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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Evaluation of semen quality in 1808 university students, from Wuhan, Central China.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the semen quality of university students in Wuhan, the largest city in the world in terms of the number of university students. All student sperm donors recorded in the Hubei Province Human Sperm Bank from 1 March 2010 to 31 December 2013 were screened. At last, a total of 3616 semen samples from 1808 university student sperm donors were eligible and retrospectively analyzed. Each donor's semen parameters were averaged over two samples and compared with the World Health Organization criteria, and a generalized linear regression model was used to examine several determinants of semen quality. We found that the mean and median values were 3.0 ml and 2.8 ml for semen volume, 50.2 × 10 6 ml-1 and 50.0 × 10 6 ml-1 for sperm concentration, 148.1 × 10 6 and 142.1 × 10 6 for total sperm count, and 58.6% and 60.0% for total sperm motility. About 85.0% of donors had parameters that were all normal. Season and duration of abstinence were critical factors affecting semen quality. We also found a decrease in sperm concentration during the 4 years observation; however, this may not be a strong evidence to confirm the declining trend of semen quality. In conclusion, semen quality of university students in Wuhan was not optimal and should be paid high attention, long-term observation and further study should be carried out to confirm the present situation.
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Speckle reduction by combination of digital filter and optical suppression in a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm computer-generated hologram.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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A speckleless illuminated modified-Gerchberg-Saxton-algorithm-type computer-generated hologram, which adopts a lower frequency of the iterative algorithm and calculation time, is proposed to code a hologram with two signals and position a multiplexing phase-only function, which can reconstruct the left and the right viewing holograms on the pupillary-distance position after the decryption and still maintain the content with high contrast and definition. The reconstructed image quality presents root mean square error of 0.03, with a diffraction efficiency of 87%, and signal-to-noise ratio of 8 dB after the analysis. Furthermore, two denoising techniques for the digital filter and optical suppression are combined, in which the speckle suppression with pseudorandom phase modulation and a rotating diffuser are utilized for successfully reducing the speckle contrast, which was reduced to below 4%. The goal was to reduce visual fatigue for the viewers.
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Multiple Time Series Clinical Data Processing for Classification with Merging Algorithm and Statistical Measures.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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A description of patient conditions should consist of the changes in and combination of clinical measures. Traditional data-processing method and classification algorithms might cause clinical information to disappear and reduce prediction performance. To improve the accuracy of clinical-outcome prediction by using multiple measurements, a new multiple-time-series data-processing algorithm with period merging is proposed. Clinical data from 83 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients were used in this research. Their clinical reports from a defined period were merged using the proposed merging algorithm, and statistical measures were also calculated. After data processing, Multiple Measurements Support Vector Machine (MMSVM) with radial basis function (RBF) kernels was used as a classification method to predict HCC recurrence. A Multiple Measurements Random Forest regression (MMRF) was also used as an additional evaluation/ classification method. To evaluate the data-merging algorithm, the performance of prediction using processed multiple measurements was compared to prediction using single measurements. The results of recurrence prediction by MMSVM with RBF using multiple measurements and a period of 120 days (accuracy 0.771, balanced accuracy 0.603) were optimal, and their superiority to the results obtained using single measurements was statistically significant (accuracy 0.626, balanced accuracy 0.459, P<0.01). In the cases of MMRF, the prediction results obtained after applying the proposed merging algorithm were also better than single-measurement results (P<0.05). The results show that the performance of HCC-recurrence prediction was significantly improved when the proposed data-processing algorithm was used, and that multiple measurements could be of greater value than single measurements in HCC-recurrence prediction.
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Carotid Intima Media Thickness, Atherosclerosis, and 5-Year Decline in Odor Identification: The Beaver Dam Offspring Study.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The purpose of this study was to determine if subclinical markers of atherosclerosis are associated with a decline in olfactory function.
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o-Amino Analogs of GFP Chromophore: Photoisomerization, Photodimerization, and Aggregation-Induced Emission.
Photochem. Photobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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The photochemical properties of three o-amino analogs of the GFP chromophore O0, O1, and O8 (o-ABDIs) have been investigated and compared with those of the m- and p-amino isomers (m-ABDIs and p-ABDIs) in solutions, aggregates, and the solid state. In aprotic solvents, the fluorescence competes with the Z ? E photoisomerization for all cases, and the o-ABDIs display a fluorescence quantum efficiency of 1-6%, lying between the m-ABDIs of 5-48% and the p-ABDIs of < 0.1%. The fluorescence of both the o- and m-ABDIs is nearly quenched in protic solvents, attributable to the solvent-solute hydrogen bonding (SSHB) interactions. The phenomenon of aggregation-induced emission observed for O8 in poor solvents resembles the behavior of M8 as a consequence of exclusion of the SSHB interactions and restriction of internal rotation for molecules located inside the aggregates. The occurrence of [2+2] photodimerization for O0 in the solid state is unique among the ABDIs, and the X-ray crystal structures of O0 and the photodimer OD reveal the head-to-tail syn-oriented stereochemistry. Analysis on the X-ray crystal structures of O0, O1, M0, M1, and P0 shows that not only the pairwise topochemical geometry but also the columnar packing mode is important in determining the photodimerization reactivity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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[Expression of TGF-?1 and PAI-1 in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To study the expression of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and its significance in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).
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A spatiotemporally defined in vitro microenvironment for controllable signal delivery and drug screening.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Cancer metastasis and drug resistance are important malignant tumor phenotypes that cause roughly 90% mortality in human cancers. Current therapeutic strategies, however, face substantial challenges partially due to a lack of applicable pre-clinical models and drug-screening platforms. Notably, microscale and three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture platforms capable of mimicking in vivo microenvironments to replicate physiological conditions have become vital tools in a wide range of cellular and clinical studies. Here, we present a microfluidic device capable of mimicking a configurable tumor microenvironment to study in vivo-like cancer cell migration as well as screening of inhibitors on both parental tumors and migratory cells. In addition, a novel evaporation-based paper pump was demonstrated to achieve adaptable and sustainable concentration gradients for up to 6 days in this model. This straightforward modeling approach allows for fast patterning of a wide variety of cell types in 3D and may be further integrated into biological assays. We also demonstrated cell migration from tumor spheroids induced by an epidermal growth factor (EGF) gradient and exhibited lowered expression of an epithelial marker (EpCAM) compared with parental cells, indicative of partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in this process. Importantly, pseudopodia protrusions from the migratory cells - critical during cancer metastasis - were demonstrated. Insights gained from this work offer new opportunities to achieve active control of in vitro tumor microenvironments on-demand, and may be amenable towards tailored clinical applications.
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Delirium, Subsyndromal Delirium, and Cognitive Changes in Individuals Undergoing Elective Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.
J Cardiovasc Nurs
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The course of incident delirium and subsyndromal delirium (SSD) after cardiac surgery is not well studied.
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A light-gated molecular brake with antilock and fluorescence turn-on alarm functions: application of singlet-state adiabatic cis ? trans photoisomerization.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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A light-gated molecular brake that displays both high braking power (?10(7)) and high switching power (?74%) is reported. The lower rate for brake-on than for brake-off switching of the pentiptycene rotor mimics the function of an antilock braking system (ABS) for vehicles on a loose surface. The brake is also armed with a fluorescence turn-on alarm for accidental deactivation of the ABS function by acids. All of these features are associated with the highly efficient singlet-state adiabatic cis ? trans photoisomerization of the phenylstilbene chromophore.
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Methanol extract of Antrodia camphorata protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by suppressing NF-?B and MAPK pathways in mice.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Antrodia camphorata (AC) has been used as a herbal medicine for drug intoxication for the treatment of inflammation syndromes and liver-related diseases in Taiwan. This study demonstrates the protective effect of the methanol extract of AC (MAC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Mice were treated with MAC 1 h before the intratracheal (I.T.) instillation of LPS challenge model. Lung injury was evaluated 6 h after LPS induction. Pretreatment with MAC markedly improved LPS-induced histological alterations and edema in lung tissues. Moreover, MAC also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), and IL-6 at 6 h in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) during LPS-induced lung injury. Furthermore, MAC reduced total cell number and protein concentrations in the BALF the pulmonary wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity and enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in lung tissues. MAC also efficiently blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and inhibited the degradation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and I?B?. This is the first investigation in which MAC inhibited acute lung edema effectively, which may provide a potential target for treating ALI. MAC may utilize the NF-?B and MAPKs pathways and the regulation of SOD activity to attenuate LPS-induced nonspecific pulmonary inflammation.
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A Bayesian clustering approach for detecting gene-gene interactions in high-dimensional genotype data.
Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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This paper uses a Bayesian formulation of a clustering procedure to identify gene-gene interactions under case-control studies, called the Algorithm via Bayesian Clustering to Detect Epistasis (ABCDE). The ABCDE uses Dirichlet process mixtures to model SNP marker partitions, and uses the Gibbs weighted Chinese restaurant sampling to simulate posterior distributions of these partitions. Unlike the representative Bayesian epistasis detection algorithm BEAM, which partitions markers into three groups, the ABCDE can be evaluated at any given partition, regardless of the number of groups. This study also develops permutation tests to validate the disease association for SNP subsets identified by the ABCDE, which can yield results that are more robust to model specification and prior assumptions. This study examines the performance of the ABCDE and compares it with the BEAM using various simulated data and a schizophrenia SNP dataset.
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The association of taste with change in adiposity-related health measures.
J Acad Nutr Diet
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The relationship between taste-intensity patterns and 5-year change in adiposity-related health measures was determined. Participants were members of the Beaver Dam Offspring Study, a study of the adult children of participants in the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study. There were 1,918 participants (mean baseline age=48.8 years; range=22 to 84 years) with baseline taste (2005 to 2008) and follow-up (2010 to 2013) data. Outcomes included 5-year change in body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, and hedonic ratings of specific foods. Cluster analysis with Ward's minimum variance method identified the following 5 patterns of the suprathreshold taste intensities of salt, sweet, sour, and bitter: salt and sweet intensities slightly above population averages, average sour and bitter intensities; salt, sour, and bitter intensities above population average, average sweet intensity; salt, sour, and bitter intensities above population average, sweet intensity substantially above average; all intensities below population averages; and all intensities close to population average. The General Linear Model procedure was used for testing cluster differences in the outcomes. With covariate adjustment, the group with all intensities close to population averages had a significantly lower average increase in body mass index compared with the group with above-average intensities for salt, sour, and bitter (+0.4 vs +0.9), and in glycosylated hemoglobin A1c compared with the group with above-average intensities for all tastes (+0.20% vs +0.34%). Clusters differed in the hedonics of foods representing sweetness and saltiness. The study's findings provide evidence that perceived taste intensity might be related to changes in adiposity-related health.
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The constituents of Michelia compressa var. formosana and their bioactivities.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Phytochemical investigation of the heartwood of Michelia compressa afforded forty-four compounds, which were identified by comparison of experimental and literature analytical and spectroscopic data. Some compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and anticancer bioactivities. The result showed that soemerine (1) and cyathisterol (2) exhibited significant nitric oxide (NO) inhibition, with IC50 values of 8.5±0.3 and 9.6±0.5 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, liriodenine (3) and oliveroline (4) exhibited cytotoxicity to human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC-TW01), non-small cell lung carcinoma (NCI-H226), T cell leukemia (Jurkat), renal carcinoma (A498), lung carcinoma (A549) and fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 15.7-3.68 ?M.
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In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of diterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids from traditional Chinese medicine Siegesbeckia pubescens.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Oxidative stress imposed by reactive oxygen species plays a crucial role in pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases. In the present study, sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids isolated from Siegesbeckia pubescens, a Chinese traditional medicine used to treat arthritis, were evaluated for inhibition of NO production in activated RAW 264.7 macrophages and FMLP/CB induced O2(·-) generation and elastase release in human neutrophils. In the former assay, sesquiterpenoids were more potent than diterpenoids. The C-4 carbonyl group in the carabrane-type sesquiterpenoid 3 and the C-9 ether linkage in the germacrane sesquiterpene 7 were associated with the enhanced potency. Also, for the active ent-kaurane type diterpenoids, esterification of 17-OH with isobutyric acid and acetylation of 18-OH affected the inhibition of O2(·-) generation and elastase release. This report is the first to describe the inhibitory effects on oxidative stress of secondary metabolites from S. pubescens. Its findings suggest that active terpenoids from the herb could be used as lead anti-inflammatory agents.
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n-Butanol extract of Rhynchosia volubilis Lour: a potent spermicidal agent In Vitro.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Rhynchosia volubilis Lour has been a major drug in a folk prescription for contraception in China, whereas its mechanism remains unknown. Its antifertility effects on male mice and antimicrobial activities on sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens were previously reported. This study was undertaken to develop the n-Butanol extract of Rhynchosia volubilis Lour (BERVL) as a spermicidal agent with STI prevention. The spermicidal activities of BERVL with different doses were assessed using selected high-motile sperms of normal human semen samples, and their inhibitory effects on Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined. The mechanism of the spermicidal activity was explored by aqueous Eosin Y and Hoechst 33342/PI staining. The results showed spermicidal activities and inhibitory effects of BERVL on Lactobacillus acidophilus were dose-dependent. Dose of 90 mg/mL BERVL terminated all progressive sperm motility within 2 min, and had slight inhibitory effect on Lactobacillus acidophilus, suggesting it was an effective and safe dose for contraception use. About 80% sperms exposed to BERVL displayed changes consistent with high permeability of head membrane. It is concluded that BERVL as spermicide has advantages over N-9 with strong ability to instantaneously kill human sperm and possesses light inhibitory effect on Lactobacillus acidophilus.
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Cooperative effect of two metals: CoPd(OAc)4-catalyzed C-H amination and aziridination.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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The first Co/Pd-cocatalyzed intramolecular C-H amination and aziridination reactions were developed. Sulfamate esters were converted to oxathiazinanes by using CoPd(OAc)4 as catalyst and PhI(OAc)2 as oxidant. The mutual presence of both Co and Pd is crucial for the catalytic activity. This combination of two metals with simple acetate ligands provides an economical alternative to the Rh-catalyzed insertion of nitrenoids into C-H bonds.
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Recurrence predictive models for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation using support vector machines with feature selection methods.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important issue despite effective treatments with tumor eradication. Identification of patients who are at high risk for recurrence may provide more efficacious screening and detection of tumor recurrence. The aim of this study was to develop recurrence predictive models for HCC patients who received radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment.
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[Screening results and causes of uncompleted donation process in 1 145 sperm donors].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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To improve the reception and recruitment of sperm donors in sperm banks in China, and solve the problem of insufficiency in sperm donation.
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Temsirolimus enhances the efficacy of cetuximab in colon cancer through a CIP2A-dependent mechanism.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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A dozen clinical trials examining a combination of temsirolimus and cetuximab in treating metastatic colon cancer are currently underway. We investigated the role of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) in the synergism between temsirolimus and cetuximab in colon cancer.
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Effects of a modified Hospital Elder Life Program on frailty in individuals undergoing major elective abdominal surgery.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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To test the effects of a modified Hospital Elder Life Program (mHELP) on frailty.
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Curcumin-induced Aurora-A suppression not only causes mitotic defect and cell cycle arrest but also alters chemosensitivity to anticancer drugs.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Overexpression of oncoprotein Aurora-A increases drug resistance and promotes lung metastasis of breast cancer cells. Curcumin is an active anticancer compound in turmeric and curry. Here we observed that Aurora-A protein and kinase activity were reduced in curcumin-treated human breast chemoresistant nonmetastatic MCF-7 and highly metastatic cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Curcumin acts in a similar manner to Aurora-A small interfering RNA (siRNA), resulting in monopolar spindle formation, S and G2/M arrest, and cell division reduction. Ectopic Aurora-A extinguished the curcumin effects. The anticancer effects of curcumin were enhanced by Aurora-A siRNA and produced additivity and synergism effects in cell division and monopolar phenotype, respectively. Combination treatment with curcumin overrode the chemoresistance to four Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved anticancer drugs (ixabepilone, cisplatin, vinorelbine, or everolimus) in MDA-MB-231 cells, which was characterized by a decrease in cell viability and the occurrence of an additivity or synergy effect. Ectopic expression of Aurora-A attenuated curcumin-enhanced chemosensitivity to these four tested drugs. A similar benefit of curcumin was observed in MCF-7 cells treated with ixabepilone, the primary systemic therapy to patients with invasive breast cancer (stages IIA-IIIB) before surgery. Antagonism effect was observed when MCF-7 cells were treated with curcumin plus cisplatin, vinorelbine or everolimus. Curcumin-induced enhancement in chemosensitivity was paralleled by significant increases (additivity or synergy effect) in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phases, the consequences of Aurora-A inhibition. These results suggest that a combination of curcumin with FDA-approved anticancer drugs warrants further assessment with a view to developing a novel clinical treatment for breast cancer.
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Enhanced antitumor effects of adenoviral-mediated siRNA against GRP78 gene on adenosine-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Our previous studies show that adenosine-induced apoptosis is involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress in HepG2 cells. In this study, we have investigated whether knockdown of GRP78 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) increases the cytotoxic effects of adenosine in HepG2 cells. The adenovirus vector-delivered shRNA targeting GRP78 (Ad-shGRP78) was constructed and transfected into HepG2 cells. RT-PCR assay was used to determine RNA interference efficiency. Effects of knockdown of GRP78 on adenosine-induced cell viabilities, cell-cycle distribution and apoptosis, as well as relative protein expressions were determined by flow cytometry and/or Western blot analysis. The intracellular Ca2+ concentration was detected by laser scanning confocal microscope. Mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) was measured by a fluorospectrophotometer. The results revealed that GRP78 mRNA was significantly downregulated by Ad-shGRP78 transfection. Knockdown of GRP78 enhanced HepG2 cell sensitivity to adenosine by modulating G0/G1 arrest and stimulating Bax, Bak, m-calpain, caspase-4 and CHOP protein levels. Knockdown of GRP78 worsened cytosolic Ca2+ overload and ??m loss. Knockdown of caspase-4 by shRNA decreased caspase-3 mRNA expression and cell apoptosis. These findings indicate that GRP 78 plays a protective role in ER stress-induced apoptosis and show that the combination of chemotherapy drug and RNA interference adenoviruses provides a new treatment strategy against malignant tumors.
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Older patients' depressive symptoms 6 months after prolonged hospitalization: course and interrelationships with major associated factors.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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The aim of this study was to examine the course of depressive symptoms in older patients 6 months following a prolonged, acute hospitalization, especially the interrelationships among depressive symptoms and its major associated factors. For this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study of 351 patients aged 65 years and older. Participants were recruited from five surgical and medical wards at a tertiary medical center in northern Taiwan and assessed at three time points: within 48 h of admission, before discharge, and 6 months post-discharge. The course of depressive symptoms was dynamic with symptoms increased spontaneously and substantially during hospitalization and subsided at 6 months after discharge, but still remained higher than at admission. Overall, 26.7% of older patients at hospital discharge met established criteria for minor depression (15-item Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS-15) scores 5-9) and 21.2% for major depression (GDS-15 scores >10). As the strongest associated factors, functional dependence and nutritional status influenced depressive symptoms following hospitalization. Depressive symptoms at discharge showed significant cross-lagged effects on functional dependence and nutritional status at 6 months after discharge, suggesting a reciprocal, triadic relationship. Thus, treating one condition might improve the other. Targeting the triad of depressive symptoms, functional dependence, and nutritional status, therefore, is essential for treating depressive symptoms and improving the overall health of older adults hospitalized for acute illness.
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Dry eye in the beaver dam offspring study: prevalence, risk factors, and health-related quality of life.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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To estimate dry eye prevalence in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS), including a young adult population, and investigate associated risk factors and impact on health-related quality of life.
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Enhancement of CYP3A4 activity in Hep G2 cells by lentiviral transfection of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Human hepatoma cell lines are commonly used as alternatives to primary hepatocytes for the study of drug metabolism in vitro. However, the phase I cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities in these cell lines occur at a much lower level than their corresponding activities in primary hepatocytes, and thus these cell lines may not accurately predict drug metabolism. In the present study, we selected hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha (HNF1?) from six transcriptional regulators for lentiviral transfection into Hep G2 cells to optimally increase their expression of the CYP3A4 enzyme, which is the major CYP enzyme in the human body. We subsequently found that HNF1?-transfected Hep G2 enhanced the CYP3A4 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner and the activity was noted to increase with time and peaked 7 days. With a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100, CYP3A4 expression increased 19-fold and enzyme activity more than doubled at day 7. With higher MOI (1,000 to 3,000), the activity increased 8- to 10-fold; however, it was noted the higher MOI, the higher cell death rate and lower cell survival. Furthermore, the CYP3A4 activity in the HNF1?-transfected cells could be induced by CYP3A4-specific inducer, rifampicin, and metabolized nifedipine in a dose-dependent manner. With an MOI of 3,000, nifedipine-metabolizing activity was 6-fold of control and as high as 66% of primary hepatocytes. In conclusion, forceful delivery of selected transcriptional regulators into human hepatoma cells might be a valuable method to enhance the CYP activity for a more accurate determination of drug metabolism in vitro.
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[Detecting testis- and epididymis-specific methylated promoters in human cell-free seminal DNA by MeDIP-qPCR].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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To establish a method of methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP)-real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for detecting the promoter methylation level in cell-free seminal DNA (cfsDNA).
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Bayesian Inferences of Latent Class Models with an Unknown Number of Classes.
Psychometrika
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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This paper focuses on analyzing data collected in situations where investigators use multiple discrete indicators as surrogates, for example, a set of questionnaires. A very flexible latent class model is used for analysis. We propose a Bayesian framework to perform the joint estimation of the number of latent classes and model parameters. The proposed approach applies the reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo to analyze finite mixtures of multivariate multinomial distributions. In the paper, we also develop a procedure for the unique labeling of the classes. We have carried out a detailed sensitivity analysis for various hyperparameter specifications, which leads us to make standard default recommendations for the choice of priors. The usefulness of the proposed method is demonstrated through computer simulations and a study on subtypes of schizophrenia using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).
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Aggregation-induced emission of GFP-like chromophores via exclusion of solvent-solute hydrogen bonding.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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The fluorescence of GFP-like chromophores in aqueous solutions is turned on upon forming aggregates or embedment in cell membranes as a result of exclusion of solvent-solute H-bonding.
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Hispolon from Phellinus linteus induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in NB4 human leukaemia cells.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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Hispolon (a phenolic compound isolated from Phellinus linteus) has been shown to possess strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effect of hispolon on human hepatocellular carcinoma NB4 cells using the MTT assay, DNA fragmentation, DAPI (4, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride) staining, and flow cytometric analysis. Hispolon inhibited the cellular growth of NB4 cells in a dose-dependent manner through the induction of cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase measured using flow cytometric analysis and apoptotic cell death, as demonstrated by DNA laddering. Exposure of NB4 cells to hispolon-induced apoptosis-related protein expressions, such as the cleavage form of caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9, poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, and the proapoptotic Bax protein. Western blot analysis showed that the protein levels of extrinsic apoptotic proteins (Fas and FasL), intrinsic related proteins (cytochrome c), and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 were increased in NB4 cells after hispolon treatment. Hispolon-induced G0/G1-phase arrest was associated with a marked decrease in the protein expression of p53, cyclins D1, and cyclins E, and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) 2, and 4, with concomitant induction of p21waf1/Cip1 and p27Kip1. We conclude that hispolon induces both of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in NB4 human leukemia cells in vitro.
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Bioassay Guided Isolation and Identification of Anti-inflammatory Active Compounds from the Root of Ficus formosana.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify the anti-inflammatory active compounds using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) in vitro. Air-dried roots of Ficus formosana were extracted with methanol and separated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water layers. Among them, the chloroform layer showed strong activity and was subjected to separation and purification by using various chromatographic techniques. Five compounds showing potent activity were identified by comparing spectral data to be ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, psoralen, kaempferol, carpachromene, and syringic aldehyde. When macrophages were treated with psoralen and kaempferol together with LPS, a concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) productions were detected. Western blotting revealed that kaempferol, psoralen, and carpachromene blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated macrophages. The results confirmed that the traditional use of F. formosana could be a potential anti-inflammatory agent.
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Modeling of cancer metastasis and drug resistance via biomimetic nano-cilia and microfluidics.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture platforms that are capable of mimicking in vivo microenvironments to replicate physiological conditions are vital tools in a wide range of cellular and clinical studies. Here, learning from the nature of cilia in lungs - clearing mucus and pathogens from the airway - we develop a 3D culture approach via flexible and kinetic copolymer-based chains (nano-cilia) for diminishing cell-to-substrate adhesion. Multicellular spheroids or colonies were tested for 3-7 days in a microenvironment consisting of generated cells with properties of putative cancer stem cells (CSCs). The dynamic and reversible regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was examined in spheroids passaged and cultured in copolymer-coated dishes. The expression of CSC markers, including CD44, CD133, and ABCG2, and hypoxia signature, HIF-1?, was significantly upregulated compared to that without the nano-cilia. In addition, these spheroids exhibited chemotherapeutic resistance in vitro and acquired enhanced metastatic propensity, as verified from microfluidic chemotaxis assay designed to replicate in vivo-like metastasis. The biomimetic nano-cilia approach and microfluidic device may offer new opportunities to establish a rapid and cost-effective platform for the study of anti-cancer therapeutics and CSCs.
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Immunomodulatory Effects of Hedysarum polybotrys Extract in Mice Macrophages, Splenocytes and Leucopenia.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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Astragali Radix (Huang-Qi) is a popular herbal medicine commonly used as a constituent in tonic herbal preparations. Hedysarum polybotrys Handel-Mazzetti is one species used of Astragali Radix. In this study, the immunomodulatory properties of H. polybotrys were explored by LPS-activated and SNP-treated RAW 264.7 cells and splenocytes and, daunoblastina-induced leucopenia BALB/c mice. Formononetin was used as the bioactive marker to monitor the quality of the H. polybotrys extracts. H. polybotrys was extracted with hot-water and methanol, and MeOH extract partitioned with H2O (M-H) and ethyl acetate (M-EA) to yield four different fractions. M-EA had the highest formononetin and total proanthocyanidin content and showed stronger inhibitory effects on the production and expression of NO, PGE2, iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells and splenocytes than the other fractions. In addition, M-EA significantly stimulated the proliferation of LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells and splenocytes, enhanced NO radicals scavenging and attenuated NO-induced cytotoxicity.  Furthermore, M-EA also significantly increased the rate of recovery of white blood cells level in daunoblastina-induced leucopenia mice. These evidences suggest that this traditional Qi-tonifying herb has potential effects in clinical conditions when immune-enhancing and anti-inflammatory effect is desired.
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The current and future potential geographic range of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).
Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), is one of the most important pests throughout the Americas. CLIMEX 3.0 and ArcGIS 9.3 were used to model the current and future potential geographical distribution of this pest. Under current climatic conditions, A. obliqua is predicted to be able to establish throughout much of the tropics and subtropics, including not only North and South America, where it has been reported, but also southern Asia, northeastern Australia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The main factors limiting the pests range expansion may be cold stress. Climate change expands the potential distribution of A. obliqua poleward as cold stress boundaries recede, but the predicted distribution in northwestern Australia and northern parts of Sub-Saharan Africa will decrease because of heat stress. Considering the widely suitable range for A. obliqua globally and in China, enhanced quarantine and monitoring measures should be implemented in areas that are projected to be suitable for the establishment of the pest under current and future climatic conditions.
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One lignanoid compound and four triterpenoid compounds with anti-inflammatory activity from the leaves of Elaeagnus oldhamii maxim.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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One lignanoid compound, isoamericanol B (1), along with four triterpenoid compounds-cis-3-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyloleanolic acid (2), trans-3-O-p-hydroxy cinnamoyloleanolic acid (3), cis-3-O-p-hydroxycinnamoylursolic acid (4), trans-3-O-p-hydroxycinnamoylursolic acid (5) have been isolated for the first time from the leaves of Elaeagnus oldhamii Maxim. Compounds 1-4 significantly inhibited the expression of NO (nitric oxide) produced in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The IC50 value for inhibition of nitrite production of compound 1 was about 10.3 ± 0.4 ?g/mL. In the cell viability test, however, among compounds 1-4 compound 1 did not significantly change cell viability. Therefore, in this study compound 1 possessed anti-inflammatory effects. The result suggests compound 1 as a potential lead compound for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
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Information extraction for tracking liver cancer patients statuses: from mixture of clinical narrative report types.
Telemed J E Health
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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To provide an efficient way for tracking patients condition over long periods of time and to facilitate the collection of clinical data from different types of narrative reports, it is critical to develop an efficient method for smoothly analyzing the clinical data accumulated in narrative reports.
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Factors related to fungiform papillae density: the beaver dam offspring study.
Chem. Senses
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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The distribution of fungiform papillae density and associated factors were examined in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Data were from 2371 participants (mean age = 48.8 years, range = 21-84 years) with 1108 males and 1263 females. Fungiform papillae were highlighted with blue food coloring and the number of fungiform papillae within a standard 6-mm circle was counted. Whole mouth suprathreshold taste intensity was measured. The mean fungiform papillae density was 103.5 papillae/cm(2) (range = 0-212.2 papillae/cm(2)). For each 5-year increase in age, the mean fungiform papillae density was 2.8 papillae/cm(2) lower and the mean density for males was 10.2 papillae/cm(2) lower than for females. Smokers had significantly lower mean densities (former smokers: -5.1 papillae/cm(2); current smokers: -9.3 papillae/cm(2)) than nonsmokers, and heavy alcohol drinkers had a mean density that was 4.7 papillae/cm(2) lower than nonheavy drinkers. Solvent exposure was related to a significantly higher density (+6.8 papillae/cm(2)). The heritability estimate for fungiform papillae density was 40.2%. Propylthiouracil taster status, TAS2R38 haplotype, and perceived taste intensity were not related to density. In summary, wide variability in fungiform papillae density was observed and a number of related factors were found including the modifiable factors of smoking and alcohol consumption.
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Odor identification and cognitive function in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Olfactory impairment is associated with cognitive impairment in older adults but less is known about the association of olfactory impairment and cognitive function in middle-aged adults. The association between olfactory impairment and cognitive function tests of attention, processing speed, and executive and psychomotor function was explored in 2837 participants (21-84 years; mean age 49 years) in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Among middle-aged participants (aged 35-64 years), those with impairment on an odor identification test took significantly longer to complete the Trail Making Test (TMT-A and TMT-B) and the Grooved Peg Board (GPB) test, than those without olfactory impairment in regression models adjusted for multiple factors. Similar results were found for the TMT-A and TMT-B, but not the GPB, in the whole cohort. Olfactory impairment was associated with poorer performance on cognitive function tests in a primarily middle-aged cohort.
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[Effects of bisphenol A on OCT4 and SOX2 genes expression in mouse embryonic stem cells].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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To explore the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on toxicity characteristic and OCT4 and SOX2 gene expression of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC).
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Analgesic and anti-inflammatory bioactivities of eburicoic acid and dehydroeburicoic acid isolated from Antrodia camphorata on the inflammatory mediator expression in mice.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Eburicoic acid (TR1) and dehydroeburicoic acid (TR2), an active ingredient from Antrodia camphorata (AC) solid-state culture, were evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Treatment with TR1 and TR2 significantly inhibited a number of acetic acid-induced writhing responses and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. In the anti-inflammatory test, TR1 and TR2 decreased paw edema at the fourth and fifth hour after ?-carrageenan (Carr) administration and increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the paw edema tissue. We also demonstrated that TR1 and TR2 significantly attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?), and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) levels in either edema paw or serum at the fifth hour after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that TR1 and TR2 decreased Carr-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cycloxyclase (COX-2) expressions at the fifth hour in paw edema. Treatment with TR1 and TR2 also diminished neutrophil infiltration into the paw edema at the fifth hour. The present study suggests that the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of TR1 and TR2 might be related to the decrease of inflammatory cytokines and an increase of antioxidant enzyme activity.
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Trajectories of caregiver depressive symptoms while providing end-of-life care.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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The course of caregivers depressive symptoms may not be homogenous. This study identified trajectories of depressive symptoms among caregivers providing end-of-life care to cancer patients and profiled the unique characteristics of caregivers within each trajectory.
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Taste intensity in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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To determine the distribution of the perceived intensity of salt, sweet, sour, and bitter in a large population and to investigate factors associated with perceived taste intensity.
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Unmet hearing health care needs: the Beaver Dam offspring study.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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We evaluated the use of hearing health care services (hearing testing and hearing aids) by adults aged 21 to 84 years.
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Research progress in the radioprotective effect of the canonical Wnt pathway.
Cancer Biol Med
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Irradiation from diverse sources is ubiquitous and closely associated with human activities. Radiation therapy (RT), an important component of multiple radiation origins, is a common therapeutic modality for cancer. More importantly, RT provides significant contribution to oncotherapy by killing tumor cells. However, during the course of therapy, irradiation of normal tissues can result in a wide range of side effects, including self-limited acute toxicities, mild chronic symptoms, or severe organ dysfunction. Although numerous promising radioprotective agents have emerged, only a few have successfully entered the market because of various limitations. At present, the widely accepted hypothesis for protection against radiation-caused injury involves the Wnt canonical pathway. Activating the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway may protect the salivary gland, oral mucosa, and gastrointestinal epithelium from radiation damage. The underlying mechanisms include inhibiting apoptosis and preserving normal tissue functions. However, aberrant Wnt signaling underlies a wide range of pathologies in humans, and its various components contribute to cancer. Moreover, studies have suggested that Wnt/?-catenin signaling may lead to radioresistance of cancer stem cell. These facts markedly complicate any definition of the exact function of the Wnt pathway.
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Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Taiwanese yam (Dioscorea japonica Thunb. var. pseudojaponica (Hayata) Yamam.) and its reference compounds.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Dioscorea japonica Thunb. var. pseudojaponica (DP) is consumed as food and widely used in traditional Chinese medicine in Taiwan. The aims of this study are to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of DP (EDP) and its reference compounds. Fingerprint chromatogram from HPLC indicated that EDP contains gallic acid and vanillic acid. EDP was evaluated for its antioxidant effects and LPS-induced nitrite oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells. EDP decreased the LPS-induced NO production and expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells. In-vivo anti-inflammatory activities of EDP were assessed in mouse paw oedema induced by ?-carrageenan (Carr). We investigated the antioxidant mechanism of EDP via studies of the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the oedematous paw. The results showed that EDP might be a natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.
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Chemical characterization and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of Actinidia callosa var. ephippioides via suppression of proinflammatory cytokines.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Actinidia callosa var. ephippioides (ACE) has been widely used to treat anti-pyretic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammation, abdominal pain and fever in Taiwan. This study aims to determine the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activities of ethyl acetate fraction of ACE (EA-ACE) using a model of ?-carrageenan (Carr)-induced paw edema in mouse model. In HPLC analysis, chemical characterization of EA-ACE was established. In order to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of EA-ACE, we have detected the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the paw edema. Serum NO, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) were evaluated. Chemical characterization from HPLC indicated that EA-ACE contains betulinic acid, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid. In the anti-inflammatory test, EA-ACE decreased the paw edema after Carr administration, increased the activities of CAT, SOD, and GPx and decreased the MDA level in the edema paw at the 5th hr after Carr injection. EA-ACE affects the serum NO, TNF-?, and IL-1? levels at the 5th hr after Carr injection. EA-ACE decreased Carr-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions by Western blotting. Actinidia callosa var. ephippioides have the potential to provide a therapeutic approach to inflammation-associated disorders.
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Short- and long-latency interhemispheric inhibitions are additive in human motor cortex.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the human primary motor cortex (M1) at suprathreshold strength results in inhibition of M1 in the opposite hemisphere, a process termed interhemispheric inhibition (IHI). Two phases of IHI, termed short-latency interhemispheric inhibition (SIHI) and long-latency interhemispheric inhibition (LIHI), involving separate neural circuits, have been identified. In this study we evaluated how these two inhibitory processes interact with each other. We studied 10 healthy right-handed subjects. A test stimulus (TS) was delivered to the left M1, and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. Contralateral conditioning stimuli (CCS) were applied to the right M1 either 10 ms or 50 ms prior to the TS, inducing SIHI and LIHI, respectively, in the left M1. The effects of SIHI and LIHI alone, and SIHI and LIHI delivered together, were compared. The TS was adjusted to produce 1-mV or 0.5-mV MEPs when applied alone or after CCS. SIHI and LIHI were found to be additive when delivered together, irrespective of the strength of the TS. The interactions were affected neither by varying the strength of the conditioning stimulus producing SIHI nor by altering the current direction of the TS. Small or opposing interactions, however, may not have been detected. These results support previous findings suggesting that SIHI and LIHI act through different neural circuits. Such inhibitory processes may be used individually or additively during motor tasks and should be studied as separate processes in functional studies.
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Anti-inflammatory lanostanoids and lactone derivatives from Antrodia camphorata.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Four new lanostanoids, ethyl lucidenate A (1), ethyl lucidenate F (2), 15-O-acetylganolucidate A (3), and 3,11,15,23-tetraoxo-27?-lanosta-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (4), and two new lactone derivatives, 5-hydroxy-5-(methoxymethyl)-4-methylfuran-2(5H)-one (5) and 3-(4-methoxy-2-oxo-2H-pyran-6-yl)propanoic acid (6), together with four known compounds, 11?-hydroxy-3,7-dioxolanost-8,24(E)-dien-26- oic acid (7), 3,7,11-trioxo-5?-lanosta-8,24(E)-dien-26-oic acid (8), methyl 3,7,11,12,15,23-hexaoxo-5?-lanost-8-en-26-oate (9), and ethyl 3,7,11,12,15,23-hexaoxo-5?-lanost-8-en-26-oate (10), were characterized from Antrodia camphorata. The structures of these new compounds were determined by analysis of their spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments. Ten components were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by examining their effect on LPS-iNOS-dependent NO production in murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) cells. Among them, compounds 1, 3, 7, 8, 9, and 10 significantly suppressed the NO concentration in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells with IC50 values ? 10 ?M.
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The Effect of the Aerial Part of Lindera akoensis on Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in RAW264.7 Cells.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Four new secondary metabolites, 3?-((E)-Dodec-1-enyl)-4?-hydroxy-5?-methyldihydrofuran-2-one (1), linderinol (6), 4-O-methylkaempferol 3-O-?-L-(4-E-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (11) and kaempferol 3-O-?-L-(4-Z-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (12) with eleven known compounds-3-epilistenolide D1 (2), 3-epilistenolide D2 (3), (3Z,4?,5?)-3-(dodec-11-ynylidene)-4-hydroxy-5-methylbutanolide (4), (3E,4?,5?)-3-(dodec-11-ynylidene)-4-hydroxy-5-methylbutanolide (5), matairesinol (7), syringaresinol (8), (+)-pinoresinol (9), salicifoliol (10), 4-p-coumaroylafzelin (13), catechin (14) and epicatechin (15)-were first isolated from the aerial part of Lindera akoensis. Their structures were determined by detailed analysis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data. All of the compounds isolated from Lindera akoensis showed that in vitro anti-inflammatory activity decreases the LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 cell, with IC50 values of 4.1-413.8 µM.
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Hepatoprotective effects of eburicoic acid and dehydroeburicoic acid from Antrodia camphorata in a mouse model of acute hepatic injury.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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The hepatoprotective effects of eburicoic acid (TR1) and dehydroeburicoic acid (TR2) from Antrodia camphorata (AC) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage were investigated in mice. TR1 and TR2 was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 7 days prior to the administration of CCl4. Pretreatment with TR1 and TR2 prevented the elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and liver lipid peroxides in CCl4-treated mice. The activities of antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], nitric oxide (NO) production, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) were decreased after the treatment with TR1 and TR2 in CCl4-treated mice. Western blotting revealed that TR1 and TR2 significantly decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions and increased the expression of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) in CCl4-treated mice. Therefore, we speculate that TR1 and TR2 protect the liver from CCl4-induced hepatic damage via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
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Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract of Centipeda minima.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Centipeda minima (L.) is traditionally used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatments of rhinitis, sinusitis, relieving pain, reducing swelling, and treating cancer for a long history in Taiwan. However, there is no scientific evidence which supports the use in the literature.
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NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium and reduced glutathione mitigate ethephon-mediated leaf senescence, H2O2 elevation and senescence-associated gene expression in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).
J. Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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Ethephon, an ethylene releasing compound, promoted leaf senescence, H2O2 elevation, and senescence-associated gene expression in sweet potato. It also affected the glutathione and ascorbate levels, which in turn perturbed H2O2 homeostasis. The decrease of reduced glutathione and the accumulation of dehydroascorbate correlated with leaf senescence and H2O2 elevation at 72h in ethephon-treated leaves. Exogenous application of reduced glutathione caused quicker and significant increase of its intracellular level and resulted in the attenuation of leaf senescence and H2O2 elevation. A small H2O2 peak produced within the first 4h after ethephon application was also eliminated by reduced glutathione. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, delayed leaf senescence and H2O2 elevation at 72h, and its influence was effective only within the first 4h after ethephon treatment. Ethephon-induced senescence-associated gene expression was repressed by DPI and reduced glutathione at 72h in pretreated leaves. Leaves treated with l-buthionine sulfoximine, an endogenous glutathione synthetase inhibitor, did enhance senescence-associated gene expression, and the activation was strongly repressed by reduced glutathione. In conclusion, ethephon-mediated leaf senescence, H2O2 elevation and senescence-associated gene expression are all alleviated by reduced glutathione and NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI. The speed and the amount of intracellular reduced glutathione accumulation influence its effectiveness of protection against ethephon-mediated effects. Reactive oxygen species generated from NADPH oxidase likely serves as an oxidative stress signal and participates in ethephon signaling. The possible roles of NADPH oxidase and reduced glutathione in the regulation of oxidative stress signal in ethephon are discussed.
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Effects of hydrogen bonding on internal conversion of GFP-like chromophores. II. The meta-amino systems.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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To rationalize the efficient quenching of the fluorescence and the Z ? E photoisomerization of m-ABDI, the meta-amino analogue of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore, in protic solvents, the femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence and transient infrared (TRIR) spectra of m-ABDI in CD3CN, CH3OH, and CD3OD are determined. For solutions in CD3CN, the fluorescence decay lifetime is ?7.9 ns and IR absorption lines near 1513, 1531, 1557, and 1613 cm(-1) of m-ABDI in its electronically excited state were observed with a decay time >5 ns. For solutions in CH3OH, the fluorescence decay is double exponential with time constants of ?16 and 62 ps. In addition to IR absorption lines of m-ABDI in its electronically excited state with a decay time of ?16 ps, new features near 1513, 1532, 1554, and 1592 cm(-1) were observed to have a rise time of ?19 ps and a decay constant of ?58 ps, indicating formation of an intermediate. The assignments for the IR spectra of the ground and excited states were assisted with DFT and TDDFT calculations, respectively. We conclude that the torsion of the exocyclic C?C bond (the ? torsion) is responsible for the nonradiative decay of electronically excited m-ABDI in CD3CN. However, in CH3OH and CD3OD, the solute-solvent hydrogen bonding (SSHB) interactions diminish significantly the barrier of the ? torsion and induce a new pathway that competes successfully with the ? torsion, consistent with the efficient fluorescence quenching and the diminished yield for Z ? E photoisomerization. The new pathway is likely associated with excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) from the solvent to m-ABDI, particularly the carbonyl group, and generates an intermediate (ESPT*) that is weakly fluorescent.
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Effects of hydrogen bonding on internal conversion of GFP-like chromophores. I. The para-amino systems.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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To understand the effects of solvent-solute hydrogen bonding (SSHB) on the excited-state dynamics of two GFP-like chromophores, p-ABDI and p-CFABDI, we have determined the quantum yields for fluorescence (?f) and the isomerization Z ? E (?ZE) and the femtosecond fluorescence and transient infrared absorption in selected solvents. The behavior that ?ZE ? 0.50 in aprotic solvents, such as CH3CN, indicates that the E-Z photoisomerization adopts a one-bond-flip mechanism through the torsion of the exocyclic C?C bond (the ? torsion) to form a perpendicular species (? ?90°) in the singlet excited state followed by internal conversion (IC) to the ground state and partition to form the E and Z isomers with equal probabilities. The observed ?ZE decreased from 0.50 to 0.15-0.28 when CH3CN was replaced with the protic solvents CH3OH and CF3CH2OH. In conjunction with the solvent-independent rapid (<1 ps) kinetics for the fluorescence decay and the solvent-dependent slow (7-20 ps) kinetics for the ground-state recovery, we conclude that the SSHB modifies the potential energy surface for the ? torsion in a way that the IC occurs also for the twisted intermediates with a ?-torsion angle smaller than 90°, which favors the formation of the Z isomers. The possibility of IC induced by torsion of the exocyclic C-C bond (the ? torsion) is also considered but excluded.
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Chemical constituents from the leaves of Annona reticulata and their inhibitory effects on NO production.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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In the present study, the chemical investigation of the leaves of Annona reticulata has resulted in the identification of nine compounds, including annonaretin A, a new triterpenoid. The purified compounds were subjected to the examination of their effects on NO inhibition in LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages and most of them exhibited significant NO inhibition, with IC?? values in the range of 48.6 ± 1.2 and 99.8 ± 0.4 ?M.
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Number of central lymph node metastasis for predicting lateral lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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The purpose of this study was to present our evaluation of the relationship between the number of positive central lymph nodes and lateral lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC).
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Down-regulation of miRNA-30a in human plasma is a novel marker for breast cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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The present study was to evaluate the value of miRNA-30a in plasma as potential tumor marker in detecting breast cancer (BC). Using a novel approach to extract miRNA-30a from the plasma followed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) analysis, levels of miRNA-30a were quantified in plasma specimens of 100 BCs and 64 age-matched and disease-free healthy controls (HC). And we compared the diagnostic value of plasma miRNA-30a with conventional circulating tumor markers CA153 and CEA. The median levels of miRNA-30a were significantly lower in preoperative BC than those in HC (P < 0.001). The levels of CEA and CA153 were all significantly higher in preoperative BC compared with those in HC (P = 0.008 and P = 0.001, respectively), and only the level of CA153 decreased in postoperative BC compared with preoperative BC (P = 0.015). ROC analysis showed the sensitivity and specificity of miRNA-30a for BC diagnosis at 74.0 and 65.6 %, respectively, whereas the sensitivities of CEA and CA153 were 12.0 and 14.0 %, respectively. The status of ER and triple-negative BC was significantly associated with miRNA-30a level (P = 0.007 and P = 0.005, respectively). And no other clinicopathological features were found to had significant difference. Our findings suggest that plasma miRNA-30a decreased in patients with BC and has great potential to use as novel biomarkers for BC diagnosis.
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New Anti-Inflammatory Aromatic Components from Antrodia camphorata.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Three new benzenoids, 3-isopropenyl-2-methoxy-6-methyl-4,5-methylenedioxy- phenol (1), 2-hydroxy-4,4-dimethoxy-3,3-dimethyl-5,6,5,6-bimethylenedioxybiphenyl (2), 4,4-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethyl-5,6,5,6-bimethylenedioxybiphenyl (3), together with two known benzenoids, 2,3,6-trimethoxy-5-methylphenol (4) and 2,3-methylenedioxy- 4-methoxy-5-methylphenol (5), were isolated from Antrodia camphorata. Our results support that compounds 1-5 potently inhibited LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in a dose-dependent manner. The IC(50) values of compounds 1, 3 and 5 were 1.8 ± 0.2, 18.8 ± 0.6 and 0.8 ± 0.3 ?g/mL, respectively.
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Diterpenoids with anti-inflammatory activity from the wood of Cunninghamia konishii.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Two new diterpenoids, konishone (1) and 3b-hydroxy-5,6-dehydrosugiol (2), along with three known diterpenoids--hinokiol (3), sugiol (4), and 12-hydroxy-6,7-secoabieta-8,11,13-triene-6,7-dial (5)--were isolated from the wood of Cunninghamia konishii. Compound 1 is a novel skeleton of the 7,20-dinorabietane-type diterpene. In addition, when RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with different concentrations of compounds 1, 3, and 5 together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of NO production was detected. The IC?? values for inhibition of nitrite production of compounds 1, 3, and 5 were about 9.8 ± 0.7, 7.9 ± 0.9, and 9.3 ± 1.3 ?g/mL, respectively. This study presents the potential utilization of compounds 1, 3, and 5, as lead compounds for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs.
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FJU-C4, a New 2-Pyridone Compound, Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Systemic Inflammation via p38MAPK and NF-?B in Mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Despite advances in antibiotic therapy and intensive care, the mortality caused by systemic inflammatory response syndrome and severe sepsis remains high. The use of anti-inflammatory agents to attenuate inflammatory response during acute systemic inflammatory reactions may improve survival rates. Here we show that a newly synthesized 2-pyridone compound (FJU-C4) can suppress the expression of late inflammatory mediators such as iNOS and COX-2 in murine macrophages. The pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF?, IL-1?, and IL-6, were dose-dependently suppressed by FJU-C4 both in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the expression of TNF? was inhibited from as early as 2 hours after exposure to LPS stimulation. The production of mature pro-inflammatory cytokines was also suppressed by pretreatment with FJU-C4 in either cell culture medium or mice serum when stimulated by LPS. FJU-C4 prolongs mouse survival and prevents mouse death from LPS-induced systemic inflammation when the dose of FJU-C4 is over 5 mg/kg. The activities of ERK, JNK, and p38MAPK were induced by LPS stimulation on murine macrophage cell line, but only p38MAPK signaling was dramatically suppressed by pretreatment with the FJU-C4 compound in a dose-dependent manner. NF-?B activation also was suppressed by FJU-C4 compound. These findings suggest that the FJU-C4 compound may act as a promising therapeutic agent against inflammatory diseases by inhibiting the p38MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathway.
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Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC stem.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2011
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Oxidative stress and inflammation are related to several chronic diseases including cancer and atherosclerosis. Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC is a special folk medicinal plant in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extract and fractions of the stem of K. gracilis. TEAC, total phenolic compound content, total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of NO production in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation were analyzed. Among all fractions, the chloroform fraction showed the highest TEAC and DPPH radical scavenging activities. The chloroform fraction also had the highest content of polyphenols and flavonoids. Chloroform fractions also decreased LPS-induced NO production and expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells. The antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extract and fractions were studied in vitro using HepG2 cells, and the results were consistent with their antioxidant capacities. Chloroform fractions had the highest antiproliferative activity with an IC(50) of 136.85 ± 2.32 ?g/ml. Eupafolin also had good pharmacological activity in the antioxidant, anti-inflammation and antiproliferative. Eupafolin might be an important bioactive compound in the stem of K. gracilis. The above experimental data indicated that the stem of K. gracilis is a potent antioxidant medicinal plant, and such efficacy may be mainly attributed to its polyphenolic compounds.
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Olfactory impairment in an adult population: the Beaver Dam Offspring Study.
Chem. Senses
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of olfactory impairment and associated risk factors and the effects of olfactory impairment on dietary choices and quality of life. Odor identification was measured in 2838 participants aged 21-84 years (mean 49 years) in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. The overall prevalence of olfactory impairment was 3.8%, increased with age (from 0.6% in those<35 years to 13.9% among those?65 years) and was more common in men than women. In a multivariate model age (odds ratio [OR]=1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.33, 1.64 for every 5-year increase), nasal polyps or deviated septum (OR=2.69, 95% CI=1.62, 4.48), ankle-brachial index<0.9 (OR=3.62, 95% CI=1.45, 9.01), and smoking (women only) (OR=2.43, 95% CI=1.19, 4.98 ever smoked vs. never) were associated with an increased odds of olfactory impairment, whereas higher household income, ?$50,000 versus <$50,000 per year, was associated with a decreased odds of olfactory impairment (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.31, 0.73). Participants with olfactory impairment were less likely to report that food tasted as good as it used to, or that they experienced food flavors the same. There was no association between olfactory impairment and general health-related quality of life, depressive symptoms, or dietary choices. The prevalence of olfactory impairment was low in this largely middle-aged cohort, and some factors associated with olfactory impairment are potentially modifiable.
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Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2011
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This study investigated the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. (STE). The results showed that STE displayed radical scavenging and reducing activity, as well as liposome protection activity. In addition, the implementation of an HPLC with a photodiode array detector helped to identify polyphenolic components including hesperidin, luteolin, and diosmetin. STE administration in the range of 125-500 mg/kg showed concentration dependent inhibition on carrageenan induced inflammatory response in mice. The anti-inflammatory effects of STE could be related to tissue NO and tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-?) suppression, and associated with the reduction of lipid peroxidation and an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in vivo. Overall, the results showed that STE might serve as a natural inhibitor of oxidation and inflammation.
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Cognitive stimulation during hospitalization improves global cognition of older Taiwanese undergoing elective total knee and hip replacement surgery.
J Adv Nurs
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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? This article is a report on a pilot study conducted to determine the effects of cognitively stimulating activities in older patients undergoing elective hip and/or knee replacement.
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Anti-inflammatory activities of 6?-acetoxy-7?-hydroxyroyleanone from Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata ex vivo and in vivo.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2011
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Excess production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in activated macrophages is linked to acute and chronic inflammation. Thus, it would be valuable to develop inhibitors of NO production and/or iNOS for potential therapeutic use. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of 6?-acetoxy-7?-hydroxyroyleanone (AHR), a compound isolated from the bark of Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata, using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW 264.7) ex vivo and carrageenan (Carr)-induced mouse paw edema model in vivo. When RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with different concentrations of AHR (0, 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, and 2.50 ?g/mL) together with LPS (100 ng/mL), a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of NO production was detected. Western blotting revealed that AHR blocked protein expression of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, significantly. In the anti-inflammatory test, AHR (1.25 and 2.50 mg/kg) decreased paw edema at 4 and 5 h after ?-carrageenan (Carr) administration and increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the liver tissue. It was also demonstrated that AHR significantly attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the edema paw at 5 h after Carr injection. AHR (0.62, 1.25, and 2.50 mg/kg) decreased the NO levels on both edema paw and serum at 5 h after Carr injection. Also, AHR diminished the serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) at 5 h after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that AHR (2.50 mg/kg) decreased Carr-induced iNOS and COX-2 expressions at 5 h in the edema paw. An intraperitoneal (ip) injection treatment with AHR also diminished neutrophil infiltration into sites of inflammation, as did indomethacin (Indo). The anti-inflammatory activities of AHR might be related to the decrease in the levels of MDA, iNOS, and COX-2 in the edema paw and to the increase in the activities of CAT, SOD, and GPx in the liver through the suppression of TNF-? and NO.
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A concise synthesis of viscolin, and its anti-inflammatory effects through the suppression of iNOS, COX-2, ERK phosphorylation and proinflammatory cytokines expressions.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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In the present report, a concise synthesis of viscolin (1) has been achieved. The anti-inflammatory effect of viscolin was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Viscolin blocked the expression of iNOS and COX-2, and it also inhibited the ERK for the activation of NF-?B in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that viscolin decreased Carr-induced iNOS and COX-2 expressions. These results could help to deduce the anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
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Analgesic effects and mechanisms of anti-inflammation of taraxeren-3-one from Diospyros maritima in mice.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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This study investigated the analgesic effects of taraxeren-3-one, which is an ingredient from Diospyros maritima (DM), using the models of acetic acid-induced writhing response and the formalin test, and its anti-inflammatory effects using the model of ?-carrageenan (Carr)-induced paw edema. Treatment of male ICR mice with taraxeren-3-one inhibited the numbers of writhing response and formalin-induced pain in the late phase, significantly. In the anti-inflammatory test, taraxeren-3-one decreased paw edema at 4 and 5 h after Carr administration and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH) in the liver tissue at 5 h after Carr injection. Taraxeren-3-one affects malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) levels from both the edema paw and serum at 5 h after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that taraxeren-3-one decreased Carr-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions. These anti-inflammatory mechanisms of taraxeren-3-one might be related to the decrease in the level of MDA in the edema paw via increasing the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH in the liver. Also, taraxeren-3-one could affect the production of NO and TNF-? and, therefore, affect the anti-inflammatory effects.
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Anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract of Mesona procumbens in experimental mice.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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Mesona procumbens is consumed as a herbal drink and jelly-type dessert in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of M. procumbens (AMP) using the ?-carrageenin (Carr)-induced mouse paw oedema model. The fingerprint chromatogram of AMP was obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. To investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of AMP, the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in paw oedema were monitored. Serum nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) were also evaluated.
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Trilinolein inhibits proliferation of human non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 through the modulation of PI3K/Akt pathway.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2011
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Trilinolein has been identified as one of the active constituents isolated from Panax notoginseng used widely in traditional Chinese medicine. Protective actions of Panax notoginseng against cerebral ischemia, beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, and hemostatic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, renoprotective and estrogen-like activities have been illustrated. In the present study, the effects of trilinolein on the growth of non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 were investigated. It was found that the exposure of A549 cells to trilinolein resulted in the growth inhibition and the induction of apoptosis in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Trilinolein treatment induced the upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax, downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression, which was associated with the proteolytic activation of caspases and the concomitant degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein. Intracellular reactive oxygen species seem to play a role in the trilinolein-induced apoptosis, since ROS were produced early in the trilinolein treatment. Moreover, the activity of PI3K/Akt was downregulated in trilinolein-treated cells. Our results demonstrated that the most important regulators of trilinolein-induced apoptosis are Bcl-2 family and caspase-3, which are associated with cytochrome c release and dephosphorylation on the Akt signaling pathway.
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Expression of a cloned sweet potato catalase SPCAT1 alleviates ethephon-mediated leaf senescence and H?O? elevation.
J. Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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In this report a full-length cDNA, SPCAT1, was isolated from ethephon-treated mature L3 leaves of sweet potato. SPCAT1 contained 1479 nucleotides (492 amino acids) in its open reading frame, and exhibited high amino acid sequence identities (ca. 71.2-80.9%) with several plant catalases, including Arabidopsis, eggplant, grey mangrove, pea, potato, tobacco and tomato. Gene structural analysis showed that SPCAT1 encoded a catalase and contained a putative conserved internal peroxisomal targeting signal PTS1 motif and calmodulin binding domain around its C-terminus. RT-PCR showed that SPCAT1 gene expression was enhanced significantly in mature L3 and early senescent L4 leaves and was much reduced in immature L1, L2 and completely yellowing senescent L5 leaves. In dark- and ethephon-treated L3 leaves, SPCAT1 expression was significantly enhanced temporarily from 0 to 24h, then decreased gradually until 72h after treatment. SPCAT1 gene expression levels also exhibited approximately inverse correlation with the qualitative and quantitative H(2)O(2) amounts. Effector treatment showed that ethephon-enhanced SPCAT1 expression was repressed by antioxidant reduced glutathione, NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI), calcium ion chelator EGTA and de novo protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. These data suggest that elevated reactive oxygen species H(2)O(2), NADPH oxidase, external calcium influx and de novo synthesized proteins are required and associated with ethephon-mediated enhancement of sweet potato catalase SPCAT1 expression. Exogenous application of expressed catalase SPCAT1 fusion protein delayed or alleviated ethephon-mediated leaf senescence and H(2)O(2) elevation. Based on these data we conclude that sweet potato SPCAT1 is an ethephon-inducible peroxisomal catalase, and its expression is regulated by reduced glutathione, DPI, EGTA and cycloheximide. Sweet potato catalase SPCAT1 may play a physiological role or function in cope with H(2)O(2) homeostasis in leaves caused by developmental cues and environmental stimuli.
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