JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Curcumin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway and caspases activation in human melanoma cells.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Melanoma is the most malignant skin cancer and is highly resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Curcumin is a component of turmeric, the yellow spice derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa. It has been demonstrated to modulate multiple cell signaling pathways, including apoptosis, proliferation, angiogenesis and inflammation. In this study, we studied the signaling pathways involved in melanoma cell death after treatment with curcumin using western blotting. Colorimetric assays (MTT) assessed cell viability. Flow cytometry and DNA laddering evaluated cell apoptosis. Fluorescent microscopy was used to evaluate of Hoechst 33342 staining of nuclei. The result demonstrated that curcumin could induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation in melanoma cells. Curcumin stimulated the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax, and inhibited the activation of anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 and Bcl-2. During curcumin treatment, caspase-8 and Caspase-3 were cleaved in time and dose-dependent manners. Curcumin treatment also altered the expressions of apoptosis associated proteins NF-?B, p38 and p53. Curcumin induced DNA double strand breaks, which were indicated by phosphorylated H2AX. Our data suggested that curcumin could be used as a novel and effective approach for the treatment of melanoma.
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced antitumor efficacy of a novel oncolytic adenovirus combined with temozolomide in the treatment of melanoma in vivo.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ki67-ZD55-IL-24 with temozolomide (TMZ) against melanoma in mice.
Related JoVE Video
Re-description of the gudgeon species Saurogobio gracilicaudatus Yao & Yang in Luo, Yue & Chen, 1977 (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the Chang-Jiang basin, South China, with a note on its generic classification.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Saurogobio gracilicaudatus, originally described from the middle Yangtze River (Chang-Jiang in Chinese) basin at Yichang and Guanghua (now Laohekou), Hubei Province, South China, is here re-described, with particular concern for oromandibular structures in the mouth. It is uniquely distinguishable from all other species of Saurogobio in having a rostral cap with a slightly crenulated median portion, lips covered with brush-like, conical papillae, and a lower lip with a small, smooth and protruded central pad anteriorly free and posteriorly confluent with lateral lobes. The generic classification of this species is also discussed on the basis of oromandibular structures, which are of taxonomic importance in generic classification of gudgeons. 
Related JoVE Video
Low?dose radiation?induced apoptosis in human leukemia K562 cells through mitochondrial pathways.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High?dose total body irradiation (TBI) has an established role as preparative regimen for bone?marrow transplantation in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), but this regimen still has a relatively high rate of acute and late toxicity. Low?dose radiation (LDR) induces apoptosis of tumor cells and has numerous beneficial effects on normal tissues, including radiation homeostasis and adaptive response. Based on the previous evidence, in the present study, K562 cells were exposed to LDR, high?dose radiation (HDR), and LDR in combination with HDR to investigate the possible mechanism of the apoptotic effect and hypersensitivity induced by LDR. The apoptotic rate increased in all radiation groups in a time?dependent manner. An upregulation of Bax protein expression and a downregulation of Bcl?xl in a dose?dependent manner in human leukemia K562 cells was observed. However, the expression of p53 protein did not change in all of the radiation cell groups. The mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) in K562 cells decreased in all of the radiation cell groups in a dose?dependent manner. Furthermore, the decrease of ??m was enhanced in the LDR/HDR group compared with that in the LDR or HDR groups. The activity of caspase?3 was enhanced in all of the radiation groups. In the LDR/HDR group, the activity of caspase?3 was higher than that in the HDR or LDR groups. The present study provided preliminary experimental evidence of LDR being beneficial in combination with TBI in the treatment of CML.
Related JoVE Video
Oncolytic adenovirus-expressed RNA interference of O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase activity may enhance the antitumor effects of temozolomide.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Temozolomide (TMZ) is an example of an alkylating agent, which are known to be effective anticancer drugs for the treatment of various solid tumors, including glioma and melanoma. TMZ acts predominantly through the mutagenic product O(6)-methylguanine, a cytotoxic DNA lesion. The DNA repair enzyme, O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), which functions in the resistance of cancers to TMZ, can repair this damage. RNA interference (RNAi) has been previously shown to be a potent tool for the knockdown of genes, and has potential for use in cancer treatment. Oncolytic adenoviruses not only have the ability to destroy cancer cells, but may also be possible vectors for the expression of therapeutic genes. We therefore hypothesized that the oncolytic virus-mediated RNAi of MGMT activity may enhance the antitumor effect of TMZ and provide a promising method for cancer therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Progression of O?-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase and temozolomide resistance in cancer research.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent that is widely used in chemotherapy for cancer. A key mechanism of resistance to TMZ is the overexpression of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). MGMT specifically repairs the DNA O(6)-methylation damage induced by TMZ and irreversibly inactivates TMZ. Regulation of MGMT expression and research regarding the mechanism of TMZ resistance will help rationalize the clinical use of TMZ. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advances in the field, with particular emphasis on MGMT structure, function, expression regulation, and the association between MGMT and resistance to TMZ.
Related JoVE Video
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation is required for itch sensation in the spinal cord.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Itch, chronic itch in particular, can have a significant negative impact on an individual's quality of life. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying itch processing in the central nervous system remain largely unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Ki67 is a promising molecular target in the diagnosis of cancer (Review).
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The expression of Ki67 is strongly associated with tumor cell proliferation and growth, and is widely used in routine pathological investigation as a proliferation marker. The nuclear protein Ki67 (pKi67) is an established prognostic and predictive indicator for the assessment of biopsies from patients with cancer. Clinically, pKi67 has been shown to correlate with metastasis and the clinical stage of tumors. In addition, it has been shown that Ki67 expression is significantly higher malignant tissues with poorly differentiated tumor cells, as compared with normal tissue. According to its predictive role, pKi67 expression identifies subpopulations of patients who are more likely to respond to a given therapy. The Ki67 labeling index is an independent prognostic factor for survival rate, which includes all stages and grade categories. There is a correlation between the ratio of Ki67?positive malignant cells and patient survival. It has been shown that blocking of Ki67 either by microinjection of antibodies or through the use of antisense oligonucleotides leads to the arrest of cell proliferation. Specifically, antisense oligonucleotides and antibodies against pKi67 have been shown to inhibit the progression of the cell cycle. The Ki67 protein is well characterized at the molecular level and is extensively used as a prognostic and predictive marker for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Increasing evidence indicates that Ki67 may be an effective target in cancer therapy. It therefore merits further development, including testing in more sophisticated in vitro and appropriate in vivo models. This review provides an overview of recent advances in this field.
Related JoVE Video
Quantum dot-based immunofluorescent imaging of Ki67 and identification of prognostic value in HER2-positive (non-luminal) breast cancer.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The immunohistochemical assessment of Ki67 antigen (Ki67) is the most widely practiced measurement of breast cancer cell proliferation; however, it has some disadvantages and thus the prognostic value of Ki67 in breast cancer remains controversial. Our previous studies confirmed the advantages of quantum dots-based nanotechnology for quantitative analysis of biomarkers compared with conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC). This study was designed to assess Ki67 by quantum dot-immunohistochemistry (QD-IHC) and investigate the prognostic value of the Ki67 score in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive (non-luminal) breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Change of CMTM7 expression, a potential tumor suppressor, is associated with poor clinical outcome in human non-small cell lung cancer.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing 7 (CMTM7) located at 3p22.3, is a frequent deletion site and a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) locus in many cancer, which suggests CMTM7 may be a potential TSG. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations of CMTM7 expression and survival rate in patients with non-smallcell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis, molecular structure, DNA interaction and antioxidant activity of novel naphthoxazole compound.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel naphthoxazole compound 1 was synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of the compound shows that N atom locates at ?-position and oxygen atom at ?-position in naphthalene cycle. The DNA binding was studied by absorption spectroscopy, viscosity and luminescence spectra. The DNA binding constant was determined to be 6.16×10(3). The stoichiometry of compound/DNA is 1:1. The pBR322 DNA cleavage induced by the compound was investigated. The antioxidant activity of the compound against hydroxyl radical was also explored.
Related JoVE Video
Tolerability and toxicity of adjuvant cisplatin and gemcitabine for treating non-small cell lung cancer.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The combination of cisplatin and vinorelbine is an evidence-supported regimen for adjuvant chemotherapy for treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). But this doublet has considerable toxicity and unfavorable tolerability, and results in poor compliance. The cisplatin and gemcitabine regimen is one of the most active and well-tolerated regimens against advanced NSCLC, but its toxicity and tolerability has not been adequately evaluated in the adjuvant setting.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy and safety between temozolomide alone and temozolomide-based double therapy for malignant melanoma: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Temozolomide (TMZ) has received much attention, notably in the treatment of malignant glioma and malignant melanoma. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of TMZ alone and TMZ-based combination drug therapy in patients with melanoma. Using "temozolomide" as a keyword combined with "melanoma" and "randomized controlled trials" as Medical Subject Headings, the following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EBSCO, EMBASE, Ovid, cNKI, and cBMDisc. The evaluating indicators were overall response rate (ORR), 1-year survival rate, and several of the most frequent adverse events. Five randomized controlled trials met our criteria and were included in the meta-analysis, with a total of 703 participants (309 patients received TMZ alone, and 394 patients received combined regimens). The meta-analysis showed that the ORR for TMZ-based drug therapy was higher than TMZ alone [relative risk (RR)?=?1.44; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.95], but the 1-year survival rate was not significantly different between the two groups (RR?=?1.13; 95 % CI, 0.92-1.40). These results suggested that the impact of these increased response rates was not translated into a survival benefit. Moreover, we found no difference in the incidence of adverse events analyzed. The currently available evidence showed that the TMZ-combination therapy may moderately improve the response rate, but there was no corresponding increased toxicity. Future large-scale, high-quality, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials are needed.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of the inflammatory response in a two-hit acute lung injury model using [(18)F]FDG microPET.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a two-hit acute lung injury (ALI) model is better than a one-hit model in simulating ALI, and to evaluate the inflammatory response in the lungs in these two models using micro-positron emission tomography (microPET) with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups; rats in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS; n=10) and LPS-HCl (n=10) groups were challenged by the intraperitoneal administration of 5 mg/kg LPS, while rats in the normal saline (NS; n=3) and HCl (n=10) groups received the same volume of normal saline solution. Sixteen hours following the administration, the rats in the HCl and LPS-HCl groups received an acid instillation (IT) of 0.5 ml/kg HCl (pH=1.2), while the rats in the remaining two groups received the same volume of normal saline solution. The mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and blood gas concentrations were measured in all four groups. MicroPET was performed 4 h following HCl IT and the lungs were excised for histopathological examination. The rats in the LPS-HCl group exhibited a higher arterial PaO2 and a lower arterial PaCO2 compared with the rats in the remaining groups. The MAP decreased markedly in the LPS-HCl group, but remained stable in the LPS, HCl and NS groups. MicroPET results identified that the region of interest ratio in the LPS-HCl group (9.00±1.41) was significantly higher compared with those in the LPS (4.01±0.60) and HCl (3.33±0.55) groups (P<0.01). In addition, histological examination showed that the mean lung injury score in the LPS-HCl group (12.70±0.95) was significantly higher compared with those in the HCl (8.40±1.26) and LPS (7.00±0.82) groups (P<0.01). The present study demonstrates that LPS pretreatment significantly magnifies and prolongs the inflammatory response to subsequent acid IT in the lungs. Moreover, it is simpler to induce ALI using the two-hit model than with the one-hit model, and [(18)F]FDG microPET is a useful tool for evaluating the inflammatory reaction during ALI.
Related JoVE Video
Concentrations and congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blood plasma from Hong Kong: implications for sources and exposure route.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There was limited information about bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in humans of the general population of Hong Kong. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine concentrations and congener profiles of PBDEs in blood plasma from Hong Kong, evaluate their sources and correlations with other organobrominated compounds, and investigate exposure routes from fish and dust. Concentrations of ?PBDE22 ranged from 0.56 to 92 ng g(-1), lipid weight (lw), with a median of 5.4 ng g(-1). BDE-47 was the dominant congener, accounting for 26% of ?PBDE22. Concentrations of PBDE congeners in market fish were significantly (r(2)=0.89, p<0.001) correlated with plasma. Positive but no significant correlations were observed, between concentrations of PBDE congeners in indoor dust from workplaces (r(2)=0.46, p=0.081) and homes (r(2)=0.49, p=0.10), with concentrations of PBDE in human blood plasma. The results indicated that dietary exposure, particularly consumption of fish, is a major pathway through which people in Hong Kong are exposed to PBDEs. Furthermore, our data revealed a spatial distribution and terrestrial source of BDE-28 for local people. Results of the present study, which was the first systematic study to investigate concentrations of PBDEs in blood of Hong Kong people, provides useful information to which future measurements can be compared.
Related JoVE Video
Completely thoracoscopic lobectomy for the surgical management of bronchiectasis.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The feasibility of completing a lobectomy by completely video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (cVATS) in the management of bronchiectasis is unclear. By retrospectively comparing the outcomes from the lobectomies that used thoracotomy vs. cVATS, we determined the appropriateness of the minimally invasive cVATS approach in the management of bronchiectasis.
Related JoVE Video
Overcoming paclitaxel resistance in lung cancer cells via dual inhibition of stathmin and Bcl-2.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from malignancy in people and over 85% of these patients eventually die from disseminated disease. Paclitaxel (TAX) is widely used as an antimicrotubule agent for the treatment of lung cancer. Unfortunately, the resistance to this antimicrotubule agent occurs frequently. Stathmin (STMN1) is a ubiquitous microtubule destabilizing protein linked to cancer and cell health and its expression level often correlates with cancer stage progression and prognosis for survival. Overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 has been shown to prolong drug-induced growth arrest, potentially inducing resistance. In this study, we used a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) approach to evaluate the effect of STMN1 and Bcl-2 downregulation in the sensitivity to TAX in lung cancer cells. We achieved significant downregulation of STMN1 and Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression by a combination of double shRNA treatment strategy. Our experimental data showed that inhibition of STMN1 and Bcl-2 expression with RNA interference can sensitize lung cancer cells to TAX. These findings suggest a novel approach to improve the efficacy of certain antimicrotubule agents against lung cancer by regulating the function of STMN1 and Bcl-2.
Related JoVE Video
A dual-regulated oncolytic adenovirus expressing interleukin-24 sensitizes melanoma cells to temozolomide via the induction of apoptosis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Malignant melanoma is one of the most lethal and aggressive human malignancies. Suppressed apoptosis and extraordinary invasiveness are the distinctive features that contribute to malignant melanoma. The alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) is one of the most effective single chemotherapeutic agents for patients with malignant melanoma, but resistance develops quickly and with high frequency. We constructed a dual-regulated oncolytic adenovirus expressing interleukin 24 (IL-24) gene (Ki67-ZD55-IL-24) by utilizing the Ki67 promoter to replace the native viral promoter of E1A gene. We investigated whether a combination of Ki67-ZD55-IL-24-mediated gene virotherapy and chemotherapy using TMZ produces increased cytotoxicity against human melanoma cells via the induction of apoptosis. Our data indicate that this novel strategy thus holds promising potentials for further developing an effective approach to treat malignant melanoma.
Related JoVE Video
[A retrospective comparative study of the safety, completeness and efficacy of video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy versus open lobectomy for non-small-cell lung cancer patients whose tumor size was greater than 5 cm].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To discuss the feasibility of the completely video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients whose tumor size was greater than 5 cm.
Related JoVE Video
[Preliminary comparison research of thoracoscopy and thoracotomy lobectomy for clinical N0 and post-operatively pathological N2 non-small cell lung cancer].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the safty, thoroughness and efficacy of the video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery compared with open thoracotomy, in treatment of patients with the preoperative staging of lymph node negative and postoperative pathological mediastinal lymph node positive (cN0-pN2) locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC).
Related JoVE Video
Conditionally replicating adenoviruses carrying mda-7/IL-24 for cancer therapy.
Acta Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in a broad range of human cancers without significant cytotoxicity to normal cells. Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) not only have the ability to destroy cancer cells but may also be potential vectors for the expression of therapeutic genes.
Related JoVE Video
Application of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis of mediastinal lesions.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mediastinal lesions are often difficult to diagnose in clinical practice because of the unique anatomical position of the mediastinum, which makes performance of biopsy difficult. The value of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis of lung cancer and mediastinal lymph node staging has been widely accepted. However, few studies have been conducted on the value of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of mediastinal lesions. The current study was conducted to investigate the value of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of isolated mediastinal lesions without lung abnormalities.
Related JoVE Video
[Prokaryotic expression and polyclonal antibody preparation of human Nodal mature peptide].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To express the fusion protein of human Nodal mature peptide in prokaryocytes and to prepare mouse anti-Nodal polyclonal antibody.
Related JoVE Video
[Establishment of a mathematical prediction model to evaluate the probability of malignancy or benign in patients with solitary pulmonary nodules].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the clinical factors affecting the definite pathological diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) with multivariate Logistic regression analysis, and to build the clinical prediction model to estimate the probability of malignancy.
Related JoVE Video
A new tumor vaccine: FAP?-MT elicits effective antitumor response by targeting indolamine2,3-dioxygenase in antigen presenting cells.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Indolamine2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is expressed in tumor antigen presenting cells (APCs) and plays an important role in tumor immune tolerance. Inhibiting its activity may break tumor immune tolerance and thus promote therapeutic effects. Thus, a specific inhibitor of IDO, 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT), is being used more and more frequently in anti-tumor studies. However, IDO also maintains systemic immune balance by suppressing abnormal immune responses. Therefore, targeting IDO in tumor-associated APCs in a way that does not disrupt immune balance warrants further investigation. In this study, we developed a new tumor vaccine, FAP?-MT, which was produced by conjugating 1-MT to a tumor associated antigen, fibroblast activation protein ? (FAP?). The results in vitro confirmed that 1-MT could be dissociated from the FAP?-MT vaccine and inhibit intracellular IDO activity. In an FAP?-positive tumor model, the FAP?-MT vaccine elicited an anti-tumor response which was similar to systemic treatment with the FAP? vaccine plus 1-MT. Most importantly, administration of the FAP?-MT vaccine did not lead to pregnancy failiure in mice carrying allogeneic fetuses. These findings that FAP?-MT breaks tumor immune tolerance as a local IDO inhibitor, suggest that conjugation of 1-MT to a tumor antigen peptide is a potentially effective clinical cancer immunotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
A novel approach to overcome temozolomide resistance in glioma and melanoma: Inactivation of MGMT by gene therapy.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Malignant glioma is the most common primary brain tumor. Malignant melanoma is the most malignant of skin tumor. The two malignancies are poorly responsive to conventional treatment regimens such as chemotherapy. Temozolomide (TMZ) is a DNA-alkylating agent used for the treatment of glioma, astrocytoma, and melanoma. Resistance to alkylating agents such as TMZ correlates with increased expression of DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). Several studies in animal models have demonstrated that decreasing MGMT level with gene therapy could overcome TMZ resistance and enhance tumor cell death. In the present review, we provide an overview of recent advances in this field.
Related JoVE Video
Combining conditionally replicating adenovirus-mediated gene therapy with chemotherapy: a novel antitumor approach.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite significant improvements in diagnosis and innovations in the therapy of specific cancers, effective treatment of neoplastic diseases still presents major challenges. Recent studies have shown that conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) not only have the ability to destroy cancer cells but may also be potential vectors for the expression of therapeutic genes. Several studies in animal models have demonstrated that the combination of CRAds-mediated gene therapy and chemotherapy has greater therapeutic benefit than either treatment modality alone. In this review, an overview of specifications for a novel antitumor approach combining CRAd-gene therapy and chemotherapy is provided and recent progress in this field is discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of the autofluorescence bronchoscope and the white light bronchoscope in airway examination.
Chin J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The sensitivity and accuracy of white light bronchoscopy (WLB) in airway examination are low. Autofluorescence bronchoscope (AFB) can determine early lesions in bronchial mucosa more sensitively, but it has seldom performed in China. To assess the clinical value of the AFB in airway examination, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of the AFB and WLB in detecting cancer of the airway mucosa.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of cholinesterase inhibitor galanthamine on circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha in rats with lipopolysaccharide-induced peritonitis.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The nervous system, through the vagus nerve and its neurotransmitter acetylcholine, can down-regulate the systemic inflammation in vivo, and recently, a role of brain cholinergic mechanisms in activating this cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway has been indicated. Galanthamine is a cholinesterase inhibitor and one of the centrally acting cholinergic agents available in clinic. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of galanthamine on circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in rats with lipopolysaccharide-induced peritonitis and the possible role of the vagus nerve in the action of galanthamine.
Related JoVE Video
Sodium butyrate down-regulation of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The clinical outcomes of most immunotherapeutic strategies have been less effective than anticipated partially because of the tumor immune tolerance induced by many immune tolerance factors, which originate from the tumor and tumor microenvironment. Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an interferon-? (IFN-?)-inducible enzyme and is one of main immune tolerance factors during tumor development. Sodium butyrate (NaB) has received much attention as a potential chemopreventive agent for cancer treatment due to its protective action against intracellular events including IFN-?-mediated signaling transduction. Therefore, the question remains whether IDO is a target of the anti-tumor action of NaB. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that NaB down-regulated IDO via both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. NaB repressed the activity of STAT1 to inhibit STAT1-driven transcriptional activity of IDO. These mechanisms included inhibiting STAT1 701 tyrosine phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and repression of STAT1 binding to ?-activated sites (GAS). Moreover, immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting assays showed that treatment of cells with NaB caused dramatic ubiquitination of total intracellular proteins, including IDO. Blocking 26S proteasome activity by addition of its specific inhibitor, bortezomib, reversed the ubiquitination and down-regulation of IDO. These results suggest that NaB-induced STAT1 activity inhibition and ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent proteolysis are involved in the down-regulation of IDO. The discoveries in this study represent a new mechanism in the anti-tumor action of NaB and may have implications for development of clinical cancer immunotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced anti-tumor activity by the combination of a conditionally replicating adenovirus mediated interleukin-24 and dacarbazine against melanoma cells via induction of apoptosis.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Malignant melanoma is one of the most lethal and aggressive human malignancies. It is notoriously resistant to all of the current therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy. Suppressed apoptosis and extraordinary invasiveness are the distinctive features that contribute to the malignancy of melanoma. Dacarbazine (DTIC) has been considered as the gold standard for melanoma treatment with a response rate of 15-20%. Unfortunately, the resistance to this chemotherapeutic agent occurs frequently. ZD55-IL-24 is a selective conditionally replicating adenovirus that can mediate the expression of interleukin-24 (IL-24) gene, which has a strong anti-tumor effect. In this study, we hypothesized that a combination of ZD55-IL-24-mediated gene virotherapy and chemotherapy using DTIC would produce an increased cytotoxicity against human melanoma cells in comparison with these agents alone. Our results showed that the combination of ZD55-IL-24 and DTIC significantly enhanced the anti-tumor activity by more effectively inducing apoptosis in melanoma cells than either agent used alone without any overlapping toxicity against normal cells. This additive or synergistic effect of ZD55-IL-24 in combination with DTIC in killing human malignant melanoma cells implies a promising novel approach for melanoma therapy.
Related JoVE Video
[Analysis of clinical risk factors in progression from acute lung injury to acute respiratory distress syndrome in severe trauma patients].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the potential risk factors of affecting progression from acute lung injury (ALI) to acute respiratory distress syndrome in severe trauma population.
Related JoVE Video
[Video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy for benign pulmonary diseases].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate technique aspects of video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy for benign diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Analysis of clinical risk factors associated with mortality of severely injured multiple trauma patients with acute lung injury.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is important to study the factors affecting the clinical mortality of the severe multiple trauma population. The present study was aimed to identify the potential risk factors that could affect mortality rate of acute lung injury (ALI) in severely injured multiple trauma population and to investigate the effects of certain risk factors on the prognosis of different patient subpopulations.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors for urban road traffic injuries in Hangzhou, China.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate factors that most influence urban road traffic injuries (RTI) mortality and morbidity.
Related JoVE Video
Function and mechanism by which interferon regulatory factor-1 inhibits oncogenesis.
Oncol Lett
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechnisms by which interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1 inhibits oncogenesis. IRF-1 is associated with regulation of interferon ? and ? transcription. In addition, numerous clinical studies have indicated that IRF-1 gene deletion or rearrangement correlates with development of specific forms of human cancer. IRF-1 has been revealed to exhibit marked functional diversity in the regulation of oncogenesis. IRF-1 activates a set of target genes associated with regulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis and the immune response. The role of IRF-1 in the regulation of various types of human tumor has important implications for understanding the susceptibility and progression of cancer. In addition, an improved understanding of the role of IRF-1 in the pathological processes that lead to human malignant diseases may aid development of novel therapeutic strategies.
Related JoVE Video
Histone deacetylase inhibitor induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions via up-regulation of Snail facilitates cancer progression.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are now emerging as a new class of anticancer drugs. Some of them have been used in clinical treatment for tumors, most impressively in the hematological tumors. But their single-agent activities in epithelial-derived tumors are limited. The mechanisms of these actions of HDACIs are not yet well understood. In this study, it was found for the first time that HDACIs were able to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) which is believed to trigger tumor cell invasion and metastasis. We show that HDACIs induce fibroblast-like morphology, up-regulate Snail and Vimentin and down-regulate E-cadherin in epithelial cell-derived tumor cell lines. It demonstrates that HDACI treatment enhances further Snail acetylation and reduces its ubiquitylation, and induces Snail transcription as well as Snail nuclear translocation in CNE2 cells. Snail knockdown by siRNAs prevents the change in cell morphology and Vimentin up-regulation in response to HDACIs. The results suggested that Snail plays an important role in the HDACI-induced EMT. It is very crucial for a better understanding of clinical therapeutical failure of HDACIs in the patients with epithelial cell-derived cancers. Therefore, our results indicate that more attention should be paid to the cancer treatment using HDACIs due to the fact that it will enhance the spread risks of cancer cells to facilitate cancer progression and it is very important to select appropriate drugs for different tumors.
Related JoVE Video
Arsenic trioxide-induced growth arrest of breast cancer MCF-7 cells involving FOXO3a and I?B kinase ? expression and localization.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Currently, arsenic has been clinically investigated as a therapeutic agent for a variety of solid malignancies, including breast cancer. However, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms through which arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) induces cell growth arrest and apoptosis in solid tumors have not been clearly understood. The aim of our study was to gain an insight into the effect of As(2)O(3) on the human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line and investigate cell growth inhibition, apoptosis, and the molecular mechanism after As(2)O(3) treatment in MCF-7 cells. Expression of FOXO3a, nuclear-FOXO3a, caspase-3, and I?B kinase ? (IKK?) mRNA levels in MCF-7 cells was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The protein expression was examined by the Western blot analysis and immunocytochemical staining. The distribution of apoptotic cells was assessed by flow cytometry, and the morphology of the apoptotic cells was investigated by Hoechest33258 staining. Our results showed that As(2)O(3) significantly induced the apoptosis of MCF-7 cells tested in this study in a dose-dependent manner. As(2)O(3) induced the decrease of IKK? expression and the increase of total as well as nuclear FOXO3a expression, which triggered the phosphorylation of cytoplasmic FOXO3a at the Thr32 residue decrease. RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunocytochemistry revealed that the expression of IKK? in MCF-7 cells was upregulated when As(2)O(3) was combined with tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), whereas the expression of FOXO3a was downregulated in comparison with the As(2)O(3)-alone group. These findings indicated a specific molecular mechanism by which MCF-7 cell lines were susceptible to the As(2)O(3) therapy through FOXO3a expression and localization. This FOXO3a accumulation may be well correlated with the As(2)O(3)-induced reduction of active IKK?, which may provide new insights into As(2)O(3)-related signaling activities.
Related JoVE Video
Keap1: one stone kills three birds Nrf2, IKK? and Bcl-2/Bcl-xL.
Cancer Lett.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oxidative stress, implicated in the etiology of cancer, results from an imbalance in the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and cells own antioxidant defenses. As a oxidative stress sensor, Keap1 functions as both an adaptor for Cul3?Rbx1 E3 ligase complex mediated degradation of the transcription factor Nrf2, and a master regulator of cytoprotective gene expression. Although Nrf2 is a well known substrate for Keap1, the DGR domain of Keap1 has been reported also to bind other proteins directly or indirectly. IKK? as positive regulator of NF-?B is also destabilized by Keap1, which resulted in inhibiting NF-?B-derived tumor promotion. In addition, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bcl-xL protein was identified as another substrate for the Keap1-Cul3-E3 ligase complex. Keap1 led to the repression and destabilization of Bcl-2, decreased Bcl-2:Bax heterodimers and facilitated cancer cells apoptosis. Given that Keap1 might function as a tumor suppressor protein to mitigate tumor progression, the different kinds of Keap1 somatic mutations were detected in numerous cancer cells. Therefore, it is important to understand the Keap1-involved signaling cascades. This review primarily focuses on the prevention of tumorigenesis role of Keap1 through negative regulation of three substrates Nrf2, IKK? and Bcl-2/Bcl-xL, with emphasis on the recent findings indicating the cancer guarder function of Keap1.
Related JoVE Video
A conditionally replicating adenovirus carrying interleukin-24 sensitizes melanoma cells to radiotherapy via apoptosis.
Mol Oncol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Combinatorial therapy is the current trend of the development of novel cancer treatments due to the high heterogenous nature of solid tumors. In this study, we investigated the effects of the combined use of a conditionally replicating adenovirus carrying IL-24 (ZD55-IL-24) and radiotherapy on the proliferation and apoptosis of melanoma A375 cells in vitro and in vivo. Compared with either agent used alone, ZD55-IL-24 combined with radiotherapy significantly inhibited cell proliferation, accompanied with increased apoptosis. Radiotherapy did not affect the expression of IL-24 and E1A of ZD55-IL-24-treated cells, but increased the expression of Bax, promoted the activation of caspase-3, while decreasing Bcl-2 levels. Thus, this synergistic effect of ZD55-IL-24 in combination with radiotherapy provides a novel strategy for the development of melanoma therapies, and is a promising approach for further clinical development.
Related JoVE Video
Completely video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy versus open lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer greater than 5 cm: a retrospective study.
Chin. Med. J.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Completely video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy is a reasonable treatment for early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). At present, the indication for this procedure is stage Ia and Ib peripheral lung cancer (? 5 cm); however, for larger tumors, it remains controversial whether this surgical technique is comparable to open lobectomy. This study aimed to evaluate the safety, completeness, and efficacy of thoracoscopic lobectomy, and to compare this technique with open lobectomy for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer when the tumors diameter was greater than 5 cm.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term administration of fasudil improves cardiomyopathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inhibition of Rho kinase (ROCK) has been shown to improve diabetic-related disorders. In this study, the cardio-protective effects and potential mechanisms of fasudil, a selective ROCK inhibitor, on diabetic cardiomyopathy were investigated in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model. Eight weeks after diabetes was induced by a single tail vein injection of 60 mg/kg STZ, rats were administered long-term fasudil or captopril as a control over a four-week period. Similar to the effect of captopril, fasudil treatment significantly protected against STZ-induced hemodynamic, histopathologic changes and decreased serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase. Moreover, fasudil significantly down-regulated ROCK I mRNA expression and ROCK activity, reduced cardiac collagen deposition, and decreased the incidence of apoptosis and ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression. Additionally, fasudil potently elevated superoxide dismutase activity and suppressed the extent of lipid peroxidation in sera and hearts of diabetic rats. Our findings indicated that long-term treatment with fasudil could improve cardiac dysfunction, attenuate myocardial injury and prevent pathological changes in a rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy. These effects could be attributed to regulation of antioxidative activities, suppression of myocardial hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis and subsequent cardiac remodeling. These results may help to expand the clinical application of fasudil for diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Related JoVE Video
[Application of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis of isolated mediastinal lesions].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the role of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in the diagnosis of isolated mediastinal lesions.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.