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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Exuberant clinical picture of Buschke-Fischer-Brauer palmoplantar keratoderma in bedridden patient.
An Bras Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Buschke-Fisher-Brauer keratoderma is a rare hereditary autosomal dominant disease of incomplete penetrance. Important differential diagnoses include other palmoplantar keratinization disorders, acquired or hereditary, which is done based on the histopathological findings. This diagnosis alerts especially about the possibility of associated neoplasms. Treatment involves topical keratolytic agents, usually with little efficacy, or with long-term systemic retinoids with follow-up of exuberant collateral effects.
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Use of humanised rat basophilic leukaemia cell line RS-ATL8 for the assessment of allergenicity of Schistosoma mansoni proteins.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Parasite-specific IgE is thought to correlate with protection against Schistosoma mansoni infection or re-infection. Only a few molecular targets of the IgE response in S. mansoni infection have been characterised. A better insight into the basic mechanisms of anti-parasite immunity could be gained from a genome-wide characterisation of such S. mansoni allergens. This would have repercussions on our understanding of allergy and the development of safe and efficacious vaccinations against helminthic parasites.
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Solution and high-pressure NMR studies of the structure, dynamics, and stability of the cross-reactive allergenic cod parvalbumin Gad m 1.
Proteins
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Beta-parvalbumins from different fish species have been identified as the main elicitors of IgE-mediated reactions in fish-allergic individuals. Here, we report for the first time the NMR determination of the structure and dynamics of the major Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) allergen Gad m 1 and compare them with other known parvalbumins. Although the Gad m 1 structure and accessibility of putative IgE epitopes are similar to parvalbumins in mackerel and carp, the charge distribution at the putative epitopes is different. The determination of the Gad m 1 structure contributes to a better understanding of cross-reactivity among fish parvalbumins. In addition, the high-pressure NMR and temperature variation experiments revealed the important contribution of the AB motif and other regions to the protein folding. This structural information could assist the future identification of hot spots for targeted mutations to develop hypoallergenic Ca(2+) -free forms for potential use in immunotherapy. Proteins 2014; 82:3032-3042. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Effects of the long-term administration of alendronate on the mechanical properties of the basal bone and on osseointegration.
Clin Oral Implants Res
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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To evaluate the effect of the long-term administration of alendronate on the mechanical properties of the basal bone and on osseointegration.
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PCR ASSOCIATED TO MOLECULAR HYBRIDIZATION DETECTS LEISHMANIA (VIANNIA) BRAZILIENSIS IN HEALTHY SKIN IN CANINE TEGUMENTARY LEISHMANIASIS.
J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Abstract Tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) is a zoonotic disease that affects the human and domestic dogs. In Brazil, TL is considered endemic, and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the prevalent species causing this disease. There is debate about the role of dogs (Canis familiaris) as domestic reservoirs in the transmission cycle of TL. To date, classical parasitological techniques, including parasite isolation in culture media have been able to detect parasites only from cutaneous lesions. In this study, we detected L. (V.) braziliensis DNA in intact skin fragments collected from three naturally infected dogs from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using PCR techniques associated with molecular hybridization. The detection of parasitic DNA in this anatomical site is an important finding vis-à-vis the importance of the domestic dogs in endemic areas of TL and adds elements to this discussion.
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Microarray analysis of tick-infested skin in resistant and susceptible cattle confirms the role of inflammatory pathways in immune activation and larval rejection.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Tick bites promote activation of an inflammatory process that is influenced by bovine genetic composition and its history of previous exposure. Taurine and indicine breeds are known to differ on its immune response development against Rhipicephalus microplus. Nevertheless, further investigation about the complex molecular pathways involved in the development of immune response to tick infestation in cattle presenting the same genetic background is mandatory. The aim of this work was to access the early immune response triggered by R. microplus larvae attachment in previously selected resistant and susceptible animals in a bovine F2 population derived from Gyr (Bos indicus)×Holstein (Bos taurus) crosses. Microarray data analysis of RNA samples from tick infested skin was used to evaluate the gene expression at 0, 24 and 48h after R. microplus larvae attachment. Our experimental design allowed us to deeply explore the immune response related to R. microplus infestation avoiding the innate differences between these breeds. The differentially expressed genes found reveal networks and pathways that suggest a key role of lipid metabolism in inflammation control and impairment of tick infestation in resistant animals. Acute phase response also seems to be impaired in susceptible animals. These results provide new insights about early immune response against ticks and raise the possibility of using immunomodulation processes to improve and develop novel tools for tick control.
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Effect of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables on osseointegration: a proof-of-principle preclinical in vivo study.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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To evaluate the influence of administration of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) on implant osseointegration in rat tibiae.
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Fertility and uterine hemodynamic in cows after artificial insemination with semen assessed by fluorescent probes.
Theriogenology
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Fluorescent probes (propidium iodide, Hoechst 33342, fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Pisum sativum agglutinin, and 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide) were used to simultaneously evaluate the integrity of plasma and acrosomal membranes as well as mitochondrial membrane function in cryopreserved bovine semen and to verify its influence on fertility and postinsemination uterine vascularization. One hundred eighty-two Nellore cows were distributed for artificial insemination (AI) using semen batches separated according to the cell percentage presenting intact plasma membrane, intact acrosome, and high mitochondrial function (IPIAH): group G (44.5% IPIAH, n = 68), group M (23.0% IPIAH, n = 56), and group R (8.5% IPIAH, n = 58). The uterine hemodynamic was evaluated by Doppler sonogram in three periods: 30 hours before AI, 4 and 24 hours after AI were considered the resistance index and the uterine vascularization score. The pregnancy rate of group G (64.7%) was greater (P > 0.05) compared with group R (36.2%), but both did not differ from group M (50.0%). There was no effect (P > 0.05) of semen quality on uterine vascularization. Greater vascularization was noticed 4 hours after AI than 30 hours before and 24 hours after AI. Semen evaluation using fluorescent probes contributes to predicting fertilizing potential of semen. The use of semen with less percentage of IPIAH sperm does not alter uterine hemodynamic in cows.
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Embryonic Stem Cells Improve Skeletal Muscle Recovery After Extreme Atrophy in Mice.
Muscle Nerve
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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We injected embryonic stem cells into mouse tibialis anterior muscles subjected to botulinum toxin injections as a model for reversible neurogenic atrophy.
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Regulation of Schistosoma mansoni development and reproduction by the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Protein kinases are proven targets for drug development with an increasing number of eukaryotic Protein Kinase (ePK) inhibitors now approved as drugs. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members connect cell-surface receptors to regulatory targets within cells and influence a number of tissue-specific biological activities such as cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. However, the contributions of members of the MAPK pathway to schistosome development and survival are unclear.
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Fatal cryptococcal meningitis in a juvenile lupus erythematosus patient.
Rev Bras Reumatol
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, generally associated with immunodeficiency and immunosuppressive agents, and it is rarely reported in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), particularly in juvenile SLE (JSLE). From January 1983 to June 2011, 5,604 patients were followed at our University Hospital and 283 (5%) of them met the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria for SLE. Only one (0.35%) of our JSLE patients had cryptococcal meningitis and is described in this report. A 10-year old girl was diagnosed with JSLE. By the age of 15 years, she presented persistent headaches, nausea and vomiting for a 5 day period without fever, after a cave-exploring trip. At that moment, she was under 10 mg/day of prednisone, azathioprine and hydroxychloroquine. A lumbar puncture was performed and India ink preparation was positive for cryptococcosis, cerebrospinal fluid culture yielded Cryptococcus neoformans and serum cryptococcal antigen titer was 1:128. Azathioprine was suspended, and liposomal amphotericin B was introduced. Despite of treatment, after four days she developed amaurosis and fell into a coma. A computer tomography of the brain showed diffuse ischemic areas and nodules suggesting fungal infection. Four days later, she developed severe sepsis and vancomycin and meropenem were prescribed, nevertheless she died due to septic shock. In conclusion, cryptococcal meningitis is a rare and severe opportunistic infection in juvenile lupus population. This study reinforces the importance of an early diagnosis and prompt introduction of antifungal agents, especially in patients with history of contact with bird droppings.
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The use of an integrated molecular-, chemical- and biological-based approach for promoting the better use and conservation of medicinal species: a case study of Brazilian quinas.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Quina is a popular name originally attributed to Cinchona pubescens Vahl (=Cinchona succirubra) and Cinchona. calisaya Wedd., species native from Peru that have the antimalarial alkaloid quinine. In Brazil, bitter barks substitutes for the Peruvian species began to be used centuries ago, and they still are sold in popular markets. To assess the authenticity and the conditions on which samples of quinas have been commercialized, using the DNA barcode, chemical and biological assays.
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Reticulocyte maturity indices in iron deficiency anemia.
Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The aim of this study was to analyze the reticulocyte maturity indices (low, medium, and high fluorescence ratios) in iron deficient 1- to 6-year-old children, and identify the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in this population.
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An immunomics approach to schistosome antigen discovery: antibody signatures of naturally resistant and chronically infected individuals from endemic areas.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that is responsible for almost 300,000 deaths annually. Mass drug administration (MDA) is used worldwide for the control of schistosomiasis, but chemotherapy fails to prevent reinfection with schistosomes, so MDA alone is not sufficient to eliminate the disease, and a prophylactic vaccine is required. Herein, we take advantage of recent advances in systems biology and longitudinal studies in schistosomiasis endemic areas in Brazil to pilot an immunomics approach to the discovery of schistosomiasis vaccine antigens. We selected mostly surface-derived proteins, produced them using an in vitro rapid translation system and then printed them to generate the first protein microarray for a multi-cellular pathogen. Using well-established Brazilian cohorts of putatively resistant (PR) and chronically infected (CI) individuals stratified by the intensity of their S. mansoni infection, we probed arrays for IgG subclass and IgE responses to these antigens to detect antibody signatures that were reflective of protective vs. non-protective immune responses. Moreover, probing for IgE responses allowed us to identify antigens that might induce potentially deleterious hypersensitivity responses if used as subunit vaccines in endemic populations. Using multi-dimensional cluster analysis we showed that PR individuals mounted a distinct and robust IgG1 response to a small set of newly discovered and well-characterized surface (tegument) antigens in contrast to CI individuals who mounted strong IgE and IgG4 responses to many antigens. Herein, we show the utility of a vaccinomics approach that profiles antibody responses of resistant individuals in a high-throughput multiplex approach for the identification of several potentially protective and safe schistosomiasis vaccine antigens.
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Serological screening of the Schistosoma mansoni adult worm proteome.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis.
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Preliminary characterization of mitochondrial genome of Melipona scutellaris, a Brazilian stingless bee.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Bees are manufacturers of relevant economical products and have a pollinator role fundamental to ecosystems. Traditionally, studies focused on the genus Melipona have been mostly based on behavioral, and social organization and ecological aspects. Only recently the evolutionary history of this genus has been assessed using molecular markers, including mitochondrial genes. Even though these studies have shed light on the evolutionary history of the Melipona genus, a more accurate picture may emerge when full nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of Melipona species become available. Here we present the assembly, annotation, and characterization of a draft mitochondrial genome of the Brazilian stingless bee Melipona scutellaris using Melipona bicolor as a reference organism. Using Illumina MiSeq data, we achieved the annotation of all protein coding genes, as well as the genes for the two ribosomal subunits (16S and 12S) and transfer RNA genes as well. Using the COI sequence as a DNA barcode, we found that M. cramptoni is the closest species to M. scutellaris.
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Assessing the efficiency of multiple sequence alignment programs.
Algorithms Mol Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is an extremely useful tool for molecular and evolutionary biology and there are several programs and algorithms available for this purpose. Although previous studies have compared the alignment accuracy of different MSA programs, their computational time and memory usage have not been systematically evaluated. Given the unprecedented amount of data produced by next generation deep sequencing platforms, and increasing demand for large-scale data analysis, it is imperative to optimize the application of software. Therefore, a balance between alignment accuracy and computational cost has become a critical indicator of the most suitable MSA program. We compared both accuracy and cost of nine popular MSA programs, namely CLUSTALW, CLUSTAL OMEGA, DIALIGN-TX, MAFFT, MUSCLE, POA, Probalign, Probcons and T-Coffee, against the benchmark alignment dataset BAliBASE and discuss the relevance of some implementations embedded in each program's algorithm. Accuracy of alignment was calculated with the two standard scoring functions provided by BAliBASE, the sum-of-pairs and total-column scores, and computational costs were determined by collecting peak memory usage and time of execution.
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Draft Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Gallinarum Biovar Pullorum Strain FCAV198, a Brazilian Chicken Pathogen.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum is a bird-restricted pathogen which causes pullorum disease. The strain FCAV198 was isolated from a pool of chicken ovaries in Brazil, and its genome may be helpful for studies involving molecular mechanisms related to pathogenesis and other related applications.
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Hospital morbidity in a medium-sized city: differentials between men and women.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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characterize the hospital morbidity of adults living in the city of Maringá, PR, Brazil, between 2000 and 2011, focusing on the differential between men and women.
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Left ventricular restoration devices.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Left ventricular (LV) remodeling results in continuous cardiac chamber enlargement and contractile dysfunction, perpetuating the syndrome of heart failure. With current exhaustion of the neurohormonal medical paradigm, surgical and device-based therapies have been increasingly investigated as a way to restore LV chamber architecture and function. Left ventricular restoration has been attempted with surgical procedures, such as partial left ventriculectomy, surgical ventricular restoration with or without revascularization, and devices, such as the Acorn CorCap, the Paracor HeartNet, and the Myocor Myosplint. Whereas all these techniques require surgical access, with or without cardiopulmonary bypass, a newer ventricular partitioning device (VPD) called Parachute, can be delivered percutaneously through the aortic valve. Designed to achieve LV restoration from within the ventricle, this VPD partitions the LV by isolating aneurysmal from normal myocardium thereby diminishing the functioning cavity. This review aims to critically appraise the above methods, with particular attention to device-based therapies.
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Incidence, predictors, and impact on survival of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and recovery in advanced cancer patients.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Although left ventricular (LV) dysfunction occurs not uncommonly in the course of cancer therapy, little is known about its natural history and prognostic impact on patients. To investigate the incidence, predictors, and impact on survival of LV systolic dysfunction and recovery during cancer therapy, we conducted a retrospective cohort observational study over 1 year at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. We enrolled patients with a decrease in ejection fraction by echocardiography to <50% while undergoing cancer therapy from January 2009 to December 2009. We collected and analyzed their chart data. Of 7,648 patients with echocardiograms in 2009, 366 (4.8%) had ejection fraction <50% and 104 met study criteria. LV systolic dysfunction was associated with cardiotoxic therapy in 53 patients (51%). Recovery occurred in 57 patients (55%) and was independently predicted by younger age, smaller left atrial volume index, and lower B-type natriuretic peptide. At last follow-up, 69 patients (66%) were dead, and 35 (34%) were alive. There was a 20% advantage in 2-year survival among patients with LV systolic recovery compared with those without (95% confidence interval 4% to 41%, p = 0.02). In this retrospective study, LV systolic dysfunction recovery occurred in over half of the patients, appeared independent of cardiotoxic etiology, and associated with a 20% survival benefit at 2 years. Multivariable predictors of recovery are younger age, a small left atrial volume index, and lower B-type natriuretic peptide.
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Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser application in the treatment of experimental periodontitis.
Lasers Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser in the absence or presence of manual scaling and root planning (SRP) for the treatment of induced periodontitis in rats. Ligatures were placed in the subgingival region of the maxillary first molar. After a 7-day period, the ligatures were removed, and 40 rats were randomly divided into four groups (G), as follows: (GI) no treatment, (GII) scaling and root planning (SRP) with curettes, (GIII) Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation and (GIV) SRP with curettes followed by Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation. Seven and 30 days after the treatment, the animals were sacrificed and histologic, histometric and immunohistochemistry analyses were performed. All groups showed similar histopathological characteristics during the evaluation period. The histometric analysis was confirmed using Bonferroni and paired t tests. At 7 and 30 days, groups II, III and IV exhibited greater bone formation in the furcation area when compared to group I (p?
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Screening for depression in people with epilepsy: comparative study among neurological disorders depression inventory for epilepsy (NDDI-E), hospital anxiety and depression scale depression subscale (HADS-D), and Beck depression inventory (BDI).
Epilepsy Behav
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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We aimed to assess and compare the psychometric properties of the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Depression Subscale (HADS-D), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) as screening instruments for depression and suicidality in people with epilepsy.
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Long-term mortality after cardiac allograft vasculopathy: implications of percutaneous intervention.
JACC Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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This study compared the prognosis of patients with proximal cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) treated with percutaneous intervention (PCI) to the prognosis of those with severe CAV not amenable to PCI.
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Menthol Inhibits Detrusor Contractility Independently of TRPM8 Activation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Agonists such as icilin and menthol can activate the cool temperature-sensitive ion channel TRPM8. However, biological responses to menthol may occur independently of TRPM8 activation. In the rodent urinary bladder, menthol facilitates the micturition reflex but inhibits muscarinic contractions of the detrusor smooth muscle. The site(s) of TRPM8 expression in the bladder are controversial. In this study we investigated the regulation of bladder contractility in vitro by menthol. Bladder strips from wild type and TRPM8 knockout male mice (25-30 g) were dissected free and mounted in organ baths. Isometric contractions to carbachol (1 nM-30 µM), CaCl2 (1 µM to 100 mM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS; 8, 16, 32 Hz) were measured. Strips from both groups contracted similarly in response to both carbachol and EFS. Menthol (300 µM) or nifedipine (1 µM) inhibited carbachol and EFS-induced contractions in both wild type and TRPM8 knockout bladder strips. Incubation with the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (1 µM), replacement of extracellular sodium with the impermeant cation N-Methyl-D-Glucamine, incubation with a cocktail of potassium channel inhibitors (100 nM charybdotoxin, 1 µM apamin, 10 µM glibenclamide and 1 µM tetraethylammonium) or removal of the urothelium did not affect the inhibitory actions of menthol. Contraction to CaCl2 was markedly inhibited by either menthol or nifedipine. In cultured bladder smooth muscle cells, menthol or nifedipine abrogated the carbachol or KCl-induced increases in [Ca2+]i. Intravesical administration of menthol increased voiding frequency while decreasing peak voiding pressure. We conclude that menthol inhibits muscarinic bladder contractions through blockade of L-type calcium channels, independently of TRPM8 activation.
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Epigenetic control of gene function in schistosomes: a source of therapeutic targets?
Front Genet
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The discovery of the epigenetic regulation of gene expression has revolutionized both our understanding of how genomes function and approaches to the therapy of numerous pathologies. Schistosomes are metazoan parasites and as such utilize most, if not all the epigenetic mechanisms in play in their vertebrate hosts: histone variants, histone tail modifications, non-coding RNA and, perhaps, DNA methylation. Moreover, we are acquiring an increasing understanding of the ways in which these mechanisms come into play during the complex schistosome developmental program. In turn, interest in the actors involved in epigenetic mechanisms, particularly the enzymes that carry out epigenetic modifications of histones or nucleic acid, as therapeutic targets has been stimulated by the finding that their inhibitors exert profound effects, not only on survival, but also on the reproductive function of Schistosoma mansoni. Here, we review our current knowledge, and what we can infer, about the role of epigenetic mechanisms in schistosome development, differentiation and survival. We will consider which epigenetic actors can be targeted for drug discovery and what strategies can be employed to develop potent, selective inhibitors as drugs to cure schistosomiasis.
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Evolutionary analysis of the cystatin family in three Schistosoma species.
Front Genet
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The cystatin family comprises cysteine protease inhibitors distributed in 3 subfamilies (I25A-C). Family members lacking cystatin activity are currently unclassified. Little is known about the evolution of Schistosoma cystatins, their physiological roles, and expression patterns in the parasite life cycle. The present study aimed to identify cystatin homologs in the predicted proteome of three Schistosoma species and other Platyhelminthes. We analyzed the amino acid sequence diversity focused in the identification of protein signatures and to establish evolutionary relationships among Schistosoma and experimentally validated human cystatins. Gene expression patterns were obtained from different developmental stages in Schistosoma mansoni using microarray data. In Schistosoma, only I25A and I25B proteins were identified, reflecting little functional diversification. I25C and unclassified subfamily members were not identified in platyhelminth species here analyzed. The resulting phylogeny placed cystatins in different clades, reflecting their molecular diversity. Our findings suggest that Schistosoma cystatins are very divergent from their human homologs, especially regarding the I25B subfamily. Schistosoma cystatins also differ significantly from other platyhelminth homologs. Finally, transcriptome data publicly available indicated that I25A and I25B genes are constitutively expressed thus could be essential for schistosome life cycle progression. In summary, this study provides insights into the evolution, classification, and functional diversification of cystatins in Schistosoma and other Platyhelminthes, improving our understanding of parasite biology and opening new frontiers in the identification of novel therapeutic targets against helminthiases.
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Transcription factors involved in prostate gland adaptation to androgen deprivation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Androgens regulate prostate physiology, and exert their effects through the androgen receptor. We hypothesized that androgen deprivation needs additional transcription factors to orchestrate the changes taking place in the gland after castration and for the adaptation of the epithelial cells to the androgen-deprived environment, ultimately contributing to the origin of castration-resistant prostate cancer. This study was undertaken to identify transcription factors that regulate gene expression after androgen deprivation by castration (Cas). For the sake of comparison, we extended the analysis to the effects of administration of a high dose of 17?-estradiol (E2) and a combination of both (Cas+E2). We approached this by (i) identifying gene expression profiles and enrichment terms, and by searching for transcription factors in the derived regulatory pathways; and (ii) by determining the density of putative transcription factor binding sites in the proximal promoter of the 10 most up- or down-regulated genes in each experimental group in comparison to the controls Gapdh and Tbp7. Filtering and validation confirmed the expression and localized EVI1 (Mecom), NFY, ELK1, GATA2, MYBL1, MYBL2, and NFkB family members (NFkB1, NFkB2, REL, RELA and RELB) in the epithelial and/or stromal cells. These transcription factors represent major regulators of epithelial cell survival and immaturity as well as an adaptation of the gland as an immune barrier in the absence of functional stimulation by androgens. Elk1 was expressed in smooth muscle cells and was up-regulated after day 4. Evi1 and Nfy genes are expressed in both epithelium and stroma, but were apparently not affected by androgen deprivation.
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Inhibition of paracoccidioides lutzii Pb01 isocitrate lyase by the natural compound argentilactone and its semi-synthetic derivatives.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides spp. is responsible for paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America, causing serious public health problems. Adequate treatment of mycotic infections is difficult, since fungi are eukaryotic organisms with a structure and metabolism similar to those of eukaryotic hosts. In this way, specific fungus targets have become important to search of new antifungal compound. The role of the glyoxylate cycle and its enzymes in microbial virulence has been reported in many fungal pathogens, including Paracoccidioides spp. Here, we show the action of argentilactone and its semi-synthetic derivative reduced argentilactone on recombinant and native isocitrate lyase from Paracoccidioides lutzii Pb01 (PbICL) in the presence of different carbon sources, acetate and glucose. Additionally, argentilactone and its semi-synthetic derivative reduced argentilactone exhibited relevant inhibitory activity against P. lutzii Pb01 yeast cells and dose-dependently influenced the transition from the mycelium to yeast phase. The other oxygenated derivatives tested, epoxy argentilactone and diol argentilactone-, did not show inhibitory action on the fungus. The results were supported by in silico experiments.
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Praziquantel Treatment DecreasesSchistosoma mansoni Genetic Diversity in Experimental Infections.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2013
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Schistosomiasis has a considerable impact on public health in many tropical and subtropical areas. In the new world, schistosomiasis is caused by the digenetic trematode Schistosoma mansoni. Chemotherapy is the main measure for controlling schistosomiasis, and the current drug of choice for treatment is praziquantel (PZQ). Although PZQ is efficient and safe, its repetitive large-scale use in endemic areas may lead to the selection of resistant strains. Isolates less susceptible to PZQ have been found in the field and selected for in the laboratory. The impact of selecting strains with a decreased susceptibility phenotype on disease dynamics and parasite population genetics is not fully understood. This study addresses the impact of PZQ pressure on the genetics of a laboratory population by analyzing frequency variations of polymorphic genetic markers.
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Desquamation is a novel phenomenon for collective prostate epithelial cell deletion after castration.
Histochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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The mechanism underlying castration-induced prostate regression, which is a classical physiological concept translated into the therapeutic treatment of advanced prostate cancer, involves epithelial cell apoptosis. In searching for events and mechanisms contributing to prostate regression in response to androgen modulation, we have frequently observed the collective deletion of epithelial cells. This work was undertaken to characterize this phenomenon hereafter named desquamation and to verify its presence after 17?-estradiol (E2) administration. Electron microscopy revealed that the desquamating cells had preserved cell-cell junctions and collapsed nuclear contents. The TUNEL reaction was negative for these cells, which were also negative for cleaved caspases-8, -9, -3 and nuclear apoptosis-inducing factor. Detailed analyses revealed that the condensed chromatin was first affected detaching from the nuclear lamina, which was observable after lamin A immunohistochemistry, suggesting the lack of lamin A degradation. A search in animals treated with supraphysiological E2 employed as an alternative anti-androgen treatment revealed no desquamation. The combined treatment (Cas + E2 group) caused changes particular to each treatment, including desquamation. In conclusion, desquamation appeared as a novel phenomenon contributing to collective prostate epithelial cell deletion, distinct from the classical castration-induced apoptosis and particular to the androgen deprivation resulting from surgical castration, and should be considered as part of the mechanisms promoting organ regression.
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Churg-Strauss syndrome and persistent heart failure: active disease or damage?
J Clin Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare small-vessel vasculitis typically associated with adult-onset asthma, peripheral and tissue hypereosinophilia, migratory pulmonary infiltrates, upper respiratory tract symptoms, and clinical evidence of systemic vasculitis. Cardiac involvement is a well-recognized complication with an estimated prevalence of 60%. Heart disease is associated with poor prognosis, accounting for almost 50% mortality in CSS. We present a case of a 48-year-old woman with CSS complicated by congestive heart failure with left ventricular ejection fraction of 25%, who was initially treated with long course of high-dose steroids without any clinical or echocardiographic improvement. She was referred to our hospital 1 year later and was initiated with cyclophosphamide 2 mg/kg per day and prednisone 60 mg/d followed by slow taper. Subsequently, the patient had remarkable improvement. Patient was then transitioned to azathioprine for 1.5 years with sustained disease remission. It may be difficult to determine myocardial disease activity status versus tissue damage in CSS with prolonged duration of heart failure symptoms. This is the first case report demonstrating that CSS cardiac disease may remain active despite 1 year of corticosteroid therapy, and significant improvement or remission can still be achieved by administering more aggressive cytotoxic immunosuppressive therapy.
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Fine modulation of the respiratory syncytial virus M2-1 protein quaternary structure by reversible zinc removal from its Cys(3)-His(1) motif.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a worldwide distributed pathogen that causes respiratory disease mostly in infants and the elderly. The M2-1 protein of hRSV functions as a transcription antiterminator and partakes in virus particle budding. It is present only in Pneumovirinae, namely, Pneumovirus (RSV) and Metapneumovirus, making it an interesting target for specific antivirals. hRSV M2-1 is a tight tetramer bearing a Cys3-His1 zinc-binding motif, present in Ebola VP30 protein and some eukaryotic proteins, whose integrity was shown to be essential for protein function but without a biochemical mechanistic basis. We showed that removal of the zinc atom causes dissociation to a monomeric apo-M2-1 species. Surprisingly, the secondary structure and stability of the apo-monomer is indistinguishable from that of the M2-1 tetramer. Dissociation reported by a highly sensitive tryptophan residue is much increased at pH 5.0 compared to pH 7.0, suggesting a histidine protonation cooperating in zinc removal. The monomeric apo form binds RNA at least as well as the tetramer, and this interaction is outcompeted by the phosphoprotein P, the RNA polymerase cofactor. The role of zinc goes beyond stabilization of local structure, finely tuning dissociation to a fully folded and binding competent monomer. Removal of zinc is equivalent to the disruption of the motif by mutation, only that the former is potentially reversible in the cellular context. Thus, this process could be triggered by a natural chelator such as glutathione or thioneins, where reversibility strongly suggests a modulatory role in the participation of M2-1 in the assembly of the polymerase complex or in virion budding.
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Bismuth sulphides prepared by thermal and hydrothermal decomposition of a single source precursor: the effect of reaction parameters on morphology, microstructure and catalytic activity.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Bismuth sulphides were prepared by thermal and hydrothermal decomposition of a precursor, bismuth tris-diethyldithiocarbamate, at different temperatures and times. The obtained results showed that the thermal decomposition of the precursor in a tube furnace was not very appropriate to control particle size and morphology. XRD results showed that at 310 °C the precursor was not fully decomposed but at 500 °C besides the orthorhombic bismuth sulphide, the metallic bismuth also started to be formed. At the highest temperature 1D crystals were formed with an apparent mean crystal size of 138 nm. However, hydrothermal decomposition was shown to be a very suitable method to control particle size and morphology just by varying some parameters such as temperature and time. For 6 hours reaction time, as temperature increased, the apparent mean crystal size decreased. The particle morphology was also very affected by this parameter, at 180 °C only 1D particles (nanorods) with lengths varying from 25 to 4700 nm were formed but at 200 °C not only 1D particles but also 2D particles were (nanosheets) obtained. Bismuth sulphide particles obtained at 180 °C and 24 hours reaction time were shown to be formed mostly by 2D particles compared to those obtained at 6 hours. It was clearly seen that the increase in reaction time and temperature led to the formation of bi-dimensional particles. The presence of 1D crystals in the samples obtained by hydrothermal decomposition at 180 °C/6 h and 180 °C/24 h is responsible for their high catalytic efficiency towards methylene blue dye degradation.
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Structural basis for the inhibition of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8), a key epigenetic player in the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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The treatment of schistosomiasis, a disease caused by blood flukes parasites of the Schistosoma genus, depends on the intensive use of a single drug, praziquantel, which increases the likelihood of the development of drug-resistant parasite strains and renders the search for new drugs a strategic priority. Currently, inhibitors of human epigenetic enzymes are actively investigated as novel anti-cancer drugs and have the potential to be used as new anti-parasitic agents. Here, we report that Schistosoma mansoni histone deacetylase 8 (smHDAC8), the most expressed class I HDAC isotype in this organism, is a functional acetyl-L-lysine deacetylase that plays an important role in parasite infectivity. The crystal structure of smHDAC8 shows that this enzyme adopts a canonical ?/? HDAC fold, with specific solvent exposed loops corresponding to insertions in the schistosome HDAC8 sequence. Importantly, structures of smHDAC8 in complex with generic HDAC inhibitors revealed specific structural changes in the smHDAC8 active site that cannot be accommodated by human HDACs. Using a structure-based approach, we identified several small-molecule inhibitors that build on these specificities. These molecules exhibit an inhibitory effect on smHDAC8 but show reduced affinity for human HDACs. Crucially, we show that a newly identified smHDAC8 inhibitor has the capacity to induce apoptosis and mortality in schistosomes. Taken together, our biological and structural findings define the framework for the rational design of small-molecule inhibitors specifically interfering with schistosome epigenetic mechanisms, and further support an anti-parasitic epigenome targeting strategy to treat neglected diseases caused by eukaryotic pathogens.
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Schistosoma mansoni Sirtuins: characterization and potential as chemotherapeutic targets.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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The chemotherapy of schistosomiasis currently depends on the use of a single drug, praziquantel. In order to develop novel chemotherapeutic agents we are investigating enzymes involved in the epigenetic modification of chromatin. Sirtuins are NAD+ dependent lysine deacetylases that are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes including histone deacetylation, and have been demonstrated to be therapeutic targets in various pathologies, including cancer.
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The use of medications by elderly men with polypharmacy: representations and practices.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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this study aimed to investigate and understand the use of medications by elderly men, their representations and the subsequent practices.
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Intramolecular dynamics within the N-Cap-SH3-SH2 regulatory unit of the c-Abl tyrosine kinase reveal targeting to the cellular membrane.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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c-Abl is a key regulator of cell signaling and is under strict control via intramolecular interactions. In this study, we address changes in the intramolecular dynamics coupling within the c-Abl regulatory unit by presenting its N-terminal segment (N-Cap) with an alternative function in the cell as c-Abl becomes activated. Using small angle x-ray scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance, and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that the N-Cap and the Src homology (SH) 3 domain acquire ?s-ms motions upon N-Cap association with the SH2-L domain, revealing a stabilizing synergy between these segments. The N-Cap-myristoyl tether likely triggers the protein to anchor to the membrane because of these flip-flop dynamics, which occur in the ?s-ms time range. This segment not only presents the myristate during c-Abl inhibition but may also trigger protein localization inside the cell in a functional and stability-dependent mechanism that is lost in Bcr-Abl(+) cells, which underlie chronic myeloid leukemia. This loss of intramolecular dynamics and binding to the cellular membrane is a potential therapeutic target.
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Elucidating the temporal and spatial dynamics of Biomphalaria glabrata genetic diversity in three Brazilian villages.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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The freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the principal intermediate host for the parasite Schistosoma mansoni within Brazil. We assessed the potential effects of snail population dynamics on parasite transmission dynamics via population genetics.
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Anxiolytic-like effects of phytol: Possible involvement of GABAergic transmission.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Phytol, a branched chain unsaturated alcohol, is particularly interesting because it is an isolated compound from essential oils of different medicinal plant. The aim of study was to evaluate the anxiolytic-like effects of phytol in animal models to clarify their possible action mechanism. After acute intraperitoneal treatment with phytol at doses of 25, 50 and 75mg/kg were utilized behavioral models of open-field, elevated-plus-maze, rota-rod, light-dark, marble-burying and pentobarbital sleeping time tests. In open field test, phytol (25, 50 and 75mg/kg) [p<0.01] increased the number of crossings and rearings. However, the number of groomings [p<0.01] was reduced. Likewise, the number of entries and the time spent in light space were increased [p<0.01] while the number of marble-burying was decreased [p<0.001], in elevated-plus-maze, light-dark and marble-burying tests, respectively. In motor activity test, phytol (75mg/kg) impaired the rota-rod performance of mice [p<0.01]. In pentobarbital sleeping time test, phytol 75mg/kg decreased for latency of sleeping and phytol (25, 50 and 75mg/kg) increased the sleep time when compared to negative control [p<0.05]. All these effects were reversed by pre-treatment with flumazenil (2.5mg/kg, i.p.), similarly to those observed with diazepam (2mg/kg, i.p.; positive control) suggesting the phytol presents mechanism of action by interaction with GABAergic system. These findings suggest that acute administration of phytol exerts an anxiolytic-like effect on mice. Furthermore, suppose that phytol interacts with GABAA receptor, probably at the receptor subtypes that mediate benzodiazepines effects, to produce sedative and anxiolytic activities.
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Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain SA20-06, a fish pathogen associated to meningoencephalitis outbreaks.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B; GBS) is the causative agent of meningoencephalitis in fish, mastitis in cows, and neonatal sepsis in humans. Meningoencephalitis is a major health problem for tilapia farming and is responsible for high economic losses worldwide. Despite its importance, the genomic characteristics and the main molecular mechanisms involved in virulence of S. agalactiae isolated from fish are still poorly understood. Here, we present the genomic features of the 1,820,886 bp long complete genome sequence of S. agalactiae SA20-06 isolated from a meningoencephalitis outbreak in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Brazil, and its annotation, consisting of 1,710 protein-coding genes (excluding pseudogenes), 7 rRNA operons, 79 tRNA genes and 62 pseudogenes.
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Biochemical characterization of recombinant nucleoside hydrolase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health threat. There is a need for the development of more efficient drugs for the sterilization of the diseases causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). A more comprehensive understanding of the bacillis nucleotide metabolic pathways could aid in the development of new anti-mycobacterial drugs. Here we describe expression and purification of recombinant iunH-encoded nucleoside hydrolase from MTB (MtIAGU-NH). Glutaraldehyde cross-linking results indicate that MtIAGU-NH predominates as a monomer, presenting varied oligomeric states depending upon binding of ligands. Steady-state kinetics results show that MtIAGU-NH has broad substrate specificity, accepting inosine, adenosine, guanosine, and uridine as substrates. Inosine and adenosine displayed positive homotropic cooperativity kinetics, whereas guanosine and uridine displayed hyperbolic saturation curves. Measurements of kinetics of ribose binding to MtIAGU-NH by fluorescence spectroscopy suggest two pre-existing forms of enzyme prior to ligand association. The intracellular concentrations of inosine, uridine, hypoxanthine, and uracil were determined and thermodynamic parameters estimated. Thermodynamic activation parameters (Ea, ?G(#), ?S(#), ?H(#)) for MtIAGU-NH-catalyzed chemical reaction are presented. Results from mass spectrometry, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), pH-rate profile experiment, multiple sequence alignment, and molecular docking experiments are also presented. These data should contribute to our understanding of the biological role played by MtIAGU-NH.
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Bone quality assessment in routine dental implant treatment among Brazilian and Swedish specialists.
Clin Oral Implants Res
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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To investigate the interpretation and assessment of bone quality among Brazilian and Swedish specialist performing implant treatment.
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Nep1-like protein from Moniliophthora perniciosa induces a rapid proteome and metabolome reprogramming in cells of Nicotiana benthamiana.
Physiol Plant
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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NEP1 (necrosis- and ethylene-inducing peptide 1)-like proteins (NLPs) have been identified in a variety of taxonomically unrelated plant pathogens and share a common characteristic of inducing responses of plant defense and cell death in dicotyledonous plants. Even though some aspects of NLP action have been well characterized, nothing is known about the global range of modifications in proteome and metabolome of NLP-treated plant cells. Here, using both proteomic and metabolomic approaches we were able to identify the global molecular and biochemical changes in cells of Nicotiana benthamiana elicited by short-term treatment with MpNEP2, a NLP of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the basidiomycete responsible for the witches broom disease on cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). Approximately 100 protein spots were collected from 2-DE gels in each proteome, with one-third showing more than twofold differences in the expression values. Fifty-three such proteins were identified by mass spectrometry (MS)/MS and mapped into specific metabolic pathways and cellular processes. Most MpNEP2 upregulated proteins are involved in nucleotide-binding function and oxidoreductase activity, whereas the downregulated proteins are mostly involved in glycolysis, response to stress and protein folding. Thirty metabolites were detected by gas spectrometry (GC)/MS and semi-quantified, of which eleven showed significant differences between the treatments, including proline, alanine, myo-inositol, ethylene, threonine and hydroxylamine. The global changes described affect the reduction-oxidation reactions, ATP biosynthesis and key signaling molecules as calcium and hydrogen peroxide. These findings will help creating a broader understanding of NLP-mediated cell death signaling in plants.
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Temperature and time dependence on ZnS microstructure and phases obtained through hydrothermal decomposition of diethyldithiocarbamate complexes.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Zinc sulphide was obtained through hydrothermal decomposition of [Zn(S2CNEt2)] under different experimental conditions such as temperatures and reaction times. Hydrothermal reactions were carried out in a stainless steel autoclave at 160, 180 and 200 °C for 3, 6 and 24 hours. The obtained products were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopies. Particle size and microstrain were determined by Rietveld refinement of experimental X-ray diffraction patterns. The obtained crystal size values were in the range of 6.1 to 30 nm and as the temperature and reaction times increase the particle size also increases. Band gap values are in the range of 3.34 to 3.60 eV and are highly dependent on the crystal microstrain. The catalyst activities were studied through the degradation of methylene blue dye solutions under ultraviolet radiation.
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SOCS3 expression correlates with severity of inflammation, expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and activation of STAT3 and p38 MAPK in LPS-induced inflammation in vivo.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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SOCS3 is an inducible endogenous negative regulator of JAK/STAT pathway, which is relevant in inflammatory conditions. We used a model of LPS-induced periodontal disease in rats to correlate SOCS3 expression with the inflammatory status. In vitro we used a murine macrophage cell line to assess the physical interaction between SOCS3 and STAT3 by coimmunoprecipitation. 30 ug of LPS from Escherichia coli were injected in the gingival tissues on the palatal aspect of first molars of the animals 3x/week for up to 4 weeks. Control animals were injected with the vehicle (PBS). The rats were sacrificed at 7, 15, and 30 days. Inflammation and gene expression were assessed by stereometric analysis, immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR, and western blot. LPS injections increased inflammation, paralleled by an upregulation of SOCS3, of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 ? , IL-6, and TNF- ? and increased phosphorylation of STAT3 and p38 MAPK. SOCS3 expression accompanied the severity of inflammation and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as the activation status of STAT3 and p38 MAPK. LPS stimulation in a macrophage cell line in vitro induced transient STAT3 activation, which was inversely correlated with a dynamic physical interaction with SOCS3, suggesting that this may be a mechanism for SOCS3 regulatory function.
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Intermolecular interactions of the malate synthase of Paracoccidioides spp.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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The fungus Paracoccidioides spp is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a pulmonary mycosis acquired by the inhalation of fungal propagules. Paracoccidioides malate synthase (PbMLS) is important in the infectious process of Paracoccidioides spp because the transcript is up-regulated during the transition from mycelium to yeast and in yeast cells during phagocytosis by murine macrophages. In addition, PbMLS acts as an adhesin in Paracoccidioides spp. The evidence for the multifunctionality of PbMLS indicates that it could interact with other proteins from the fungus and host. The objective of this study was to identify and analyze proteins that possibly bind to PbMLS (PbMLS-interacting proteins) because protein interactions are intrinsic to cell processes, and it might be possible to infer the function of a protein through the identification of its ligands.
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Mitochondrial cardioencephalomyopathy due to a novel SCO2 mutation in a Brazilian patient: case report and literature review.
JAMA Neurol
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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To review all patients with SCO2 mutations and to describe a Brazilian patient with cardioencephalomyopathy carrying compound heterozygous mutations in SCO2, one being the known pathogenic p.E140K mutation and the other a novel 12-base pair (bp) deletion at nucleotides 1519 through 1530 (c.1519_1530del).
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Canine Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Dissemination and Tissue Tropism of Genetically Distinct Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Populations.
Vet Med Int
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Little is known regarding the internal dissemination of initial cutaneous lesions and tissue tropism of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis populations in naturally infected dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic polymorphisms of L. (V.) braziliensis populations in different anatomic sites of naturally infected dogs by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and low-stringency single specific primer-PCR (LSSP-PCR) techniques. The amplified products were analyzed by LSSP-PCR to investigate the genetic variability of the parasite populations present in different anatomical sites. Twenty-three out of the 52 samples gave PCR-positive results. The existence of L. (V.) braziliensis strains that remained restricted to cutaneous lesions and others showing characteristics of dissemination to internal organs and healthy skin was observed. LSSP-PCR and numerical analyses revealed that parasite populations that do not disseminate were genetically similar and belonged to a separate phenetic cluster. In contrast, populations that showed spreading to internal organs displayed a more polymorphic genetic profile. Despite the heterogeneity, L. (V.) braziliensis populations with identical genetic profiles were observed in popliteal and cervical lymph nodes of the same animal. Our results indicate that infection in dogs can be manifested by dissemination and tissue tropism of genetically distinct populations of L. (V.) braziliensis.
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Increased Need for Right Ventricular Support in Patients with Chemotherapy-Induced Cardiomyopathy Undergoing Mechanical Circulatory Support: Outcomes from the INTERMACS Registry.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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To investigate the use of durable mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in patientswith chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy (CCMP) and determine their outcomes and survival in comparison to that of other patients with end-stage heart failure treated similarly.
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Additional effects of aPDT on nonsurgical periodontal treatment with doxycycline in type II diabetes: a randomized, controlled clinical trial.
Lasers Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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The association of doxycycline and periodontal treatment in non-controlled diabetes mellitus (DM) has shown positive results on clinical and metabolic parameters. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a local and painless antimicrobial treatment that can be applied in periodontal treatment without systemic risks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential improvement of aPDT on clinical and metabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in conjunction with nonsurgical periodontal treatment plus doxycycline. Thirty patients with type 2 diabetes and diagnosis of chronic periodontitis were treated with scaling and root planning (SRP; N?=?15) or SRP plus phenothiazine chloride photosensitizer-induced aPDT (SRP + aPDT, N?=?15). Patients of both groups took doxycycline (100 mg/day) for 2 weeks and plaque index, bleeding on probe (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD), suppuration, clinical attachment level (CAL), and glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c) were measured at baseline and 3 months after therapy. An improvement in clinical parameters such as PPD, CAL, S, and BOP between groups was observed but without statistical significance (p?>?0.05). Intragroup analysis showed a significant reduction of HbA1c (8.5?±?0.9 to 7.5?±?0.1, p?
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Full Inactivation of Human Influenza Virus by High Hydrostatic Pressure Preserves Virus Structure and Membrane Fusion While Conferring Protection to Mice against Infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Whole inactivated vaccines (WIVs) possess greater immunogenicity than split or subunit vaccines, and recent studies have demonstrated that WIVs with preserved fusogenic activity are more protective than non-fusogenic WIVs. In this work, we describe the inactivation of human influenza virus X-31 by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and analyze the effects on the structure by spectroscopic measurements, light scattering, and electron microscopy. We also investigated the effects of HHP on the glycoprotein activity and fusogenic activity of the viral particles. The electron microscopy data showed pore formation on the viral envelope, but the general morphology was preserved, and small variations were seen in the particle structure. The activity of hemagglutinin (HA) during the process of binding and fusion was affected in a time-dependent manner, but neuraminidase (NA) activity was not affected. Infectious activity ceased after 3 hours of pressurization, and mice were protected from infection after being vaccinated. Our results revealed full viral inactivation with overall preservation of viral structure and maintenance of fusogenic activity, thereby conferring protection against infection. A strong response consisting of serum immunoglobulin IgG1, IgG2a, and serum and mucosal IgA was also detected after vaccination. Thus, our data strongly suggest that applying hydrostatic pressure may be an effective method for developing new vaccines against influenza A as well as other viruses.
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A singular value decomposition approach for improved taxonomic classification of biological sequences.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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Singular value decomposition (SVD) is a powerful technique for information retrieval; it helps uncover relationships between elements that are not prima facie related. SVD was initially developed to reduce the time needed for information retrieval and analysis of very large data sets in the complex internet environment. Since information retrieval from large-scale genome and proteome data sets has a similar level of complexity, SVD-based methods could also facilitate data analysis in this research area.
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Developmental Regulation of Genes Encoding Universal Stress Proteins in Schistosoma mansoni.
Gene Regul Syst Bio
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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The draft nuclear genome sequence of the snail-transmitted, dimorphic, parasitic, platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni revealed eight genes encoding proteins that contain the Universal Stress Protein (USP) domain. Schistosoma mansoni is a causative agent of human schistosomiasis, a severe and debilitating Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) of poverty, which is endemic in at least 76 countries. The availability of the genome sequences of Schistosoma species presents opportunities for bioinformatics and genomics analyses of associated gene families that could be targets for understanding schistosomiasis ecology, intervention, prevention and control. Proteins with the USP domain are known to provide bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists and plants with the ability to respond to diverse environmental stresses. In this research investigation, the functional annotations of the USP genes and predicted nucleotide and protein sequences were initially verified. Subsequently, sequence clusters and distinctive features of the sequences were determined. A total of twelve ligand binding sites were predicted based on alignment to the ATP-binding universal stress protein from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. In addition, six USP sequences showed the presence of ATP-binding motif residues indicating that they may be regulated by ATP. Public domain gene expression data and RT-PCR assays confirmed that all the S. mansoni USP genes were transcribed in at least one of the developmental life cycle stages of the helminth. Six of these genes were up-regulated in the miracidium, a free-swimming stage that is critical for transmission to the snail intermediate host. It is possible that during the intra-snail stages, S. mansoni gene transcripts for universal stress proteins are low abundant and are induced to perform specialized functions triggered by environmental stressors such as oxidative stress due to hydrogen peroxide that is present in the snail hemocytes. This report serves to catalyze the formation of a network of researchers to understand the function and regulation of the universal stress proteins encoded in genomes of schistosomes and their snail intermediate hosts.
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Effect of instrumentation using curettes, piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler and Er,Cr:YSGG laser on the morphology and adhesion of blood components on root surfaces: a SEM study.
Braz Dent J
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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This study used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the morphology and adhesion of blood components on root surfaces instrumented by curettes, piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler and Er,Cr:YSGG laser. One hundred samples from 25 teeth were divided into 5 groups: 1) Curettes; 2) Piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler; 3) Curettes plus piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler; 4) Er,Cr:YSGG laser; 5) Curettes plus Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Ten samples from each group were used for analysis of root morphology and the other 10 were used for analysis of adhesion of blood components on root surface. The results were analyzed statistically by the Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests with a significance level of 5%. The group treated with curettes showed smoother surfaces when compared to the groups were instrumented with piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler and the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The surfaces instrumented with piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler and Er,Cr:YSGG laser, alone or in combination with hand scaling and root planing, did not differ significantly (p>0.05) among themselves. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) among groups were found as to the adhesion of blood components on root surface. Ultrasonic instrumentation and Er,Cr:YSGG irradiation produced rougher root surfaces than the use of curettes, but there were no differences among treatments with respect to the adhesion of blood components.
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Assessment of nose protector for sport activities: finite element analysis.
Dent Traumatol
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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There has been a significant increase in the number of facial fractures stemming from sport activities in recent years, with the nasal bone one of the most affected structures. Researchers recommend the use of a nose protector, but there is no standardization regarding the material employed. Clinical experience has demonstrated that a combination of a flexible and rigid layer of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) offers both comfort and safety to practitioners of sports. The aim of the present study was the investigation into the stresses generated by the impact of a rigid body on the nasal bone on models with and without an EVA protector. For such, finite element analysis was employed. A craniofacial model was constructed from images obtained through computed tomography. The nose protector was modeled with two layers of EVA (1 mm of rigid EVA over 2 mm of flexible EVA), following the geometry of the soft tissue. Finite element analysis was performed using the LS Dyna program. The bone and rigid EVA were represented as elastic linear material, whereas the soft tissues and flexible EVA were represented as hyperelastic material. The impact from a rigid sphere on the frontal region of the face was simulated with a constant velocity of 20 m s(-1) for 9.1 ?s. The model without the protector served as the control. The distribution of maximal stress of the facial bones was recorded. The maximal stress on the nasal bone surpassed the breaking limit of 0.13-0.34 MPa on the model without a protector, while remaining below this limit on the model with the protector. Thus, the nose protector made from both flexible and rigid EVA proved effective at protecting the nasal bones under high-impact conditions.
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Utilizing environmental, socioeconomic data and GIS techniques to estimate the risk for ascariasis and trichuriasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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The impact of intestinal helminths on human health is well known among the population and health authorities because of their wide geographic distribution and the serious problems they cause. Geohelminths are highly prevalent and have a big impact on public health, mainly in underdeveloped and developing countries. Geohelminths are responsible for the high levels of debility found in the younger population and are often related to cases of chronic diarrhea and malnutrition, which put the physical and intellectual development of children at risk. These geohelminths have not been sufficiently studied. One obstacle in implementing a control program is the lack of knowledge of the prevalence and geographical distribution. Geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) have been utilized to improve understanding of infectious disease distribution and climatic patterns. In this study, GIS and RS technologies, as well as meteorological, social, and environmental variables were utilized for the modeling and prediction of ascariasis and trichuriasis. The GIS and RS technologies specifically used were those produced by orbital sensing including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The results of this study demonstrated important factors related to the transmission of ascariasis and trichuriasis and confirmed the key association between environmental variables and the poverty index, which enabled us to identify priority areas for intervention planning in the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil.
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Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and their tissue inhibitors 1 and 2 are increased in vulvar lichen sclerosus.
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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To evaluate the expression of different matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in vulvar lichen sclerosus (LS), a chronic dermatosis in women, histologically characterized by a zone of collagen remodeling in the superior dermis.
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Suicidality in temporal lobe epilepsy: measuring the weight of impulsivity and depression.
Epilepsy Behav
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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The aim of the work described here was to measure the role of psychopathological features, specifically impulsivity and depression, in suicidality in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).
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Cellular evidence of reverse cardiac remodeling induced by cardiac resynchronization therapy.
Congest Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) induce reverse cardiac remodeling by reducing myocyte size and collagen deposition. On the other hand, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) induces reverse cardiac remodeling by improving electromechanical synchronization. The clinical and structural changes produced by CRT in failing myocardium are known, but whether these changes are accompanied by reverse cellular remodeling is unknown. A total of 12 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) who underwent CRT and 15 patients who had LVAD therapy as clinically indicated and 8 healthy controls were compared. Demographics, echocardiographic data, and histologic samples from myocardial biopsies were analyzed and compared among groups. The authors found significant increases in myocyte size, myocardial fibrosis, and inflammation in both CHF groups who underwent CRT or LVAD, compared with healthy controls. After CRT or LVAD therapy, a significant decrease in myocyte size and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) expression compared with healthy controls (P < .05) was found. In the CRT group, 6 of 8 patients demonstrated reduction in myocyte size and interstitial fibrosis. In addition, there was a decrease in myocyte size by 13%, total collagen by 27% and TNF-? by 49% in the CRT group vs 28%, 45%, and 45% in the LVAD group. CRT produces cellular reverse remodeling in failing human hearts that are comparable with those produced by LVAD therapy.
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Eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) of the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Schistosomiasis remains an important parasitic disease and a major economic problem in many countries. The Schistosoma mansoni genome and predicted proteome sequences were recently published providing the opportunity to identify new drug candidates. Eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) play a central role in mediating signal transduction through complex networks and are considered druggable targets from the medical and chemical viewpoints. Our work aimed at analyzing the S. mansoni predicted proteome in order to identify and classify all ePKs of this parasite through combined computational approaches. Functional annotation was performed mainly to yield insights into the parasite signaling processes relevant to its complex lifestyle and to select some ePKs as potential drug targets.
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Evolutionary histories of expanded peptidase families in Schistosoma mansoni.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Schistosoma mansoni is one of the three main causative agents of human schistosomiasis, a major health problem with a vast socio-economic impact. Recent advances in the proteomic analysis of schistosomes have revealed that peptidases are the main virulence factors involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. In this context, evolutionary studies can be applied to identify peptidase families that have been expanded in genomes over time in response to different selection pressures. Using a phylogenomic approach, we searched for expanded endopeptidase families in the S. mansoni predicted proteome with the aim of contributing to the knowledge of such enzymes as potential therapeutic targets. We found three endopeptidase families that comprise leishmanolysins (metallopeptidase M8 family), cercarial elastases (serine peptidase S1 family) and cathepsin D proteins (aspartic peptidase A1 family). Our results suggest that the Schistosoma members of these families originated from successive gene duplication events in the parasite lineage after its diversification from other metazoans. Overall, critical residues are conserved among the duplicated genes/proteins. Furthermore, each protein family displays a distinct evolutionary history. Altogether, this work provides an evolutionary view of three S. mansoni peptidase families, which allows for a deeper understanding of the genomic complexity and lineage-specific adaptations potentially related to the parasitic lifestyle.
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Human rhinovirus in the lower respiratory tract infections of young children and the possible involvement of a secondary respiratory viral agent.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are usually associated with mild respiratory symptoms in children. However, some studies have found that HRV can cause severe disease, especially when the patient is co-infected with a second virus. In this study, 532 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were collected over a nine-year period from children at the Clinics Hospital of Uberlândia. The collected NPAs were then tested for HRV RNA using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Eighty-three specimens from children diagnosed with lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI) were positive for HRV RNA and were then tested for the presence of eight other respiratory viruses. A second virus was detected in 37.3% (31/83) of the samples. The most frequent clinical diagnosis was bronchiolitis, followed by other LRTI and then pneumonia. The frequency of severe disease in children infected with more than one virus was not significantly different from the frequency of severe disease in children infected with HRV alone. Children infected with both HRV and parainfluenza virus (1.5 m.o.) were significantly younger than those infected by HRV alone (5.0 m.o.) (p = 0.0454). Overall, these results suggest that infection with a second virus does not lead to a higher frequency of severe syndromes in children presenting with LRTI.
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Effects of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser on bone and soft tissue in a rat model.
Lasers Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the histological changes that occur in rat soft and hard tissues after Er,Cr:YSGG laser surgery. Each of 20 rats was submitted to four procedures which were randomly distributed to the right and left sides of the animal: procedure 1 dorsal incision with a scalpel; procedure 2 dorsal incision with a 2.0-W Er,Cr:YSGG laser; procedure 3 skull defect created with a diamond bur; procedure 4 skull defect created with a 3.0-W Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The animals were killed 3, 7, 15 and 30 days after surgery, and histological examinations were performed. The histometric analysis of the bone defects was evaluated using an unpaired t-test. Initially, the dorsum showed more histological signs of repair following procedure 1, although similar healing responses following procedures 1 and 2 were seen on day 30 after surgery. By day 30 the bone formation observed following procedure 4 was much more evident than following procedure 3. The unpaired t-test identified significant differences in bone formation on day 30 (p = 0.01), whereas a greater bone percentage was seen following procedure 4 than following procedure 3 (79.96 ± 10.30% and 58.23 ± 9.99%, respectively). Thus, histological repair of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser wounds was similar to that of the scalpel wounds. However, skull defects created with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser showed greater bone formation than defects created with the bur. Within the limitations of this study, we can conclude that the Er,Cr:YSGG laser is a promising surgical instrument in vivo, particularly for bone surgery.
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Endoscopic transcervical intrauterine artificial insemination in Labrador Retriever bitches.
Res. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Besides post-thawing reduced semen quality, there are some difficulties in the execution of the endoscopic transcervical intrauterine artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed semen in bitches. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to evaluate behavioral and reproductive parameters (i.e., vaginal cytology and serum progesterone level) to determine time of insemination and to investigate the particularities and difficulties of this technique in bitches using fresh semen. Ten Labrador Retriever bitches were submitted to three endoscopic transcervical intrauterine AIs (with 48 h intervals). Oestrus and ovulation period were established by behaviour evaluation, progesterone assays and vaginal cytology, enabling optimal timing for AI during oestrus. During AI, the following aspects were evaluated: cervical os catheterization difficulty, semen deposition resistance, occurrence of semen backflow, and time required to perform the AI. In this study, it was possible to catheterize the cervical os in all bitches, with different degrees of difficulty, by manipulating the equipment to allow cervical visualization and catheter introduction in the cervical canal. Serial serum progesterone assays enabled estimation of LH surge day, and thus of ovulation. The pregnancy rate was 90%, with a litter size of 5.0 ± 2.6 puppies per bitch. It was concluded that the difficulties in the execution of the endoscopic transcervical intrauterine AI technique in Labrador Retriever bitches were minimized by the equipment manipulation and practical experience.
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Evidence for reductive genome evolution and lateral acquisition of virulence functions in two Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strains.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, a gram-positive, facultative intracellular pathogen, is the etiologic agent of the disease known as caseous lymphadenitis (CL). CL mainly affects small ruminants, such as goats and sheep; it also causes infections in humans, though rarely. This species is distributed worldwide, but it has the most serious economic impact in Oceania, Africa and South America. Although C. pseudotuberculosis causes major health and productivity problems for livestock, little is known about the molecular basis of its pathogenicity.
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Perioperative blood glucose level and postoperative complications in pediatric cardiac surgery.
Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Anesthesia for pediatric cardiac surgery is systematically performed in severely ill patients under abnormal physiological conditions. In the intraoperative period, there are significant variations in blood volume, body temperature, plasma composition, and tissue blood flow, in addition to activation of inflammation, with important consequences. Serial measurements of blood glucose levels can indicate states of exacerbation of the neuroendocrine-metabolic response to trauma, serving as prognostic markers of morbidity in that population.
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Functional Diversity of the Schistosoma mansoni Tyrosine Kinases.
J Signal Transduct
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Schistosoma mansoni, one of the causative agents of schistosomiasis, has a complex life cycle infecting over 200 million people worldwide. Such a successful and prolific parasite life cycle has been shown to be dependent on the adaptive interaction between the parasite and hosts. Tyrosine kinases (TKs) play a key role in signaling pathways as demonstrated by a large body of experimental work in eukaryotes. Furthermore, comparative genomics have allowed the identification of TK homologs and provided insights into the functional role of TKs in several biological systems. Finally, TK structural biology has provided a rational basis for obtaining selective inhibitors directed to the treatment of human diseases. This paper covers the important aspects of the phospho-tyrosine signaling network in S. mansoni, Caenorhabditis elegans, and humans, the main process of functional diversification of TKs, that is, protein-domain shuffling, and also discusses TKs as targets for the development of new anti-schistosome drugs.
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Effect of the period of extrinsic mechanical compression following sclerotherapy in veins in rabbit ears.
Acta Cir Bras
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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Research whether a post-sclerotherapy venous compression period of up to 120 hours is sufficient to avoid reperfusion in treated veins; whether there is a relationship between the inflammatory intensity in venous walls and adjacent tissue and the size of venous thrombosis; whether the intensity of the post-sclerotherapy inflammation varies with the period of compression; whether there is a relationship between the presence of hemosiderin in the tissues adjacent to the sclerosing blood vessels and venous blood clots.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.