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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The diagnostic accuracy of the GenoType(®) MTBDRsl assay for the detection of resistance to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Accurate and rapid tests for tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance are critical for improving patient care and decreasing the transmission of drug-resistant TB. Genotype(®)MTBDRsl (MTBDRsl) is the only commercially-available molecular test for detecting resistance in TB to the fluoroquinolones (FQs; ofloxacin, moxifloxacin and levofloxacin) and the second-line injectable drugs (SLIDs; amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin), which are used to treat patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR-)TB.
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Comparison of amplicor and GeneXpert MTB/RIF tests for diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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There are no data about the comparative accuracy of commercially available nucleic acid amplification tests (GeneXpert MTB/RIF and Roche Amplicor) for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). A total of 148 patients with suspected TBM were evaluated, and cultures served as the reference standard. The sensitivities and specificities (95% confidence interval [CI]) for the Amplicor and Xpert MTB/RIF tests were similar: 46 (31-60) versus 50 (33-67) and 99 (93-100) and 94 (84-99), respectively.
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Determinants of PCR performance (Xpert MTB/RIF), including bacterial load and inhibition, for TB diagnosis using specimens from different body compartments.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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The determinants of Xpert MTB/RIF sensitivity, a widely used PCR test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) are poorly understood. We compared culture time-to-positivity (TTP; a surrogate of bacterial load), MTB/RIF TB-specific and internal positive control (IPC)-specific C(T) values, and clinical characteristics in patients with suspected TB who provided expectorated (n = 438) or induced sputum (n = 128), tracheal aspirates (n = 71), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (n = 152), pleural fluid (n = 76), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF; n = 152), pericardial fluid (n = 131), or urine (n = 173) specimens. Median bacterial load (TTP in days) was the strongest associate of MTB/RIF positivity in each fluid. TTP correlated with C(T) values in pulmonary specimens but not extrapulmonary specimens (Spearman's coefficient 0.5043 versus 0.1437; p = 0.030). Inhibition affected a greater proportion of pulmonary specimens than extrapulmonary specimens (IPC C(T) > 34: 6% (47/731) versus 1% (4/381; p < 0.0001). Pulmonary specimens had greater load than extrapulmonary specimens [TTPs (interquartile range) of 11 (7-16) versus 22 (18-33.5) days; p < 0.0001]. HIV-infection was associated with a decreased likelihood of MTB/RIF-positivity in pulmonary specimens but an increased likelihood in extrapulmonary specimens. Mycobacterial load, which displays significant variation across different body compartments, is the main determinant of MTB/RIF-positivity rather than PCR inhibition. MTB/RIF C(T) is a poor surrogate of load in extrapulmonary specimens.
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Xpert MTB/RIF as a measure of sputum bacillary burden. Variation by HIV status and immunosuppression.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Xpert MTB/RIF cycle threshold values are a measure of sputum mycobacterial burden. Data on the impact of HIV infection and immunosuppression on this measure are limited.
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The identification of tuberculosis biomarkers in human urine samples.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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We aimed to determine whether shotgun proteomic approaches could be used to identify tuberculosis (TB)-specific biomarkers in the urine of well-characterised patients with active TB versus no TB. Patients with suspected TB (n=63) were classified as: definite TB (Mycobacterium tuberculosis positive culture, n=21); presumed latent-TB infection (LTBI) (M. tuberculosis negative culture, no radiological features of active TB, a positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT) test and a positive T-SPOT.TB test, n=24); and presumed non-TB/non-LTBI (M. tuberculosis negative culture, no radiological features of active TB, a negative QFT-IT test and a negative T-SPOT.TB test, n=18). Urine proteins, in the range of 3-50 kDa, were collected, separated by a one-dimensional SDS-PAGE gel and digested using trypsin, after which high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the urinary proteome. 10 mycobacterial proteins were observed exclusively in the urine of definite TB patients, while six mycobacterial proteins were found exclusively in the urine of presumed LTBI patients. In addition, a gene ontology enrichment analysis identified a panel of 20 human proteins that were significant discriminators (p<0.05) for TB disease compared to no TB disease. Furthermore, seven common human proteins were differentially over- or under-expressed in the TB versus the non-TB group. These biomarkers hold promise for the development of new point-of-care diagnostics for TB.
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Comparison of same day diagnostic tools including Gene Xpert and unstimulated IFN-? for the evaluation of pleural tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The accuracy of currently available same-day diagnostic tools (smear microscopy and conventional nucleic acid amplification tests) for pleural tuberculosis (TB) is sub-optimal. Newer technologies may offer improved detection.
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Global control of tuberculosis: from extensively drug-resistant to untreatable tuberculosis.
Lancet Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis is a burgeoning global health crisis mainly affecting economically active young adults, and has high mortality irrespective of HIV status. In some countries such as South Africa, drug-resistant tuberculosis represents less than 3% of all cases but consumes more than a third of the total national budget for tuberculosis, which is unsustainable and threatens to destabilise national tuberculosis programmes. However, concern about drug-resistant tuberculosis has been eclipsed by that of totally and extremely drug-resistant tuberculosis--ie, resistance to all or nearly all conventional first-line and second-line antituberculosis drugs. In this Review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, management, implications for health-care workers, and ethical and medicolegal aspects of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and other resistant strains. Finally, we discuss the emerging problem of functionally untreatable tuberculosis, and the issues and challenges that it poses to public health and clinical practice. The emergence and growth of highly resistant strains of tuberculosis make the development of new drugs and rapid diagnostics for tuberculosis--and increased funding to strengthen global control efforts, research, and advocacy--even more pressing.
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Do high rates of empirical treatment undermine the potential effect of new diagnostic tests for tuberculosis in high-burden settings?
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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In tuberculosis-endemic settings, patients are often treated empirically, meaning that they are placed on treatment based on clinical symptoms or tests that do not provide a microbiological diagnosis (eg, chest radiography). New tests for tuberculosis, such as the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), are being implemented at substantial cost. To inform policy and rationally drive implementation, data are needed for how these tests affect morbidity, mortality, transmission, and population-level tuberculosis burden. If people diagnosed by use of new diagnostics would have received empirical treatment a few days later anyway, then the incremental benefit might be small. Will new diagnostics substantially improve outcomes and disease burden, or simply displace empirical treatment? Will the extent and accuracy of empirical treatment change with the introduction of a new test? In this Personal View, we review emerging data for how empirical treatment is frequently same-day, and might still be the predominant form of treatment in high-burden settings, even after Xpert implementation; and how Xpert might displace so-called true-positive, rather than false-positive, empirical treatment. We suggest types of studies needed to accurately assess the effect of new tuberculosis tests and the role of empirical treatment in real-world settings. Until such questions can be addressed, and empirical treatment is appropriately characterised, we postulate that the estimated population-level effect of new tests such as Xpert might be substantially overestimated.
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Diagnostic accuracy of quantitative PCR (Xpert MTB/RIF) for tuberculous pericarditis compared to adenosine deaminase and unstimulated interferon-? in a high burden setting: a prospective study.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Tuberculous pericarditis (TBP) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and is an important treatable cause of heart failure in developing countries. Tuberculous aetiology of pericarditis is difficult to diagnose promptly. The utility of the new quantitative PCR test (Xpert MTB/RIF) for the diagnosis of TBP is unknown. This study sought to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF test compared to pericardial adenosine deaminase (ADA) and unstimulated interferon-gamma (uIFN?) in suspected TBP.
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Feasibility, accuracy, and clinical effect of point-of-care Xpert MTB/RIF testing for tuberculosis in primary-care settings in Africa: a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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The Xpert MTB/RIF test for tuberculosis is being rolled out in many countries, but evidence is lacking regarding its implementation outside laboratories, ability to inform same-day treatment decisions at the point of care, and clinical effect on tuberculosis-related morbidity. We aimed to assess the feasibility, accuracy, and clinical effect of point-of-care Xpert MTB/RIF testing at primary-care health-care facilities in southern Africa.
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Diagnostic accuracy of quantitative PCR (Xpert MTB/RIF) for tuberculous meningitis in a high burden setting: a prospective study.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is difficult to diagnose promptly. The utility of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for the diagnosis of TBM remains unclear, and the effect of host- and sample-related factors on test performance is unknown. This study sought to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF for the diagnosis of TBM.
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Point-of-care diagnosis of tuberculosis: past, present and future.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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Diagnosis represents only one aspect of tuberculosis (TB) control but is perhaps one of the most challenging. The drawbacks of current tools highlight several unmet needs in TB diagnosis, that is, necessity for accuracy, rapidity of diagnosis, affordability, simplicity and the ability to generate same-day results at point-of-care (POC). When a return visit is required to access test results, time to treatment is prolonged, and default rates are significant. However, a good diagnostic tool is also critically dependent on obtaining an adequate biological sample. Here, we review the accuracy and potential impact of established and newer potential POC diagnostic tests for TB, including smear microscopy, the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid) and the Determine TB lipoarabinomannan antigen test (Alere). Novel experimental approaches and detection technologies for POC diagnosis of active TB, including nucleic acid amplification tests, detection of volatile organic compounds or metabolites, mass spectroscopy, microfluidics, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, electrochemical approaches, and aptamers among others, are discussed. We also discuss future applications, including the potential POC diagnosis of drug-resistant TB and presumed latent TB infection. Challenges to the development and roll-out of POC tests for TB are also reviewed.
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Accuracy and impact of Xpert MTB/RIF for the diagnosis of smear-negative or sputum-scarce tuberculosis using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
Thorax
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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The accuracy and impact of new tuberculosis (TB) tests, such as Xpert MTB/RIF, when performed on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained from patients with sputum-scarce or smear-negative TB is unclear.
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Sputum induction to aid diagnosis of smear-negative or sputum-scarce tuberculosis in adults in HIV-endemic settings.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Sputum induction can aid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, but adult data from HIV-endemic environments are limited, and it is unclear how performance varies depending on the clinical context (in-patient versus outpatient), HIV status and whether patients are smear-negative or sputum-scarce. 696 adults with suspected smear-negative or sputum-scarce TB from Cape Town (South Africa) were referred for routine sputum induction. Liquid culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis served as the reference standard. 82% (573 out of 696) of patients provided a specimen ?1 mL, 83% (231 out of 278) of which were of adequate quality. 15% (96 out of 652) of sputum induction specimens were culture-positive, and this yield was higher among inpatients versus outpatients (17% (71 out of 408) versus 10% (25 out of 244), p=0.01) and HIV-infected versus uninfected patients (17% (51 out of 294) versus 9% (16 out of 173), p=0.02), but similar for CD4 (>200 versus ?200 cells·?L(-1)) and patient (smear-negative versus sputum-scarce) subcategories. Overall sensitivity (95% CI) of smear-microscopy was 49% (39-59%), higher among in-patients versus outpatients (55% (43-67%) versus 32% (14-50%), p=0.05), but unaffected by HIV co-infection, CD4 count or patient type. 29% (203 out of 696) of patients commenced anti-TB treatment and sputum induction offered microbiological confirmation and susceptibility testing in only 47% (96 out of 203). Under programmatic conditions in an HIV-endemic environment although the yield of culture was approximately two-fold higher amongst HIV-infected patients and inpatients, a fifth of all patients were unable to provide a specimen following sputum induction. Same-day microbiological diagnosis was only possible in ?50% of patients.
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Can point-of-care urine LAM strip testing for tuberculosis add value to clinical decision making in hospitalised HIV-infected persons?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) strip-test (Determine®-TB) can rapidly rule-in TB in HIV-infected persons with advanced immunosuppression. However, given high rates of empiric treatment amongst hospitalised patients in high-burden settings (? 50%) it is unclear whether LAM can add any value to clinical decision making, or identify a subset of patients with unfavourable outcomes that would otherwise have been missed by empiric treatment.
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What is the cost of diagnosis and management of drug resistant tuberculosis in South Africa?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is undermining TB control in South Africa. However, there are hardly any data about the cost of treating DR-TB in high burden settings despite such information being quintessential for the rational planning and allocation of resources by policy-makers, and to inform future cost-effectiveness analyses.
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Development of a simple reliable radiographic scoring system to aid the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Chest radiography is sometimes the only method available for investigating patients with possible pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) with negative sputum smears. However, interpretation of chest radiographs in this context lacks specificity for PTB, is subjective and is neither standardized nor reproducible. Efforts to improve the interpretation of chest radiography are warranted.
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Drug-associated adverse events and their relationship with outcomes in patients receiving treatment for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Treatment-related outcomes in patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are poor. However, data about the type, frequency and severity of presumed drug-associated adverse events (AEs) and their association with treatment-related outcomes in patients with XDR-TB are scarce.
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The use of an automated quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Xpert MTB/RIF) to predict the sputum smear status of tuberculosis patients.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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Xpert MTB/RIF-generated cycle-threshold (C(T)) values have poor clinical utility as a rule-in test for smear positivity (cut-point ?20.2; sensitivity 32.3%, specificity 97.1%) but moderately good rule-out value (cut-point >31.8; negative predictive value 80.0%). Thus, 20% of individuals with C(T) values >31.8 were erroneously ruled out as smear-negative. This group had a significantly lower sputum bacillary load relative to correctly classified smear-positive patients (C(T) ? 31.8; P < .001). These data inform on public health and contact tracing strategies.
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Do adjunct tuberculosis tests, when combined with Xpert MTB/RIF, improve accuracy and the cost of diagnosis in a resource-poor setting?
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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Information regarding the utility of adjunct diagnostic tests in combination with Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is limited. We hypothesised adjunct tests could enhance accuracy and/or reduce the cost of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis prior to MTB/RIF testing, and rule-in or rule-out TB in MTB/RIF-negative individuals. We assessed the accuracy and/or laboratory-associated cost of diagnosis of smear microscopy, chest radiography (CXR) and interferon-? release assays (IGRAs; T-SPOT-TB (Oxford Immunotec, Oxford, UK) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (Cellestis, Chadstone, Australia)) combined with MTB/RIF for TB in 480 patients in South Africa. When conducted prior to MTB/RIF: 1) smear microscopy followed by MTB/RIF (if smear negative) had the lowest cost of diagnosis of any strategy investigated; 2) a combination of smear microscopy, CXR (if smear negative) and MTB/RIF (if imaging compatible with active TB) did not further reduce the cost per TB case diagnosed; and 3) a normal CXR ruled out TB in 18% of patients (57 out of 324; negative predictive value (NPV) 100%). When downstream adjunct tests were applied to MTB/RIF-negative individuals, radiology ruled out TB in 24% (56 out of 234; NPV 100%), smear microscopy ruled in TB in 21% (seven out of 24) of culture-positive individuals and IGRAs were not useful in either context. In resource-poor settings, smear microscopy combined with MTB/RIF had the highest accuracy and lowest cost of diagnosis compared to either technique alone. In MTB/RIF-negative individuals, CXR has poor rule-in value but can reliably rule out TB in approximately one in four cases. These data inform upon the programmatic utility of MTB/RIF in high-burden settings.
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Comparison of quantitative techniques including Xpert MTB/RIF to evaluate mycobacterial burden.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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Accurate quantification of mycobacterial load is important for the evaluation of patient infectiousness, disease severity and monitoring treatment response in human and in-vitro laboratory models of disease. We hypothesized that newer techniques would perform as well as solid media culture to quantify mycobacterial burden in laboratory specimens.
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Evaluation of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence setting.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Xpert MTB/RIF is a novel automated molecular diagnostic recently endorsed by the World Health Organization. However, performance-related data from high HIV prevalence settings are limited.
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The diagnostic accuracy of urine-based Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-infected hospitalized patients who are smear-negative or sputum scarce.
PLoS ONE
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Hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa are inundated with HIV-infected patients and tuberculosis (TB) is the commonest opportunistic infection in this sub-group. Up to one third of TB-HIV co-infected patients fail to produce a sputum sample (sputum scarce) and diagnosis is thus often delayed or missed. We investigated the sensitivity of urine-based methods (Xpert MTB/RIF, LAM strip test and LAM ELISA) in such patients.
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Correlation of mycobacterium tuberculosis specific and non-specific quantitative Th1 T-cell responses with bacillary load in a high burden setting.
PLoS ONE
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Measures of bacillary load in patients with tuberculosis (TB) may be useful for predicting and monitoring response to treatment. The relationship between quantitative T-cell responses and mycobacterial load remains unclear. We hypothesised that, in a HIV-prevalent high burden setting, the magnitude of mycobacterial antigen-specific and non-specific T-cell IFN-? responses would correlate with (a) bacterial load and (b) culture conversion in patients undergoing treatment.
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Diagnostic accuracy of a urine lipoarabinomannan strip-test for TB detection in HIV-infected hospitalised patients.
Eur. Respir. J.
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Lack of point-of-care tests for tuberculosis (TB) result in diagnostic delay, and increased mortality and healthcare-related costs. The urine Determine(TM) TB-LAM point-of-care strip-test was evaluated in 335 prospectively-recruited hospitalised patients with suspected TB-HIV co-infection (group 1) and from 88 HIV-infected hospitalised patients with non-TB diagnoses (group 2). Cut-off point-specific analyses were performed using: 1) a microbiological reference standard (culture positive versus negative); and 2) a composite reference standard (exclusion of patients with clinical-TB from the culture-negative group). Using the microbiological reference and the manufacturer-recommended grade-1 cut-off point, LAM sensitivity and specificity was 66% (95% CI 57-74%). By contrast, using the composite reference sensitivity was 60% (95% CI 53-67%) and specificity improved to 96% (95% CI 89-100%) (p=0.001). The same pattern was seen when the grade-2 cut-off point was used (specificity 75% versus 96%; p=0.01). In group two patients specificity was poor using the grade-1 cut-off point, but improved significantly when the grade-2 cut-off point was used (90% versus 99%; p=0.009). The grade-2 cut-off point also offered superior inter-reader reliability (p=0.002). Sensitivity was highest in those with a CD4 <200 cells per mL. LAM combined with smear-microscopy was able to rule-in TB in 71% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-positive patients. This preliminary study indicates that the LAM strip-test may be a potentially useful rapid rule-in test for TB in hospitalised patients with advanced immunosuppression. The grade 2, but not the manufacturer-recommended grade 1 cut-off point, offered superior rule-in utility and inter-reader reliability. Larger studies to evaluate cut-off points and diagnostic accuracy are urgently required.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.