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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Nephrocystin-4 controls ciliary trafficking of membrane and large soluble proteins at the transition zone.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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The protein nephrocystin-4 (NPHP4) is widespread in ciliated organisms, and defects in NPHP4 cause nephronophthisis and blindness in humans. To learn more about NPHP4's function, we have studied it in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. NPHP4 is stably incorporated into the distal part of the flagellar transition zone, close to the membrane and distal to CEP290, another transition zone protein. Therefore, these two proteins, which are incorporated into the transition zone independently of each other, define different domains of the transition zone. A nphp4 null mutant forms flagella with nearly normal length, ultrastructure, and intraflagellar transport. When fractions from isolated wild-type and nphp4 flagella were compared, few differences were observed between the axonemes, but a subset of membrane proteins was greatly reduced in the mutant flagella, and cellular housekeeping proteins >50?kDa were no longer excluded from mutant flagella. Therefore, NPHP4 functions at the transition zone as an essential part of a barrier that regulates both membrane and soluble protein composition of flagella. The phenotypic consequences of NPHP4 mutations in humans likely follow from protein mislocalization due to defects in the TZ barrier.
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Role of cilia in structural birth defects: insights from ciliopathy mutant mouse models.
Birth Defects Res. C Embryo Today
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Structural birth defect (SBD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn period. Although the etiology of SBD is diverse, a wide spectrum of SBD associated with ciliopathies points to the cilium as having a central role in the pathogenesis of SBDs. Ciliopathies are human diseases arising from disruption of cilia structure and/or function. They are associated with developmental anomalies in one or more organ systems and can involve defects in motile cilia, such as those in the airway epithelia or from defects in nonmotile (primary cilia) that have sensory and cell signaling function. Availability of low cost next generation sequencing has allowed for explosion of new knowledge in genetic etiology of ciliopathies. This has led to the appreciation that many genes are shared in common between otherwise clinically distinct ciliopathies. Further insights into the relevance of the cilium in SBD has come from recovery of pathogenic mutations in cilia-related genes from many large-scale mouse forward genetic screens with differing developmental phenotyping focus. Our mouse mutagenesis screen for congenital heart disease (CHD) using noninvasive fetal echocardiography has yielded a marked enrichment for pathogenic mutations in genes required for motile or primary cilia function. These novel mutant mouse models will be invaluable for modeling human ciliopathies and further interrogating the role of the cilium in the pathogenesis of SBD and CHD. Overall, these findings suggest a central role for the cilium in the pathogenesis of a wide spectrum of developmental anomalies associated with CHD and SBDs.
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Casein kinase 1? functions at the centrosome and Golgi to promote ciliogenesis.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Inhibition of casein kinase 1 delta (CK1?) blocks primary ciliogenesis in human telomerase reverse transcriptase immortalized retinal pigmented epithelial and mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells-3. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and retinal cells from Csnk1d (CK1?)-null mice also exhibit ciliogenesis defects. CK1? catalytic activity and centrosomal localization signal (CLS) are required to rescue cilia formation in MEFs(Csnk1d null). Furthermore, expression of a truncated derivative containing the CLS displaces full-length CK1? from the centrosome and decreases ciliary length in control MEFs, suggesting that centrosomal CK1? has a role in ciliogenesis. CK1? inhibition also alters pericentrosomal or ciliary distribution of several proteins involved in ciliary transport, including Ras-like in rat brain-11A, Ras-like in rat brain-8A, centrosomal protein of 290 kDa, pericentriolar material protein 1, and polycystin-2, as well as the Golgi distribution of its binding partner, A-kinase anchor protein 450 (AKAP450). As reported for AKAP450, CK1? was required for microtubule nucleation at the Golgi and maintenance of Golgi integrity. Overexpression of an AKAP450 fragment containing the CK1?-binding site inhibits Golgi-derived microtubule nucleation, Golgi distribution of intraflagellar transport protein 20 homologue, and ciliogenesis. Our results suggest that CK1? mediates primary ciliogenesis by multiple mechanisms, one involving its centrosomal function and another dependent on its interaction with AKAP450 at the Golgi, where it is important for maintaining Golgi organization and polarized trafficking of multiple factors that mediate ciliary transport.
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Distinct functions for IFT140 and IFT20 in opsin transport.
Cytoskeleton (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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In the vertebrate retina, light is detected by the outer segments of photoreceptor rods and cones, which are highly modified cilia. Like other cilia, outer segments have no protein synthetic capacity and depend on proteins made in the cell body for their formation and maintenance. The mechanism of transport into the outer segment is not fully understood but intraflagellar transport (IFT) is thought to be a major mechanism for moving protein from the cell body into the cilium. In the case of photoreceptor cells, the high density of receptors and the disk turnover that occurs daily necessitates much higher rates of transport than would be required in other cilia. In this work, we show that the IFT complex A protein IFT140 is required for development and maintenance of outer segments. In earlier work we found that acute deletion of Ift20 caused opsin to accumulate at the Golgi complex. In this work, we find that acute deletion of Ift140 does not cause opsin to accumulate at the Golgi complex but rather it accumulates in the plasma membrane of the inner segments. This work is a strong support of a model of opsin transport where IFT20 is involved in the movement from the Golgi complex to the base of the cilium. Then, once at the base, the opsin is carried through the connecting cilium by an IFT complex that includes IFT140. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Specific recycling receptors are targeted to the immune synapse by the intraflagellar transport system.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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T cell activation requires sustained signaling at the immune synapse, a specialized interface with the antigen-presenting cell (APC) that assembles following T cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement by major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-bound peptide. Central to sustained signaling is the continuous recruitment of TCRs to the immune synapse. These TCRs are partly mobilized from an endosomal pool by polarized recycling. We have identified IFT20, a component of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system that controls ciliogenesis, as a central regulator of TCR recycling to the immune synapse. Here, we have investigated the interplay of IFT20 with the Rab GTPase network that controls recycling. We found that IFT20 forms a complex with Rab5 and the TCR on early endosomes. IFT20 knockdown (IFT20KD) resulted in a block in the recycling pathway, leading to a build-up of recycling TCRs in Rab5(+) endosomes. Recycling of the transferrin receptor (TfR), but not of CXCR4, was disrupted by IFT20 deficiency. The IFT components IFT52 and IFT57 were found to act together with IFT20 to regulate TCR and TfR recycling. The results provide novel insights into the mechanisms that control TCR recycling and immune synapse assembly, and underscore the trafficking-related function of the IFT system beyond ciliogenesis.
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Arf4 is required for Mammalian development but dispensable for ciliary assembly.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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The primary cilium is a sensory organelle, defects in which cause a wide range of human diseases including retinal degeneration, polycystic kidney disease and birth defects. The sensory functions of cilia require specific receptors to be targeted to the ciliary subdomain of the plasma membrane. Arf4 has been proposed to sort cargo destined for the cilium at the Golgi complex and deemed a key regulator of ciliary protein trafficking. In this work, we show that Arf4 binds to the ciliary targeting sequence (CTS) of fibrocystin. Knockdown of Arf4 indicates that it is not absolutely required for trafficking of the fibrocystin CTS to cilia as steady-state CTS levels are unaffected. However, we did observe a delay in delivery of newly synthesized CTS from the Golgi complex to the cilium when Arf4 was reduced. Arf4 mutant mice are embryonic lethal and die at mid-gestation shortly after node formation. Nodal cilia appeared normal and functioned properly to break left-right symmetry in Arf4 mutant embryos. At this stage of development Arf4 expression is highest in the visceral endoderm but we did not detect cilia on these cells. In the visceral endoderm, the lack of Arf4 caused defects in cell structure and apical protein localization. This work suggests that while Arf4 is not required for ciliary assembly, it is important for the efficient transport of fibrocystin to cilia, and also plays critical roles in non-ciliary processes.
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Wdpcp, a PCP protein required for ciliogenesis, regulates directional cell migration and cell polarity by direct modulation of the actin cytoskeleton.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Planar cell polarity (PCP) regulates cell alignment required for collective cell movement during embryonic development. This requires PCP/PCP effector proteins, some of which also play essential roles in ciliogenesis, highlighting the long-standing question of the role of the cilium in PCP. Wdpcp, a PCP effector, was recently shown to regulate both ciliogenesis and collective cell movement, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show Wdpcp can regulate PCP by direct modulation of the actin cytoskeleton. These studies were made possible by recovery of a Wdpcp mutant mouse model. Wdpcp-deficient mice exhibit phenotypes reminiscent of Bardet-Biedl/Meckel-Gruber ciliopathy syndromes, including cardiac outflow tract and cochlea defects associated with PCP perturbation. We observed Wdpcp is localized to the transition zone, and in Wdpcp-deficient cells, Sept2, Nphp1, and Mks1 were lost from the transition zone, indicating Wdpcp is required for recruitment of proteins essential for ciliogenesis. Wdpcp is also found in the cytoplasm, where it is localized in the actin cytoskeleton and in focal adhesions. Wdpcp interacts with Sept2 and is colocalized with Sept2 in actin filaments, but in Wdpcp-deficient cells, Sept2 was lost from the actin cytoskeleton, suggesting Wdpcp is required for Sept2 recruitment to actin filaments. Significantly, organization of the actin filaments and focal contacts were markedly changed in Wdpcp-deficient cells. This was associated with decreased membrane ruffling, failure to establish cell polarity, and loss of directional cell migration. These results suggest the PCP defects in Wdpcp mutants are not caused by loss of cilia, but by direct disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Consistent with this, Wdpcp mutant cochlea has normal kinocilia and yet exhibits PCP defects. Together, these findings provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that a PCP component required for ciliogenesis can directly modulate the actin cytoskeleton to regulate cell polarity and directional cell migration.
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Loss of cilia suppresses cyst growth in genetic models of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Kidney cysts occur following inactivation of polycystins in otherwise intact cilia or following complete removal of cilia by inactivation of intraflagellar transport-related proteins. We investigated the mechanisms of cyst formation in these two distinct processes by combining conditional inactivation of polycystins with concomitant ablation of cilia in developing and adult kidney and liver. We found that loss of intact cilia suppressed cyst growth following inactivation of polycystins and that the severity of cystic disease was directly related to the length of time between the initial loss of the polycystin proteins and the subsequent involution of cilia. This cilia-dependent cyst growth was not explained by activation of the MAPK/ERK, mTOR or cAMP pathways and is likely to be distinct from the mechanism of cyst growth following complete loss of cilia. These data establish the existence of a new pathway defined by polycystin-dependent inhibition and cilia-dependent activation that promotes rapid cyst growth.
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Analysis of ciliary membrane protein dynamics using SNAP technology.
Meth. Enzymol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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The sensory functions of the primary cilium rely on receptors and other membrane proteins that are specifically sorted to the ciliary compartment, which is a subdomain of the plasma membrane. Defects in this process underlie a large number of human diseases, yet it is poorly understood. Thus, it is of great interest to understand the mechanisms by which the cell sorts and traffics proteins to the ciliary membrane. Here, we provide an overview of our method to study the sorting and trafficking of ciliary membrane proteins using SNAP technology. This technology enables pulse-chase analysis of the movement of proteins through the endomembrane system and onto the cilium.
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Combined NGS approaches identify mutations in the intraflagellar transport gene IFT140 in skeletal ciliopathies with early progressive kidney Disease.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Ciliopathies are genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by variable expressivity and overlaps between different disease entities. This is exemplified by the short rib-polydactyly syndromes, Jeune, Sensenbrenner, and Mainzer-Saldino chondrodysplasia syndromes. These three syndromes are frequently caused by mutations in intraflagellar transport (IFT) genes affecting the primary cilia, which play a crucial role in skeletal and chondral development. Here, we identified mutations in IFT140, an IFT complex A gene, in five Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD) and two Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MSS) families, by screening a cohort of 66 JATD/MSS patients using whole exome sequencing and targeted resequencing of a customized ciliopathy gene panel. We also found an enrichment of rare IFT140 alleles in JATD compared with nonciliopathy diseases, implying putative modifier effects for certain alleles. IFT140 patients presented with mild chest narrowing, but all had end-stage renal failure under 13 years of age and retinal dystrophy when examined for ocular dysfunction. This is consistent with the severe cystic phenotype of Ift140 conditional knockout mice, and the higher level of Ift140 expression in kidney and retina compared with the skeleton at E15.5 in the mouse. IFT140 is therefore a major cause of cono-renal syndromes (JATD and MSS). The present study strengthens the rationale for IFT140 screening in skeletal ciliopathy spectrum patients that have kidney disease and/or retinal dystrophy.
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A unified taxonomy for ciliary dyneins.
Cytoskeleton (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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The formation and function of eukaryotic cilia/flagella require the action of a large array of dynein microtubule motor complexes. Due to genetic, biochemical, and microscopic tractability, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has become the premier model system in which to dissect the role of dyneins in flagellar assembly, motility, and signaling. Currently, 54 proteins have been described as components of various Chlamydomonas flagellar dyneins or as factors required for their assembly in the cytoplasm and/or transport into the flagellum; orthologs of nearly all these components are present in other ciliated organisms including humans. For historical reasons, the nomenclature of these diverse dynein components and their corresponding genes, mutant alleles, and orthologs has become extraordinarily confusing. Here, we unify Chlamydomonas dynein gene nomenclature and establish a systematic classification scheme based on structural properties of the encoded proteins. Furthermore, we provide detailed tabulations of the various mutant alleles and protein aliases that have been used and explicitly define the correspondence with orthologous components in other model organisms and humans.
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Primary cilia regulate proliferation of amplifying progenitors in adult hippocampus: implications for learning and memory.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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Integration of new neurons into the adult hippocampus has been linked to specific types of learning. Primary cilia were found to be required for the formation of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus during development. However, the requirement of cilia in maintenance of adult NSCs is unknown. We developed a genetic mouse model in which fetal/perinatal brain development is unaffected, but adult hippocampal neurogenesis is constantly reduced by conditional ablation of primary cilia in adult GFAP(+) neural stem/progenitor cells. We found that this approach specifically reduces the number of hippocampal amplifying progenitors (also called type 2a cells) without affecting the number of radial NSCs (or type 1 cells). Constant reduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis produced a delay rather than a permanent deficiency in spatial learning without affecting the retention of long-term memories. Decreased neurogenesis also altered spatial novelty recognition and hippocampus-independent cue conditioning. Here, we propose that adult hippocampal newborn neurons increase the efficiency of generating the new representations of spatial memories and that reduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be biased toward cue-based strategies. This novel mouse model provides evidences that cognitive deficits associated with ciliary defects (ciliopathies) might be, in part, mediated by the deficiency of primary cilia in adult hippocampal stem/progenitor cells.
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IFT20 is required for opsin trafficking and photoreceptor outer segment development.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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The light-detecting outer segments of vertebrate photoreceptors are cilia. Like other cilia, all materials needed for assembly and maintenance are synthesized in the cell body and transported into the cilium. The highly elaborated nature of the outer segment and its high rate of turnover necessitate unusually high levels of transport into the cilium. In this work, we examine the role of the IFT20 subunit of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) particle in photoreceptor cells. IFT20 was deleted in developing cones by a cone-specific Cre and in mature rods and cones by a tamoxifen-activatable Cre. Loss of IFT20 during cone development leads to opsin accumulation in the inner segment even when the connecting cilium and outer segment are still intact. With time this causes cone cell degeneration. Similarly, deletion of IFT20 in mature rods causes rapid accumulation of rhodopsin in the cell body, where it is concentrated at the Golgi complex. We further show that IFT20, acting both as part of the IFT particle and independent of the particle, binds to rhodopsin and RG-opsin. Since IFT20 dynamically moves between the Golgi complex and the connecting cilium, the current work suggests that rhodopsin and opsins are cargo for IFT transport.
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Disruption of Mks1 localization to the mother centriole causes cilia defects and developmental malformations in Meckel-Gruber syndrome.
Dis Model Mech
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS) is a recessive disorder resulting in multiple birth defects that are associated with mutations affecting ciliogenesis. We recovered a mouse mutant with a mutation in the Mks1 gene (Mks1(del64-323)) that caused a 260-amino-acid deletion spanning nine amino acids in the B9 domain, a protein motif with unknown function conserved in two other basal body proteins. We showed that, in wild-type cells, Mks1 was localized to the mother centriole from which the cilium was generated. However, in mutant Mks1(del64-323) cells, Mks1 was not localized to the centriole, even though it maintained a punctate distribution. Resembling MKS patients, Mks1 mutants had craniofacial defects, polydactyly, congenital heart defects, polycystic kidneys and randomized left-right patterning. These defects reflected disturbance of functions subserved by motile and non-motile cilia. In the kidney, glomerular and tubule cysts were observed along with short cilia, and cilia were reduced in number to a near-complete loss. Underlying the left-right patterning defects were fewer and shorter nodal cilia, and analysis with fluorescent beads showed no directional flow at the embryonic node. In the cochlea, the stereocilia were mal-patterned, with the kinocilia being abnormally positioned. Together, these defects suggested disruption of planar cell polarity, which is known to regulate node, kidney and cochlea development. In addition, we also showed that Shh signaling was disrupted. Thus, in the neural tube, the floor plate was not specified posteriorly even as expression of the Shh mediator Gli2 increased. By contrast, the Shh signaling domain was expanded in the anterior neural tube and anterior limb bud, consistent with reduced Gli3-repressor (Gli3R) function. The latter probably accounted for the preaxial digit duplication exhibited by the Mks1(del64-323) mutants. Overall, these findings indicate that centriole localization of Mks1 is required for ciliogenesis of motile and non-motile cilia, but not for centriole assembly. On the basis of these results, we hypothesize a role for the B9 domain in mother centriole targeting, a possibility that warrants further future investigations.
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Primary cilia regulate branching morphogenesis during mammary gland development.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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During mammary gland development, an epithelial bud undergoes branching morphogenesis to expand into a continuous tree-like network of branched ducts [1]. The process involves multiple cell types that are coordinated by hormones and growth factors coupled with signaling events including Wnt and Hedgehog [2-5]. Primary cilia play key roles in the development of many organs by coordinating extracellular signaling (of Wnt and Hedgehog) with cellular physiology [6-8]. During mammary development, we find cilia on luminal epithelial, myoepithelial, and stromal cells during early branching morphogenesis when epithelial ducts extend into the fat pad and undergo branching morphogenesis. When branching is complete, cilia disappear from luminal epithelial cells but remain on myoepithelial and stromal cells. Ciliary dysfunction caused by intraflagellar transport defects results in branching defects. These include decreased ductal extension and decreased secondary and tertiary branching, along with reduced lobular-alveolar development during pregnancy and lactation. We find increased canonical Wnt and decreased Hedgehog signaling in the mutant glands, which is consistent with the role of cilia in regulating these pathways [6-11]. In mammary gland and other organs, increased canonical Wnt [12-14] and decreased Hedgehog [15, 16] signaling decrease branching morphogenesis, suggesting that Wnt and Hedgehog signaling connect ciliary dysfunction to branching defects.
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The cytoplasmic tail of fibrocystin contains a ciliary targeting sequence.
J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Sensory functions of primary cilia rely on ciliary-localized membrane proteins, but little is known about how these receptors are targeted to the cilium. To further our understanding of this process, we dissected the ciliary targeting sequence (CTS) of fibrocystin, the human autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease gene product. We show that the fibrocystin CTS is an 18-residue motif localized in the cytoplasmic tail. This motif is sufficient to target green fluorescent protein (GFP) to cilia of ciliated cells and targets GFP to lipid rafts if the cells are not ciliated. Rab8, but not several other Rabs implicated in ciliary assembly, binds to the CTS in a coimmunoprecipitation assay. Dominant-negative Rab8 interacts more strongly than wild-type or constitutively active Rab8, and coexpression of this dominant-negative mutant Rab8 blocks trafficking to the cilium. This suggests that the CTS functions by binding regulatory proteins like Rab8 to control trafficking through the endomembrane system and on to the cilium.
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The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii BBSome is an IFT cargo required for export of specific signaling proteins from flagella.
J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2009
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In humans, seven evolutionarily conserved genes that cause the cilia-related disorder Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) encode proteins that form a complex termed the BBSome. The function of the BBSome in the cilium is not well understood. We purified a BBSome-like complex from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella and found that it contains at least BBS1, -4, -5, -7, and -8 and undergoes intraflagellar transport (IFT) in association with a subset of IFT particles. C. reinhardtii insertional mutants defective in BBS1, -4, and -7 assemble motile, full-length flagella but lack the ability to phototax. In the bbs4 mutant, the assembly and transport of IFT particles are unaffected, but the flagella abnormally accumulate several signaling proteins that may disrupt phototaxis. We conclude that the BBSome is carried by IFT but is an adapter rather than an integral component of the IFT machinery. C. reinhardtii BBS4 may be required for the export of signaling proteins from the flagellum via IFT.
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Immunoprecipitation to examine protein complexes.
Methods Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2009
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Immunoprecipitation approaches are widely used in the field of cell biology. This method is ideally suited to probe interactions between proteins that make up highly complex organelles like eukaryotic cilia and flagella. In this chapter, I discuss general methods for carrying out and analyzing immunoprecipitation experiments and discuss the controls that should be included in all valid immunoprecipitation experiments.
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Scanning electron microscopy to examine cells and organs.
Methods Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2009
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Scanning electron microscopy is an excellent method for viewing the surface of cells and organs, and provides exquisite detail of surface projections. This method has a long history of use in the analysis of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. In this chapter, we provide methods used by our group to examine mouse kidneys and the embryonic node. The methods provided here can be used with little modification to examine other mammalian organs or used as a starting point to develop methods for use in other organisms.
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The primary cilium coordinates early cardiogenesis and hedgehog signaling in cardiomyocyte differentiation.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
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Defects in the assembly or function of primary cilia, which are sensory organelles, are tightly coupled to developmental defects and diseases in mammals. Here, we investigated the function of the primary cilium in regulating hedgehog signaling and early cardiogenesis. We report that the pluripotent P19.CL6 mouse stem cell line, which can differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes, forms primary cilia that contain essential components of the hedgehog pathway, including Smoothened, Patched-1 and Gli2. Knockdown of the primary cilium by Ift88 and Ift20 siRNA or treatment with cyclopamine, an inhibitor of Smoothened, blocks hedgehog signaling in P19.CL6 cells, as well as differentiation of the cells into beating cardiomyocytes. E11.5 embryos of the Ift88(tm1Rpw) (Ift88-null) mice, which form no cilia, have ventricular dilation, decreased myocardial trabeculation and abnormal outflow tract development. These data support the conclusion that cardiac primary cilia are crucial in early heart development, where they partly coordinate hedgehog signaling.
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Intraflagellar transport is required for polarized recycling of the TCR/CD3 complex to the immune synapse.
Nat. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
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Most eukaryotic cells have a primary cilium which functions as a sensory organelle. Cilia are assembled by intraflagellar transport (IFT), a process mediated by multimeric IFT particles and molecular motors. Here we show that lymphoid and myeloid cells, which lack primary cilia, express IFT proteins. IFT20, an IFT component essential for ciliary assembly, was found to colocalize with both the microtubule organizing centre (MTOC) and Golgi and post-Golgi compartments in T-lymphocytes. In antigen-specific conjugates, IFT20 translocated to the immune synapse. IFT20 knockdown resulted in impaired T-cell receptor/CD3 (TCR/CD3) clustering and signalling at the immune synapse, due to defective polarized recycling. Moreover, IFT20 was required for the inducible assembly of a complex with other IFT components (IFT57 and IFT88) and the TCR. The results identify IFT20 as a new regulator of immune synapse assembly in T cells and provide the first evidence to implicate IFT in membrane trafficking in cells lacking primary cilia, thereby introducing a new perspective on IFT function beyond its role in ciliogenesis.
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Characterization of mouse IFT complex B.
Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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The primary cilium plays a key role in the development of mammals and in the maintenance of health. Primary cilia are assembled and maintained by the process of intraflagellar transport (IFT). In this work, we characterize mouse IFT complex B by identifying all of the mammalian orthologues of complex B and B-associated proteins previously identified in Chlamydomonas and Caenorhabditis and also identify a new component (IFT25/Hspb11) of complex B by database analysis. We tagged each of these proteins with the FLAG epitope and show that all except IFT172 and IFT20 localize to cilia and the peri-basal body or centrosomal region at the base of cilia. All of the proteins except IFT172 immunoprecipitate IFT88 indicating that they are co-assembled into a complex. IFT20 is the only complex B protein that localizes to the Golgi apparatus. However, overexpression of IFT54/Traf3ip1, the mouse orthologue of Dyf-11/Elipsa, displaces IFT20 from the Golgi apparatus. IFT54 does not localize to the Golgi complex nor does it interact with GMAP210, which is the protein that anchors IFT20 to the Golgi apparatus. This suggests that IFT54s effect on IFT20 is a dominant negative phenotype caused by its overexpression. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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CapSeq and CIP-TAP identify Pol II start sites and reveal capped small RNAs as C. elegans piRNA precursors.
Cell
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Piwi-interacting (pi) RNAs are germline-expressed small RNAs linked to epigenetic programming. C. elegans piRNAs are thought to be transcribed as independent gene-like loci. To test this idea and to identify potential transcription start (TS) sites for piRNA precursors, we developed CapSeq, an efficient enzymatic method for 5 anchored RNA profiling. Using CapSeq, we identify candidate TS sites, defined by 70-90 nt sequence tags, for >50% of annotated Pol II loci. Surprisingly, however, these CapSeq tags failed to identify the overwhelming majority of piRNA loci. Instead, we show that the likely piRNA precursors are ?26 nt capped small (cs) RNAs that initiate precisely 2 nt upstream of mature piRNAs and that piRNA processing or stability requires a U at the csRNA +3 position. Finally, we identify a heretofore unrecognized class of piRNAs processed from csRNAs that are expressed at promoters genome wide, nearly doubling the number of piRNAs available for genome surveillance.
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The role of retrograde intraflagellar transport in flagellar assembly, maintenance, and function.
J. Cell Biol.
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The maintenance of flagellar length is believed to require both anterograde and retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT). However, it is difficult to uncouple the functions of retrograde transport from anterograde, as null mutants in dynein heavy chain 1b (DHC1b) have stumpy flagella, demonstrating solely that retrograde IFT is required for flagellar assembly. We isolated a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant (dhc1b-3) with a temperature-sensitive defect in DHC1b, enabling inducible inhibition of retrograde IFT in full-length flagella. Although dhc1b-3 flagella at the nonpermissive temperature (34°C) showed a dramatic reduction of retrograde IFT, they remained nearly full-length for many hours. However, dhc1b-3 cells at 34°C had strong defects in flagellar assembly after cell division or pH shock. Furthermore, dhc1b-3 cells displayed altered phototaxis and flagellar beat. Thus, robust retrograde IFT is required for flagellar assembly and function but is dispensable for the maintenance of flagellar length. Proteomic analysis of dhc1b-3 flagella revealed distinct classes of proteins that change in abundance when retrograde IFT is inhibited.
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IFT25 links the signal-dependent movement of Hedgehog components to intraflagellar transport.
Dev. Cell
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The intraflagellar transport (IFT) system is required for building primary cilia, sensory organelles that cells use to respond to their environment. IFT particles are composed of about 20 proteins, and these proteins are highly conserved across ciliated species. IFT25, however, is absent from some ciliated organisms, suggesting that it may have a unique role distinct from ciliogenesis. Here, we generate an Ift25 null mouse and show that IFT25 is not required for ciliary assembly but is required for proper Hedgehog signaling, which in mammals occurs within cilia. Mutant mice die at birth with multiple phenotypes, indicative of Hedgehog signaling dysfunction. Cilia lacking IFT25 have defects in the signal-dependent transport of multiple Hedgehog components including Patched-1, Smoothened, and Gli2, and fail to activate the pathway upon stimulation. Thus, IFT function is not restricted to building cilia where signaling occurs, but also plays a separable role in signal transduction events.
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Disruption of IFT complex A causes cystic kidneys without mitotic spindle misorientation.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
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Intraflagellar transport (IFT) complexes A and B build and maintain primary cilia. In the mouse, kidney-specific or hypomorphic mutant alleles of IFT complex B genes cause polycystic kidneys, but the influence of IFT complex A proteins on renal development is not well understood. In the present study, we found that HoxB7-Cre-driven deletion of the complex A gene Ift140 from collecting ducts disrupted, but did not completely prevent, cilia assembly. Mutant kidneys developed collecting duct cysts by postnatal day 5, with rapid cystic expansion and renal dysfunction by day 15 and little remaining parenchymal tissue by day 20. In contrast to many models of polycystic kidney disease, precystic Ift140-deleted collecting ducts showed normal centrosomal positioning and no misorientation of the mitotic spindle axis, suggesting that disruption of oriented cell division is not a prerequisite to cyst formation in these kidneys. Precystic collecting ducts had an increased mitotic index, suggesting that cell proliferation may drive cyst expansion even with normal orientation of the mitotic spindle. In addition, we observed significant increases in expression of canonical Wnt pathway genes and mediators of Hedgehog and tissue fibrosis in highly cystic, but not precystic, kidneys. Taken together, these studies indicate that loss of Ift140 causes pronounced renal cystic disease and suggest that abnormalities in several different pathways may influence cyst progression.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.