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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The UP4FUN Intervention Effect on Breaking Up Sedentary Time in 10- to 12-Year-Old Belgian Children: The ENERGY-Project.
Pediatr Exerc Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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There are currently no studies available reporting intervention effects on breaking up children's sedentary time. This study examined the UP4FUN intervention effect on objectively measured number of breaks in sedentary time, number of sedentary bouts (?10 mins) and total and average amount of time spent in those sedentary bouts among 10- to 12- year-old Belgian children. The total sample included 354 children (mean age: 10.9±0.7 years; 59% girls) with valid ActiGraph accelerometer data at pre- and post-test. Only few and small intervention effects were found, namely on total time spent in sedentary bouts immediately after school hours (4-6PM; ß=-3.51mins) and on average time spent in sedentary bouts before school hours (6-8.30AM; ß=-4.83mins) and immediately after school hours in favour of children from intervention schools (ß=-2.71mins). Unexpectedly, girls from intervention schools decreased the number of breaks during school hours (8.30AM-4PM; ß=-23.45breaks) and increased the number of sedentary bouts on a weekend day (ß=+0.90bouts), whereas girls in control schools showed an increase in number of breaks and a decrease in number of bouts. In conclusion, UP4FUN did not have a consistent or substantial effect on breaking up children's sedentary time and these data suggest that more intensive and longer lasting interventions are needed.
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Associations between cycling skill, general motor competence and body mass index in 9-year-old children.
Ergonomics
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Learning to ride a bicycle is an important milestone in a child's life. Unfortunately, young traffic casualties remain overrepresented in traffic reports, with single-bicycle crashes as principal cause in children. This correlational, cross-sectional study focuses on the association between cycling skills and two intrinsic characteristics: general motor competence and body mass index (BMI). Therefore, general motor competence, BMI and practical cycling competence were measured in 9-year-old children (n = 40). Significant correlations were found between cycling skills and general motor competence (r = 0.434, p ? 0.01), and between cycling skills and BMI (r = - 0.400, p ? 0.05). A multiple regression analysis revealed that children's general motor quotient and BMI together predicted 19% of cycling skill score. These findings indicate that general motor competence and bicycle skills are not independent of each other stressing the importance of young children's characteristics when actively participating in traffic. In addition, BMI might be negatively associated with the development of cycling skills in children.
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Cross-Sectional Associations Between Sitting Time and Several Aspects of Mental Health in Belgian Adults.
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Sedentary behaviour (including sitting) is negatively associated with physical health, independent from physical activity (PA). Knowledge on the associations with mental health is less elaborated. Therefore this study aims to investigate the relationship between sitting and five indices of mental health in adults, and between sitting interactions (sitting*gender, sitting*age, sitting*education, and sitting*PA) and these mental health indices.
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The association between objective walkability, neighborhood socio-economic status, and physical activity in Belgian children.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Objective walkability is an important correlate of adults' physical activity. Studies investigating the relation between walkability and children's physical activity are scarce. However, in order to develop effective environmental interventions, a profound investigation of this relation is needed in all age groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between objective walkability and different domains of children's physical activity, and to investigate the moderating effect of neighborhood socio-economic status in this relation.
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Exploring associations between parental and peer variables, personal variables and physical activity among adolescents: a mediation analysis.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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This study aimed to investigate how parental and peer variables are associated with moderate- to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) on week- and weekend days among Australian adolescents (13-15 y), and whether perceived internal barriers (e.g. lack of time), external barriers (e.g. lack of others to be physically active with) and self-efficacy mediated these associations.
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Feasibility and effectiveness of drop-off spots to promote walking to school.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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BackgroundDrop-off spots are locations in the proximity of primary schools where parents can drop off or pick up their child. From these drop-off spots children can walk to and from school. This pilot study aimed to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of drop-off spots and to evaluate how drop-off spots are perceived by school principals, teachers and parents of 6-to-12-year old children.MethodsFirst, a feasibility questionnaire was completed (n¿=¿216) to obtain parental opinions towards the implementation of drop-off spots. A drop-off spot was organized (500¿800 m distance from school) in two primary schools. A within-subject design was used to compare children¿s (n¿=¿58) step counts and number of walking trips during usual conditions (baseline) and during implementation of a drop-off spot (intervention). Three-level (class-participant-condition) linear regression models were used to determine intervention effects. After the intervention, 2 school principals, 7 teachers and 44 parents filled out a process evaluation questionnaire.ResultsPrior to the intervention, 96% expressed the need for adult supervision during the route to school. Positive significant intervention effects were found for step counts before/after school hours (+732 step counts/day; X2¿=¿12.2; p¿<¿0.001) and number of walking trips to/from school (+2 trips/week; X2¿=¿52.9; p¿<¿0.001). No intervention effect was found for total step counts/day (X2¿=¿2.0; p¿=¿0.16). The intervention was positively perceived by the school principals and parents, but teachers expressed doubts regarding future implementation.ConclusionThis pilot study showed that implementing drop-off spots might be an effective intervention to promote children¿s walking to school. Implementing drop-off spots does not require major efforts from the schools and schools can choose how and when they organize drop-off spots. However, motivating teachers and involving other volunteers (e.g. parents, grandparents) may be needed. Future studies should investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of drop-off spots in a larger sample of schools.
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Parental perceived neighborhood attributes: associations with active transport and physical activity among 10-12 year old children and the mediating role of independent mobility.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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During the last decades, the use of active travel modes declined in all age groups. Childhood is a critical time to establish lifelong healthy patterns. To develop effective interventions in this age group, insight in the correlates of health behaviors and the possible mediating factors is necessary. Among children, the role of parents may not be overlooked. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the associations of parental perceptions of neighborhood environmental attributes with active transport and total physical activity in 10-12 year old Belgian boys and girls. Furthermore, this study examined the potential mediating effect of independent mobility on these associations.
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A Capacity Building Approach to Increase Sports Participation in Disadvantaged Urban Communities: A Multilevel Analysis.
J Urban Health
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Recent evidence showed that community capacity building is one of the key methods to reach health improvements within disadvantaged communities. Physical activity and sports participation are important means to reach health improvements. This study investigates a capacity building method which aims at increasing sports participation in the community, especially for individuals at higher risk of sports deprivation. The main aims of the present study, are the following: (1) to examine differences in sports participation between individuals living in communities implementing a sports-based capacity building program and individuals living in communities without such capacity building program and (2) to investigate if the community sports program reaches the individuals known to experience higher barriers to engage in sports. In Flanders, Belgium, five disadvantaged urban communities implementing the community capacity building program (program communities) and four without (control communities) were selected based on similarity of sociodemographic and environmental characteristics. Two hundred adults (aged 18-56 years) per community were randomly selected and visited at home to fill out a questionnaire on sociodemographics, sports participation, and the community sports program. A sample of 414 adults participated in the study. Results showed that adults from program communities reported on average 96 min/week more participation in sports than their counterparts living in control communities. Furthermore, 61.3 % of the individuals of program communities indicated to engage in sports, whereas in control communities, this was only 42.4 %. Respondents at higher risk of sports deprivation also engaged in significantly more sports participation in program communities than those in control communities. This difference was also noted for groups that are not related with sports deprivation. These results are promising and plead for a community capacity building approach to increase sports participation in disadvantaged communities.
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Validity of the Omron pedometer and the actigraph step count function in preschoolers.
J Sci Med Sport
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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To validate the GT1M actigraph accelerometer step count function, and the Omron Walking Style Pro pedometer against accelerometer-based activity counts, and to compare pedometer-based and accelerometer-based steps in preschoolers.
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Physical fitness among urban and rural Ecuadorian adolescents and its association with blood lipids: a cross sectional study.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Physical fitness has been proposed as a marker for health during adolescence. Currently, little is known about physical fitness and its association with blood lipid profile in adolescents from low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study is therefore to assess physical fitness among urban and rural adolescents and its associations with blood lipid profile in a middle-income country.
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Assessing the environmental characteristics of cycling routes to school: a study on the reliability and validity of a Google Street View-based audit.
Int J Health Geogr
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Google Street View provides a valuable and efficient alternative to observe the physical environment compared to on-site fieldwork. However, studies on the use, reliability and validity of Google Street View in a cycling-to-school context are lacking. We aimed to study the intra-, inter-rater reliability and criterion validity of EGA-Cycling (Environmental Google Street View Based Audit - Cycling to school), a newly developed audit using Google Street View to assess the physical environment along cycling routes to school.
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Extracurricular school-based sports as a motivating vehicle for sports participation in youth: a cross-sectional study.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Extracurricular school-based sports are considered to be an ideal means of reaching children who are not active in community sports. The purposes of this study were to examine the extent to which pupils not engaging in community sports do participate in extracurricular school-based sports, and to assess whether extracurricular school-based sports participants are more physically active and/or more autonomously motivated towards sports in daily life than children who do not participate in extracurricular school-based sports.
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The effect of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention on objectively measured physical activity in Belgian preschool boys and girls of high and low SES: the ToyBox-study.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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The ToyBox-study developed an evidence- and theory-based intervention to improve preschoolers' energy balance-related behaviours - including physical activity (PA) - by targeting the kindergarten environment and involving their parents/caregivers. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention on increasing Belgian preschoolers' objectively measured PA levels.
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Changes in physical activity during the transition from primary to secondary school in Belgian children: what is the role of the school environment?
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Key life periods have been associated with changes in physical activity (PA). This study investigated (1) how PA changes when primary school children transfer to secondary school, (2) if school environmental characteristics differ between primary and secondary schools and (3) if changes in school environmental characteristics can predict changes in PA in Belgian schoolchildren. Moderating effects of gender and the baseline level of PA were investigated for the first and third research question.
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Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers' sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers' sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries.
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Evaluation of a real world intervention using professional football players to promote a healthy diet and physical activity in children and adolescents from a lower socio-economic background: a controlled pretest-posttest design.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The increasing rates of obesity among children and adolescents, especially in those from lower socio-economic backgrounds, emphasise the need for interventions promoting a healthy diet and physical activity. The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the 'Health Scores!' program, which combined professional football player role models with a school-based program to promote a healthy diet and physical activity to socially vulnerable children and adolescents.
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Effects of a cycle training course on children's cycling skills and levels of cycling to school.
Accid Anal Prev
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the short- and longer-term effects of a cycle training on children's cycling skills. A second aim of the study was to examine the effects of a cycle training, with and without parental involvement, on levels of cycling to school and on parental attitudes towards cycling.
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Critical environmental factors for transportation cycling in children: a qualitative study using bike-along interviews.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Environmental factors are found to influence transport-related physical activity, but have rarely been studied in relation with cycling for transport to various destinations in 10-12 yr old children. The current qualitative study used 'bike-along interviews' with children and parents to allow discussion of detailed environmental factors that may influence children's cycling for transport, while cycling in the participant's neighborhood.
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Cycling around a curve: the effect of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although it is generally accepted that visual information guides steering, it is still unclear whether a curvature matching strategy or a 'look where you are going' strategy is used while steering through a curved road. The current experiment investigated to what extent the existing models for curve driving also apply to cycling around a curve, and tested the influence of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior. Twenty-five participants were asked to cycle through a semicircular lane three consecutive times at three different speeds while staying in the center of the lane. The observed steering behavior suggests that an anticipatory steering strategy was used at curve entrance and a compensatory strategy was used to steer through the actual bend of the curve. A shift of gaze from the center to the inside edge of the lane indicates that at low cycling speed, the 'look where you are going' strategy was preferred, while at higher cycling speeds participants seemed to prefer the curvature matching strategy. Authors suggest that visual information from both steering strategies contributes to the steering system and can be used in a flexible way. Based on a familiarization effect, it can be assumed that steering is not only guided by vision but that a short-term learning component should also be taken into account.
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Interacting Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates of Leisure-Time Physical Activity: A Three-Country Study.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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Objective: The main study objective was to examine the moderating effects of perceived enjoyment, barriers/benefits, perceived social support and self-efficacy, on the associations of perceived environmental attributes with walking for recreation and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and whether these potential moderating effects differed by gender and study site. Methods: Data from three observational studies in the United States (Seattle and Baltimore), Australia (Adelaide), and Belgium (Ghent) were pooled. In total, 6014 adults (20-65 years, 55.7% women) were recruited in high-/low-walkable and high-/low-income neighborhoods. All participants completed the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, a validated questionnaire on psychosocial attributes, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. General additive mixed models were conducted in R. Results: Enjoyment of physical activity, perceived barriers to physical activity, perceived benefits of physical activity, social support from family and friends, and self-efficacy for physical activity moderated the relationships of specific perceived environmental characteristics with walking for recreation and/or leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Overall, moderating effects were in the same direction: environmental perceptions were positively associated with leisure-time activity, but associations were strongest in adults with less positive scores on psychosocial attributes. The findings were fairly consistent across gender and study sites. Conclusions: The present study findings are promising, as it seems that those who might benefit most from environmental interventions to promote physical activity, may mainly be adults at risk of being insufficiently active or those difficult to reach through individual health promotion programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Critical success factors for physical activity promotion through community partnerships.
Int J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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To define key factors of effective evidence-based policy implementation for physical activity promotion by use of a partnership approach.
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Effectiveness and feasibility of lowering playground density during recess to promote physical activity and decrease sedentary time at primary school.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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This pilot study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of lowering playground density on increasing childrens physical activity and decreasing sedentary time. Also the feasibility of this intervention was tested.
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Influencing factors of sedentary behavior in European preschool settings: an exploration through focus groups with teachers.
J Sch Health
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Sedentary behavior refers to activities involving sitting down and reclining (eg, watching TV, using the computer) and has been associated with different health outcomes. In preschool, children are sedentary for 50% to 80% of the time, in the classroom as well as during recess. Because of the absence of qualitative studies examining influencing factors of preschoolers sedentary behavior in preschool settings, this study explored teachers opinions on potentially influencing factors of this behavior.
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What practices do parents perceive as effective or ineffective in promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and less sitting in children: parent focus groups.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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To support parents in improving the health of their young children, examples of effective parenting practices for a healthy diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are needed. This study explores perceived effective and ineffective parenting practices in difficult situations concerning raising healthy children and investigates their relationship with Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The current study is formative work to inform the content of a randomized controlled trial.
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Does a cycle training course improve cycling skills in children?
Accid Anal Prev
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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The aim of this study was to determine the short-term effects of cycle training on basic cycling skills in children from the 4th grade of elementary school. Furthermore, the influence of gender, socio-economic status (SES) and initial cycling skills level on the effects of the cycle training was investigated.
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Neighborhood perceptions moderate the association between the family environment and childrens objectively assessed physical activity.
Health Place
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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This study aimed to investigate whether parents perceptions of the neighborhood environment moderate associations between the family environment and childrens moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) outside of school hours. In total, 929 parents of 10-12 year-old children completed a questionnaire concerning the family environment, MVPA levels, and the neighborhood environment. Children wore an Actigraph (AM7164-2.2C) accelerometer. Compared with neighborhood environment factors, the family environment was more frequently associated with childrens MVPA. Parental MVPA was positively associated with childrens MVPA, but only among children whose parents reported a high presence of sporting venues. Having more restrictive physical activity rules was negatively associated with childrens weekday MVPA in neighborhoods with high perceived stranger danger.
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Validity of the ActivPAL™ and the ActiGraph monitors in preschoolers.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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This study aimed to compare three objective measures (GT1M ActiGraph, ActivPAL™, and direct observation) of sedentary behavior in preschoolers.
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10 000 Steps Flanders: evaluation of the state-wide dissemination of a physical activity intervention in Flanders.
Health Educ Res
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the state-wide dissemination of a physical activity (PA) intervention in Flanders. In 2011, a random sample was taken of the entire adult (25-75 years) population of Flanders. Data of the Flemish sample were compared with baseline data of the intervention and control group of 10 000 Steps Ghent (2005). In total, data of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were available of 2556 respondents (1675 of the comparison sample and 881 of the Flemish sample). Pedometer data were obtained by 269 respondents of the Flemish sample and by 1236 respondents of the comparison sample. Compared with the comparison sample of 2005, the Flemish sample reported more walking (P < 0.001), moderate (P < 0.001), vigorous (P < 0.001), work-related (P < 0.001), leisure time (P = 0.01) and household PA (P = 0.03). Step count analyses revealed that the Flemish sample took more pedometer-based daily step counts (P < 0.001) than the comparison sample. Furthermore, a higher proportion of respondents reaching the 10 000 steps/day goal (P = 0.005) was found in the Flemish sample. A positive effect of 10 000 Steps Flanders was found. Results indicate that a state-wide approach based on socio-ecological models is an effective strategy to promote PA in a large population.
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Physical activity and beverage consumption in preschoolers: focus groups with parents and teachers.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Qualitative research is a method in which new ideas and strategies can be discovered. This qualitative study aimed to investigate parents and teachers opinions on physical activity and beverage consumption of preschool children. Through separate, independent focus groups, they expressed their perceptions on childrens current physical activity and beverage consumption levels, factors that influence and enhance these behaviours, and anticipated barriers to making changes.
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Does the perception of neighborhood built environmental attributes influence active transport in adolescents?
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Among Belgian adolescents active transport (AT) is a common physical activity (PA) behavior. Preliminary evidence suggests that AT can be an important opportunity for increasing adolescents daily PA levels. To inform interventions, predictors of this PA behavior need to be further explored. Therefore, in the perspective of the ecological models this study aimed (a) to investigate the relationship between the perception of neighborhood built environmental attributes and adolescents AT and (b) to explore the contribution of the perception of neighborhood built environmental attributes beyond psychosocial factors.
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Evaluation of a workplace intervention to promote commuter cycling: a RE-AIM analysis.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Originating from the interdisciplinary collaboration between public health and the transportation field a workplace intervention to promote commuter cycling, Bike to Work: cyclists are rewarded, was implemented. The intervention consisted of two cycling contests, an online loyalty program based on earning cycling points and the dissemination of information through folders, newsletters, posters and a website. The study purpose was to evaluate the dissemination efforts of the program and to gain insights in whether free participation could persuade small and middle-sized companies to sign up.
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Associations of neighborhood characteristics with active park use: an observational study in two cities in the USA and Belgium.
Int J Health Geogr
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Public parks can be an important setting for physical activity promotion, but to increase park use and the activity levels of park users, the crucial attributes related to active park use need to be defined. Not only user characteristics and structural park attributes, but also characteristics of the surrounding neighborhood are important to examine. Furthermore, internationally comparable studies are needed, to find out if similar intervention strategies might be effective worldwide. The main aim of this study was to examine whether the overall number of park visitors and their activity levels depend on study site, neighborhood walkability and neighborhood income.
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Physical environmental attributes and active transportation in Belgium: what about adults and adolescents living in the same neighborhoods?
Am J Health Promot
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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To examine if adults and adolescents living in the same high- and low-walkable neighborhoods have different environmental perceptions and if this is reflected in distinct associations between environmental perceptions and active transportation.
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Do psychosocial factors moderate the association between neighborhood walkability and adolescents physical activity?
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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Ecological models emphasize the interaction between individuals and their environment. Furthermore, they posit that environmental variables influence physical activity (PA) not only directly but also indirectly through their interaction with other factors. This study explored if the association between neighborhood walkability and adolescents PA is moderated by psychosocial factors using data from the Belgian Environmental PA Study in Youth (BEPAS-Y). BEPAS-Y recruited adolescents from 32 neighborhoods differing in objectively determined neighborhood walkability and income. Between 2008 and 2009, 637 adolescents (13-15 years; 49.4% boys) completed a survey measuring socio-demographic and psychosocial factors and wore an accelerometer for seven days. Multilevel-regression analyses revealed that for adolescents living in low-income neighborhoods, the association between neighborhood walkability and PA is moderated by perceived barriers and perceived benefits toward PA. Neighborhood walkability was positively associated with PA among adolescents, living in low-income neighborhoods, who perceived many barriers and few benefits, while for adolescents who perceived few barriers and many benefits, the PA level was high, irrespective of neighborhood walkability. For adolescents, living in high-income neighborhoods, none of the psychosocial attributes moderated the association between neighborhood walkability and PA. These findings provide some support for the predicted interactions posited by ecological models. Improving neighborhood walkability might increase PA-levels of adolescents living in low-income neighborhoods, with less positive psychosocial profiles, or in other words; those who are most difficult to reach through PA interventions. However, in order to increase PA in large populations, interventions focusing solely on improving neighborhood walkability may not have the desired effect.
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Environmental and psychosocial correlates of accelerometer-assessed and self-reported physical activity in Belgian adults.
Int J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Despite the well-known benefits of physical activity (PA) on overall health, the majority of the adult population does not engage in sufficient PA. To develop effective interventions to increase PA, it is necessary to understand the most important PA correlates and to investigate whether correlates are similar in different population subgroups.
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Within- and between-day variability of objectively measured physical activity in preschoolers.
Pediatr Exerc Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
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In this study, physical activity (PA) was objectively measured in 213 Belgian preschoolers (M(age) = 4.98, SD = .88 years) over 4 consecutive days including two weekend days. Within-day variability in PA showed a typical activity pattern during weekdays and weekend days. Weekdays clearly reflected a preschool attending day with more peaks and troughs than weekend days and after-school hours were characterized by a decrease in activity. Between-day variability in PA was identified in preschool girls above the age of four, suggesting that the lack of a structured preschool environment is already related with a decrease in PA in this sex-specific age group. The results of this study are informative for the development of future PA interventions and indicate that both the preschool and the home environment should be targeted in the promotion of preschoolers PA.
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A cost-effectiveness study of the community-based intervention 10 000 Steps Ghent.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the European community-based project 10 000 Steps Ghent, an intervention that resulted in a significant decrease in sedentary time and a significant increase in step counts (896 steps/d) and self-reported walking (66 min/week).
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Measuring physical activity using accelerometry in 13-15-year-old adolescents: the importance of including non-wear activities.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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The present study aimed to examine the impact of non-wear activities registered in diaries when using accelerometers to assess physical activity (PA) in young adolescents.
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How many steps/day are enough? for children and adolescents.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Worldwide, public health physical activity guidelines include special emphasis on populations of children (typically 6-11 years) and adolescents (typically 12-19 years). Existing guidelines are commonly expressed in terms of frequency, time, and intensity of behaviour. However, the simple step output from both accelerometers and pedometers is gaining increased credibility in research and practice as a reasonable approximation of daily ambulatory physical activity volume. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review existing child and adolescent objectively monitored step-defined physical activity literature to provide researchers, practitioners, and lay people who use accelerometers and pedometers with evidence-based translations of these public health guidelines in terms of steps/day. In terms of normative data (i.e., expected values), the updated international literature indicates that we can expect 1) among children, boys to average 12,000 to 16,000 steps/day and girls to average 10,000 to 13,000 steps/day; and, 2) adolescents to steadily decrease steps/day until approximately 8,000-9,000 steps/day are observed in 18-year olds. Controlled studies of cadence show that continuous MVPA walking produces 3,300-3,500 steps in 30 minutes or 6,600-7,000 steps in 60 minutes in 10-15 year olds. Limited evidence suggests that a total daily physical activity volume of 10,000-14,000 steps/day is associated with 60-100 minutes of MVPA in preschool children (approximately 4-6 years of age). Across studies, 60 minutes of MVPA in primary/elementary school children appears to be achieved, on average, within a total volume of 13,000 to 15,000 steps/day in boys and 11,000 to 12,000 steps/day in girls. For adolescents (both boys and girls), 10,000 to 11,700 may be associated with 60 minutes of MVPA. Translations of time- and intensity-based guidelines may be higher than existing normative data (e.g., in adolescents) and therefore will be more difficult to achieve (but not impossible nor contraindicated). Recommendations are preliminary and further research is needed to confirm and extend values for measured cadences, associated speeds, and MET values in young people; continue to accumulate normative data (expected values) for both steps/day and MVPA across ages and populations; and, conduct longitudinal and intervention studies in children and adolescents required to inform the shape of step-defined physical activity dose-response curves associated with various health parameters.
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Relationships between neighborhood walkability and adults physical activity: How important is residential self-selection?
Health Place
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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The studys aims were to examine whether residential self-selection differed according to socio-demographic characteristics and objectively assessed neighborhood walkability; and, whether objectively assessed walkability was a significant correlate of physical activity (PA) beyond residential self-selection. In total, 412 adults (aged 20-65 years) completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the long IPAQ, a neighborhood selection questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for seven days. Walkability characteristics were an important reason for selecting the current neighborhood and were more important for women, older and less-educated adults, but not for high-walkable neighborhood residents. Both in the total sample and in participants with high residential self-selection scores, walkability was positively related to active transportation and objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous PA. Designing walkable neighborhoods may help to increase adults PA, even in those for whom walkability is an important criterion when choosing their neighborhood. However, findings from studies with longitudinal and controlled designs are required to provide more strongly causal evidence.
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Feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements to assess physical activity in toddlers.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Accelerometers are considered to be the most promising tool for measuring physical activity (PA) in free-living young children. So far, no studies have examined the feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements in children under 3 years of age. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements in toddlers (1- to 3-year olds).
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Do adults like living in high-walkable neighborhoods? Associations of walkability parameters with neighborhood satisfaction and possible mediators.
Health Place
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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The aims were to examine the associations between objective walkability characteristics and neighborhood satisfaction in adults, and the possible mediating effects of environmental perceptions and physical activity on these associations. In total, 1391 adults completed a questionnaire on neighborhood satisfaction, physical activity, socio-demographics and environmental perceptions. Walkability characteristics were measured objectively using Geographic Information System databases. Overall walkability and residential density were negatively related to neighborhood satisfaction, while connectivity and land use mix showed no significant associations. In total, 56.6% and 39.4%, respectively, of the negative associations of walkability and density with neighborhood satisfaction were mediated by perceptions of more esthetic-related problems, pollution, crime and less overall safety in highly walkable/dense neighborhoods. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was not a significant mediator. Urban planners should not be discouraged to build high-walkable environments, but next to objective walkability, environmental perceptions should also be considered to achieve neighborhood satisfaction.
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Four-year follow-up of the community intervention 10,000 steps Ghent.
Health Educ Res
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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The purpose of this study was to examine the 4-year follow-up effects of the 10,000 steps Ghent project, which had shown increases in pedometer steps after the first year of implementation (2005-06). All adults who had participated in 2005-06 (n = 866) were recontacted in 2009 and invited to complete the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a 7-day pedometer log. Long-term effects were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance tests (time × community, n = 420). In subgroup analyses, age, gender, educational level, employment status, health and risk profile were also included. Results showed that daily step counts increased slightly from 2005 to 2009 in the intervention community (Ghent) and decreased in the comparison community (Aalst) (time × community: P = 0.008). Subgroup analyses showed a positive interaction effect for higher educated (P = 0.026) and healthy (P = 0.005) participants and a negative interaction for those with a poor to moderate health (P = 0.026). For self-reported physical activity, a positive interaction effect was found in those who had already reached 10,000 steps in 2005 (P = 0.037). To conclude, the positive effects seen after 1 year were not maintained after 4 years. However, a decrease from baseline to follow-up, which was seen in the comparison community, was prevented in all Ghent participants, except those with a poor to moderate health.
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Socio-demographic, psychosocial and home-environmental attributes associated with adults domestic screen time.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Sedentary behaviors (involving prolonged sitting time) are associated with deleterious health consequences, independent of (lack of) physical activity. To inform interventions, correlates of prevalent sedentary behaviors need to be identified. We examined associations of socio-demographic, home-environmental and psychosocial factors with adults TV viewing time and leisure-time Internet use; and whether psychosocial and environmental correlates differed according to gender, age and educational attainment.
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Criterion distances and environmental correlates of active commuting to school in children.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Active commuting to school can contribute to daily physical activity levels in children. Insight into the determinants of active commuting is needed, to promote such behavior in children living within a feasible commuting distance from school. This study determined feasible distances for walking and cycling to school (criterion distances) in 11- to 12-year-old Belgian children. For children living within these criterion distances from school, the correlation between parental perceptions of the environment, the number of motorized vehicles per family and the commuting mode (active/passive) to school was investigated.
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Long-term effectiveness of a back education programme in elementary schoolchildren: an 8-year follow-up study.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term effectiveness of a spine care education programme conducted in 9- to 11-year-old schoolchildren. The study sample included 96 intervention subjects and 98 controls (9- to 11-year-olds at baseline). Intervention consisted of a 6-week school-based back education programme (predominantly biomechanically oriented) and was implemented by a physical therapist. Self-reported outcomes on back care knowledge, spinal care behaviour, self-efficacy towards favourable back care behaviour, prevalence of back and neck pain during the week and fear-avoidance beliefs were evaluated by the use of questionnaires. Post-tests were performed within 1 week after programme completion, after 1 year and after 8 years. Whereas the educational back care programme resulted in increased back care knowledge up to adulthood (P < 0.001), intervention did not change spinal care behaviour or self-efficacy. Pain prevalence figures increased less in the experimental group compared to the controls over the 8-year time span, yet statistical significance was not reached. Dropout analysis revealed spinal pain prevalence rates to be different in both groups throughout the study, including at baseline. Back education at young age did not reinforce fear-avoidance beliefs up to adulthood. Predominantly biomechanical oriented back education in elementary schoolchildren is effective in improving the cognitive aspect of back care up to adulthood, yet not in changing actual behaviour or self-efficacy. The current study does not provide evidence that educational back care programmes have any impact on spinal pain in adulthood. The true long-term impact of school-based spinal health interventions on clinically relevant outcome measures merits further attention.
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Urban-rural differences in physical activity in Belgian adults and the importance of psychosocial factors.
J Urban Health
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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Recent research in urban planning and public health has drawn attention to the associations between urban form and physical activity in adults. Because little is known on the urban-rural differences in physical activity, the main aims of the present study were to examine differences in physical activity between urban and rural adults and to investigate the moderating effects of the physical environment on the relationship between psychosocial factors and physical activity. In Flanders, Belgium, five rural and five urban neighborhoods were selected. A sample of 350 adults (20-65 years of age; 35 adults per neighborhood) participated in the study. Participants wore a pedometer for 7 days, and self-reported physical activity and psychosocial data were also collected. Results showed that urban adults took more steps/day and reported more walking and cycling for transport in the neighborhood, more recreational walking in the neighborhood, and more walking for transportation outside the neighborhood than rural adults. Rural adults reported more recreational cycling in the neighborhoods. The physical environment was a significant moderator of the associations between several psychosocial factors (modeling from family, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers) and physical activity. In rural participants, adults with psychosocial scores above average were more physically active, whereas there were no differences in physical activity according to psychosocial factors in urban participants. These results are promising and plead for the development of multidimensional interventions, targeting specific population subgroups. In rural environments, where changing the environment would be a very challenging task, interventions focusing on modifiable psychosocial constructs could possibly be effective.
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The impact of disseminating the whole-community project 10,000 Steps: a RE-AIM analysis.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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There are insufficient research reports on the wide-scale dissemination of effective whole-community physical activity (PA) programs. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the wide-scale dissemination of 10,000 Steps, using the RE-AIM framework.
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Calibration and comparison of accelerometer cut points in preschool children.
Int J Pediatr Obes
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2010
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The present study aimed to develop accelerometer cut points to classify physical activities (PA) by intensity in preschoolers and to investigate discrepancies in PA levels when applying various accelerometer cut points.
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Criterion distances and correlates of active transportation to school in Belgian older adolescents.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2010
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Since physical activity levels in older adolescents have the potential to be increased by stimulating active transportation to school (ATS), the most important correlates of ATS should be determined before developing interventions, especially in those adolescents for whom the distance to school is feasible for active commuting. The main aims of this study were to determine criterion distances for ATS in Belgian older adolescents, to examine multidimensional correlates of ATS in adolescents living within a feasible distance from school and to investigate the associations of ATS with total physical activity and with other physical activities besides ATS.
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Physical activity as a mediator of the associations between neighborhood walkability and adiposity in Belgian adults.
Health Place
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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This study examined whether physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior mediated the relationship of neighborhood walkability with two measures of adiposity: body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR). Twenty-four neighborhoods in Ghent, Belgium were selected, stratified by objectively assessed walkability and by socio-economic status. Participants (1200 adults aged 20-65 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for 7 days. Weight and height were self-reported and waist circumference was objectively measured. Accelerometer-assessed moderate-to-vigorous PA and self-reported cycling for transport mediated the associations of walkability with BMI and WHTR. Moreover, walking for transport and recreational walking significantly mediated the relationship between walkability and BMI. Sedentary behavior did not mediate associations of walkability with BMI or WHTR. These findings suggest that PA, but not sedentary behavior, is a mechanism by which walkability may affect adults adiposity. Planning for neighborhoods to be high in walkability could have favorable effects on physical activity and weight status.
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Neighborhood walkability and sedentary time in Belgian adults.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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Sedentary behavior (too much sitting) has deleterious health consequences that are distinct from lack of physical activity (too little exercise).
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The relationship between physical activity and mental health varies across activity intensity levels and dimensions of mental health among women and men.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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To explore gender-specific variations related to activity intensity in the relationship between physical activity (PA) and mental health (MH). Evaluating whether psychological well-being enhances with increases in PA at recommended levels and above, in the general population.
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The effect of a multi-strategy workplace physical activity intervention promoting pedometer use and step count increase.
Health Educ Res
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2009
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Pedometer use and step count goals have become popular in physical activity (PA) interventions in different settings. Previous pedometer-based workplace interventions were short term, uncontrolled and executed outside Europe. This European quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects of a 20-week pedometer-based PA workplace intervention. Pedometer-based and self-reported PA from one intervention worksite (68 participants at follow-up) was compared with the data of a comparison workplace (79 participants at follow-up). A downward trend in overall step counts from baseline (end of summer) to follow-up (winter) was found (F = 3.3, P = 0.071). However, the intervention effect revealed a significant smaller decrease in the intervention workplace (-618 steps/day) than in the comparison workplace (-1389 steps/day) (F = 8.8, P = 0.004). This intervention effect was only present in already active participants, reaching 10 000 steps/day at baseline (intervention participants: -1706 steps/day; comparison participants: -4006 steps/day) (F = 5.5, P = 0.023). Overall project awareness was very high (97%) and the intervention strategies were judged good to very good by 57-95% of the participants. However, the proportion of intervention participants reporting that they had changed their PA behavior because of the intervention (31%) and reporting that they had used the pedometer during the intervention (48%) was limited. Future workplace projects should give extra attention to inactive employees.
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Specific associations between types of physical activity and components of mental health.
J Sci Med Sport
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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Findings of previous studies suggest that the relationship between physical activity and mental health may change across different domains of physical activity, different dimensions of mental health, and different population subgroups. The present study examined associations between five types of physical activity with different contents: housework, leisure active transportation, biking to/from work, walking to/from work, and sports participation, and two dimensions of mental health: perceived stress and psychological distress, in 1919 participants aged 20-65 years, using the data from the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed with the total sample, and with the sample stratified by gender, age, and occupational category. Further, separate models were used in the gender and age subgroups of each occupational category. Sports participation was the only type of physical activity inversely associated with both stress (OR=0.375; CI: 0.200-0.704) and distress (OR=0.480; CI: 0.253-0.910). Sports participation related to less distress in unemployed mid-aged adults, and to less stress in unemployed women, unemployed young adults, and young adults with blue-collar jobs. Housework was associated with more stress and more distress in women with blue-collar jobs. In young adults with white-collar jobs, however, an inverse association between housework and distress was found. Biking to and from work was associated with more stress in men with blue-collar jobs. Results invite consideration for the utility, and perhaps the necessity, of differentiated health recommendations for physical health and for mental health in different population subgroups.
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The contribution of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors in explaining physical activity among adolescents.
J Environ Public Health
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
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The present study aimed at investigating the influence of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors on adolescents engagement in self-reported extracurricular physical activity and leisure time sports and on MVPA objectively measured by accelerometers. Environmental factors were assessed using questionnaires. Gender specific hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, with demographic variables entered in the first block, and environmental, psychosocial factors and interactions terms entered in the second block. Participation in extracurricular activities at school was positively related to the number of organized activities and the provision of supervision. Perceived accessibility of neighborhood facilities was not related to engagement in leisure time sports, whereas the availability of sedentary and physical activity equipment was. Findings were generally supportive of ecological theories stating that behaviors are influenced by personal and environmental factors that are constantly interacting.
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Objectively measured physical activity, physical activity related personality and body mass index in 6- to 10-yr-old children: a cross-sectional study.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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The prevalence and level of overweight in childhood is rapidly increasing. One potential contributor to the rise in overweight is a decline in physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to compare levels and patterns of PA and PA related personality in normal-weight (NW) and overweight (OW) 6- to 10-yr-old children.
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Neighborhood SES and walkability are related to physical activity behavior in Belgian adults.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2009
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To investigate whether neighborhood walkability (higher residential density, land use mix, street connectivity) is positively associated with physical activity in Belgian adults and whether this association is moderated by neighborhood SES.
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Neighbourhood walkability and its particular importance for adults with a preference for passive transport.
Health Place
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
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In this study, differences in physical activity between adults living in high versus low walkable neighbourhoods were examined. In Sint-Niklaas, Belgium, neighbourhood walkability was defined by geographical map data and observations. One high walkable and one low walkable neighbourhood were selected. A sample of 120 adults between 20 and 65 years old, agreed to participate in the study and wore a pedometer for seven days. Self-reported physical activity and psychosocial data were collected. Results showed that residents of the high walkable neighbourhood took more steps/day and walked more for transport in their neighbourhood. Further analyses showed that living in a high walkable neighbourhood was associated with taking more steps, especially in adults with a preference for passive transport and/or a low intention to walk or cycle. In a health promotion context, these results are very promising.
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What do pedometer counts represent? A comparison between pedometer data and data from four different questionnaires.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2009
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To compare physical activity (PA) reported through pedometer registrations (step counts) with PA reported in four different questionnaires; to compare step count thresholds (7,500, 10,000 and 12,500 steps/d) with the PA guideline of 30 min of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) per day.
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Promoting physical activity at the pre-school playground: the effects of providing markings and play equipment.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2009
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We aimed to investigate the effects of providing play equipment and markings at the pre-school playground on physical activity engagement levels.
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Lower neighbourhood walkability and longer distance to school are related to physical activity in Belgian adolescents.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
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To investigate whether adolescents living in a high-walkable town centre are more physically active than those living in a less-walkable suburb.
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Moderators and mediators of pedometer use and step count increase in the "10,000 Steps Ghent" intervention.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
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The European pedometer-based "10,000 Steps Ghent" whole community intervention for 228,000 residents was found to be effective in increasing step counts by an average of 896 steps/day in a sub-sample of adults. The present study aimed to examine the characteristics of intervention participants (n = 438) who (1) used a pedometer and (2) increased their step counts. Additionally, the third aim was to examine the mediational effect of pedometer use on step count change.
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The visual control of bicycle steering: The effects of speed and path width.
Accid Anal Prev
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Although cycling is a widespread form of transportation, little is known about the visual behaviour of bicycle users. This study examined whether the visual behaviour of cyclists can be explained by the two-level model of steering described for car driving, and how it is influenced by cycling speed and lane width. In addition, this study investigated whether travel fixations, described during walking, can also be found during a cycling task. Twelve adult participants were asked to cycle three 15m long cycling lanes of 10, 25 and 40cm wide at three different self-selected speeds (i.e., slow, preferred and fast). Participants gaze behaviour was recorded at 50Hz using a head mounted eye tracker and the resulting scene video with overlay gaze cursor was analysed frame by frame. Four types of fixations were distinguished: (1) travel fixations, (2) fixations inside the cycling lane (path), (3) fixations to the final metre of the lane (goal), and (4) fixations outside of the cycling lane (external). Participants were found to mainly watch the path (41%) and goal (40%) region while very few travel fixations were made (<5%). Instead of travel fixations, an OptoKinetic Nystagmus was revealed when looking at the near path. Large variability between subjects in fixation location suggests that different strategies were used. Wider lanes resulted in a shift of gaze towards the end of the lane and to external regions, whereas higher cycling speeds resulted in a more distant gaze behaviour and more travel fixations. To conclude, the two-level model of steering as described for car driving is not fully in line with our findings during cycling, but the assumption that both the near and the far region is necessary for efficient steering seems valid. A new model for visual behaviour during goal directed locomotion is presented.
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Objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity time across the lifespan: a cross-sectional study in four age groups.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
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From a health perspective it is suggested to promote a positive balance between time spent in light intensity physical activity (LIPA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) (i.e. spending more time in LIPA than time spent in SB). However, no studies have reported prevalence rates of the LIPA-SB balance yet. The aim of this study was to objectively investigate the time spent in SB, in LIPA and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) in four Belgian age groups and to explore which proportion of the population had a favorable balance between LIPA and SB and combined this with recommended amount of MVPA.
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The impact of a teacher-led structured physical activity session on preschoolers sedentary and physical activity levels.
J Sci Med Sport
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The purpose of this observational study was to examine differences in preschoolers sedentary time and physical activity (PA) participation between preschool-attending weekdays with and without a teacher-led structured PA session.
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Individual, social and physical environmental correlates of never and always cycling to school among 10 to 12 year old children living within a 3.0 km distance from school.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
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Cycling to school has been identified as an important target for increasing physical activity levels in children. However, knowledge about correlates of cycling to school is scarce as many studies did not make a distinction between walking and cycling to school. Moreover, correlates of cycling to school for those who live within a distance, that in theory would allow cycling to school, stay undiscovered. Therefore, this study examined individual, social and physical environmental correlates of never and always cycling to/from school among 10 to 12 year old Belgian children living within a 3.0 km distance from school.
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Perceived neighborhood environmental attributes associated with adults leisure-time physical activity: findings from Belgium, Australia and the USA.
Health Place
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The study purpose was to examine the strength, direction and shape of the associations of environmental perceptions with recreational walking and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, using pooled data from four study sites (Baltimore [USA], Seattle [USA], Adelaide [Australia] and Ghent [Belgium]). Moreover, site- and gender-specificity of the associations were examined. In total, 6014 adults (20-65 years, 55.7% women) completed the Neighborhood Environmental Walkability Scale and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Both a recreational walking-friendliness index and a leisure-time activity friendliness index had a positive linear association with recreational walking and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. The associations were significant in all study sites except Ghent. Present findings were clearly site-specific, imposing possible challenges for built environment recommendations. In Belgium, interventions to promote leisure-time activity may need to target promotion of existing opportunities rather than built environment improvements.
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The effect of the UP4FUN pilot intervention on objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in 10-12 year old children in Belgium: the ENERGY-project.
BMC Public Health
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BAKCKGROUND: The first aim was to examine the effect of the UP4FUN pilot intervention on childrens total sedentary time. The second aim was to investigate if the intervention had an effect on childrens physical activity (PA) level. Finally, we aimed to investigate demographic differences (i.e. age, gender, ethnicity, living status and having siblings) between children in the intervention group who improved in sedentary time and PA at post-test and children in the intervention group who worsened in sedentary time and PA at post-test.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.