JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in imported pediatric visceral leishmaniasis in a nonendemic area.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe characteristics of visceral leishmaniasis-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with focus on diagnostic clues and pitfalls, including the frequency of central nervous system (CNS) involvement, and to determine the efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB).
Related JoVE Video
Hemophagocytic syndromes--an update.
Blood Rev.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome and not an independent disease. HLH represents the extreme end of a severe uncontrolled hyperinflammatory reaction that can occur in many underlying conditions. Genetic forms of HLHs are due to defects in transport, processing and function of cytotoxic granules in natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and are not restricted to manifestation in childhood. Acquired forms of HLH are encountered in infections, autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases, malignancies, acquired immune deficiency. Functional tests allow for differentiation between genetic and acquired HLH. Treatment aims at suppressing hypercytokinemia and eliminating activated and infected cells. It includes immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive agents, cytostatics, T-cell and cytokine antibodies. In genetic HLH cure can only be achieved with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Reduced-intensity conditioning regimens have considerably improved survival.
Related JoVE Video
Determination of an appropriate cut-off value for ferritin in the diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hyperferritinemia is a hallmark of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). In the HLH-2004 criteria, a ferritin value >500 µg/L is considered positive. However, this level was not determined based on evidence. We compared 123 patients with HLH and 320 patients with other hyperferritinemic conditions, calculated a receiver-operating characteristic, and determined sensitivity and specificity for different values. At 2,000 µg/L a trade-off is reached with sensitivity at 70% and specificity at 68%. If familial HLH and virus-associated acquired HLH are analyzed separately, sensitivity and specificity are similar for this level. The results may guide a potential modification of the current HLH criteria.
Related JoVE Video
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: pathogenesis and treatment.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is not an independent disease but rather a life-threatening clinical syndrome that occurs in many underlying conditions and in all age groups. HLH is the consequence of a severe, uncontrolled hyperinflammatory reaction that in most cases is triggered by an infectious agent. Persistent stimulation of lymphocytes and histiocytes results in hypercytokinemia, leading to the characteristic symptoms of HLH. Genetic defects in familial HLH and in immunodeficiency syndromes associated with albinism affect the transport, processing, and function of cytotoxic granules in natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This leads to defective killing of target cells and a failure to contract the immune response. The defects are increasingly found also in adolescents and adults. Acquired HLH occurs in autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases (macrophage activation syndrome) and in patients with iatrogenic immunosuppression or with malignancies, but also in otherwise healthy persons with infections. Treatment of HLH aims at suppressing hypercytokinemia and eliminating the activated and infected cells. In genetic HLH, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is needed for the correction of the immune defect. Treatment modalities include immunosuppressive, immunomodulatory, and cytostatic drugs; T-cell antibodies; and anticytokine agents. Using immunochemotherapy, familial HLH, which had been invariably fatal, has become a curable disease with more than 50% survivors. Reduced intensity conditioning for HSCT, which is associated with less transplantation-related mortality, will further improve cure rates.
Related JoVE Video
Treosulfan-based conditioning regimen for children and adolescents with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, high transplant related mortality after busulfan-based myeloablative regimens has been observed. Conditioning regimens with reduced toxicity based on melphalan or treosulfan are promising alternatives. We retrospectively analyzed hematopoietic stem cell transplantations in 19 hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patients after conditioning with fludarabine, treosulfan, alemtuzumab, with or without thiotepa. Overall and disease-free survivals were 100% (follow-up 7-31 m). Two patients required second transplant (1 after haploidentical transplantation). In 6 patients, overall donor chimerism dropped below 75% and prompted donor lymphocyte infusions. Administration of donor lymphocytes or second transplantion were significantly more frequent after transplantation from a human leukocyte antigen mismatched (9/10) vs. matched (10/10) donor (p=0.018). The toxicity profile was favorable, with 1 veno-occlusive disease, 1 graft-versus-host- disease III after donor lymphocyte infusion, and 2 severe viral infections (1 influenza, 1 Epstein Barr virus). In conclusion, the treosulfan-based regimen in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is effective with low toxicity and renders excellent overall and disease-free survivals. In the future, the incidence of mixed chimerism particularly after human leukocyte antigen mismatched transplants needs to be addressed.
Related JoVE Video
Therapy prolongation improves outcome in multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH)-III tested risk-adjusted, intensified, longer treatment of multisystem LCH (MS-LCH), for which optimal therapy has been elusive. Stratified by risk organ involvement (high [RO+] or low [RO-] risk groups), > 400 patients were randomized. RO+ patients received 1 to 2 six-week courses of vinblastine+prednisone (Arm A) or vinblastine + prednisone + methotrexate (Arm B). Response triggered milder continuation therapy with the same combinations, plus 6-mercaptopurine, for 12 months total treatment. 6/12-week response rates (mean, 71%) and 5-year survival (84%) and reactivation rates (27%) were similar in both arms. Notably, historical comparisons revealed survival superior to that of identically stratified RO+ patients treated for 6 months in predecessor trials LCH-I (62%) or LCH-II (69%, P < .001), and lower 5-year reactivation rates than in LCH-I (55%) or LCH-II (44%, P < .001). RO- patients received vinblastine+prednisone throughout. Response by 6 weeks triggered randomization to 6 or 12 months total treatment. Significantly lower 5-year reactivation rates characterized the 12-month Arm D (37%) compared with 6-month Arm C (54%, P = .03) or to 6-month schedules in LCH-I (52%) and LCH-II (48%, P < .001). Thus, prolonging treatment decreased RO- patient reactivations in LCH-III, and although methotrexate added no benefit, RO+ patient survival and reactivation rates have substantially improved in the 3 sequential trials. (Trial No. NCT00276757 www.ClinicalTrials.gov).
Related JoVE Video
The risk of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic disorders of lymphocyte cytotoxicity predispose patients to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Reduced lymphocyte cytotoxicity has been demonstrated in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2 (HPS2), but only a single patient was reported who developed HLH. Because that patient also carried a potentially contributing heterozygous RAB27A mutation, the risk for HLH in HPS2 remains unclear. We analyzed susceptibility to HLH in the pearl mouse model of HPS2. After infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, pearl mice developed all key features of HLH, linked to impaired virus control caused by a moderate defect in CTL cytotoxicity in vivo. However, in contrast to perforin-deficient mice, the disease was transient, and all mice fully recovered and controlled the infection. An additional heterozygous Rab27a mutation did not aggravate the cytotoxicity defect or disease parameters. In the largest survey of 22 HPS2 patients covering 234 patient years, we identified only 1 additional patient with HLH and 2 with incomplete transient HLH-like episodes, although cytotoxicity or degranulation was impaired in all 16 patients tested. HPS2 confers a risk for HLH that is lower than in Griscelli or Chediak-Higashi syndrome, probably because of a milder defect in cytotoxicity. Preemptive hematopoietic stem cell transplantation does not appear justified in HPS2.
Related JoVE Video
Differentiating macrophage activation syndrome in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis from other forms of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify measures distinguishing macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) from familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) and virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (VA-HLH) and to define appropriate cutoff values. To evaluate suggested dynamic measures differentiating MAS in patients with sJIA from sJIA flares.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors for early death in children with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disturbance of immunoregulation. HLH comprises primary and acquired forms with different disease severity. A large proportion of deaths occur early into treatment. We investigated association with early death for laboratory and clinical parameters before the start of and 2 weeks into therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Promising therapy results for lymphoid malignancies in children with chromosomal breakage syndromes (Ataxia teleangiectasia or Nijmegen-breakage syndrome): a retrospective survey.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Children with chromosomal instability syndromes have an increased risk of developing lymphoma and leukaemia. The treatment of these malignancies is hampered by therapy-associated toxicity and infectious complications. This retrospective analysis evaluated the therapy outcome of 38 children with Ataxia teleangiectasia or Nijmegen-breakage syndrome with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL, n = 9), Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, n = 28) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL, n = 1). All patients with NHL or ALL were treated in accordance to Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM)- or Co-operative study group for childhood ALL (CoALL)-oriented chemotherapy schedules. 22 patients received significantly reduced-intensity chemotherapy. After a median follow-up of 3·7 years the 10-year overall survival was 58%. Dosage-reduction of chemotherapeutic drugs seemed to have no disadvantages and reduced toxic side effects. On the other hand, reduced-intensity chemotherapy did not prevent second malignancies, which occurred in ten patients with a 10-year incidence of 25%. After individual treatment approaches three of these patients with second malignancies were in complete clinical remission for more than 5 years. We conclude that BFM- or CoALL-oriented chemotherapy is effective and can be administered in children with AT or NBS. Moreover, we show that even second lymphoid malignancies can successfully be treated in these patients.
Related JoVE Video
Chemoimmunotherapy for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: long-term results of the HLH-94 treatment protocol.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) used to have a dismal prognosis. We report the final results of HLH-94, the largest prospective diagnostic/therapeutic HLH study so far. The treatment includes immunosuppressive and cytotoxic therapy aiming at clinical remission, followed by HSCT in patients with familial, persistent, or recurrent disease. Altogether, 249 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria and started HLH-94 therapy (July 1994-December 2003); 227 (91%) were followed-up for ? 5 years. At 6.2 years median follow-up, estimated 5-year probability of survival was 54% ± 6%. Seventy-two patients (29%) died before HSCT, 64 within 1 year, 97% of whom had active disease. In 124 patients who underwent HSCT, 5-year survival was 66 ± 8%; tendency to increased survival (P = .064) in patients with nonactive disease at HSCT. Patients with familial disease had a 5-year survival of 50% ± 13%; none survived without HSCT. Patients deceased during the first 2 months more often had jaundice, edema, and elevated creatinine. Forty-nine patients (20%) were alive without signs of HLH activity and off-therapy > 1-year without HSCT; they presented at older age (P < .001), were more often female (P = .011), and less often had CNS disease (P < .001) or hepatomegaly (P = .007). To conclude, HLH-94 chemoimmunotherapy has considerably improved outcome in HLH. Collaborative efforts are needed to further reduce early mortality, HSCT-related mortality, and neurologic late effects.
Related JoVE Video
Pancreatic exocrine function and cardiac iron in patients with iron overload and with thalassemia.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with ?-thalassemia major at risk of cardiac iron overload have to be identified to undergo myocardial iron measurements by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), especially, in areas and centers with restricted access to MRI. Measurements of heart iron, liver iron, and pancreatic exocrine function were performed in 44 patients by MRI-R2* [the transverse relaxation rate R2* (= 1/T2*) characterizes the magnetic resonance decay from protons not being in phase with each other in contrast to R2 (= 1/T2)], biomagnetic liver susceptometry (LIC), and pancreatic serum amylase (PAM) and lipase (LIP), respectively. ROC analysis (area: 0.88) for detecting patients with cardiac R2*?> 50 sec(-1) (T2*?< 20 msec) by LIP revealed a cut-off level of 19 U/L. In conclusion, patients at risk of elevated cardiac iron levels could be identified by the exocrine pancreatic lipase and amylase function parameters.
Related JoVE Video
The long-term impact of in vitro drug sensitivity on risk stratification and treatment outcome in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of childhood (CoALL 06-97).
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In a study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (CoALL 06-97 study), the in vitro sensitivity of the patients cells to prednisolone, vincristine and asparaginase was introduced as a new additional risk parameter for treatment stratification. In parallel in vivo treatment response was assessed by determining the presence and extent of minimal residual disease in a subset of patients (n=224). Here we report the long-term impact of in vitro sensitivity-based risk stratification according to survival and compare the results of in vitro sensitivity with in vivo response.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Distribution of cardiac iron measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-R*2.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess regional iron distribution by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-R(2)* within the heart of patients with ?-thalassemia major (TM) and other iron overload diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Atypical familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis due to mutations in UNC13D and STXBP2 overlaps with primary immunodeficiency diseases.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a genetic disorder of lymphocyte cytotoxicity that usually presents in the first two years of life and has a poor prognosis unless treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Atypical courses with later onset and prolonged survival have been described, but no detailed analysis of immunological parameters associated with typical versus atypical forms of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis has been performed.
Related JoVE Video
Improved outcome with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a poor prognostic subgroup of infants with mixed-lineage-leukemia (MLL)-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the Interfant-99 Study.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To define a role for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in infants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and rearrangements of the mixed-lineage-leukemia gene (MLL(+)), we compared the outcome of MLL(+) patients from trial Interfant-99 who either received chemotherapy only or HSCT. Of 376 patients with a known MLL status in the trial, 297 (79%) were MLL(+). Among the 277 of 297 MLL(+) patients (93%) in first remission (CR), there appeared to be a significant difference in disease-free survival (adjusted by waiting time to HSCT) between the 37 (13%) who received HSCT and the 240 (87%) who received chemotherapy only (P = .03). However, the advantage was restricted to a subgroup with 2 additional unfavorable prognostic features: age less than 6 months and either poor response to steroids at day 8 or leukocytes more than or equal to 300 g/L. Ninety-seven of 297 MLL(+) patients (33%) had such high-risk criteria, with 87 achieving CR. In this group, HSCT was associated with a 64% reduction in the risk of failure resulting from relapse or death in CR (hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.86). In the remaining patients, there was no advantage for HSCT over chemotherapy only. In summary, HSCT seems to be a valuable option for a subgroup of infant MLL(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia carrying further poor prognostic factors. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00015873 and at www.controlled-trials.com as #ISRCTN24251487.
Related JoVE Video
Phase II window study on rituximab in newly diagnosed pediatric mature B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma and Burkitt leukemia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The activity of rituximab in pediatric B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma (B-NHL) has not yet been determined. We conducted a phase II window study to examine activity and tolerability of rituximab in newly diagnosed pediatric B-NHL.
Related JoVE Video
An aggressive systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma clonally related to a preceding T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a disorder of disputed origin thought to be related to the dermal/interstitial macrophage. A 5-year-old female presented with an aggressive systemic JXG that developed 5 months after the diagnosis of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Examination of the T-cell receptor gamma (TCR-?) rearrangement in T-ALL blasts, JXG infiltrated lymph node biopsies and micro-dissected JXG histiocytes revealed an identical bi-allelic TCR-? rearrangement in all samples, thus providing evidence for a clonal relationship between T-ALL and JXG in this case.
Related JoVE Video
Neonatal cholestasis and glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase deficiency.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a Caucasian neonate with chronic non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia due to a class I G6PD deficiency. A novel mutation missense mutation in exon eight of the G6PD gene was detected (c.827C>T p.Pro276Leu). Bilirubin peaked on day 5 at 24 mg/dl with a conjugated bilirubin of 17 mg/dl. Jaundice resolved within 4 weeks. A detailed work-up failed to reveal other specific factors contributing to cholestasis. Severe hemolytic disease of the newborn may cause cholestasis even in the absence of associated primary hepato-biliary disease.
Related JoVE Video
Ongoing remission after intensive ALL-type chemotherapy in pediatric intestinal T-cell lymphoma.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A rare case of primary intestinal T-cell lymphoma (ITL) of an 8-year-old boy is reported. Medium- to large-sized tumor cells were betaF1+, CD3+, CD8+. TIA-1+, but CD4-, CD5-, CD30-, CD56-, CD20-, CD79a-, TdT-, consistent with an intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) origin. They showed monoclonal rearrangement of the T-cell receptor gamma-chain and no evidence of EBV infection. No clinical, histologic, laboratory, or genetic evidence of celiac disease was detected. In adults, ITL is often associated with enteropathy and has a very poor outcome. Our patient remains in first remission 30 months after finishing the acute lymphoblastic leukemia protocol COALL-07-03 high risk standard.
Related JoVE Video
Outcome of congenital acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated on the Interfant-99 protocol.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) diagnosed in the first month of life (congenital ALL) is very rare. Although congenital ALL is often assumed to be fatal, no studies have been published on outcome except for case reports. The present study reports the outcome of 30 patients with congenital ALL treated with the uniform Interfant-99 protocol, a hybrid regimen combining ALL treatment with elements designed for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. Congenital ALL was characterized by a higher white blood cell count and a strong trend for higher incidence of MLL rearrangements and CD10-negative B-lineage ALL compared with older infants. Induction failure rate was 13% and not significantly different from that in older infants (7%, P = .14), but relapse rate was significantly higher in congenital ALL patients (2-year cumulative incidence [SE] was 60.0 [9.3] vs 34.2 [2.3], P < .001). Two-year event-free survival and survival of congenital ALL patients treated with this protocol was 20% (SE 9.1%). Early death in complete remission and treatment delays resulting from toxicity were not different. The survival of 17% after last follow-up, combined with a toxicity profile comparable with that in older infants, justifies treating congenital ALL with curative intent. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as no. NCT 00015873, and at www.controlled-trials.com as no. ISRCTN24251487.
Related JoVE Video
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 5 (FHL-5) is caused by mutations in Munc18-2 and impaired binding to syntaxin 11.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rapid intracellular transport and secretion of cytotoxic granules through the immunological synapse requires a balanced interaction of several proteins. Disturbance of this highly regulated process underlies familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL), a genetically heterogeneous autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by a severe hyperinflammatory phenotype. Here, we have assigned FHL-5 to a 1 Mb region on chromosome 19p by using high-resolution SNP genotyping in eight unrelated FHL patients from consanguineous families. Subsequently, we found nine different mutations, either truncating or missense, in STXBP2 in twelve patients from Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Central Europe. STXBP2 encodes syntaxin binding protein 2 (Munc18-2), involved in the regulation of vesicle transport to the plasma membrane. We have identified syntaxin 11, a SNARE protein mutated in FHL-4, as an interaction partner of STXBP2. This interaction is eliminated by the missense mutations found in our FHL-5 patients, which leads to a decreased stability of both proteins, as shown in patient lymphocytes. Activity of natural killer and cytotoxic T cells was markedly reduced or absent, as determined by CD107 degranulation. Our findings thus identify a key role for STXBP2 in lytic granule exocytosis.
Related JoVE Video
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and Kawasaki disease: combined manifestation and differential diagnosis.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Both hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and Kawasaki disease (KD) are diagnosed in patients with prolonged resistant fever by using a scoring system. Concurrent manifestation of both conditions has been reported previously. We describe an infant of 7 weeks whose condition fulfilled the criteria of HLH, but who, after clinical response to treatment, suddenly died from a myocardial infarction at 11 weeks. Post-mortem examination revealed a previously unknown coronary arteritis typical for KD. Since it is difficult to distinguish between KD and HLH, both diseases should be considered in young children with overlapping symptoms. Repeated echocardiograms may be helpful in these cases.
Related JoVE Video
Infection of T lymphocytes in Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in children of non-Asian origin.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is one of the most frequent triggers of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). EBV-associated HLH (EBV-HLH) and ectopic infection of T cells has been particularly described in patients from Far East Asia.
Related JoVE Video
The CD70/CD27 pathway is critical for stimulation of an effective cytotoxic T cell response against B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
For effective immunotherapy, maintaining the frequency and cytotoxic potential of effector cells is critical. In this context costimulation via the CD70/CD27 pathway has been proven essential. CD70 has been reported to be expressed to varying degrees on malignant B cells. However, in B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common childhood malignancy, the role of CD70 in stimulation of antileukemic T cell responses has so far not been delineated. Herein we demonstrate that in B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia expression of CD70 is low but can be induced upon blast activation via CD40. Both CD70 and CD80/CD86 up-regulated on CD40-stimulated blasts contribute to primary stimulation of T cell proliferation and cytokine production in an additive manner. These two signals also cooperate in the prevention of T cell anergy. In contrast to blockade of CD70 during the effector phase, inhibition of CD70-mediated costimulation during generation of antileukemic T cells prevents effector cell proliferation and reduces their cytotoxic capacity. Modulation of the CD70/CD27 pathway may thus represent a novel therapeutic approach for augmenting magnitude and quality of the antileukemic response in B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Related JoVE Video
Case-control study on the therapy of childhood cancer and the occurrence of second malignant neoplasms in Germany.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report on a nested case-control study with 328 cases with second malignant neoplasm (SMN) following childhood cancer and 639 matched controls based on the German Childhood Cancer Registry. In the adjusted overall analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for SMN following any radiotherapy or chemotherapy is 2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8-3.3] and 1.8 (95% CI: 0.98-3.1), respectively. The strongest effect is seen for alkylating agents (OR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.2-3.3). The risk of SMN after leukemia is pronounced for antimetabolites (OR=17.2, 95% CI: 1.7-177) and asparaginase (OR=4.3, 95% CI: 1.7-11.0). Following solid tumors, the greatest effect is seen for platinum derivatives (OR=4.1, 95% CI: 1.7-10.1). For anthracyclines, a decreased risk is observed (OR=0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.6). Secondary solid tumors are mainly associated with radiotherapy (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 2.5-8.0), especially secondary carcinomas. Secondary acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome are mainly associated with alkylating agents (OR=8.5, 95% CI: 0.97-74.8), asparaginase (OR=6.8, 95% CI: 2.3-20.6), and platinum derivatives (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 1.5-13.6). The observed risks are in many instances lower than the ones published in previous studies relating to earlier treatment eras of the primary diseases. These differences may be attributed to less toxic but still effective treatment regimes but also to differences in the length of follow-up.
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacokinetics of high-dose methotrexate in infants treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Interfant-99 was an international collaborative treatment protocol for infants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
Related JoVE Video
A subtype of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with poor treatment outcome: a genome-wide classification study.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) are used to determine risk and treatment in children. 25% of precursor B-ALL cases are genetically unclassified and have intermediate prognosis. We aimed to use a genome-wide study to improve prognostic classification of ALL in children.
Related JoVE Video
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in syntaxin-11-deficient mice: T-cell exhaustion limits fatal disease.
Blood
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Syntaxin-11 (Stx11), an atypical member of the SNARE protein family, is part of the cytolytic machinery of T and NK cells and involved in the fusion of lytic granules with the plasmamembrane. Functional loss of syntaxin-11 in humans causes defective degranulation and impaired cytolytic activity of T and NK cells. Furthermore, patients with STX11 deficiency develop familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 4 (FHL4), a life-threatening disease of severe hyperinflammation. We established Stx11-deficient mice as an animal model for FHL4. Stx11-deficient mice exhibited severely reduced degranulation and cytolytic activity of CTL and NK cells and developed all clinical symptoms of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) after infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The HLH phenotype was further characterized by hyperactive CD8 T cells and continuous IFN-? production. However, in contrast to perforin-deficient mice, which represent a model for FHL2, progression of HLH was not fatal. Survival of Stx11-deficient mice was determined by exhaustion of antigen-specific T cells, characterized by expression of inhibitory receptors, sequential loss of effector functions, and finally T-cell deletion. Blockade of inhibitory receptors on T cells in Stx11-deficient mice converted nonfatal disease course into fatal HLH, identifying T-cell exhaustion as an important factor for determination of disease severity in HLH.
Related JoVE Video
Administration of recombinant erythropoietin alone does not improve the phenotype in iron refractory iron deficiency anemia patients.
Ann. Hematol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mutations in transmembrane protease, serine 6 (TMPRSS6) cause iron refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA). Parenteral iron administration may slightly improve hemoglobin level but is troublesome for patients. Optimal treatment has yet to be determined. We identified five patients from four independent families displaying the IRIDA picture with truncating biallelic mutations in TMPRSS6, one of which is novel. Liver iron determined by superconducting quantum interference device biosusceptometry ranged from 390 to 720 µg Fe/g wet weight (normal range 100-500; n = 3). Intestinal iron absorption (12 and 32 %, normal range 10-50; n = 2) and 59Fe erythrocyte incorporation after ingestion of 59Fe (57 and 38 %, normal range 70-90; n = 2) were inadequately low for iron-deficient anemic individuals. Baseline serum erythropoietin was elevated or borderline high in four patients. Administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) at up to 273 and 188 U/kg body weight/week alone did not improve anemia or result in a decrease of urinary hepcidin in two individuals. In conclusion, the ability of exogenous rhEPO to increase hemoglobin level appears to be impaired in IRIDA.
Related JoVE Video
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH): guidelines for diagnosis, clinical work-up, and treatment for patients till the age of 18 years.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
These guidelines for the management of patients up to 18 years with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) have been set up by a group of experts involved in the Euro Histio Net project who participated in national or international studies and in peer reviewed publications. Existing guidelines were reviewed and changed where new evidence was available in the literature up to 2012. Data and publications have been ranked according to evidence based medicine and when there was a lack of published data, consensus between experts was sought. Guidelines for diagnosis, initial clinical work-up, and treatment and long-term follow-up of LCH patients are presented.
Related JoVE Video
Parental informed consent in pediatric cancer trials: a population-based survey in Germany.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ensuring adequate parental consent is a key issue of ethical practice in pediatric oncology. In Germany, however, knowledge about parental comprehension and satisfaction with the informed consent procedure is limited, and representative data on parents perspectives are still missing. Based on data collected by means of a population-based survey, we evaluated the parental recall of the informed consent process for pediatric clinical trials, and how they rated the consent process retrospectively.
Related JoVE Video
Doxorubicin or daunorubicin given upfront in a therapeutic window are equally effective in children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A randomized comparison in trial CoALL 07-03.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The anthracyclines daunorubicin (DNR) and doxorubicin (DOX) are among the most important drugs in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, however there are conflicting in vitro data about the comparative efficacy and equivalent doses of both anthracyclines. To address the question of in vivo efficacy of both anthracyclines, patients enrolled in the CoALL 07-03 trial were randomized to receive one single dose of either doxorubicin 30?mg/m(2) , daunorubicin 30?mg/m(2) , or daunorubicin 40?mg/m(2) upfront induction therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare life-threatening disease of severe hyperinflammation caused by uncontrolled proliferation of activated lymphocytes and macrophages secreting high amounts of inflammatory cytokines. It is a frequent manifestation in patients with predisposing genetic defects, but can occur secondary to various infectious, malignant, and autoimmune triggers in patients without a known genetic predisposition. Clinical hallmarks are prolonged fever, cytopenias, hepatosplenomegaly, and neurological symptoms, but atypical variants presenting with signs of chronic immunodeficiency are increasingly recognized. Impaired secretion of perforin is a key feature in several genetic forms of the disease, but not required for disease pathogenesis. Despite progress in diagnostics and therapy, mortality of patients with severe HLH is still above 40%. Reference treatment is an etoposide-based protocol, but new approaches are currently explored. Key for a favorable prognosis is the rapid identification of an underlying genetic cause, which has been facilitated by recent immunological and genetic advances. In patients with predisposing genetic disease, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is performed increasingly with reduced intensity conditioning regimes. Current research aims at a better understanding of disease pathogenesis and evaluation of more targeted approaches to therapy, including anti-cytokine antibodies and gene therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Distinct mutations in STXBP2 are associated with variable clinical presentations in patients with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 5 (FHL5).
Blood
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a genetically determined hyperinflammatory syndrome caused by uncontrolled immune response mediated by T-lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages. STXBP2 mutations have recently been associated with FHL5. To better characterize the genetic and clinical spectrum of FHL5, we analyzed a cohort of 185 patients with suspected FHL for mutations in STXBP2. We detected biallelic mutations in 37 patients from 28 families of various ethnic origins. Missense mutations and mutations affecting 1 of the exon 15 splice sites were the predominant changes detectable in this cohort. Patients with exon 15 splice-site mutations (n = 13) developed clinical manifestations significantly later than patients with other mutations (median age, 4.1 year vs 2 months) and showed less severe impairment of degranulation and cytotoxic function of NK cells and CTLs. Patients with FHL5 showed several atypical features, including sensorineural hearing deficit, abnormal bleeding, and, most frequently, severe diarrhea that was only present in early-onset disease. In conclusion, we report the largest cohort of patients with FHL5 so far, describe an extended disease spectrum, and demonstrate for the first time a clear genotype-phenotype correlation.
Related JoVE Video
A prospective evaluation of degranulation assays in the rapid diagnosis of familial hemophagocytic syndromes.
Blood
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a life-threatening disorder of immune regulation caused by defects in lymphocyte cytotoxicity. Rapid differentiation of primary, genetic forms from secondary forms of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is crucial for treatment decisions. We prospectively evaluated the performance of degranulation assays based on surface up-regulation of CD107a on natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in a cohort of 494 patients referred for evaluation for suspected HLH. Seventy-five of 77 patients (97%) with FHL3-5 and 11 of 13 patients (85%) with Griscelli syndrome type 2 or Chediak-Higashi syndrome had abnormal resting NK-cell degranulation. In contrast, NK-cell degranulation was normal in 14 of 16 patients (88%) with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease and in 8 of 14 patients (57%) with FHL2, who were identified by diminished intracellular SLAM-associated protein (SAP), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and perforin expression, respectively. Among 66 patients with a clinical diagnosis of secondary HLH, 13 of 59 (22%) had abnormal resting NK-cell degranulation, whereas 0 of 43 had abnormal degranulation using IL-2-activated NK cells. Active disease or immunosuppressive therapy did not impair the assay performance. Overall, resting NK-cell degranulation below 5% provided a 96% sensitivity for a genetic degranulation disorder and a specificity of 88%. Therefore, degranulation assays allow a rapid and reliable classification of patients, benefiting treatment decisions.
Related JoVE Video
Pulmonary involvement in pediatric-onset multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis: effect on course and outcome.
J. Pediatr.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the effect of pulmonary involvement on the course and outcome of multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis (MS-LCH) in children.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.