rugby players, ages 18-34 years were videotaped and HRs monitored for a full match. Performances were coded into 12 different movement categories: 5 speeds of locomotion (standing, walking, jogging, striding, sprinting), 4 forms of intensive non-running exertion (ruck/maul/tackle, pack down, scrum, lift) and 3 discrete activities (kick, jump, open field tackle). The main results revealed that backs spend significantly more time sprinting and walking whereas forwards spend more time in intensive non-running exertion and jogging. Forwards also had a significantly higher total work frequency compared to the backs, but a higher total rest frequency compared to the backs. In terms of HR responses, forwards displayed higher mean HRs throughout the match and more time above 80% of their maximum HR than backs. In summary, womens rugby union is characterised by intermittent bursts of high-intensity activity, where forwards and backs have similar anaerobic energy demands, but different specific match demands.
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Inspiratory and expiratory respiratory muscle training as an adjunct to concurrent strength and endurance training provides no additional 2000 m performance benefits to rowers.
Res Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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The purpose of this study was to examine respiratory muscle training (RMT) combined with 9 weeks of resistance and endurance training on rowing performance and cardiopulmonary responses. Twenty-seven rowers (mean ± SD: age = 27 ± 9 years; height = 176.9 ± 10.8 cm; and body mass = 76.1 ± 12.6 kg) were randomly assigned to an inspiratory only (n?=?13) or expiratory only (n?=?14) training group. Both RMT programs were 3 sets of 10 reps, 6 d/wk in addition to an identical 3 d/wk resistance and 3 d/wk endurance training program. Both groups showed similar improvements in 2000 m rowing performance, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and maximum inspiratory (PImax) and expiratory (PEmax) pressures (p < .05). It was concluded that there were no additional benefits of 9 weeks of inspiratory or expiratory RMT on simulated 2000 m rowing performance or cardiopulmonary responses when combined with resistance and endurance training in rowers.
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Effects of Aerobic Exercise with or without Metformin on Plasma Incretins in Type 2 Diabetes.
Can J Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Despite positive effects of incretins on insulin secretion, little is known about the effect of exercise on these hormones. Metformin can affect incretin concentrations and is prescribed to a large proportion of people with diabetes. We, therefore, examined the effects of aerobic exercise and/or metformin on incretin hormones.
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Effects of graded levels of arachidonic acid on the reproductive physiology of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): Fatty acid composition, prostaglandins and steroid levels in the blood of broodstock bred in captivity.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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Previous studies on Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) indicated that cultured broodstock (first generation, G1) have lower tissue levels of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA) than wild counterparts. ARA is metabolized to form prostaglandins (PGs) that are involved in steroid production and follicle maturation in fish. In the present study the effects of different dietary levels of ARA on blood lipid and fatty acid composition, prostaglandin (PGF2?, PGF3?, PGE2 and PGE3) levels and plasmatic steroid levels (11-ketotestosterone, 11-KT, testosterone, T and estradiol, E2) in G1 Senegalese sole were studied. For this purpose, 12 groups of ten fish (1:1 male and female), were fed six diets (each diets was fed to two groups) with different dietary ARA levels over nine months (diets A=0.7, B=1.6, C=2.3, D=3.2, E=5.0, F=6.0% ARA). ARA and CHOL levels in blood showed a significant increase in an ARA dose related manner (P<0.05) whereas EPA and EPA/ARA ratio were reduced. In males, steroid (11-KT and T) levels increased significantly with increasing dietary ARA in a dose dependent manner, whereas in females E2 did not show any change related to dietary ARA content. Plasma concentration of 3-series PGs (i.e., PGE3 and PGF3?) were reduced in parallel to increased ARA levels in blood (P<0.05) and levels of PGs 3-series were always higher than 2-series PGs (PGE2 and PGF2?). In conclusion there is an effect of dietary ARA on steroid production of Senegalese sole males, which might have important consequences in the reproduction of cultured fish.
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A Physiological and Kinematic Comparison of two Different Lean Back Positions During Stationary Rowing on a Concept II Machine.
J Hum Kinet
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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This study compared two different body positions at the finish of a stroke during stationary rowing exercise on physiological and kinematic measurements. Nine male and five female rowers volunteered for the study: mean age (± SD), body height and body mass were 27 ±9 yrs, 180.5 ±12.3 cm and 81.2 ±14.2 kg. The two body positions at the finish were controlled at an upright posture or a novel greater lean back position. All subjects completed 3 different experimental trials on a Concept IID rowing machine at 3 different exercise intensities and comparisons were made between the lean back position at the same stroke rate and the same power output as the upright trial. Power output, heart rate, oxygen uptake, energy expenditure and % efficiency were higher (p<0.05) with the greater lean back position at the same stroke rate compared to all other conditions. Range of motion at the hip, ankle, and elbow and the handle velocity and distance moved were greater (p<0.05) with the lean back position. In conclusion, a greater lean back posture at the finish during stationary rowing produces a higher power output and improved efficiency at the same stroke rate but at an elevated physiological cost compared to a more upright position. Despite the higher energy expenditure, the relative gain in power output and efficiency with no negative kinematic changes suggests that a greater lean back position at the finish will enhance performance during stationary rowing exercise.
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Effect of functional feeds on fatty acid and eicosanoid metabolism in liver and head kidney of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) with experimentally induced heart and skeletal muscle inflammation.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI) is an emerging viral disease caused by a novel Atlantic salmon reovirus (ASRV) affecting farmed fish. Primary symptoms associated with HSMI include myocardial and skeletal muscle necrosis indicating a severe inflammatory process. Recently, we applied the concept of clinical nutrition to moderate the long-term inflammatory process associated with HSMI in salmon subjected to experimental ASRV challenge. The use of functional feeds with lower lipid (hence energy) content reduced the inflammatory response to ASRV infection and the severity of associated heart lesions. The aim of the present study was to elucidate possible mechanisms underpinning the observed effects of the functional feeds, focussing on eicosanoid and fatty acid metabolism in liver and head kidney. Here we show that liver was also a site for histopathological lesions in HSMI showing steatosis reflecting impaired lipid metabolism. This study is also the first to evaluate the expression of a suite of key genes involved in pathways relating diet and membrane phospholipid fatty acid compositions, and the inflammatory response after ASRV infection. The expression of hepatic ?6 and ?5 desaturases was higher in fish fed the functional feeds, potentially increasing their capacity for endogenous production and availability of anti-inflammatory EPA. Effects on mobilization of lipids and changes in the LC-PUFA composition of membrane phospholipids, along with significant changes in the expression of the genes related to eicosanoid pathways, showed the important role of the head kidney in inflammatory diseases caused by viral infections. The results from the present study suggest that clinical nutrition through functional feeding could be an effective complementary therapy for emerging salmon viral diseases associated with long-term inflammation.
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Exploring the variability in acute glycemic responses to exercise in type 2 diabetes.
J Diabetes Res
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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To explore the factors associated with exercise-induced acute capillary glucose (CapBG) changes in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
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The acute effects of L-arginine on hormonal and metabolic responses during submaximal exercise in trained cyclists.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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L-arginine may enhance endurance performance mediated by two primary mechanisms including enhanced secretion of endogenous growth hormone (GH) and as a precursor of nitric oxide (NO); however, research in trained participants has been equivocal. The purpose was to investigate the effect of acute L-arginine ingestion on the hormonal and metabolic response during submaximal exercise in trained cyclists. Fifteen aerobically trained men (age: 28 ± 5 y; body mass: 77.4 ± 9.5 kg; height: 180.9 ± 7.9 cm; VO2max: 59.6 ± 5.9 ml·kg- 1·min-1) participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Subjects consumed L-arginine (ARG; 0. 075 g·kg-1 body mass) or a placebo (PLA) before performing an acute bout of submaximal exercise (60 min at 80% of power output achieved at ventilatory threshold). The ARG condition significantly increased plasma L-arginine concentrations (~146%), while no change was detected in the PLA condition. There were no differences between conditions for GH, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), lactate, glucose, VO2, VCO2, RER, CHO oxidation, and NOx. There was reduced fat oxidation at the start of exercise (ARG: 0.36 ± 0.25 vs. PLA: 0.42 ± 0.23 g·min-1, p < .05) and an elevated plasma glycerol concentrations at the 45-min time point (ARG: 340.3 vs. PLA: 288.5 ?mol·L-1, p < .05) after L-arginine consumption. In conclusion, the acute ingestion of L-arginine did not alter any hormonal, metabolic, or cardio-respiratory responses during submaximal exercise except for a small but significant increase in glycerol at the 45-min time point and a reduction in fat oxidation at the start of exercise.
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Time-motion analysis, heart rate, and physiological characteristics of international canoe polo athletes.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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To evaluate the time international canoe polo players spend performing various game activities, measure heart rate (HR) responses during games, and describe the physiological profile of elite players. Eight national canoe polo players were videotaped and wore HR monitors during 3 games at a World Championship and underwent fitness testing. The mean age, height, and weight were 25 ± 1 years, 1.82 ± 0.04 m, and 81.9 ± 10.9 kg, respectively. Time-motion analysis of 3 games indicated that the players spent 29 ± 3% of the game slow and moderate forward paddling, 28 ± 5% contesting, 27 ± 5% resting and gliding, 7 ± 1% turning, 5 ± 1% backward paddling, 2 ± 1% sprinting, and 2 ± 1% dribbling. Sixty-nine (±20)% of the game time was played at an HR intensity above the HR that corresponded to the ventilatory threshold (VT) that was determined during the peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 test. Peak oxygen uptake and VT were 3.3 ± 0.3 and 2.2 ± 0.3 L·min, respectively, on a modified Monark arm crank ergometer. Arm crank peak 5-second anaerobic power was 379 W. The majority of the time spent during international canoe polo games involved slow-to-moderate forward paddling, contesting for the ball, and resting and gliding. Canoe polo games are played at a high intensity indicated by the HR responses, and the physiological characteristics suggest that these athletes had high levels of upper body aerobic and anaerobic fitness levels.
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Teleost fish larvae adapt to dietary arachidonic acid supply through modulation of the expression of lipid metabolism and stress response genes.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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Dietary fatty acid supply can affect stress response in fish during early development. Although knowledge on the mechanisms involved in fatty acid regulation of stress tolerance is scarce, it has often been hypothesised that eicosanoid profiles can influence cortisol production. Genomic cortisol actions are mediated by cytosolic receptors which may respond to cellular fatty acid signalling. An experiment was designed to test the effects of feeding gilthead sea-bream larvae with four microdiets, containing graded arachidonic acid (ARA) levels (0·4, 0·8, 1·5 and 3·0 %), on the expression of genes involved in stress response (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, glucocorticoid receptor and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), lipid and, particularly, eicosanoid metabolism (hormone-sensitive lipase, PPAR?, phospholipase A2, cyclo-oxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase), as determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Fish fatty acid phenotypes reflected dietary fatty acid profiles. Growth performance, survival after acute stress and similar whole-body basal cortisol levels suggested that sea-bream larvae could tolerate a wide range of dietary ARA levels. Transcription of all genes analysed was significantly reduced at dietary ARA levels above 0·4 %. Nonetheless, despite practical suppression of phospholipase A2 transcription, higher leukotriene B4 levels were detected in larvae fed 3·0 % ARA, whereas a similar trend was observed regarding PGE2 production. The present study demonstrates that adaptation to a wide range of dietary ARA levels in gilthead sea-bream larvae involves the modulation of the expression of genes related to eicosanoid synthesis, lipid metabolism and stress response. The roles of ARA, other polyunsaturates and eicosanoids as signals in this process are discussed.
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Clopidogrel dilemma for orthopaedic surgeons.
ANZ J Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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Patients medicated with clopidogrel who require orthopaedic surgery present a particular challenge. Whether in an emergency or elective situation the orthopaedic surgeon must balance the risks of ceasing clopidogrel versus the risk of increased bleeding that dual antiplatelet therapy generates.
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Transcriptomic analyses of intestinal gene expression of juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fed diets with Camelina oil as replacement for fish oil.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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For aquaculture of marine species to continue to expand, dietary fish oil (FO) must be replaced with more sustainable vegetable oil (VO) alternatives. Most VO are rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and few are rich in n-3 PUFA but Camelina oil (CO) is unique in that, besides high 18:3n-3 and n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio, it also contains substantial long-chain monoenes, commonly found in FO. Cod (initial mass ~1.4 g) were fed for 12 weeks diets in which FO was replaced with CO. Growth performance, feed efficiency and biometric indices were not affected but lipid levels in liver and intestine tended to increase and those of flesh, decrease, with increasing dietary CO although only significantly for intestine. Reflecting diet, tissue n-3 long-chain PUFA levels decreased whereas 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 increased with inclusion of dietary CO. Dietary replacement of FO by CO did not induce major metabolic changes in intestine, but affected genes with potential to alter cellular proliferation and death as well as change structural properties of intestinal muscle. Although the biological effects of these changes are unclear, given the important role of intestine in nutrient absorption and health, further attention should be given to this organ in future.
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Diet × genotype interactions in hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in response to replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oil.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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The present study investigates the effects of genotype on responses to alternative feeds in Atlantic salmon. Microarray analysis of the liver transcriptome of two family groups, lean or fat, fed a diet containing either a fish oil (FO) or a vegetable oil (VO) blend indicated that pathways of cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism might be differentially affected by the diet depending on the genetic background of the fish, and this was further investigated by real-time quantitative PCR, plasma and lipoprotein biochemical analysis. Results indicate a reduction in VLDL and LDL levels, with no changes in HDL, when FO is replaced by VO in the lean family group, whereas in fat fish fed FO, levels of apoB-containing lipoproteins were low and comparable with those fed VO in both family groups. Significantly lower levels of plasma TAG and LDL-TAG were measured in the fat group that was independent of diet, whereas plasma cholesterol was significantly higher in fish fed the FO diet in both groups. Hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis, ?-oxidation and lipoprotein metabolism showed relatively subtle changes. A significantly lower expression of genes considered anti-atherogenic in mammals (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, apoAI, scavenger receptor class B type 1, lipoprotein lipase (LPL)b (TC67836) and LPLc (TC84899)) was found in lean fish, compared with fat fish, when fed VO. Furthermore, the lean family group appeared to show a greater response to diet composition in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, mediated by sterol-responsive element-binding protein 2. Finally, the presence of three different transcripts for LPL, with differential patterns of nutritional regulation, was demonstrated.
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Using a fingertip whole blood sample for rapid fatty acid measurement: method validation and correlation with erythrocyte polar lipid compositions in UK subjects.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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It is well accepted that n-3 long-chain PUFA intake is positively associated with a range of health benefits. However, while benefits have been clearly shown, especially for CVD, the mechanisms for prevention/benefit are less understood. Analysis of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids (PL) have been used to measure the status of the highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), especially EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3), although the time and complexity of the process places limitations on the sample numbers analysed. An assay has been developed using whole blood, collected by finger prick, and stored on absorbant paper, subjected to direct methylation and fatty acids quantified by automated GC. Tests on fatty acid stability show that blood samples are stable when stored at - 20°C for 1 month although some loss of HUFA was seen at 4°C. A total of fifty-one patients, including twenty-seven who consumed no fatty acid supplements, provided a blood sample for analysis. Concentrations of all major fatty acids were measured in erythrocyte PL and whole blood. The major HUFA, including EPA, DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA; 20 : 4n-6), as well as the ARA:EPA ratio and the percentage n-3 HUFA/total HUFA all showed good correlations, between erythrocyte PL and whole blood. Values of r2 ranged from 0.48 for ARA to 0.95 for the percentage of n-3 HUFA/total HUFA. This assay provides a non-invasive, rapid and reliable method of HUFA quantification with the percentage of n-3 HUFA value providing a potential blood biomarker for large-scale nutritional trials.
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Metformin and exercise in type 2 diabetes: examining treatment modality interactions.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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To determine the effect of metformin on the acute metabolic response to submaximal exercise, the effect of exercise on plasma metformin concentrations, and the interaction between metformin and exercise on the subsequent response to a standardized meal.
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The acute effects of a low and high dose of oral L-arginine supplementation in young active males at rest.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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L-arginine (2-amino-5-guanidinovaleric acid) is a conditionally essential amino acid. Intravenous (IV) administration of l-arginine invokes a large metabolic (nitrate/nitrite (NO(x))) and hormonal (growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin) response; however, research examining oral l-arginine supplementation is conflicting, potentially owing to dose. The purpose of this study was examine a low and high dose of oral l-arginine on blood l-arginine, NO(x), GH, IGF-1, and insulin response. Fourteen physically active males (age: 25 ± 5 years; weight: 78.0 ± 8.5 kg; height: 179.4 ± 4.7 cm) volunteered to be in a randomized, double-blind, repeated-measures study. Following an overnight fast, an IV catheter was placed in a forearm vein and a resting blood sample was drawn at ?0800 hours. Each subject was then provided 1 of 3 treatment conditions (placebo, low (0.075 g·kg(-1) of body mass), or high (0.15 g·kg(-1) of body mass of l-arginine)). Blood samples were drawn at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min after consumption. l-arginine plasma concentrations significantly increased (p < 0.001) to a similar level at any time point in both the low- and high-dose conditions; there was no change over time in the placebo condition. There was no significant difference between conditions for NO(x), GH, IGF-1, or insulin. Based on these findings, a low dose of l-arginine was just as effective at increasing plasma l-arginine concentrations as a high dose; however, neither dose was able to promote a significant increase in NO(x), GH, IGF-1, or insulin at rest.
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Genotype-specific responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) subject to dietary fish oil replacement by vegetable oil: a liver transcriptomic analysis.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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Expansion of aquaculture is seriously limited by reductions in fish oil (FO) supply for aquafeeds. Terrestrial alternatives such as vegetable oils (VO) have been investigated and recently a strategy combining genetic selection with changes in diet formulations has been proposed to meet growing demands for aquaculture products. This study investigates the influence of genotype on transcriptomic responses to sustainable feeds in Atlantic salmon.
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Feasibility and preliminary efficacy of progressive resistance exercise training in lung cancer survivors.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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Lung cancer survivors exhibit poor functional capacity, physical functioning, and quality of life (QoL). Here, we report the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a progressive resistance exercise training (PRET) intervention in post-treatment lung cancer survivors. Seventeen post-treatment lung cancer survivors (10 female), with a mean age of 67 (range 50-85), mean BMI of 25, and diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer (94%) were recruited in Edmonton, Canada between August 2009 and August 2010 to undergo PRET. The primary outcomes focused on feasibility including eligibility and recruitment rate, loss to follow-up, measurement completion, exercise adherence, and program evaluation. Secondary outcomes addressed preliminary efficacy and included changes in muscular strength (1 repetition maximum), muscular endurance (repetitions at 70% of 1 repetition maximum), body composition (DXA scan), physical functioning (6-minute-walk-test, up-and-go, sit-to-stand, arm curls), and patient-reported outcomes including QoL (SF-36, FACT-L), fatigue (FACT-F), dyspnea (MRCD), and patient-rated function (LLFI). Forty of 389 lung cancer survivors were eligible (10%) and 17 of the 40 (43%) were recruited. Over 80% of participants were able to complete all testing; two participants were lost to follow-up, and the median adherence rate was 96% (range: 25-100%). Ratings of testing burden were low (i.e., less than two out of seven for all items), and trial evaluation was high (i.e., greater than six out of seven for all measures). Paired t-tests showed significant increases in muscular strength (p<.001), muscular endurance (p<.001), six-minute walk distance (p<.001), up-and-go time (p<.05), number of arm curls (p<.001), and number of chair stands (p<.001). There were no significant changes in body composition or patient-reported outcomes. PRET is a feasible intervention with potential health benefits for a small proportion of lung cancer survivors in the post-treatment setting.
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Influence of the dietary protein:lipid ratio and fish oil substitution on fatty acid composition and metabolism of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared at high water temperatures.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2010
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A factorial, two-way, experimental design was used for this 10-week nutritional trial, aiming to elucidate the interactive effects of decreasing dietary protein:lipid level and substitution of fish oil (FO) with rapeseed oil (RO) on tissue fatty acid (FA) composition and metabolism of large Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) reared at high water temperatures (sub-optimal, summer temperatures: 11·6°C). The six experimental diets were isoenergetic and formulated to include either FO or RO (60 % of the added oil) at three dietary protein:lipid levels, specifically (1) 350 g/kg protein and 350 g/kg lipid, (2) 330 g/kg protein and 360 g/kg lipid, (3) 290 g/kg protein and 380 g/kg lipid. Final weight, specific growth rate and thermal growth coefficient were positively affected by the dietary RO inclusion at the expense of FO, while no significant effects were seen on growth due to the decreasing protein level. The oil source had a significant effect on muscle and liver FA composition. However, the changes in muscle and liver FA indicate selective utilisation or retention of individual FA and moderate reductions in tissue EPA and DHA. Pyloric caeca phospholipid FA composition was significantly affected by the two factors and, in some cases, significant interactions were also revealed. Liver and red muscle ?-oxidation capacities were significantly increased due to RO inclusion, while an interactive effect of protein level and oil source was shown for white muscle ?-oxidation capacity. The results could explain, at least partially, the better performance that was shown for the RO groups and the enhanced protein-sparing effect.
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A comparison of fitness training to a pedometer-based walking program matched for total energy cost.
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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Fitness and health variables were measured in 128 sedentary men and women randomly assigned to 6 months of fitness training (F), a walking program (W), or a control (C) group.
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Seasonal variations in skin pigmentation and flesh quality of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.): implications for quality management.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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The external coloration of fish is a key driver in consumer buying decisions and is typically altered during sexual maturation in salmonids. Farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) exhibiting distinct phenotypes from the typical silver and nuptial coloration were described in terms of sexual development, flesh quality, and skin pigment profiles. Reconditioning of skin coloration during storage was also tested (CIE[1976]L*a*b*) with the overall view to optimize quality management. The intermediary phenotype never reflected significant deteriorations of flesh quality. It originated from a lack of purine pigments (guanine and hypoxanthine), revealing the carotenoid compounds dominated by the yellow-orange beta-carotene. The resulting distinctive lightness and yellowness were reduced by direct ice contact at a post-mortem stage. Storage conditions can be optimized to improve and standardize the coloration of whole-fish, yielding superior flesh quality parameters. This would facilitate product quality grading during primary processing and also increase product acceptance and attractiveness.
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Reduced plasma glucose and leptin after 12 weeks of functional electrical stimulation-rowing exercise training in spinal cord injury patients.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2010
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To investigate the effects of exercise training with a functional electrical stimulation (FES) rowing machine on insulin resistance, plasma leptin levels, and body composition in people with spinal cord injury (SCI).
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Breath holding with water immersion in synchronized swimmers and untrained women.
Res Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2010
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Breath holding (BH) and water immersion induce several physiological responses. Individuals, who are BH trained tend to have an advantage versus untrained subjects. This study compared physiological responses to BH at rest between synchronized swimmers (SS) and controls (C). Each participant performed five resting BH periods in water. Breath holding periods were significantly longer for SS (109.8 +/- 39.3 vs. 78.3 +/- 25.0s), despite a similar end tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen following BH. Recovery times after BH were similar for oxygen consumption, ventilation, and blood oxygen saturation. Synchronized swimmers (SS) experienced bradycardia at 45s of max BH, whereas C did not (60 +/- 9 vs. 65 +/- 14 b x min(-1)). A significant oxygen conservation effect occurred for SS in only one BH trial. These results suggest that SS exhibited an enhanced ability to breath hold with similar respiratory responses but a lower heart rate (HR) during recovery, suggesting a better adaptation to BH.
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Enhanced bioavailability of eicosapentaenoic acid from fish oil after encapsulation within plant spore exines as microcapsules.
Lipids
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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Benefits of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can be enhanced by raising their bioavailability through microencapsulation. Pollen can be emptied to form hollow shells, known as exines, and then used to encapsulate material, such as oils in a dry powder form. Six healthy volunteers ingested 4.6 g of fish oil containing 20% EPA in the form of ethyl ester first alone and then as 1:1 microencapsulated powder of exines and fish oil. Serum bioavailability of EPA was measured by area under curve (AUC(0-24)). The mean AUC(0-24) of EPA from ethyl ester with exine (M = 19.7, SD = 4.3) was significantly higher than ethyl ester without exines (M = 2, SD = 1.4, p < 0.01).The bioavailability of EPA is enhanced by encapsulation by pollen exines.
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Effects of decontaminated fish oil or a fish and vegetable oil blend on persistent organic pollutant and fatty acid compositions in diet and flesh of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar).
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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The health benefits of seafood are well documented and based on the unique supply of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). Aquaculture now contributes about 50 % of food-grade seafood globally and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a rich source of n-3 HUFA. However, salmon and other oily fish can accumulate lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POP), including dioxins (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), derived largely from feed. In the present study, triplicate groups of salmon, of initial weight 0.78 kg, were fed one of three experimental diets for 11 weeks. The diets were coated with either a northern fish oil (FO) with a high POP content (cNFO), the same oil that had been decontaminated (deNFO) or a blend of southern fish oil, rapeseed and soyabean oils (SFO/RO/SO). Dietary PCDD/F+dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCB) concentrations were 17.36, 0.45 and 0.53 ng toxic equivalents (TEQ)/kg, respectively. After 11 weeks, the flesh concentrations in fish fed the cNFO, deNFO and SFO/RO/SO diets were 6.42, 0.34 and 0.41 ng TEQ/kg, respectively. There were no differences in flesh EPA and DHA between fish fed the cNFO or deNFO diets although EPA and DHA were reduced by 50 and 30 %, respectively, in fish fed the SFO/RO/SO diet. Thus, decontaminated FO can be used to produce salmon high in n-3 HUFA and low in POP. Salmon produced using deNFO would be of high nutritional value and very low in POP and would utilise valuable fish oils that would otherwise be destroyed due to their high pollutant concentrations.
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The development and reliability of a repeated anaerobic cycling test in female ice hockey players.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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The purpose of this study was to develop and assess the reliability of a repeated anaerobic power cycling test designed to mimic the repeated sprinting nature of the sport of ice hockey. Nineteen female varsity ice hockey players (mean X +/- SD age, height and body mass = 21 +/- 2 yr, 166.6 +/- 6.3 cm and 62.3 +/- 7.3) completed 3 trials of a repeated anaerobic power test on a Monark cycle ergometer on different days. The test consisted of "all-out" cycling for 5 seconds separated by 10 seconds of low-intensity cycling, repeated 4 times. The relative load factor used for the resistance setting was equal to 0.095 kg per kilogram body mass. There was no significant difference between the peak 5-second power output (PO), mean PO, or the fatigue index (%) among the 3 different trials. The peak 5-second PO was 702.6 +/- 114.8 w and 11.3 +/- 1.1 w x kg, whereas the mean PO across the 4 repeats was 647.1 +/- 96.3 w and 10.4 +/- 1.0 w x kg averaged for the 3 different tests. The fatigue index averaged 17.8 +/- 6.5%. The intraclass correlation coefficient for peak 5-second, mean PO, and fatigue index was 0.82, 0.86, and 0.82, respectively. This study reports the methodology of a repeated anaerobic power cycling test that was reliable for the measurement of PO and calculated fatigue index in varsity women ice hockey players and can be used as a laboratory-based assessment of repeated anaerobic fitness.
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The fatty acid compositions of erythrocyte and plasma polar lipids in children with autism, developmental delay or typically developing controls and the effect of fish oil intake.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2009
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The erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid compositions of children with autism were compared in a case-control study with typically developing (TD) children and with children showing developmental delay (DD). Forty-five autism subjects were age-matched with TD controls and thirty-eight with DD controls. Fatty acid data were compared using paired t tests. In addition, blood fatty acids from treatment-naive autism subjects were compared with autism subjects who had consumed fish oil supplements by two-sample t tests. Relatively few differences were seen between erythrocyte fatty acids in autism and TD subjects although the former had an increased arachidonic acid (ARA):EPA ratio. This ratio was also increased in plasma samples from the same children. No changes in n-3 fatty acids or ARA:EPA ratio were seen when comparing autism with DD subjects but some SFA and MUFA were decreased in the DD subjects, most notably 24 : 0 and 24 : 1, which are essential components of axonal myelin sheaths. However, if multiple comparisons are taken into account, and a stricter level of significance applied, most of these values would not be significant. Autism subjects consuming fish oil showed reduced erythrocyte ARA, 22 : 4n-6, 22 : 5n-6 and total n-6 fatty acids and increased EPA, 22 : 5n-3, 22 : 6n-3 and total n-3 fatty acids along with reduced n-6:n-3 and ARA:EPA ratios. Collectively, the autism subjects did not have an underlying phospholipid disorder, based on erythrocyte fatty acid compositions, although the increased ARA:EPA ratio observed suggested that an imbalance of essential highly unsaturated fatty acids may be present in a cohort of autism subjects.
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In vitro cyclic testing of the Exeter stem after cement within cement revision.
J Arthroplasty
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2009
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Cement-within-cement (C-C) revision arthroplasty minimizes the complications associated with removal of secure polymethylmethacrylate. Failure at the interfacial region between new and old cement mantles remains a theoretical concern. This article assesses the cyclic fatigue properties of bilaminar cement mantles after C-C revision in vitro with the Exeter stem. Seven Exeter stems were cemented into Sawbone femurs and removed, and new undersized stems were cemented into the preserved mantle. The new constructs were loaded for 1,000,000 cycles at body temperature. Cement mantles were inspected postcycling. In no case was there delamination or failure of the cement mantle. The findings support the hypothesis that use of a thin revision cement mantle in conjunction with a polished double-tapered stem is not detrimental to the overall success of the implant. In the presence of a secure cement-bone interface in suitable patients, we recommend C-C revision techniques using double-tapered polished femoral stems.
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Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 up-regulation is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and associated fibrosis.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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Muscle wasting remains a feature of many diseases and is counteracted by anabolic supplementation or exercise. Persisting atrophy-inducing conditions can be complicated by skeletal muscle fibrosis, which leads to functional impairment. Identification of early mechanisms that initiate atrophy-induced fibrosis may reveal novel targets for therapy or diagnosis. Therefore, we investigated changes in the expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix homeostasis during glucocorticoid-induced atrophy of myotubes and compared them with insulin-like growth factor-1-induced hypertrophy. Obtained results were verified in rat gastrocnemius muscle that was exposed to microgravity by space flight for 2 weeks. Myostatin and atrogin-1 mRNA levels reflected the magnitude of atrophy. Despite differential induction of these negative muscle mass regulators, no major changes in matrix metalloproteinases-2, -9, and -14 mRNAs or their physiological inhibitors could be detected in either atrophy model. In contrast, transcript levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) was dramatically increased in atrophic myotubes and microgravity-exposed rat gastrocnemius muscle, while plasminogen activators remained unaltered. In contrast to atrophy, no increase in PAI-1 mRNA levels could be detected in rat hindlimb that was electrically stimulated for 21 days. Furthermore, a strong increase in PAI-1 mRNA levels was identified in skeletal muscle of patients with neurogenic muscle atrophy. Our study suggests that increased PAI-1 expression in atrophic skeletal muscle may lead to muscle fibrosis by reducing plasmin generation.
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A comparison of the physiological responses to underwater arm cranking and breath holding between synchronized swimmers and breath holding untrained women.
J Hum Kinet
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Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 × 10s, 2 × 20s and 2 × 25s) with 2 minutes of normal breathing in between, in either an ascending or descending order while performing arm crank exercise. The intensity of arm crank exercise was set below the individual ventilatory threshold. Both synchronized swimmers and controls were matched on sitting height and then randomly divided into 2 groups: one group started breath holding with the longest (25s) breath holding periods while the other group began breath holding with the shortest (10s) breath holding periods. The synchronized swimmers experienced a significant decrease in heart rate while breath holding for 20 and 25s but the changes in heart rate for the control group was not consistent between subgroups. Full recovery from breath holding was identified for minute ventilation after 25s of recovery from breath holding for all groups. Results suggest synchronized swimmers exhibited a better adaptation to breath holding while exercising underwater.
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Functional feeds reduce heart inflammation and pathology in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) following experimental challenge with Atlantic salmon reovirus (ASRV).
PLoS ONE
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Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI), recently associated with a novel Atlantic salmon reovirus (ASRV), is currently one of the most prevalent inflammatory diseases in commercial Atlantic salmon farms in Norway. Mortality varies from low to 20%, but morbidity can be very high, reducing growth performance and causing considerable financial impact. Clinical symptoms, including myocarditis, myocardial and red skeletal muscle necrosis, correlate with the intensity of the inflammatory response. In the present study, the effects of two functional feeds (FF1 and FF2) were compared to a standard commercial reference feed (ST) in Atlantic salmon subjected to an ASRV challenge. The functional feeds had reduced levels of total lipid and digestible energy, and different levels and proportions of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The objective was to determine whether these feeds could provide effective protection by decreasing the inflammatory response associated with HSMI. Histopathology, viral load, fatty acid composition and gene expression of heart tissue were assessed over a period of 16 weeks post-infection with ASRV. The viral load and histopathology scores in heart tissue in response to ASRV infection were reduced in fish fed both functional feeds, with FF1 showing the greatest effect. Microarray hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the functional feeds greatly affected expression of inflammation/immune related genes over the course of the ASRV infection. Viral load correlated with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes at the early-mid stages of infection in fish fed the ST diet. Expression of inflammatory genes 16-weeks after ASRV challenge reflected the difference in efficacy between the functional feeds, with fish fed FF1 showing lower expression. Thus, severity of the lesions in heart tissue correlated with the intensity of the innate immune response and was associated with tissue fatty acid compositions. The present study demonstrated that dietary modulation through clinical nutrition had major influences on the development and severity of the response to ASRV infection in salmon. Thus, HSMI was reduced in fish fed the functional feeds, particularly FF1. The modulation of gene expression between fish fed the different feeds provided further insight into the molecular mechanisms and progression of the inflammatory and immune responses to ASRV infection in salmon.
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Feasibility and preliminary efficacy of high intensity interval training in type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
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To compare the feasibility of high intensity interval exercise (HI-IE) versus moderate intensity continuous exercise (MI-CE) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and to investigate the preliminary efficacy of HI-IE and MI-CE for improving glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and body composition.
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The Alberta moving beyond breast cancer (AMBER) cohort study: a prospective study of physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivors.
BMC Cancer
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Limited research has examined the association between physical activity, health-related fitness, and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. Here, we present the rationale and design of the Alberta Moving Beyond Breast Cancer (AMBER) Study, a prospective cohort study designed specifically to examine the role of physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivorship from the time of diagnosis and for the balance of life. The AMBER Study will examine the role of physical activity and health-related fitness in facilitating treatment completion, alleviating treatment side effects, hastening recovery after treatments, improving long term quality of life, and reducing the risks of disease recurrence, other chronic diseases, and premature death.
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Vitamin C enhances vitamin E status and reduces oxidative stress indicators in sea bass larvae fed high DHA microdiets.
Lipids
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Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential fatty acid necessary for many biochemical, cellular and physiological functions in fish. However, high dietary levels of DHA increase free radical injury in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae muscle, even when vitamin E (?-tocopherol, ?-TOH) is increased. Therefore, the inclusion of other nutrients with complementary antioxidant functions, such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid, vitC), could further contribute to prevent these lesions. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of vitC inclusion (3,600 mg/kg) in high DHA (5% DW) and ?-TOH (3,000 mg/kg) microdiets (diets 5/3,000 and 5/3,000 + vitC) in comparison to a control diet (1% DHA DW and 1,500 mg/kg of ?-TOH; diet 1/1,500) on sea bass larvae growth, survival, whole body biochemical composition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content, muscle morphology, skeletal deformities and antioxidant enzymes, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and myosin expression (MyHC). Larvae fed diet 1/1,500 showed the best performance in terms of total length, incidence of muscular lesions and ossification degree. IGFs gene expression was elevated in 5/3,000 diet larvae, suggesting an increased muscle mitogenesis that was confirmed by the increase in the mRNA copies of MyHC. vitC effectively controlled oxidative damages in muscle, increased ?-TOH larval contents and reduced TBARS content and the occurrence of skull deformities. The results of the present study showed the antioxidant synergism between vitamins E and C when high contents of DHA are included in sea bass larvae diets.
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Effects of genotype and dietary fish oil replacement with vegetable oil on the intestinal transcriptome and proteome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).
BMC Genomics
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Expansion of aquaculture requires alternative feeds and breeding strategies to reduce dependency on fish oil (FO) and better utilization of dietary vegetable oil (VO). Despite the central role of intestine in maintaining body homeostasis and health, its molecular response to replacement of dietary FO by VO has been little investigated. This study employed transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to study effects of dietary VO in two family groups of Atlantic salmon selected for flesh lipid content, Lean or Fat.
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Hepatic transcriptome analysis of inter-family variability in flesh n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content in Atlantic salmon.
BMC Genomics
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Genetic selection of Atlantic salmon families better adapted to alternative feed formulations containing high levels of vegetable ingredients has been suggested to ensure sustainable growth of aquaculture. The present study aimed to identify molecular pathways that could underlie phenotypic differences in flesh n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels when fish are fed vegetable oil diets. Liver transcriptome was analyzed and compared in four families presenting higher or lower n-3 LC-PUFA contents at two contrasting flesh total lipid levels.
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Prostaglandin (F and E, 2- and 3-series) production and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) gene expression of wild and cultured broodstock of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
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Prostaglandin levels in different tissues and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) gene expression were compared between wild and cultured Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) broodstock in which a significantly different fatty acid profile, particularly lower tissue levels of arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) and higher levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) in the cultured fish compared to wild had already been described. This is the first report of the COX-2 mRNA expression in Senegalese sole. Cyclooxygenase (COX-2) mRNA expression and prostaglandin (2- and 3-series) levels were determined in tissues from 32 broodstock fish, 16 (8 males and 8 females) from each origin wild and cultured (G1). Transcripts of COX-2 were highly expressed in gills, sperm-duct (s-duct), testis, oviduct and spleen compared to liver, kidney and muscle. Differences in COX-2 transcripts expression were found in response to the origin of the fish and expression was significantly higher in s-duct and gills from wild fish compared to cultured. Wild fish showed significantly higher levels of total 2-series PGs and lower levels of 3-series compared to cultured fish. The significance of the lower COX-2 expression and lower PG 2-series production in some of the tissues of cultured fish was discussed in relation to the previously described differences in fatty acid profile (lower tissue levels of ARA and higher levels of EPA and EPA/ARA ratio in cultured fish) and the reproductive failure to spawn viable eggs from G1 cultured Senegalese sole compared to successful spawning from captive wild broodstock.
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Selenium inclusion decreases oxidative stress indicators and muscle injuries in sea bass larvae fed high-DHA microdiets.
Br. J. Nutr.
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The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of Se inclusion in high-DHA and vitamin E microdiets (5 g DHA/100 g dry weight and 300 mg vitamin E/100 g dry weight; 5 g DHA/100 g dry weight and 300 mg vitamin E/100 g dry weight supplemented with Se) in comparison with a control diet (1 g DHA/100 g dry weight and 150 mg vitamin E/100 g dry weight) on sea bass larval growth, survival, biochemical composition, malonaldehyde (MDA) content, muscle morphology and antioxidant enzymes (AOE), insulin-like growth factors (IGF) and myosin expression. For a given DHA and vitamin E dietary content, Se inclusion favoured larval total length and specific growth rate, and reduced the incidence of muscular lesions, MDA contents and AOE gene expression. In contrast, IGF gene expression was elevated in the 5/300 larvae, suggesting an increased muscle mitogenesis that was corroborated by the increase in mRNA copies of myosin heavy chain. The results of the present study denoted the beneficial effect of Se not only in preventing oxidative stress, as a glutathione peroxidase cofactor, but probably due to other as yet unknown physiological functions.
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Effects of crystalloid versus colloid and the ?-2 agonist brimonidine versus placebo on intraocular pressure during prone spine surgery: a factorial randomized trial.
Anesthesiology
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Volume replacement with colloid solution and topical ?-2 agonists may each moderate the progressive increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) during prone surgery. The authors tested the hypotheses that during prolonged prone surgery, IOP increases less with goal-directed intravenous administration of 5% albumin than with goal-directed administration of lactated Ringers solution, and with topical ?-2 agonist brimonidine than with placebo eye drops.
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