JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The Hepatobiliary Disposition of Timosaponin B2 is Highly Dependent on Influx/efflux Transporters but not Metabolism.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to characterize the hepatobiliary disposition of timosaponin B2 (TB-2), a natural saponin. Although TB-2 has multiple pharmacological activities, the mechanism of its hepatobiliary disposition has not been explored. Because the metabolism of TB-2 is limited and the accumulation of TB-2 in primary hepatocytes is highly temperature dependent (93% of its accumulation is due to active uptake), the contribution of hepatic transporters was investigated. Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1- and OATP1B3-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells were employed. TB-2 serves as a substrate for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, with the former playing a predominant role in the hepatic uptake of TB-2. An inhibition study in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes (SCRHs) suggested that TB-2 is a substrate for both breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2), consistent with its high biliary excretion index (BEI) (43.1% - 44.9%). This hypothesis was further verified in BCRP and MRP2 membrane vesicles. The cooperation of uptake and efflux transporters in TB-2 hepatic disposition could partially explain the double-peak phenomenon observed in rat plasma and liver and biliary clearance, which accounted for 70% of the total TB-2 clearance. Moreover, TB-2 significantly increased the rosuvastatin concentration in rat plasma in a concentration-dependent manner and decreased its biliary excretion, which corresponded to reductions in rosuvastatin accumulation in hepatocytes and the BEI in SCRHs, representing a perfect example of a potential saponin-statin drug-drug interaction (DDI). These studies demonstrate that transporters (Oatp, Bcrp/Mrp2), but not metabolism, contribute significantly to rat TB-2 hepatobiliary disposition.
Related JoVE Video
Dynamics of the IL-33/ST2 network in the progression of human colorectal adenoma to sporadic colorectal cancer.
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Most sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs) develop from preformed adenomas. Cytokines are involved in the transition from adenoma to CRC. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a newly discovered proinflammatory cytokine belonging to the IL-1 cytokine family and involved in the development of chronic inflammation and cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of the IL-33/ST2 axis during the sequence of progression from normal colorectum to adenoma to carcinoma and to investigate the association of IL-33 and ST2 expression with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. The results demonstrated that the levels of IL-33 and ST2 in adenomas (n = 50), determined by real-time PCR, were significantly higher than those of normal controls (n = 30); the levels of both IL-33/ST mRNA in CRCs (n = 50) were higher than in normal controls but lower than in adenomas. Further analysis revealed that the expression level of ST2 in CRCs was associated with tumor/node/metastasis (TNM) stage. The log-rank test showed that neither the IL-33 nor the ST2 expression level was correlated with overall survival in patients with CRC. The increased expression of IL-33/ST2 in adenomas and CRC tissues was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and was observed in both the tumor stromal cells and adenomatous/cancerous cells. Notably, increased densities of IL-33-positive and ST2-positive microvessels were found in the stroma of adenomas and CRCs. In conclusion, increased expression of the IL-33/ST2 axis along the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence might be involved in the neoplastic transformation via the participation of this axis in the regulation of angiogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
A novel SMAD family protein, SMAD9 is involved in follicular initiation and changes egg yield of geese via synonymous mutations in exon1 and intron2.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Elevation of egg performance is vital to goose farming. Many poultry scientists are seeking for efficient molecular genetic markers associated with egg yield. In this study, mRNA differential display was adopted to investigate gene expression profiling in the follicular development of goose. For the first time, a novel SMAD family protein SMAD9 (EST CJ111007) was found to be involved in follicular initiation and used to be a candidate gene. Functional regions analysis of Smad9 indicated that SMAD9 protein is highly conserved in MH1 and MH2 domains, and the connection area is highly variable region. 6 pairs of primers (p1-p6) were designed to detect the SNPs of Smad9 by PCR-SSCP method. The results revealed that polymorphisms were discovered in the PCR products amplified with P1 primers in exon1 and P3 primers in intron2. In Smad9 exon1, 5 genotypes were found: FK, FF, JJ, JK and KK, including 2 SNPs: 243 bp G ? A, 309 bp T ? G, the mutations did not result in amino acid mutations; In intron2, 3 genotypes were found: AA, BB and AB, only 1 SNP (C ? T). The annual egg yield of FK genotype geese or allele gene A in intron2 are significantly more than those of other genotypes on the average (p < 0.05). Taken together, it is suggested that Smad9 is a promising candidate gene affecting egg performance in goose.
Related JoVE Video
Drosophila neuroligin3 regulates neuromuscular junction development and synaptic differentiation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neuroligins (Nlgs) are a family of cell adhesion molecules thought to be important for synapse maturation and function. Mammalian studies have shown that different Nlgs have different roles in synaptic maturation and function. In Drosophila melanogaster, the roles of Drosophila neuroligin1 (DNlg1), neuroligin2, and neuroligin4 have been examined. However, the roles of neuroligin3 (dnlg3) in synaptic development and function have not been determined. In this study, we used the Drosophila neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) as a model system to investigate the in vivo role of dnlg3. We showed that DNlg3 was expressed in both the CNS and NMJs where it was largely restricted to the postsynaptic site. We generated dnlg3 mutants and showed that these mutants exhibited an increased bouton number and reduced bouton size compared with the wild-type (WT) controls. Consistent with alterations in bouton properties, pre- and postsynaptic differentiations were affected in dnlg3 mutants. This included abnormal synaptic vesicle endocytosis, increased postsynaptic density length, and reduced GluRIIA recruitment. In addition to impaired synaptic development and differentiation, we found that synaptic transmission was reduced in dnlg3 mutants. Altogether, our data showed that DNlg3 was required for NMJ development, synaptic differentiation, and function.
Related JoVE Video
[Enhancement of gastric cancer MKN28 cell line radiosensitivity induced by ?-elemene].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study radiation-enhancing effects on human gastric cancer MKN28 cell line and underlying mechanisms of ?-elemene.
Related JoVE Video
Well-dispersed lithium amidoborane nanoparticles through nanoreactor engineering for improved hydrogen release.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Well-distributed lithium amidoborane (LiAB) nanoparticles were successfully fabricated via adopting carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with homogenous pores uniformly containing Li3N as the nanoreactor and reactant, simply prepared by a single-nozzle electrospinning technique, for the subsequent interaction with AB. The hierarchical porous structure consists of various macropores, mesopores and micropores in situ produced during the formation of Li3N simultaneously serving as the reaction initiator, which not only controllably realizes the well-distribution of LiAB nanoparticles but also provides favorable channels for hydrogen release. Because of the hierarchical porous architecture and nanoscale size effects, the LiAB nanoparticles start to release hydrogen at only 40 °C, which is 30 °C lower than that of pure LiAB, and dehydrogenate completely within only 15 min at 100 °C (10.6 wt%). This work provides a new perspective to the controllable fabrication of nanosized hydrogen storage materials.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of microRNA-21 in Colorectal Cancer: An Original Study and Individual Participant Data Meta-analysis.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed to systematically summarize the diagnostic and prognostic value of circulating/tissue miR21 in patients with colorectal cancer.
Related JoVE Video
[Clinical characteristics of adrenal gland trauma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the clinical characteristics of adrenal gland trauma.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of GOLPH2 is associated with the progression of and poor prognosis in gastric cancer.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Golgi phosphoprotein 2 (GOLPH2) has been associated with the development and progression of various human cancers. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between GOLPH2 and gastric cancer (GC) progression and explore the clinical significance of GOLPH2 in GC. GOLPH2 expression was examined in four pairs of primary GC tissues and the adjacent non-cancerous tissues from the same patients, using immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative PCR and western blotting. Furthermore, GOLPH2 protein expression was analyzed in 10 normal gastric tissues and 385 clinicopathologically characterized cases of GC by IHC. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the prognostic and diagnostic associations. GOLPH2 mRNA and protein expression were both markedly upregulated in GC tissues, compared with the paired adjacent non-cancerous tissues. The Chi-square test and Spearman analysis revealed a significant correlation between GOLPH2 expression and clinical stage, T classification, lymph node metastasis, metastasis and venous invasion. Patients with a higher GOLPH2 expression had a shorter overall survival (OS), compared to patients with lower GOLPH2 expression. Notably, our results suggested that GOLPH2 is associated with the development and progression of GC. Therefore, additional studies focusing on the potential of GOLPH2 as a novel therapeutic target in GC are required.
Related JoVE Video
Plasma miRNAs might be promising biomarkers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Clin Respir J
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We previously showed that microRNAs (miRNAs) in plasma are potential biomarkers for cigarette smoking-related lung fibrosis. Here, we want to find out promising miRNAs for early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of particle size distribution of mainstream cigarette smoke generated by smoking machine with an electrical low pressure impactor.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cigarette smoking is a particle-related exposure. Studying the characteristics of the particle size distribution of cigarette smoke can aid in providing knowledge of smoke aerosol attributes. We used an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) to measure the particle size distribution of mainstream cigarette smoke generated by a smoking machine and provided a continuum of particle sizes of cigarette smoke from a whole cigarette. The results showed that the aerodynamic diameters (D, geometric mean of a channel) of particles ranged from 0.021 to 1.956 ?m, and the number concentrations were on the order of 10(5)-10(9) cm(-3) for different sizes of particles. The particle number of the size category below 0.1 ?m approximated that of the category 0.1-2.0 ?m, and the particles in the size category of 0.1-2.0 ?m contributed extremely heavily to total particulate mass. In addition, the results with small samples indicated that the tar yields normalized per milligram of nicotine showed an approximately linear increase with increasing concentration of total particles.
Related JoVE Video
The interaction of a cobalt porphyrin with cancer-associated nitrosamines.
Bioorg. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A cobalt porphyrin (CY-B) was presented, and its interaction with tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The results revealed that the stoichiometry of the host-guest interaction was 1:2 and that the binding constant between CY-B and TSNAs was within the range of 0.78×10(8)-7.83×10(8)M(-2). The coordination strength between CY-B and TSNAs decreased in the sequence of NNN>NAB>NAT>NNK based on the binding constant. The interaction mechanism of CY-B with TSNAs involved a coordination interaction, and the ?-? interaction between the porphyrin macrocycle and the aromatic frame of the TSNAs pyridines may also have been a driving force. The measured thermodynamic properties demonstrated that the reaction of CY-B with TSNAs was spontaneous and that the driving force for the interaction was a change in enthalpy. The reaction was exothermic, and an increasing temperature inhibited the interaction. The IR spectrum of the complex revealed that the NNO group of TSNAs and the metal cobalt of CY-B formed the six-coordinate complex.
Related JoVE Video
Hierarchical Porous Li2Mg(NH)2@C Nanowires with Long Cycle Life Towards Stable Hydrogen Storage.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The hierarchical porous Li2Mg(NH)2@C nanowires full of micropores, mesopores, and macropores are successfully fabricated via a single-nozzle electrospinning technique combined with in-situ reaction between the precursors, i.e., MgCl2 and LiN3, under physical restriction upon thermal annealing. The explosive decomposition of LiN3 well dispersed in the electrospun nanowires during carbothermal treatment induces a highly porous structure, which provides a favourable way for H2 delivering in and out of Li2Mg(NH)2 nanoparticles simultaneously realized by the space-confinement of the porous carbon coating. As a result, the thus-fabricated Li2Mg(NH)2@C nanowires present significantly enhanced thermodynamics and kinetics towards hydrogen storage performance, e.g., a complete cycle of H2 uptake and release with a capacity close to the theoretical value at a temperature as low as 105°C. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest cycling temperature reported to date. More interestingly, induced by the nanosize effects and space-confinement function of porous carbon coating, a excellently stable regeneration without apparent degradation after 20 de-/re-hydrogenation cycles at a temperature as low as 130°C was achieved for the as-prepared Li2Mg(NH)2@C nanowires.
Related JoVE Video
Therapeutic efficacy of IL-17A antibody injection in preventing the development of colitis associated carcinogenesis in mice.
Immunobiology
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic inflammation increases colorectal cancer (CRC) risk as seen in ulcerative colitis (UC). Proinflammatory cytokines play a critical role in mediating the development of colitis associated cancer (CAC). In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of anti-interleukin (IL)-17A by anti-IL-17A antibody injection on the development of CAC was assessed in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) plus dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced CAC mouse model. The results showed that mice dosed with DMH plus DSS for 10 weeks evoked high degree dysplastic lesion in the large bowel that accompanied with significant increased IL-17A expression, proliferation index and inflammation degree in mice. After anti-IL-17A antibody injection for 2 weeks, the number of tumors, proliferation index and the expression level of IL-17A protein in the large bowel tissues were significantly decreased. Therefore, we concluded that the anti-IL-17A blockade can suppress the development of CAC and is a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of CAC in colitis mice.
Related JoVE Video
[Comparing different treatments for femoral neck fracture of displacement type in the elderly:a meta analysis].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the effects and security between internal fixation and total hip arthroplasty for the patients in elderly with femoral neck fracture of displacement type through a meta analysis.
Related JoVE Video
Elevated Proinflammatory Cytokine IL-17A in the Adjacent Tissues Along the Adenoma-Carcinoma Sequence.
Pathol. Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Considerable evidence has suggested that chronic inflammation is a causative factor in the development of human colorectal cancer (CRC). Interleukin (IL)-17A produced mainly by Th17 cells is a novel proinflammatory cytokine and increased IL-17A is associated with colorectal neoplastic transformation. In this study, we have evaluated the expression of IL-17A in the adjacent tissues along the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence. The expression of IL-17A in the adjacent tissues of colorectal adenoma (adenoma-adjacent, n?=?32) and sporadic CRC (CRC-adjacent, n?=?45) was examined. In addition, the expression pattern of Th17 cell differentiation stimulators (IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-23A) in the adjacent tissues were also examined. The results showed that the expression level of IL-17A mRNA was non-statistically increased (4-fold higher) in the adenoma-adjacent tissues and it became significantly increased (9-fold higher) in the CRC-adjacent tissues as compared with the control. The expression level of IL-17A in the CRC-adjacent tissues was not associated with CRC clinicopathological parameters and overall survival. Immunohistochemistry confirmed an increased density of intraepithelial IL-17A expressing cells in the CRC-adjacent tissues. The Th17 cell differentiation simulators IL-1? and IL-6 were also shown in an increase trend from the adenoma-adjacent to CRC-adjacent tissues. These results provide evidence that IL-17A/Th17 response is enhanced in the adjacent tissues during the colorectal neoplastic transformation.
Related JoVE Video
Positive Darwinian selection is a driving force for the diversification of terpenoid biosynthesis in the genus Oryza.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Terpenoids constitute the largest class of secondary metabolites made by plants and display vast chemical diversity among and within species. Terpene synthases (TPSs) are the pivotal enzymes for terpenoid biosynthesis that create the basic carbon skeletons of this class. Functional divergence of paralogous and orthologous TPS genes is a major mechanism for the diversification of terpenoid biosynthesis. However, little is known about the evolutionary forces that have shaped the evolution of plant TPS genes leading to terpenoid diversity.
Related JoVE Video
An in-situ calibration method and the effects on stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions.
Biomed Eng Online
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The interference between the incoming sound wave and the acoustic energy reflected by the tympanic membrane (TM) forms a standing wave in human ear canals. The existence of standing waves causes various problems when measuring otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) that are soft sounds closely related with the functional status of the inner ear. The purpose of this study was to propose an in-situ calibration method to overcome the standing-wave problem and to improve the accuracy of OAE measurements.
Related JoVE Video
[Surgical treatment of bone metastases from renal cell carcinoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To retrospectively analyze the survival of renal cell carcinoma patients with bone metastases, evaluate the effect of treatment and identify the prognostic factors in these patients.
Related JoVE Video
Bioelectric signal detrending using smoothness prior approach.
Med Eng Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bioelectric signals such as electromyogram (EMG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) are often affected by various low-frequency trending interferences. It is critical to remove these interferences from the recordings so that the critical features of the bioelectric signals could be clearly observed. In this study, an advanced method based on smoothness prior approach (SPA) was proposed to solve this problem. EMG and ECG signals from both the MIT-BIH database and the experiments were employed to evaluate the detrending performance of the proposed method. For comparison purposes, a conventional high-pass Butterworth filter was also used for the detrending of the EMG and ECG signals. Two numerical measures, the correlation coefficient (CC) and root mean square error (RMSE) between the clean data and the detrended data, were calculated to evaluate the detrending performance. The results showed that the proposed SPA method outperformed the high-pass filtering method in reducing various kinds of trending interferences and preserving the desired frequency contents of the EMG and ECG signals. The study suggested that the SPA method might be a promising approach in detrending bioelectric signals.
Related JoVE Video
Femtosecond laser ablation of microstructures in fiber and application in magnetic field sensing.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel (to our knowledge) 3D microstructure manufactured by a femtosecond laser in fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fiber cladding is proposed. The special spiral parameters including single thread and double thread with certain pitches of 60 and 80 ?m are controlled by the feed and rotation speed of a rotary fixture. Moreover, supermagnetostrictive TbDyFe film with a thickness of nearly 6 ?m is deposited on microgrooves of a FBG by magnetron sputtering technology to form the magnetic field sensing probe. Experimental results demonstrate that a FBG with a double-thread microstructure has a sensitivity of 1.1??pm/mT responding to a magnetic field, and in a theoretical situation, it is approximately six times higher than the original optical fiber grating (approximately 0.2??pm/mT). This new microstructure and method show great prospect in the magnetic field sensing domain.
Related JoVE Video
EMG feature assessment for myoelectric pattern recognition and channel selection: a study with incomplete spinal cord injury.
Med Eng Phys
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Myoelectric pattern recognition with a large number of electromyogram (EMG) channels provides an approach to assessing motor control information available from the recorded muscles. In order to develop a practical myoelectric control system, a feature dependent channel reduction method was developed in this study to determine a small number of EMG channels for myoelectric pattern recognition analysis. The method selects appropriate raw EMG features for classification of different movements, using the minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (mRMR) and the Markov random field (MRF) methods to rank a large number of EMG features, respectively. A k-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier was used to evaluate the performance of the selected features in terms of classification accuracy. The method was tested using 57 channels' surface EMG signals recorded from forearm and hand muscles of individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Our results demonstrate that appropriate selection of a small number of raw EMG features from different recording channels resulted in similar high classification accuracies as achieved by using all the EMG channels or features. Compared with the conventional sequential forward selection (SFS) method, the feature dependent method does not require repeated classifier implementation. It can effectively reduce redundant information not only cross different channels, but also cross different features in the same channel. Such hybrid feature-channel selection from a large number of EMG recording channels can reduce computational cost for implementation of a myoelectric pattern recognition based control system.
Related JoVE Video
Biofortification of soybean sprouts with zinc and bioaccessibility of zinc in the sprouts.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Soybean sprouts are a very popular vegetable in Southeast Asian countries and regions. Zinc-rich soybean sprouts can help to improve Zn deficiency in humans. The aim of this study was to prepare Zn-enriched soybean sprouts through agronomic biofortification (germination with ZnSO4 solution) in order to provide consumers with a dietary material for Zn supplementation.
Related JoVE Video
A novel channel selection method for multiple motion classification using high-density electromyography.
Biomed Eng Online
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Selecting an appropriate number of surface electromyography (EMG) channels with desired classification performance and determining the optimal placement of EMG electrodes would be necessary and important in practical myoelectric control. In previous studies, several methods such as sequential forward selection (SFS) and Fisher-Markov selector (FMS) have been used to select the appropriate number of EMG channels for a control system. These exiting methods are dependent on either EMG features and/or classification algorithms, which means that when using different channel features or classification algorithm, the selected channels would be changed. In this study, a new method named multi-class common spatial pattern (MCCSP) was proposed for EMG selection in EMG pattern-recognition-based movement classification. Since MCCSP is independent on specific EMG features and classification algorithms, it would be more convenient for channel selection in developing an EMG control system than the exiting methods.
Related JoVE Video
Involvement of NF-?B/IL-6 Pathway in the Processing of Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Colitis Mice.
Int J Inflam
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B)/interleukin (IL-6) pathway links chronic inflammation to colitis associated cancer (CAC). In this study, we examined the dynamic temporal changes of the NF-?B/IL-6 pathway during the procession of experimental CAC mouse model. Mice were sacrificed after induction for 14, 16, 18, and 22 weeks for the examination of tumor burden, inflammation degree, and protein level of NF-?B and IL-6 in bowel tissues. The results showed that tumor burden and inflammation severity in the bowels were gradually increased over the observed time-points. The expressions of IL-6 and NF-?B proteins were gradually increased after induction of dysplastic lesions over times. These data provide new information on the dynamic temporal changes of NF-?B/IL-6 pathway in relation to CAC development that may be relevant in the design of future investigations of therapeutic interventions to effectively target CAC processes.
Related JoVE Video
A functional variant in APOA5/A4/C3/A1 gene cluster contributes to elevated triglycerides and severity of CAD by interfering with microRNA 3201 binding efficiency.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent genome-wide association studies identified the APOA5/A4/C3/A1 gene cluster polymorphisms influencing triglyceride level and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD).
Related JoVE Video
Determination of six components of Andrographis paniculata extract and one major metabolite of andrographolide in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Andrographis paniculata (AP) has been widely used in Asian countries to treat many kinds of diseases for several decades. Hutchison Medipharma Ltd. developed an aqueous ethanol extract of A. paniculata (APE) named as HMPL-004 to treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The representative chemical components of HMPL-004 include andrographolide (AND), neoandrographolide (NAND), 14-deoxyandrographolide (DAND), 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydro-andrographolide (DDAND), apigenin-7-O-?-d-glucuronopyranoside (AODG) and chlorogenic acid (CLA). HM5013620 is the major circulating metabolite of AND. The purpose of this study was to develop a bioanalytical method to determine all seven compounds in rat plasma using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The assay was fully validated according to FDA guidelines. The LC-MS/MS detection was operated in the negative mode, and the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used for the quantification. The analyte extraction was performed by protein precipitation with acetonitrile after adding a small volume (2% of the total volume) of 10% formic acid into plasma to stabilize AND under bench-top condition (ice-bath). The linear ranges of the analytes were 8-2000ng/mL for DDAND and 4-2000ng/mL for others. Validation results demonstrate that AND, NAND, DAND, DDAND, CLA, AODG and HM5013620 can be rapidly, accurately, precisely and robustly quantified in rat plasma. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to characterize the pharmacokinetic profiles of all seven compounds in Sprague-Dawley rats after a single oral administration of 750mg of HMPL-004.
Related JoVE Video
Design, synthesis, and evaluation of novel heteroaromatic analogs of curcumin as anti-cancer agents.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To improve the potential of curcumin to treat advanced hormone-refractory prostate cancer, three series (A-C) of heteroaromatic analogs (thirty two compounds) with different monoketone linkers have been synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicity against two human androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3 and DU-145). Among them, thirty analogs are more potent than curcumin against PC-3 cells, and twenty one analogs are more cytotoxic towards DU-145 cells relative to curcumin. The most potent compounds (44, 45, 51, and 52) also showed impressive cytotoxicity against three other metastatic cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, HeLa, and A549), with IC50 values ranging from 50 nM to 390 nM. All four most potent analogs exhibited no apparent cytotoxicity towards the MCF-10A normal mammary epithelial cells. Taken together, selective enhancement of cell death in prostate cancer cell lines and other aggressive cancer cell lines suggests that nitrogen-containing heteroaromatic rings are promising bioisosteres of the substituted phenyl ring in curcumin.
Related JoVE Video
Lack of causal relationship between leukocyte telomere length and coronary heart disease.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the association between genetic variation in telomerase RNA component (TERC) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).
Related JoVE Video
Paraspeckle protein 1 (PSPC1) is involved in the cisplatin induced DNA damage response--role in G1/S checkpoint.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Paraspeckle protein 1 (PSPC1) was first identified as a structural protein of the subnuclear structure termed paraspeckle. However, the exact physiological functions of PSPC1 are still largely unknown. Previously, using a proteomic approach, we have shown that exposure to cisplatin can induce PSPC1 expression in HeLa cells, indicating the possible involvement for PSPC1 in the DNA damage response (DDR). In the current study, the role of PSPC1 in DDR was examined. First, it was found that cisplatin treatment could indeed induce the expression of PSPC1 protein. Abolishing PSPC1 expression by siRNA significantly inhibited cell growth, caused spontaneous cell death, and increased DNA damage. However, PSPC1 did not co-localize with ?H2AX, 53BP1, or Rad51, indicating no direct involvement in DNA repair pathways mediated by these molecules. Interestingly, knockdown of PSPC1 disrupted the normal cell cycle distribution, with more cells entering the G2/M phase. Furthermore, while cisplatin induced G1/S arrest in HeLa cells, knockdown of PSPC1 caused cells to escape the G1/S checkpoint and enter mitosis, and resulted in more cell death. Taken together, these observations indicate a new role for PSPC1 in maintaining genome integrity during the DDR, particularly in the G1/S checkpoint.
Related JoVE Video
An approximation solution to refinery crude oil scheduling problem with demand uncertainty using joint constrained programming.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper is devoted to develop an approximation method for scheduling refinery crude oil operations by taking into consideration the demand uncertainty. In the stochastic model the demand uncertainty is modeled as random variables which follow a joint multivariate distribution with a specific correlation structure. Compared to deterministic models in existing works, the stochastic model can be more practical for optimizing crude oil operations. Using joint chance constraints, the demand uncertainty is treated by specifying proximity level on the satisfaction of product demands. However, the joint chance constraints usually hold strong nonlinearity and consequently, it is still hard to handle it directly. In this paper, an approximation method combines a relax-and-tight technique to approximately transform the joint chance constraints to a serial of parameterized linear constraints so that the complicated problem can be attacked iteratively. The basic idea behind this approach is to approximate, as much as possible, nonlinear constraints by a lot of easily handled linear constraints which will lead to a well balance between the problem complexity and tractability. Case studies are conducted to demonstrate the proposed methods. Results show that the operation cost can be reduced effectively compared with the case without considering the demand correlation.
Related JoVE Video
A flagellin-derived toll-like receptor 5 agonist stimulates cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated tumor immunity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Toll-like receptor (TLR) mediated recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns allows the immune system to rapidly respond to a pathogenic insult. The "danger context" elicited by TLR agonists allows an initially non-immunogenic antigen to become immunogenic. This ability to alter environment is highly relevant in tumor immunity, since it is inherently difficult for the immune system to recognize host-derived tumors as immunogenic. However, immune cells may have encountered certain TLR ligands associated with tumor development, yet the endogenous stimulation is typically not sufficient to induce spontaneous tumor rejection. Of special interest are TLR5 agonists, because there are no endogenous ligands that bind TLR5. CBLB502 is a pharmacologically optimized TLR5 agonist derived from Salmonella enterica flagellin. We examined the effect of CBLB502 on tumor immunity using two syngeneic lymphoma models, both of which do not express TLR5, and thus do not directly respond to CBLB502. Upon challenge with the T-cell lymphoma RMAS, CBLB502 treatment after tumor inoculation protects C57BL/6 mice from death caused by tumor growth. This protective effect is both natural killer (NK) cell- and perforin-dependent. In addition, CBLB502 stimulates clearance of the B-cell lymphoma A20 in BALB/c mice in a CD8(+) T cell-dependent fashion. Analysis on the cellular level via ImageStream flow cytometry reveals that CD11b(+) and CD11c(+) cells, but neither NK nor T cells, directly respond to CBLB502 as determined by NF?B nuclear translocation. Our findings demonstrate that CBLB502 stimulates a robust antitumor response by directly activating TLR5-expressing accessory immune cells, which in turn activate cytotoxic lymphocytes.
Related JoVE Video
Proteomic analysis of cellular response induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes exposure in A549 cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The wide application of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) has raised serious concerns about their safety on human health and the environment. However, the potential harmful effects of MWCNT remain unclear and contradictory. To clarify the potentially toxic effects of MWCNT and to elucidate the associated underlying mechanisms, the effects of MWCNT on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were examined at both the cellular and the protein level. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were examined, followed by a proteomic analysis (2-DE coupled with LC-MS/MS) of the cellular response to MWCNT. Our results demonstrate that MWCNT induces cytotoxicity in A549 cells only at relatively high concentrations and longer exposure time. Within a relatively low dosage range (30 µg/ml) and short time period (24 h), MWCNT treatment does not induce significant cytotoxicity, cell cycle changes, apoptosis, or DNA damage. However, at these low doses and times, MWCNT treatment causes significant changes in protein expression. A total of 106 proteins show altered expression at various time points and dosages, and of these, 52 proteins were further identified by MS. Identified proteins are involved in several cellular processes including proliferation, stress, and cellular skeleton organization. In particular, MWCNT treatment causes increases in actin expression. This increase has the potential to contribute to increased migration capacity and may be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Related JoVE Video
Using a Dynamic Tracking Filter to Extract Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions Evoked with Swept-Tone Signals.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are sound energy generated by healthy inner ears when stimulated by two tones. Since DPOAEs are physiologically related with the functional status of the inner ear, they have been widely used as a clinical tool in hearing screening and diagnoses. Currently, almost all DPOAEs recording systems use pure tones as the stimuli and can test only one frequency at a time, resulting in low efficiency and insufficient resolution. In this study, conventional pure tones were replaced by swept tones with time-varying frequencies to overcome the limitation of current DPOAEs measurements. A tracking filter with dynamic center frequencies was proposed to extract the swept-tone DPOAEs from recorded signals with stimulus artifacts and background noises. The results of this study showed that the dynamic tracking filter had great performance in effectively extracting the swept-tone DPOAEs under different noise conditions for both the simulation and experimental data. The spectrogram of the extracted swept-tone DPOAEs could provide useful information to examine the functional status of the inner ear and to identify the detailed frequency regions of the hearing loss. These preliminary findings suggested that the swept-tone DPOAEs might be useful for developing a more efficient and accurate tool for hearing loss screening in the clinic.
Related JoVE Video
A pilot study of high-density electromyographic maps of muscle activity in normal deglutition.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
While various methods have been used to study physiological aspects of swallowing, few studies have been conducted to investigate the dynamics of a swallowing procedure with the activation pattern of swallowing muscles. In this pilot study we investigated the feasibility of surface electromyographic (sEMG) dynamic topography as a new approach for continuously visualizing muscle activity of normal swallowing. The dynamic sEMG topographies (or potential mappings) of swallowing were constructed with high-density sEMG recordings from three subjects without any swallowing disorders. The root mean square (RMS) of the sEMG signals was calculated as a function of both position and time to produce two-dimension dynamic sEMG maps of the muscle activity during swallowing. The sEMG maps could provide the information about the dynamic characteristics of swallowing muscles, which is accordance with physiological and biomechanical laws of a normal swallowing. With the results of the present study, we might conclude that the dynamic topography would provide a noninvasive means to continuously visualize the distribution of surface EMG signals of complex muscle activities of normal deglutition.
Related JoVE Video
Pattern recognition based forearm motion classification for patients with chronic hemiparesis.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To make full use of electromyography (EMG) that contains rich information of muscular activities in active rehabilitation for motor hemiparetic patients, a couple of recent studies have explored the feasibility of applying pattern recognition technique to the classification of multiple motion classes for stroke survivors and reported some promising results. However, it still remains unclear if kinematics signals could also bring good motion classification performance, particularly for patients after traumatic brain damage. In this study, the kinematics signals was used for motion classification analysis in three stroke survivors and two patients after traumatic brain injury, and compared with EMG. The results showed that an average classification error of 7.9±6.8% for the affected arm over all subjects could be achieved with a linear classifier when they performed multiple fine movements, 7.9% lower than that when using EMG. With either kind of signals, the motor control ability of the affected arm degraded significantly in comparison to the intact side. The preliminary results suggested the great promise of kinematics information as well as the biological signals in detecting users conscious effort for robot-aided active rehabilitation.
Related JoVE Video
An adaptation strategy of using LDA classifier for EMG pattern recognition.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The time-varying character of myoelectric signal usually causes a low classification accuracy in traditional supervised pattern recognition method. In this work, an unsupervised adaptation strategy of linear discriminant analysis (ALDA) based on probability weighting and cycle substitution was suggested in order to improve the performance of electromyography (EMG)-based motion classification in multifunctional myoelectric prostheses control in changing environment. The adaptation procedure was firstly introduced, and then the proposed ALDA classifier was trained and tested with surface EMG recordings related to multiple motion patterns. The accuracies of the ALDA classifier and traditional LDA classifier were compared when the EMG recordings were added with different degrees of noise. The experimental results showed that compared to the LDA method, the suggested ALDA method had a better performance in improving the classification accuracy of sEMG pattern recognition, in both stable situation and noise added situation.
Related JoVE Video
Using speech for mode selection in control of multifunctional myoelectric prostheses.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Electromyogram (EMG) recorded from residual muscles of limbs is considered as suitable control information for motorized prostheses. However, in case of high-level amputations, the residual muscles are usually limited, which may not provide enough EMG for flexible control of myoelectric prostheses with multiple degrees of freedom of movements. Here, we proposed a control strategy, where the speech signals were used as additional information and combined with the EMG signals to realize more flexible control of multifunctional prostheses. By replacing the traditional "sequential mode-switching (joint-switching)", the speech signals were used to select a mode (joint) of the prosthetic arm, and then the EMG signals were applied to determine a motion class involved in the selected joint and to execute the motion. Preliminary results from three able-bodied subjects and one transhumeral amputee demonstrated the proposed strategy could achieve a high mode-selection rate and enhance the operation efficiency, suggesting the strategy may improve the control performance of commercial myoelectric prostheses.
Related JoVE Video
Motion recognition for simultaneous control of multifunctional transradial prostheses.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Electromyography (EMG) pattern-recognition based control strategies for multifunctional myoelectric prosthesis systems have been studied commonly in a controlled laboratory setting. Most previous efforts concentrated on evaluating the performance of EMG pattern-recognition algorithms in identifying one signal movement at a time. Therefore, the current motion classification methods would be limited with the difficulties in identifying the combined upper-limb motion classes that are commonly required in performing activities daily. In this paper, four improved classifier training schemes were proposed and investigated to address the difficulties mentioned above. Our preliminary results showed that three of the four proposed training schemes could improve the classification performance. The average classification accuracies of the three methods were 75.10% ± 9.71%, 76.95% ± 8.02%, and 77.56% ± 6.55% for the able-bodied subjects, and 63.38% ± 7.51%, 62.55% ± 9.06%, and 62.50% ± 9.36% for the transradial amputees, respectively. These results suggested that the proposed methods could provide better classification performance in identifying the combined motions than the current methods.
Related JoVE Video
Role for gene sequence, codon bias and mRNA folding energy in modulating structural symmetry of proteins.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Structural symmetry in proteins is commonly observed in the majority of fundamental protein folds. Meanwhile, nascent polypeptide chains of proteins have the potential to start the co-translational folding process and this process can have drastic effects on protein structure. Thus we are interested in understanding mechanisms that gene adopts in specifying structural symmetry in proteins. In the present paper, we reveal that for two representative symmetric proteins from (a?)8-barrel fold and beta-trefoil fold, intragenic symmetry is detected in the corresponding gene sequences. Codon bias and mRNA folding energy might be involved in mediating translation speed for the formation of structural symmetry: at least one major decrease in both codon bias and mRNA folding energy can be observed in the connecting region of the symmetric substructures along the codon sequence. Results suggest that gene duplication and fusion is responsible for structural symmetry in these proteins, and the usage of rare codons or higher order of secondary structure near the boundaries of symmetric substructures might be selected in order to slow down translation speed for effectively co-translational folding process of symmetric proteins.
Related JoVE Video
A new method to estimate sound energy entering the middle ear.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Standing waves in the ear canal can cause inaccurate quantification of the sound pressure level (SPL) entering the ear and therefore lead to unreliable results in clinical tests. Since it is impractical to directly measure the SPL at the eardrum position, in this study we proposed a new method to estimate the eardrum SPL by solely making measurement at the entry of the ear canal. To achieve this, the acoustic characteristics of the earphone were calculated using a calculation tube with variable lengths. Then the ear canal impedance was calculated according to the obtained source characteristics. Finally, the eardrum SPL was estimated by the ear-canal impedance and the SPL measured at the entry of the ear canal. The results showed that the eardrum SPL could be reliably estimated for all the five subjects participated in this study. The maximal estimation error was less than 3 dB for all frequencies from 0.5 to 10 kHz. These findings suggested that the proposed method could avoid the standing wave problem and therefore might be a great candidate for accurate calibration of sound pressure in various acoustic measurements.
Related JoVE Video
Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions evoked by swept tones.
Hear. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are soft sounds generated by the cochlea and the measurements of OAEs are useful in detecting cochlear damages. Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) are evoked by one single tone and they are the most frequency specific in probing functional status of the cochlea than other types of OAEs. However, SFOAEs are currently restricted to research only because of the difficulty and low efficiency of their measurements. To solve these problems, an efficient method of using swept tones to measure SFOAEs was proposed in this study. The swept tones had time-varying frequencies and therefore could efficiently measure SFOAEs over a wide frequency range with a resolution dependent on the sweep rate. A three-interval paradigm and a tracking filter were used to separate the swept-tone SFOAEs from background noises. The reliability of the swept-tone SFOAEs was examined by a repeated-measure design, and the accuracy was evaluated by the comparison with a standard method using pure tones as the stimuli. The pilot results of this study showed that SFOAEs could be measured successfully using swept tones in human ears with normal hearing. The amplitude and phase of the swept-tone SFOAEs were highly reproducible in the repeated measures, and were nearly equivalent to SFOAEs evoked by pure tones under various signal conditions. These findings suggest that the proposed swept-tone SFOAEs could be a useful method in estimating the cochlear functions and developing an efficient approach of OAE measurements to help with accurate hearing diagnoses in the clinic.
Related JoVE Video
Somatostatin receptor type 2-based reporter expression after plasmid-based in vivo gene delivery to non-small cell lung cancer.
Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Plasmids tend to have much lower expression than viruses. Gene expression after systemic administration of plasmid vectors has not been assessed using somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2)-based reporters. The purpose of this work was to identify gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after systemic liposomal nanoparticle delivery of plasmid containing SSTR2-based reporter gene. In vitro, Western blotting was performed after transient transfection with the plasmid cytomegalovirus (CMV)-SSTR2, CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2, or CMV-TUSC2. SSTR2 is the reporter gene, and TUSC2 is a therapeutic gene. Mice with A549 NSCLC lung tumors were injected intravenously with CMV-SSTR2, CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2, or CMV-TUSC2 plasmids in DOTAP:cholesterol-liposomal nanoparticles. Two days later, mice were injected intravenously with 111In-octreotide. The next day, biodistribution was performed. The experiment was repeated including single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). Immunohistochemistry was performed. In vitro, SSTR2 expression was similar in cells transfected with CMV-SSTR2 or CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2. TUSC2 expression was similar in cells transfected with CMV-TUSC2 or CMV-TUSC2-SSTR2. Biodistribution demonstrated significantly greater 111In-octreotide uptake in tumors from mice injected with CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2 or CMV-SSTR2 than the control plasmid, CMV-TUSC2 (p < .05). Gamma-camera and SPECT/CT imaging illustrated SSTR2 expression in tumors in mice injected with CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2 or CMV-SSTR2 versus background with control plasmid. Immunohistochemistry corresponded with imaging. SSTR2-based reporter imaging can visualize gene expression in lung tumors after systemic liposomal nanoparticle delivery of plasmid containing SSTR2-based reporter gene or SSTR2 linked to a second therapeutic gene, such as TUSC2.
Related JoVE Video
The relationship between Cyclin G1 and survival in patients treated surgically for HCC.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cyclin G1 is a cell-cycle-regulatory protein that is frequently seen in elevated amounts in malignant tissue, including astrocytomas; melanoma; carcinoma of the esophagus, lung, and breast; as well as cancer of the cervix, uterus, and ovary. By contrast, it has demonstrated inhibitory activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Related JoVE Video
The effect of involuntary motor activity on myoelectric pattern recognition: a case study with chronic stroke patients.
J Neural Eng
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study investigates the effect of the involuntary motor activity of paretic-spastic muscles on the classification of surface electromyography (EMG) signals.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular and biochemical characterization of the jasmonic acid methyltransferase gene from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa).
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Methyl jasmonate is a metabolite known to be produced by many plants and has roles in diverse biological processes. It is biosynthesized by the action of S-adenosyl-l-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT), which belongs to the SABATH family of methyltransferases. Herein is reported the isolation and biochemical characterization of a JMT gene from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). The genome of P. trichocarpa contains 28 SABATH genes (PtSABATH1 to PtSABATH28). Recombinant PtSABATH3 expressed in Escherichia coli showed the highest level of activity with jasmonic acid (JA) among carboxylic acids tested. It was therefore renamed PtJMT1. PtJMT1 also displayed activity with benzoic acid (BA), with which the activity was about 22% of that with JA. PtSABATH2 and PtSABATH4 were most similar to PtJMT1 among all PtSABATHs. However, neither of them had activity with JA. The apparent Km values of PtJMT1 using JA and BA as substrate were 175?M and 341?M, respectively. Mutation of Ser-153 and Asn-361, two residues in the active site of PtJMT1, to Tyr and Ser respectively, led to higher specific activity with BA than with JA. Homology-based structural modeling indicated that substrate alignment, in which Asn-361 is involved, plays a role in determining the substrate specificity of PtJMT1. In the leaves of young seedlings of black cottonwood, the expression of PtJMT1 was induced by plant defense signal molecules methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid and a fungal elicitor alamethicin, suggesting that PtJMT1 may have a role in plant defense against biotic stresses. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that PtJMT1 shares a common ancestor with the Arabidopsis JMT, and functional divergence of these two apparent JMT orthologs has occurred since the split of poplar and Arabidopsis lineages.
Related JoVE Video
The role of interleukin-17A in colorectal tumorigenesis.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been well documented that interleukin (IL)-17A mainly produced by the newly identified T cell subtype Th17 cells is an important proinflammatory cytokine that plays a vital pathogenic role in the process of human inflammatory bowel diseases. Recently, new information concerning the biological activities of IL-17A relating to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) has also been reported. The present mini-review focuses on recent observations concerning the role of IL-17A in the development of CRCs, and it discusses the clinical significance of IL-17A as a biomarker and potential therapeutic target.
Related JoVE Video
Morphology control of ceria nanocrystals for catalytic conversion of CO2 with methanol.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper describes the synthesis of ceria catalysts with octahedron, nanorod, nanocube and spindle-like morphologies via a template-free hydrothermal method. The surface morphologies, crystal plane and physical-chemical structures were investigated via field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia and carbon dioxide (NH3-TPD and CO2-TPD). The catalytic performance over these ceria catalysts with different exposed planes were tested for dimethyl carbonate (DMC) synthesis from CO2 and methanol. The results showed that the spindle-like CeO2 showed the highest DMC yields, followed by nano-rods, nano-cubes and nano-octahedrons. A synergism among the exposed (111) plane, defect sites, and acid-basic sites was proposed to be crucial to obtaining the high reactivity of DMC formation.
Related JoVE Video
Carbon-coated Li3 N nanofibers for advanced hydrogen storage.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
3D porous carbon-coated Li3 N nanofibers are successfully fabricated via the electrospinning technique. The as-prepared nanofibers exhibit a highly improved hydrogen-sorption performance in terms of both thermodynamics and kinetics. More interestingly, a stable regeneration can be achieved due to the unique structure of the nanofibers, over 10 cycles of H2 sorption at a temperature as low as 250 °C.
Related JoVE Video
Heterocyclic modification of a novel bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane NPY1 receptor antagonist.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A convergent synthesis route for the heterocyclic modification of a novel bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane NPY1 antagonist 2 was developed and the structure activity relationship of these modifications on NPY1 binding is reported. Two heterocyclic analogs 9 and 10 showed comparable Y1 binding potency to 2, but with improved aqueous solubility. Compound 9 demonstrated reduced spontaneous nocturnal food intake in a rat model when dosed ip. Compound 9 was also shown to be orally bioavailable and brain penetrable.
Related JoVE Video
A hybrid method to recognize 3D object.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A hybrid method using the support vector machine (SVM) correlation filter and the phase-shift interferometry (PSI) holography is proposed to recognize 3D object, which can improve the correct decision rate and resist the distortion of object rotation and noise. The different images of two types of both in-plane and out-of-plane rotated object recorded by digital holography are reconstructed. The reconstructed images of two types are selected to synthesize the SVM correlation filter, respectively. To compare the correct decision rates of the SVM correlation filter with other three ones, it is found that the experimental result is better in rotation resistance and noise tolerance.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of high-resolution melting analysis, TaqMan Allelic discrimination assay, and sanger sequencing for Clopidogrel efficacy genotyping in routine molecular diagnostics.
J Mol Diagn
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clopidogrel, as a routine antiplatelet drug, is widely used in patients to reduce cardiovascular events following percutaneous coronary intervention. Because of genetic variation, patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention show differing responses to clopidogrel therapy. Recently, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CYP2C19 (rs4244285, rs4986893, rs12248560), ABCB1 (rs1045642), and ITGB3 (rs5918) were identified that contribute prominently to variability in response to clopidogrel. Given that Sanger sequencing is labor intensive and time consuming, rapid genotyping methods for SNP detection are urgently required before clopidogrel therapy. Accordingly, we developed a high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) and TaqMan allelic discrimination assay (TaqMan) to genotype those five SNPs, and compared these two assays with Sanger sequencing on accuracy of genotyping as well as operational characteristics. These two assays showed high accuracy (0.995, 95% CI 0.991 to 0.998 for HRMA; 0.997, 95% CI 0.994 to 0.999 for TaqMan, respectively), sensitivity (0.996, 95% CI 0.989 to 1.002 for HRMA; 0.998, 95% CI 0.993 to 1.002 for TaqMan, respectively), and specificity (0.995, 95% CI 0.991 to 0.999 for HRMA; 0.996, 95% CI 0.993 to 1.000 for TaqMan, respectively). Our study indicates that HRMA and TaqMan are easier to operate and obviously faster than Sanger sequencing. In conclusion, HRMA and TaqMan are rapid, convenient, and reliable assays for clopidogrel efficacy genotyping.
Related JoVE Video
The incidences and mortalities of major cancers in China, 2009.
Chin J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In 2012, the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China collected cancer registration information for the year 2009 from local cancer registries and analyzed it to describe the incidences and mortalities of cancers in China. Based on the data quality criteria from NCCR, data from 104 registries covering 85,470,522 people (57,489,009 in urban areas and 27,981,513 in rural areas) were checked and evaluated. The data from 72 registries were qualified and accepted for the cancer registry annual report in 2012. The total cancer incident cases and cancer deaths were 244,366 and 154,310, respectively. The morphologically verified cases accounted for 67.23%, and 3.14% of the incident cases only had information from death certifications. The crude incidence in the Chinese cancer registration areas was 285.91/100,000 (317.97/100,000 in males and 253.09/100,000 in females). The age-standardized rates for incidences based on the Chinese standard population (ASRIC) and the world standard population (ASRIW) were 146.87/100,000 and 191.72/100,000, respectively, with a cumulative incidence of 22.08%. The cancer mortality in the Chinese cancer registration areas was 180.54/100,000 (224.20/100,000 in males and 135.85/100,000 in females). The age-standardized rates for mortalities based on the Chinese standard population(ASRMC) and the world standard population (ASRMW) were 85.06/100,000 and 115.65/100,000, respectively, and the cumulative mortality was 12.94%. Lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, encephaloma, lymphoma, female breast cancer, and cervical cancer were the most common cancers, accounting for 75% of all cancer cases. Lung cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, encephaloma, leukemia, and lymphoma accounted for 80% of all cancer deaths. The cancer registrations population coverage has been increasing, and its data quality is improving. As the basis of the cancer control program, the cancer registry plays an important role in directing anticancer strategies in the medium and long term. Because cancer burdens are different in urban and rural areas in China, prevention and control efforts should be based on practical situations.
Related JoVE Video
Common Variants in KCNQ1 Confer Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Contribute to the Diabetic Epidemic in East Asians: A Replication and Meta-Analysis.
Ann. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed to evaluate the effect of four common variants (rs2237892, rs2283228, rs2237895, and rs2237897) in KCNQ1 on susceptibility of type 2 diabetes (T2D) by performing a case-control study as well as a comprehensive meta-analysis. We genotyped these four variants in two sets of Chinese Han population, comprising a total of 2533 type 2 diabetic patients and 2643 nondiabetic controls. We also performed a meta-analysis of our results with published studies in East Asians, meanwhile assessing the population attributable risk (PAR) of these variants. By combining our case-control sets, a total of 45,204 T2D cases and 42,832 controls were included in the meta-analyses. The per-allele ORs ranged from 1.24 to 1.33, and the PARs ranged from 15.8% to 31.8%, with SNP rs2237892 being the most widely studied (16 articles containing a total of 38,338 cases and 35,907 controls), showing strongest association (per-allele OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.28-1.39) and indicating the highest PAR (31.8%). This study confirmed the strong association between common variants in KCNQ1 and risk of T2D. Variants in KCNQ1 were among the leading genetic factors contributing to the overall burden of T2D in East Asians.
Related JoVE Video
Report of incidence and mortality in China cancer registries, 2009.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) collected cancer registration data in 2009 from local cancer registries in 2012, and analyzed to describe cancer incidence and mortality in China.
Related JoVE Video
In vitro construction of tissue-engineered bone with bone morphogenetic protein-2-transfected rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and hydroxyapatite nanocomposite.
Biomed Tech (Berl)
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the adenovirus-mediated human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Ad-BMP-2) transfection of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs), which, together with hydroxyapatite nanocomposite (Nano-HA), were used to construct tissue-engineered bone in vitro.
Related JoVE Video
Quantum dot-related genotoxicity perturbation can be attenuated by PEG encapsulation.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nanomaterial-biosystem interaction is emerging as a major concern hindering wide adoption of nanomaterials. Using quantum dots (Qdots) of different sizes (Qdot-440nm and Qdot-680nm) as a model system, we studied the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) thin-layer surface modification in attenuating Qdot-related cytotoxicity, genotoxicity perturbation and oxidative stress in a cellular system. We found that uncoated Qdots (U-Qdots) made of core/shell CdSe/ZnS could indeed induce cytotoxic effects, including the inhibition of cell growth. Also, both the neutral comet assay and ?H2AX foci formation showed that U-Qdots caused significant DNA damage in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In contrast, results from cytotoxicity analysis and ?H2AX generation indicate minimal impact on cells after exposure to PEG-coated Qdots. This lack of observed toxic effects from PEG-coated Qdots may be due to the fact that PEG-coating can inhibit ROS generation induced by U-Qdots. Based on these observations, we conclude that the genotoxicity of Qdots could be significantly decreased following proper surface modification, such as PEG encapsulation. In addition, PEG encapsulation may also serve as a general method to attenuate nanotoxicity for other nanoparticles.
Related JoVE Video
Association analysis of polymorphisms in ROCK2 with cardiovascular disease in a Chinese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rho-kinase (ROCK) has been shown to play an important role in cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension. Recently, common variants of ROCK2 have been reported to influence blood pressure, but the relationship between common ROCK2 variants and cardiovascular disease has not been extensively studied in the Chinese population.
Related JoVE Video
Normalization of mucosal cytokine gene expression levels predicts long-term remission after discontinuation of anti-TNF therapy in Crohns disease.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate mucosal cytokine gene expression levels in healed mucosa after anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy in patients with Crohns disease (CD) as possible risk factors for relapse after discontinuation of therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Monogenic heritable autism gene neuroligin impacts Drosophila social behaviour.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by deficits in social interactions, language development and repetitive behaviours. Multiple genes involved in the formation, specification and maintenance of synapses have been identified as risk factors for ASDs development. Among these are the neuroligin genes which code for postsynaptic cell adhesion molecules that induce the formation of presynapses, promote their maturation and modulate synaptic functions in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Neuroligin-deficient mice display abnormal social and vocal behaviours that resemble ASDs symptoms. Here we show for the fly Drosophila melanogaster that deletion of the dnl2 gene, coding for one of four Neuroligin isoforms, impairs social interactions, alters acoustic communication signals, and affects the transition between different behaviours. dnl2-Deficient flies maintain larger distances to conspecifics and males perform less female-directed courtship and male-directed aggressive behaviours while the patterns of these behaviours and general locomotor activity were not different from wild type controls. Since tests for olfactory, visual and auditory perception revealed no sensory impairments of dnl2-deficient mutants, reduced social interactions seem to result from altered excitability in central nervous neuropils that initiate social behaviours. Our results demonstrate that Neuroligins are phylogenetically conserved not only regarding their structure and direct function at the synapse but also concerning a shared implication in the regulation of social behaviours that dates back to common ancestors of humans and flies. In addition to previously described mouse models, Drosophila can thus be used to study the contribution of Neuroligins to synaptic function, social interactions and their implication in ASDs.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic variation in attachment glycoprotein genes of human respiratory syncytial virus subgroups a and B in children in recent five consecutive years.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) outranks other viral agents as the cause of respiratory tract diseases in children worldwide. Molecular epidemiological study of the virus provides useful information for the development of globally effective vaccine. We investigated the circulating pattern and genetic variation in the attachment glycoprotein genes of HRSV in Beijing during 5 consecutive seasons from 2007 to 2012. Out of 19,942 tested specimens, 3,160 (15.8%) were HRSV antigen-positive. The incidence of HRSV infection in males was significantly higher than in females. Of the total 723 (23.1%) randomly selected HRSV antigen-positive samples, 462 (63.9%) and 239 (33.1%) samples were identified as subgroup A and B, respectively. Subgroups A and B co-circulated in the 5 consecutive HRSV seasons, which showed a shifting mixed pattern of subgroup dominance. Complete G gene sequences were obtained from 190 HRSV-A and 72 HRSV-B by PCR for phylogenetic analysis. Although 4 new genotypes, NA3 and NA4 for HRSV-A and BA-C and CB1 for HRSV-B, were identified here, they were not predominant; NA1 and BA9 were the prevailing HRSV-A and -B genotypes, respectively. We provide the first report of a 9 consecutive nucleotide insertion in 3 CB1 genotype strains. One Beijing strain of ON1 genotype with a 72 nucleotide insertion was found among samples collected in February 2012. The reversion of codon states in glycosylation sites to previous ones were found from HRSV strains in this study, suggesting an immune-escape strategy of this important virus.
Related JoVE Video
Large scale meta-analyses of fasting plasma glucose raising variants in GCK, GCKR, MTNR1B and G6PC2 and their impacts on type 2 diabetes mellitus risk.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The evidence that the variants GCK rs1799884, GCKR rs780094, MTNR1B rs10830963 and G6PC2 rs560887, which are related to fasting plasma glucose levels, increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is contradictory. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of the association between these polymorphisms and T2DM.
Related JoVE Video
Modeling a lethal prostate cancer variant with small-cell carcinoma features.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Small-cell prostate carcinoma (SCPC) morphology predicts for a distinct clinical behavior, resistance to androgen ablation, and frequent but short responses to chemotherapy. We sought to develop model systems that reflect human SCPC and can improve our understanding of its biology.
Related JoVE Video
[Research progress of neural tissue engineering based on electrically conductive carbon nanotube scaffold].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To review the basic researches and the clinical application of the nano-neural tissue engineering materials, especially the electrically conductive carbon nanotubes (CNT).
Related JoVE Video
[Effectiveness of posterior approaches for treatment of posterior coronal fracture].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the effectiveness of posterior approaches for the treatment of posterior coronal fractures of tibial plateau, and to analyze the fracture morphology, radiographic features, and the recognition of Schatzker classification.
Related JoVE Video
Dynamic evolution of herbivore-induced sesquiterpene biosynthesis in sorghum and related grass crops.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) plants damaged by insects emit a blend of volatiles, predominantly sesquiterpenes, that are implicated in attracting natural enemies of the attacking insects. To characterize sesquiterpene biosynthesis in sorghum, seven terpene synthase (TPS) genes, SbTPS1 through SbTPS7, were identified based on their evolutionary relatedness to known sesquiterpene synthase genes from maize and rice. While SbTPS6 and SbTPS7 encode truncated proteins, all other TPS genes were determined to encode functional sesquiterpene synthases. Both SbTPS1 and SbTPS2 produced the major products zingiberene, ?-bisabolene and ?-sesquiphellandrene, but with opposite ratios of zingiberene to ?-sesquiphellandrene. SbTPS3 produced (E)-?-bergamotene and (E)-?-farnesene. SbTPS4 formed (E)-?-caryophyllene as the major product. SbTPS5 produced mostly (E)-?-bergamotene and (Z)-?-bisabolene. Based on the genome sequences of sorghum, maize and rice and the sesquiterpene synthase genes they contain, collinearity analysis identified the orthologs of sorghum sesquiterpene synthase genes, except for SbTPS4, in maize and rice. Phylogenetic analysis implied that SbTPS1, SbTPS2 and SbTPS3, which exist as tandem repeats, evolved as a consequence of local gene duplication in a lineage-specific manner. Structural modeling and site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that three amino acids in the active site play critical roles in defining product specificity of SbTPS1, SbTPS2, SbTPS3 and their orthologs in maize and rice. The naturally occurring functional variations of sesquiterpene synthases within and between species suggest that multiple mechanisms, including lineage-specific gene duplication, subfunctionalization, neofunctionalization and pseudogenization of duplicated genes, have all played a role in the dynamic evolution of insect-induced sesquiterpene biosynthesis in grasses.
Related JoVE Video
Performance of electromyography recorded using textile electrodes in classifying arm movements.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Electromyography (EMG) signals are commonly recorded using the Ag/AgCl gel electrodes in myoelectric prosthetic control. While a gelled electrode may provide high-quality EMG recordings, it is inconvenient in clinical application of a myoelectric prosthesis. A novel type of signal sensors-textile electrodes should be ideal in control of myoelectric prostheses. However, it is unknown whether the performance of textile electrodes is comparable to commonly used electrodes in classifying arm movements. In this study, the custom-made bipolar textile electrodes were fabricated using copper-based nickel-plated conductive fabric and were used to record EMG signals. The performance of EMG signals recorded with textile electrodes in identifying nine arm and hand movements were investigated. Our pilot results showed that the average classification accuracy across six able-bodied subjects was 94.05% when using textile electrodes and 94.26% when using conventional electrodes, with no significant difference between the two types of electrodes (p=0.81). The pilot results suggest that the textile electrodes could achieve similar performance in classifying arm movements in control of myoelectric prostheses as the gelled metal electrodes.
Related JoVE Video
Cellular changes in the tumor microenvironment of human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The growth, invasiveness, and metastasis of human cancers are not only determined by the cancer cells but also by their microenvironment. The purpose of this study was to extend our previous studies and to examine the cellular changes in tumor microenvironment (stroma) of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs). The proliferative activity, cellular components, and angiogenesis status in different compartments (non-tumor stroma, tumor stroma, and tumor periphery stroma) of ESCCs were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The results revealed a hyperproliferative rate labeled by Ki-67 in stromal cells in tumor area as compared with that in stromal cells in non-tumor area, which resulted in the increased densities of myofibroblasts (labeled by smooth muscle actin (SMA)-alpha), lymphocytes (labeled by CD3), macrophages (labeled by CD68), and the activation of angiogenesis characterized by increased microvessel density (MVD) and the increased expression of the proangiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin 8) in the tumor stroma. Further analysis showed that the changes of stromal cell density were more significant in the area of periphery tumor stroma than that of stroma between tumor nests. Most cellular changes were significantly associated with lymph node involvement. Double immunohistochemistries with PCNA/CD3, PCNA/CD68, and PCNA/SMA-alpha revealed that these cells present in the ESCC tumor stroma had a proliferative capacity. The cells present in the tumor microenvironment of ESCCs were greatly activated, suggesting that microenvironmental components may be involved in the cancer growth and progression.
Related JoVE Video
TH1 and TH17 interactions in untreated inflamed mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease, and their potential to mediate the inflammation.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) have been associated with a T helper1 (TH1) and a TH2 cytokine profile, respectively. Recently, a TH17 lineage has been introduced, but their role in the inflammation of CD and UC is not fully understood.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.