[Involvement of cross interaction between central cholinergic and histaminergic systems in the nucleus tractus solitarius in regulating carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex].
The carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex (CSR) is an important approach for regulating arterial blood pressure homeostasis instantaneously and physiologically. Activation of the central histaminergic or cholinergic systems results in CSR functional inhibitory resetting. However, it is unclear whether two systems at the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) level display cross interaction to regulate the CSR or not. In the present study, the left or right carotid sinus region was isolated from the systemic circulation in Sprague-Dawley rats (sinus nerve was reserved) anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. Respective intubation was conducted into one side isolated carotid sinus and into the femoral artery for recording the intracarotid sinus pressure (ISP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) simultaneously with pressure transducers connection in vivo. ISP was set at the level of 0 mmHg to eliminate the effect of initial internal pressure of the carotid sinus on the CSR function. To trigger CSR, the ISP was quickly elevated from 0 mmHg to 280 mmHg in a stepwise manner (40 mmHg) which was added at every step for over 4 s, and then ISP returned to 0 mmHg in similar steps. The original data of ISP and corresponding MAP were fitted to a modified logistic equation with five parameters to obtain the ISP-MAP, ISP-Gain relationship curves and the CSR characteristic parameters, which were statistically compared and analyzed separately. Under the precondition of no influence on the basic levels of the artery blood pressure, the effects and potential regulatory mechanism of preceding microinjection with different cholinoceptor antagonists, the selective cholinergic M1 receptor antagonist, i.e., pirenzepine (PRZ), the M2 receptor antagonist, i.e., methoctramine (MTR) or the N1 receptor antagonist, i.e., hexamethonium (HEX) into the NTS on the changes in function of CSR induced by intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v.) of histamine (HA) in rats were observed. Meanwhile, the actions and possible modulatory mechanism of preceding microinjection with different histaminergic receptor antagonists, the selective histaminergic H1 receptor antagonist, i.e., chlorpheniramine (CHL) or the H2 receptor antagonist, i.e., cimetidine (CIM) into the NTS on the changes in function of CSR resulted from the i.c.v. cholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine (PHY) were also examined in order to confirm and to analyze effects of cross interaction between central histaminergic and cholinergic systems on CSR. The main results obtained are as follows. (1) Standalone microinjection of different selective cholinergic receptor antagonists (PRZ, MTR or HEX) or different selective histaminergic receptor antagonists (CHL or CIM) into the NTS with each given dose had no effects on the CSR function and on the basic levels of the artery blood pressure, respectively (P > 0.05). (2) The pretreatment of PRZ or MTR into the NTS with each corresponding dose could attenuate CSR resetting resulted from i.c.v. HA in some degrees, which remarkably moved the posterior half range of ISP-MAP relationship curve downwards (P < 0.05), shifted the middle part of ISP-Gain relationship curve upwards (P < 0.05), and increased reflex parameters such as the MAP range and maximum gain (P < 0.05), but decreased parameters such as saturation pressure and intracarotid sinus pressure at maximum gain (P < 0.05). The catabatic effects of pretreatment with MTR into the NTS on CSR resetting induced by i.c.v. HA were more obvious than those with PRZ (P < 0.05), but pretreatment of HEX with given dose into the NTS had no effects on CSR resetting induced by i.c.v. HA (P > 0.05). (3) The effects of pretreatment of CHL or CIM into the NTS with each corresponding dose on CSR resetting made by i.c.v. PHY were similar to those of pretreatment of PRZ or MTR into the NTS on CSR resetting resulted from i.c.v. HA, and the decreasing effects of pretreatment with CHL into the NTS on CSR resetting induced by i.c.v. PHY were more remarkable than those with CIM (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that CSR resetting resulted from either HA or PHY into the lateral ventricle may partly involve the descending histaminergic or cholinergic pathway from the hypothalamus to NTS, which might evoke a cross activation of the cholinergic system in the NTS, via cholinergic M1 and M2 receptors mediation, especially the M2 receptors showing actions, or trigger another cross activation of the histaminergic system in the NTS, by histaminergic H1 and H2 receptors mediation, especially the H1 receptors displaying effects.