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2D SMARTCyp reactivity-based site of metabolism prediction for major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes.
J Chem Inf Model
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Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, and 1A2 are the most important drug-metabolizing enzymes in the human liver. Knowledge of which parts of a drug molecule are subject to metabolic reactions catalyzed by these enzymes is crucial for rational drug design to mitigate ADME/toxicity issues. SMARTCyp, a recently developed 2D ligand structure-based method, is able to predict site-specific metabolic reactivity of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 substrates with an accuracy that rivals the best and more computationally demanding 3D structure-based methods. In this article, the SMARTCyp approach was extended to predict the metabolic hotspots for CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2 substrates. This was accomplished by taking into account the impact of a key substrate-receptor recognition feature of each enzyme as a correction term to the SMARTCyp reactivity. The corrected reactivity was then used to rank order the likely sites of CYP-mediated metabolic reactions. For 60 CYP1A2 substrates, the observed major sites of CYP1A2 catalyzed metabolic reactions were among the top-ranked 1, 2, and 3 positions in 67%, 80%, and 83% of the cases, respectively. The results were similar to those obtained by MetaSite and the reactivity + docking approach. For 70 CYP2C9 substrates, the observed sites of CYP2C9 metabolism were among the top-ranked 1, 2, and 3 positions in 66%, 86%, and 87% of the cases, respectively. These results were better than the corresponding results of StarDrop version 5.0, which were 61%, 73%, and 77%, respectively. For 36 compounds metabolized by CYP2C19, the observed sites of metabolism were found to be among the top-ranked 1, 2, and 3 sites in 78%, 89%, and 94% of the cases, respectively. The computational procedure was implemented as an extension to the program SMARTCyp 2.0. With the extension, the program can now predict the site of metabolism for all five major drug-metabolizing enzymes with an accuracy similar to or better than that achieved by the best 3D structure-based methods. Both the Java source code and the binary executable of the program are freely available to interested users.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.