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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effect of the Mediterranean diet on heart failure biomarkers: a randomized sample from the PREDIMED trial.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Scarce data are available on the effect of the traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD) on heart failure biomarkers. We assessed the effect of TMD on biomarkers related to heart failure in a high cardiovascular disease risk population.
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Oxidative stress and DNA damage in obesity-related tumorigenesis.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Reactive oxygen species induce oxidative modification of critical macromolecules. Oxygen derived free radicals may act as potential cytotoxic intermediates inducing inflammatory and degenerative processes, or as signal messengers for the regulation of gene expression. This dual effect mainly depends on the availability of free radicals in terms of concentration, as well as on the environmental characteristics in which they are produced. The formation of free radicals has been proposed to be the linking factor between certain metabolic disturbances and cancer. Circulating mononuclear cells of patients with high cholesterol levels, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome or obesity present lower levels of antioxidant enzymes and increased concentrations of oxidative stress by-products such as isoprostanes or the DNA oxidized and highly mutagenic base 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine. Overweight or obese subjects also exhibit hormonal changes as a consequence of the increase of mass fat, and these hormonal alterations have been implicated in the alteration of different signal transduction mechanisms and in cell growth and differentiation. A significant correlation has been found between body mass index and cancer. The biological factors and molecular mechanisms implicated in obesity associated cancer susceptibility will be reviewed.
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MicroRNA-410 regulated lipoprotein lipase variant rs13702 is associated with stroke incidence and modulated by diet in the randomized controlled PREDIMED trial.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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MicroRNAs have emerged as important epigenetic regulators in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Using an observational meta-analysis design, we previously characterized a gain-of-function microRNA-410 target site polymorphism (rs13702T>C) in the 3'untranslated region of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene. The C allele was associated with lower triglycerides, and this association was modulated by fat intake.OBJECTIVES: We aimed to extend our findings by assessing the interaction between the rs13702 polymorphism and fat intake on triglycerides at baseline and longitudinally by using a dietary intervention design. We also examined as a primary outcome the association of this variant with CVD incidence and its modulation by the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet).DESIGN: We studied 7187 participants in the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) randomized trial that tested a MedDiet intervention compared with a control diet, with a median 4.8-y follow-up. LPL polymorphisms and triglycerides were determined and CVD assessed. Gene-diet interactions for triglycerides were analyzed at baseline (n = 6880) and after a 3-y intervention (n = 4131). Oxidative stress parameters were investigated in a subsample.RESULTS: The rs13702T>C polymorphism was strongly associated with lower triglycerides in C allele carriers and interacted synergistically with dietary monounsaturated (P = 0.038) and unsaturated fat intake (P = 0.037), decreasing triglycerides at baseline. By 3 y, we observed a gene-diet interaction (P = 0.025) in which the C allele was associated with a greater reduction in triglycerides after intervention with MedDiet, high in unsaturated fat. Although the polymorphism was associated with lower stroke risk (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.97; P = 0.029 per C allele), this association reached statistical significance only in the MedDiet intervention (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.91; P = 0.019 in C compared with TT carriers), not in the control group (HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.55, 1.59; P = 0.805).Conclusion: We report a novel association between a microRNA target site variant and stroke incidence, which is modulated by diet in terms of decreasing triglycerides and possibly stroke risk in rs13702 C allele carriers after a high-unsaturated fat MedDiet intervention. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.
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Enhanced reduction in oxidative stress and altered glutathione and thioredoxin system response to unsaturated fatty acid load in familial hypercholesterolemia.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by increased oxidative stress (OS) levels. In the postprandial state, lipids and lipoproteins modulate OS status through their impact on pro-oxidant and antioxidant mechanisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate in patients with FH the response to an unsaturated oral fat load test (OFLT) by analyzing the mRNA levels of genes involved in the glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant systems.
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Increased oxidative damage associated with unfavorable cytogenetic subgroups in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Oxidative stress contributes to genomic instability in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but its relationship with the acquisition of specific chromosomal abnormalities is unknown. We recruited 55 untreated CLL patients and assessed 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG), glutathione, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and we compared them among the cytogenetic subgroups established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Significant increases in 8-oxo-dG and/or MDA were observed in patients with unfavorable cytogenetic aberrations (17p and 11q deletions) compared to the 13q deletion group. TP53 deletion patients exhibited a diminished DNA repair efficiency. Finally, cases with normal FISH also showed enhanced 8-oxo-dG, which could result in adverse outcomes.
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Plasma selenium levels and oxidative stress biomarkers: a gene-environment interaction population-based study.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The role of selenium exposure in preventing chronic disease is controversial, especially in selenium-repleted populations. At high concentrations, selenium exposure may increase oxidative stress. Studies evaluating the interaction of genetic variation in genes involved in oxidative stress pathways and selenium are scarce. We evaluated the cross-sectional association of plasma selenium concentrations with oxidative stress levels, measured as oxidized to reduced glutathione ratio (GSSG/GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-dG) in urine, and the interacting role of genetic variation in oxidative stress candidate genes, in a representative sample of 1445 men and women aged 18-85 years from Spain. The geometric mean of plasma selenium levels in the study sample was 84.76 µg/L. In fully adjusted models the geometric mean ratios for oxidative stress biomarker levels comparing the highest to the lowest quintiles of plasma selenium levels were 0.61 (0.50-0.76) for GSSG/GSH, 0.89 (0.79-1.00) for MDA, and 1.06 (0.96-1.18) for 8-oxo-dG. We observed nonlinear dose-responses of selenium exposure and oxidative stress biomarkers, with plasma selenium concentrations above ~110 ?g/L being positively associated with 8-oxo-dG, but inversely associated with GSSG/GSH and MDA. In addition, we identified potential risk genotypes associated with increased levels of oxidative stress markers with high selenium levels. Our findings support that high selenium levels increase oxidative stress in some biological processes. More studies are needed to disentangle the complexity of selenium biology and the relevance of potential gene-selenium interactions in relation to health outcomes in human populations.
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Oxidative stress in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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To analyze whether oxidative stress (OS) changes are present in patients with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) versus controls.
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Oxidative stress and recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
Clin Oral Investig
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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This study analyzed the oxidative stress status in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) in the presence and absence of active ulceration.
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Oxidative stress is associated with an increased antioxidant defense in elderly subjects: a multilevel approach.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Studies of associations between plasma GSH-Px activity and cardiovascular risk factors have been done in humans, and contradictory results have been reported. The aim of our study was to assess the association between the scavenger antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in plasma and the presence of novel and classical cardiovascular risk factors in elderly patients.
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Obesity indexes and total mortality among elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk: the PREDIMED study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Different indexes of regional adiposity have been proposed for identifying persons at higher risk of death. Studies specifically assessing these indexes in large cohorts are scarce. It would also be interesting to know whether a dietary intervention may counterbalance the adverse effects of adiposity on mortality.
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Study of oxidative stress in patients with advanced renal disease and undergoing either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
Clin. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Oxidative stress (OS) is directly involved in the formation of atheroma plaque and has been shown to be present since the early stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD); however, the net role that dialytica techniques may play in OS process is yet to be determined. We studied three groups: hemodialysis (HD, n = 30), peritoneal dialysis (PD, n = 31), predialysis (pre-D, n = 32), and one control group (C, n = 67). Using highresolution liquid chromatography columns (HPLC), the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione oxidized/reduced ratio (GSSG/GSH), and nuclear, as well as mitochondrial 8-oxo-dG (8-oxo-dG mit) were measured in lymphocytes. Protein carbonyls and F2-isoprostanes were measured in plasma. The antioxidant enzyme activity was evaluated by a spectrophotometric assay of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GSR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Compared to the control group, all groups had significantly higher levels of products derived from molecular oxidation with a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes. Patients in the pre-D group showed higher values for most of the oxidized molecules. The PD group showed a better oxidative balance, with no significant differences in levels of mitochondrial 8-oxo-dG when compared to the control group. We speculated that the better control of OS observed in patients receiving PD might be explained by the fact that this technique is more biocompatible, and this might help reduce the risk of cardiovascular events.
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Dose-dependent metabolic disposition of hydroxytyrosol and formation of mercapturates in rats.
Pharmacol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Hydroxytyrosol (HT), one of the major polyphenols present in olive oil, is known to possess a high antioxidant capacity. The aim of the present study was to investigate dose dependent (0, 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg) alterations in the metabolism of HT in rats since it has been reported that metabolites may contribute to biological effects. Special attention was paid to the activation of the semiquinone-quinone oxidative cycle and the formation of adducts with potential deleterious effects. Thus, we developed a novel analytical methodology to monitor the in vivo formation of the HT mercapturate, N-acetyl-5-S-cysteinyl-hydroxytyrosol in urine samples. Biomarkers of hepatic and renal toxicity were evaluated within the dose range tested. Following HT administration, dose-dependent effects were observed for the recovery of all the metabolites studied. At the lowest dose of 1 mg/kg, the glucuronidation pathway was the most relevant (25-30%), with lower recoveries for sulfation (14%), while at the highest dose of 100 mg/kg, sulfation was the most prevalent (75%). In addition, we report for the first time the formation of the mercapturate conjugate of HT in a dose-dependent manner. The biochemical data did not reveal significant toxic effects of HT at any of the doses studied. An increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio at the highest dose was observed indicating that the products of HT autoxidation are counteracted by glutathione, resulting in their detoxification. These results indicate that the metabolic disposition of HT is highly dependent on the dose ingested.
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[Relationship of oxidative stress and weight loss achieved in morbid obese patients by means of bariatric surgery using the duodenal switch technique].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Oxidative stress (OS), which is overtly present in morbid obesity, is an indicator of a chronic inflammatory state associated to obesity and possibly related with the associated comorbidities, some of which represent an important risk factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, so that decreasing its intensity has become a treatment priority.
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[Oxidative stress; a comparative study between normal and morbid obesity group population].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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To determine the level of oxidative stress in morbid obese patients by comparing their results to those of a normal population.
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Effect of the Mediterranean diet on blood pressure in the PREDIMED trial: results from a randomized controlled trial.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Hypertension can be prevented by adopting healthy dietary patterns. Our aim was to assess the 4-year effect on blood pressure (BP) control of a randomized feeding trial promoting the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern.
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Paraoxonase-1 Deficiency Is Associated with Severe Liver Steatosis in Mice Fed a High-fat High-cholesterol Diet: A Metabolomic Approach.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Oxidative stress is a determinant of liver steatosis and the progression to more severe forms of disease. The present study investigated the effect of paraoxonase-1 (PON1) deficiency on histological alterations and hepatic metabolism in mice fed a high-fat high-cholesterol diet. We performed nontargeted metabolomics on liver tissues from 8 male PON1-deficient mice and 8 wild-type animals fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet for 22 weeks. We also measured 8-oxo-20-deoxyguanosine, reduced and oxidized glutathione, malondialdehyde, 8-isoprostanes and protein carbonyl concentrations. Results indicated lipid droplets in 14.5% of the hepatocytes of wild-type mice and in 83.3% of the PON1-deficient animals (P < 0.001). The metabolomic assay included 322 biochemical compounds, 169 of which were significantly decreased and 16 increased in PON1-deficient mice. There were significant increases in lipid peroxide concentrations and oxidative stress markers. We also found decreased glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. The urea cycle was decreased, and the pyrimidine cycle had a significant increase in orotate. The pathways of triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis were significantly increased. We conclude that PON1 deficiency is associated with oxidative stress and metabolic alterations leading to steatosis in the livers of mice receiving a high-fat high-cholesterol diet.
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Oxidative stress markers in the neocortex of drug-resistant epilepsy patients submitted to epilepsy surgery.
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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While there is solid experimental evidence of brain oxidative stress in animal models of epilepsy, it has not been thoroughly verified in epileptic human brain. Our purpose was to determine and to compare oxidative stress markers in the neocortex of epileptic and non-epileptic humans, with the final objective of confirming oxidative stress phenomena in human epileptic brain.
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Human and methodological sources of variability in the measurement of urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine.
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) is a widely used biomarker of oxidative stress. However, variability between chromatographic and ELISA methods hampers interpretation of data, and this variability may increase should urine composition differ between individuals, leading to assay interference. Furthermore, optimal urine sampling conditions are not well defined. We performed inter-laboratory comparisons of 8-oxodG measurement between mass spectrometric-, electrochemical- and ELISA-based methods, using common within-technique calibrants to analyze 8-oxodG-spiked phosphate-buffered saline and urine samples. We also investigated human subject- and sample collection-related variables, as potential sources of variability.
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Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Human Gastric Carcinoma: 8-Oxo-78-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) as a Possible Tumor Marker.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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We characterized the oxidative stress (OS) status by the levels of reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), malondialdehyde (MDA) and the mutagenic base 8-oxo-78-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) in human gastric carcinoma (HGC) samples and compared the results with normal tissue from the same patients. We also analyzed 8-oxo-dG in peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) and urine from healthy control subjects and in affected patients in the basal state and one, three, six, nine and twelve months after tumor resection. The levels of DNA repair enzyme mRNA expression (hOGG1, RAD51, MUYTH and MTH1) were determined in tumor specimens and compared with normal mucosa. Tumor specimens exhibited increased levels of MDA and 8-oxo-dG compared with normal gastric tissue. GSH levels were also increased, while GSSG levels remained stable. DNA repair enzyme mRNA expression was induced in the tumor tissues. Levels of 8-oxo-dG were significantly elevated in both urine and PMNC of gastric cancer patients compared with healthy controls. After gastrectomy, the levels of the damaged base in urine and PMNC decreased progressively to values close to those found in the healthy population. The high levels of 8-oxo-dG in urine may be related to the increased induction of DNA repair activity in tumor tissue, and the changes observed after tumor resection support its potential use as a tumor marker.
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Early ROS-mediated DNA damage and oxidative stress biomarkers in Monoclonal B Lymphocytosis.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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Monoclonal B Lymphocytosis (MBL) is defined as asymptomatic monoclonal B-cell expansion characterised by a CLL-phenotype, but with less than 5×10(9)/l circulating cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell damage plays a critical role in the initiation of carcinogenesis as well as in malignant transformation. The goal of this study was to perform an analysis of the oxidative stress statuses of patients affected by MBL and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). We examined peripheral blood and urine specimens from 29 patients with MBL, 55 with CLL and 31 healthy subjects. There was a significant increase in the occurrence of the mutagenic base 8-oxo-2-deoxiguanosine (8-oxo-dG) in the lymphocytes and urine of MBL and CLL patients compared with controls. Significant differences were also observed in the levels of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and in the oxidised/reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH) ratio, although an increase in 8-isoprostane was not detected. Interestingly, the antioxidant catalase activity of circulating lymphocytes decreased in the patient groups. In conclusion, early oxidative stress exists in patients with MBL and CLL, causing damage to DNA and lipid structures. The higher levels of 8-oxo-dG in lymphocytes than in urine may be related to a decrease in the capacity of DNA repair systems. There were no differences in the oxidative statuses of the MBL and CLL patients, suggesting that oxidative injuries appear during a pre-leukaemic state of the disease.
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Polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes, blood pressure and risk of hypertension.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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To assess the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes codifying for antioxidant enzymes to blood pressure (BP) values and risk of hypertension.
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Different impacts of cardiovascular risk factors on oxidative stress.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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The objective of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress (OS) status in subjects with different cardiovascular risk factors. With this in mind, we have studied three models of high cardiovascular risk: hypertension (HT) with and without metabolic syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) with and without insulin resistance. Oxidative stress markers (oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehide) together with the activity of antioxidant enzyme triad (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and activation of both pro-oxidant enzyme (NAPDH oxidase components) and AGTR1 genes, as well as antioxidant enzyme genes (CuZn-SOD, CAT, GPX1, GSR, GSS and TXN) were measured in mononuclear cells of controls (n = 20) and patients (n = 90) by assessing mRNA levels. Activity of some of these antioxidant enzymes was also tested. An increase in OS and pro-oxidant gene mRNA values was observed in patients compared to controls. The hypertensive group showed not only the highest OS values, but also the highest pro-oxidant activation compared to those observed in the other groups. In addition, in HT a significantly reduced antioxidant activity and mRNA induction of antioxidant genes were found when compared to controls and the other groups. In FH and FCH, the activation of pro-oxidant enzymes was also higher and antioxidant ones lower than in the control group, although it did not reach the values obtained in hypertensives. The thioredoxin system was more activated in patients as compared to controls, and the highest levels were in hypertensives. The increased oxidative status in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors is a consequence of both the activation of pro-oxidant mechanisms and the reduction of the antioxidant ones. The altered response of the main cytoplasmic antioxidant systems largely contributes to OS despite the apparent attempt of the thioredoxin system to control it.
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The effect of olive oil polyphenols on antibodies against oxidized LDL. A randomized clinical trial.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) is a highly immunogenic particle that plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Some data suggest a protective role of OxLDL autoantibodies (OLAB) in atherosclerosis. Our aim was to assess the effect of olive oil polyphenols on the immunogenicity of oxLDL to autoantibody generation.
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In vivo nutrigenomic effects of virgin olive oil polyphenols within the frame of the Mediterranean diet: a randomized controlled trial.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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The aim of the study was to assess whether benefits associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD) and virgin olive oil (VOO) consumption could be mediated through changes in the expression of atherosclerosis-related genes. A randomized, parallel, controlled clinical trial in healthy volunteers (n=90) aged 20 to 50 yr was performed. Three-month intervention groups were as follows: 1) TMD with VOO (TMD+VOO), 2) TMD with washed virgin olive oil (TMD+WOO), and 3) control with participants habitual diet. WOO was similar to VOO, but with a lower polyphenol content (55 vs. 328 mg/kg, respectively). TMD consumption decreased plasma oxidative and inflammatory status and the gene expression related with both inflammation [INF-gamma (INFgamma), Rho GTPase-activating protein15 (ARHGAP15), and interleukin-7 receptor (IL7R)] and oxidative stress [adrenergic beta(2)-receptor (ADRB2) and polymerase (DNA-directed) kappa (POLK)] in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. All effects, with the exception of the decrease in POLK expression, were particularly observed when VOO, rich in polyphenols, was present in the TMD dietary pattern. Our results indicate a significant role of olive oil polyphenols in the down-regulation of proatherogenic genes in the context of a TMD. In addition, the benefits associated with a TMD and olive oil polyphenol consumption on cardiovascular risk can be mediated through nutrigenomic effects.
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Mice lacking thyroid hormone receptor Beta show enhanced apoptosis and delayed liver commitment for proliferation after partial hepatectomy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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The role of thyroid hormones and their receptors (TR) during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) was studied using genetic and pharmacologic approaches. Roles in liver regeneration have been suggested for T3, but there is no clear evidence distinguishing the contribution of increased amounts of T3 from the modulation by unoccupied TRs.
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Effect of nut consumption on oxidative stress and the endothelial function in metabolic syndrome.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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Oxidative stress has a key role in atherosclerosis, cancer and other chronic diseases. Some bioactive compounds in nuts have been implicated in antioxidant activities.
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Impact of cardiovascular risk factors on oxidative stress and DNA damage in a high risk Mediterranean population.
Free Radic. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2009
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The impact of classic cardiovascular risk factors on oxidative stress status in a high-risk cardiovascular Mediterranean population of 527 subjects was estimated. Oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, 8-oxo-78-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio) together with the activity of antioxidant enzyme triad (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) were analysed in circulating mononuclear blood cells. Malondialdehyde, oxidized glutathione and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione were significantly higher while catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly lower in high cardiovascular risk participants than in controls. Statistically significant differences were obtained after additional multivariate control for sex, age, obesity, diabetes, lipids and medications. Among the main cardiovascular risk factors, hypertension was the strongest determinant of oxidative stress in high risk subjects studied at a primary prevention stage.
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Alcohol consumption is associated with high concentrations of urinary hydroxytyrosol.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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Previously, we reported the presence of hydroxytyrosol in red wine and higher human urinary recovery of total hydroxytyrosol than that expected after a single red wine intake. We hypothesized that the alcohol present in wine could promote endogenous hydroxytyrosol generation.
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Low-fat dairy products and blood pressure: follow-up of 2290 older persons at high cardiovascular risk participating in the PREDIMED study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
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High blood pressure (BP) has been ranked as the most important risk factor worldwide regarding attributable deaths. Dietary habits are major determinants of BP. Among them, frequent intake of low-fat dairy products may protect against hypertension. Our aim was to assess the relationship between low-fat dairy product intake and BP levels and their changes after 12-month follow-up in a cohort of asymptomatic older persons at high cardiovascular risk recruited into a large-scale trial assessing the effects of Mediterranean diets on cardiovascular outcomes. Data from 2290 participants, including 1845 with hypertension, were available for analyses. Dairy products were not a specific part of the intervention; thus, data were analysed as an observational cohort. Dietary information was collected with validated semi-quantitative FFQ and trained personnel measured BP. To assess BP changes, we undertook cross-sectional analyses at baseline and at the end of follow-up and longitudinal analyses. A statistically significant inverse association between low-fat dairy product intake and systolic BP was observed for the 12-month longitudinal analysis. In the longitudinal analysis, the adjusted systolic and diastolic BP were significantly lower in the highest quintile of low-fat dairy product intake (-4.2 (95% CI -6.9, -1.4) and -1.8 (95% CI -3.2, -0.4) mmHg respectively), whereas the point estimates for the difference in diastolic BP indicated a modest non-significant inverse association. Intake of low-fat dairy products was inversely associated with BP in an older population at high cardiovascular risk, suggesting a possible protective effect against hypertension.
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Increased oxidative stress levels and normal antioxidant enzyme activity in circulating mononuclear cells from patients of familial hypercholesterolemia.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a clinical condition with high risk for developing atherosclerosis. Increased oxidative stress (OS) and FH have been related to atherosclerosis, but no data are available on levels of OS and antioxidant enzyme activity in circulating mononuclear cells (CMCs) from FH patients. Circulating mononuclear cells are important mediators in atherosclerosis development, and chronically increased blood OS present in FH can induce modification in CMC activity. The objective of the study was to analyze the OS levels in CMCs from FH patients and controls. We have selected 30 nonrelated FH index patients and 30 normoglycemic and normocholesterolemic controls matched by age, sex, body mass index, abdominal circumference, and homeostasis model assessment index. Production of free radicals was analyzed by measurement of xanthine oxidase activity in plasma, reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG, respectively), and malonyldialdehyde in levels CMCs. Antioxidant status was analyzed by measuring antioxidant enzyme activity as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We have found that FH patients showed significantly higher xanthine oxidase and malonyldialdehyde enzyme activities, as well as increased GSSG and lower GSH values resulting in a higher GSSG/GSH ratio. These data indicate a higher free radical production in plasma and increased OS levels in CMCs from patients than from controls. No significant differences were found in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities between both groups. These data show an important alteration of OS regulation in FH and the absence of antioxidant response in CMCs mediated by some of the major antioxidant enzymes.
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Polymorphisms cyclooxygenase-2 -765G>C and interleukin-6 -174G>C are associated with serum inflammation markers in a high cardiovascular risk population and do not modify the response to a Mediterranean diet supplemented with virgin olive oil or nuts.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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Inflammation is involved in cardiovascular diseases. Some studies have found that the Mediterranean diet (MD) can reduce serum concentrations of inflammation markers. However, none of these studies have analyzed the influence of genetic variability in such a response. Our objective was to study the effect of the -765G>C polymorphism in the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene and the -174G>C polymorphism in the interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene on serum concentrations of IL-6, C-reactive protein, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 as well as their influence on the response to a nutritional intervention with MD. An intervention study in a high cardiovascular risk Mediterranean population (314 men and 407 women) was undertaken. Participants were randomly assigned to consume a low-fat control diet or a MD supplemented with virgin olive oil or nuts. Measures were obtained at baseline and after a 3-mo intervention period. At baseline, the COX-2 -765G>C polymorphism was associated with lower serum IL-6 (5.85 +/- 4.82 in GG vs. 4.74 +/- 4.14 ng/L in C-allele carriers; P = 0.002) and ICAM-1 (265.8 +/- 114.8 in GG vs. 243.0 +/- 107.1 microg/L in C-carriers; P = 0.018) concentrations. These differences remained significant after multivariate adjustment. The IL-6 -174G>C polymorphism was associated with higher (CC vs. G-carriers) serum ICAM-1 concentrations in both men and women and with higher serum IL-6 concentrations in men. Following the dietary intervention, no significant gene x diet interactions were found. In conclusion, although COX-2 -765G>C and IL-6 -174G>C polymorphisms were associated with inflammation, consuming a MD (either supplemented with virgin olive oil or nuts) reduced the concentration of inflammation markers regardless of these polymorphisms.
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Associations of the FTO rs9939609 and the MC4R rs17782313 polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes are modulated by diet, being higher when adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern is low.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
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Although the fat mass and obesity (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) genes have been consistently associated with obesity risk, the association between the obesity-risk alleles with type 2 diabetes is still controversial. In some recent meta-analyses in which significant results have been reported, the associations disappeared after adjustment for body mass index (BMI). However gene-diet interactions with dietary patterns have not been investigated. Our main aim was to analyze whether these associations are modulated by the level of adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet).
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Oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme values in lymphomonocytes after an oral unsaturated fat load test in familial hypercholesterolemic subjects.
Transl Res
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Oxidative stress (OS) has been observed in conditions affecting the cardiovascular system. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is associated with an increased risk of premature coronary heart disease. In the postprandial state, circulating lipids and lipoproteins can modulate OS status. Our aim was to study the response of lymphomonocyte OS status and reactive oxygen species by-products after an oral unsaturated fat load test (OFLT) in those with FH and to compare this response with that obtained in normolipidemic, normoglycemic subjects. We studied 12 patients with FH and 20 healthy controls. In both groups, lymphomonocyte, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and malondialdehyde were determined at baseline and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after an OFLT. Fasting urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine and isoprostane were measured using standard procedures. In both groups, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio and malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the postprandial state after the OFLT. Both parameters were significantly higher in the FH group at baseline and during all the postprandial points, but the reduction from the baseline levels was significantly higher in the FH group than in the control group. Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine was significantly increased in the FH group compared with the healthy control group, indicating a higher fasting OS status. We conclude that subjects with FH exhibited OS levels that were higher than in controls before and after an OFLT, but the improvement in the OS status after the unsaturated fat load was significantly higher in subjects with FH.
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The Mediterranean diet improves the systemic lipid and DNA oxidative damage in metabolic syndrome individuals. A randomized, controlled, trial.
Clin Nutr
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS), in which a non-classic feature is an increase in systemic oxidative biomarkers, presents a high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) is associated with a reduced risk of MetS. However, the effect of the MedDiet on biomarkers for oxidative damage has not been assessed in MetS individuals. We have investigated the effect of the MedDiet on systemic oxidative biomarkers in MetS individuals.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.