JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
DoGSD: the dog and wolf genome SNP database.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The rapid advancement of next-generation sequencing technology has generated a deluge of genomic data from domesticated dogs and their wild ancestor, grey wolves, which have simultaneously broadened our understanding of domestication and diseases that are shared by humans and dogs. To address the scarcity of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data provided by authorized databases and to make SNP data more easily/friendly usable and available, we propose DoGSD (http://dogsd.big.ac.cn), the first canidae-specific database which focuses on whole genome SNP data from domesticated dogs and grey wolves. The DoGSD is a web-based, open-access resource comprising ?19 million high-quality whole-genome SNPs. In addition to the dbSNP data set (build 139), DoGSD incorporates a comprehensive collection of SNPs from two newly sequenced samples (1 wolf and 1 dog) and collected SNPs from three latest dog/wolf genetic studies (7 wolves and 68 dogs), which were taken together for analysis with the population genetic statistics, Fst. In addition, DoGSD integrates some closely related information including SNP annotation, summary lists of SNPs located in genes, synonymous and non-synonymous SNPs, sampling location and breed information. All these features make DoGSD a useful resource for in-depth analysis in dog-/wolf-related studies.
Related JoVE Video
An improved algorithm to reduce noise in high-order thermal ghost imaging.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A modified Nth-order correlation function is derived that can effectively remove the noise background encountered in high-order thermal light ghost imaging (GI). Based on this, the quality of the reconstructed images in an Nth-order lensless GI setup has been greatly enhanced compared to former high-order schemes for the same sampling number. In addition, the dependence of the visibility and signal-to-noise ratio for different high-order images on the sampling number has been measured and compared.
Related JoVE Video
Domestication genomics: evidence from animals.
Annu Rev Anim Biosci
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Animal domestication has far-reaching significance for human society. The sequenced genomes of domesticated animals provide critical resources for understanding the genetic basis of domestication. Various genomic analyses have shed a new light on the mechanism of artificial selection and have allowed the mapping of genes involved in important domestication traits. Here, we summarize the published genomes of domesticated animals that have been generated over the past decade, as well as their origins, from a phylogenomic point of view. This review provides a general description of the genomic features encountered under a two-stage domestication process. We also introduce recent findings for domestication traits based on results from genome-wide association studies and selective-sweep scans for artificially selected genomic regions. Particular attention is paid to issues relating to the costs of domestication and the convergent evolution of genes between domesticated animals and humans.
Related JoVE Video
Domestication of the dog from the wolf was promoted by enhanced excitatory synaptic plasticity: a hypothesis.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dogs shared a much closer relationship with humans than any other domesticated animals, probably due to their unique social cognitive capabilities, which were hypothesized to be a by-product of selection for tameness toward humans. Here, we demonstrate that genes involved in glutamate metabolism, which account partially for fear response, indeed show the greatest population differentiation by whole genome comparison of dogs and wolves. However, the changing direction of their expression supports a role in increasing excitatory synaptic plasticity in dogs rather than reducing fear response. Since synaptic plasticity are widely believed to be cellular correlates of learning and memory, this change may alter the learning and memory abilities of ancient scavenging wolves, weaken the fear reaction toward humans, and prompt the initial interspecific contact.
Related JoVE Video
Combining Coronary with Carotid and Cerebrovascular Angiography Using Prospective ECG Gating and Iterative Reconstruction with 256-slice CT.
Echocardiography
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the image quality and radiation dose of combined coronary and carotid/cerebrovascular angiography with ECG gating and iterative reconstruction using 256-slice CT compared with the findings with the two examinations performed separately.
Related JoVE Video
Development of 107 SSR markers from whole genome shotgun sequences of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) and their application in seedling identification.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) is one of the important subtropical fruit crops native to the South of China and Asian countries. In this study, 107 novel simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers, a powerful tool for genetic diversity studies, cultivar identification, and linkage map construction, were developed and characterized from whole genome shotgun sequences. M13 tailing for forward primers was applied as a simple method in different situations. In total, 828 alleles across 45 accessions were detected, with an average of 8 alleles per locus. The number of effective alleles ranged from 1.22 to 10.41 with an average of 4.08. The polymorphic information content (PIC) varied from 0.13 to 0.89, with an average of 0.63. Moreover, these markers could also be amplified in their related species Myrica cerifera (syn. Morella cerifera) and Myrica adenophora. Seventy-eight SSR markers can be used to produce a genetic map of a cross between 'Biqi' and 'Dongkui'. A neighbor-joining (NJ) tree was constructed to assess the genetic relationships among accessions, and the elite accessions 'Y2010-70', 'Y2012-140', and 'Y2012-145', were characterized as potential new genotypes for cultivation.
Related JoVE Video
Arthrobacter nanjingensis sp. nov., a mineral weathering bacterium isolated from forest soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A Gram-positive-staining, non-motile, rod- or coccoid-shaped actinobacterium, designated strain A33(T), was isolated from a forest soil sample from Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. The strain grew optimally at 30 ºC, pH 7.0 and with 3% NaCl (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis of the strain based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed it was most closely related to Arthrobacter woluwensis (98.4%), Arthrobacter humicola (97.5%), Arthrobacter globiformis (97.4%), Athrobacter oryzae (97.3%) and Arthrobacter cupressi (97.0%). The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C15:0 and MK-9(H2) was the predominant respiratory quinone. The polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and three glycolipids. Cell-wall analysis revealed peptidoglycan type A3?, based on L-Lys-L-Ala, and cell-wall sugars were galactose and mannose. The genomic G+C content of strain A33(T) was 66.8 mol%. The low DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain A33(T) and recognized species of the genus Arthrobacter and many phenotypic properties supported the classification of strain A33(T) as a representative of a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter nanjingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A33(T) (=CCTCC AB 2014069(T) =DSM 28237(T)).
Related JoVE Video
A series of divalent metal coordination polymers based on isomeric tetracarboxylic acids: synthesis, structures and magnetic properties.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Five new coordination polymers, namely, [Mn(2,2'-bipy)(H2O)2(H2L(1))]n (), {[Co(btb)(H2O)2(H2L(1))]·0.5H2O}n (), [Co(bib)(H2O)2(H2L(1))]n (), [Ni2(bpm)(H2O)3(L(2))]n (), and {[Co2(H2O)3(OH)(HL(2))]·H2O}n (), (H4L(1) = 1,1':2',1''-terphenyl-4,4',4'',5'-tetracarboxylic acid, H4L(2) = 1,1':2',1''-terphenyl-3,3'',4',5'-tetracarboxylic acid, 2,2'-bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine, btb = 1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butane, bib = 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)butane, bpm = bis(4-pyridyl)amine), have been obtained under hydrothermal conditions. Complex exhibits a 3D supramolecular framework based on 1D chains. Both complexes and are 3D supramolecular frameworks constructed from 1D zig-zag chains. Complex features a 3D tetra-nodal (3,4,4,5)-connected architecture containing 1D ?-COO bridged chains with (5(2)·6(2)·7.9)(5(2)·6(4)·7(3)·8)2(5(2)·6)2(6(3)·7(2)·9) topology. Complex shows a 3D penta-nodal (3,4,4,6,6)-connected net containing 1D ?-OH/?-COO bridged chains and mononuclear Co(ii) nodes with a (4(2)·6(3)·8)(4(3))2(4(4)·6(2))2(4(4)·6(6)·8(5))2(4(4)·6(7)·8(4)) topology. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that complexes and show antiferromagnetic interactions between the adjacent Co(ii) ions, whereas is a ferromagnetic system.
Related JoVE Video
[Soil-transmitted nematode infection of children and its influencing factors in poverty-stricken areas in two provinces of southwest China].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To understand the infection status and the main risk factors of soil-transmitted nematodes in children in the poverty-stricken areas of Guizhou Province and Sichuan Province, so as to provide the evidences for making suitable control strategies in these areas.
Related JoVE Video
Antagonism of Ca2+ Influx via L-Type Ca2+ Channels Mediates the Vasorelaxant Effect of Catharanthus roseus-Derived Vindorosine in Rat Renal Artery.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Catharanthus roseus is a traditional herbal medicine used in Asian and African countries for the treatment of various diseases including hypertension. The present study examined possible cellular mechanisms for the relaxation of rat renal arteries induced by vindorosine extracted from C. roseus. Intrarenal arteries were isolated from 200-300?g male Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with different pharmacological blockers and inhibitors for the measurement of vascular reactivity on a Multi Myograph System. Fluorescence imaging by laser scanning confocal microscopy was utilized to determine the intracellular Ca(2+) level in the vascular smooth muscles of the renal arteries. Vindorosine in micromolar concentrations relaxes renal arteries precontracted by KCl, phenylephrine, 11-dideoxy-9?,11?-epoxymethanoprostaglandin F2?, and serotonin. Vindorosine-induced relaxations were unaffected by endothelium denudation or by treatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,?2,?4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, or K(+) channel blockers such as tetraethylammonium ions, glibenclamide, and BaCl2. Vindorosine-induced relaxations were attenuated in the presence of 0.1?µM nifedipine (an L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker). Vindorosine also concentration-dependently suppressed contractions induced by CaCl2 (0.01-5?mM) in Ca-free 60?mM KCl solution. Furthermore, fluorescence imaging using fluo-4 demonstrated that 30?min incubation with 100?µM vindorosine reduced the 60?mM KCl-stimulated Ca(2+) influx in the smooth muscles of rat renal arteries. The present study is probably the first report of blood vessel relaxation by vindorosine and the possible underlying mechanisms involving the inhibition of Ca(2+) entry via L-type Ca(2+) channels in vascular smooth muscles.
Related JoVE Video
Sesquiterpenoids and lignans from the roots of Syringa pinnatifolia.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two new sesquiterpenoids, pinnatifone A (1) and pinnatifone B (2), and two new lignans, pinnatifolin (3) and isopinnatifolin (4), along with six known lignans (5-10), were isolated from the roots of Syringa pinnatifolia. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including NMR, MS, UV, and IR spectra. The lignans were screened for their anti-oxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay). Most of them showed potent anti-oxidant activity, especially compound 5, whose potent anti-oxidant activity had an SC50 value higher than that of the positive control vitamin C.
Related JoVE Video
[Identification of original plants of uyghur medicinal materials fructus elaeagni using morphological characteristics and DNA barcode].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Morphology and molecular identification technology were used to identify 3 original plants of Fructus Elaeagni which was commonly used in Uygur medicine. Leaves, flowers and fruits from different areas were selected randomly for morphology research. ITS2 sequence as DNA barcode was used to identify 17 samples of Fructus Elaeagni. The genetic distances were computed by kimura 2-parameter (K2P) model, and the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed using MEGA5.0. The results showed that Elaeagnus angustifolia, E. oxycarpa and E. angustifolia var. orientalis cannot be distinguished by morphological characteristics of leaves, flowers and fruits. The sequence length of ITS2 ranged from 220 to 223 bp, the average GC content was 61.9%. The haplotype numbers of E. angustifolia, E. oxycarpa and E. angustifolia var. orientals were 4, 3, 3, respectively. The results from the NJ tree and ML tree showed that the 3 original species of Fructus Elaeagni cannot be distinguished obviously. Therefore, 3 species maybe have the same origin, and can be used as the original plant of Uygur medicineal material Fructus Elaeagni. However, further evidence of chemical components and pharmacological effect were needed.
Related JoVE Video
[Chemical constituents from Glechoma longituba].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fourteen compounds were obtained from Glechoma longituba by the chromatographic methods of silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative of HPLC. According to physicochemical properties and spectral data, these compounds were identified as stilbostemin B (1), trilepisiumic acid (2), 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol ketone (3), bergeninmonohydrate (4), oresbiusin A (5), norbergenin (6), stilbostemin D (7), ehretioside B (8), ethyl ferulate (9), E-p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (10), methyl gallate (11), protocatechuic acid (12), 4'-Hydroxyacetophenone (13), and E-3-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl-2-acrylic acid (14). Among them, compounds 1-10, 13 and 14 were isolated from this plant for the first time.
Related JoVE Video
A new lignan from the roots of Syringa pinnatifolia.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Syringa pinnatifolia has resulted in the isolation of a new lignan, pinnatifolin A (1), together with seven known compounds (2-8). The structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods, including NMR, MS, UV and IR spectra. The seven lignans were screened for their antioxidant activity (DPPH assay), and most of them showed potent antioxidant activity.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic convergence in the adaptation of dogs and humans to the high-altitude environment of the tibetan plateau.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The high-altitude hypoxic environment represents one of the most extreme challenges for mammals. Previous studies of humans on the Tibetan plateau and in the Andes Mountains have identified statistical signatures of selection in different sets of loci. Here, we first measured the hemoglobin levels in village dogs from Tibet and those from Chinese lowlands. We found that the hemoglobin levels are very similar between the two groups, suggesting that Tibetan dogs might share similar adaptive strategies as the Tibetan people. Through a whole-genome sequencing approach, we have identified EPAS1 and HBB as candidate genes for the hypoxic adaptation on the Tibetan plateau. The population genetic analysis shows a significant convergence between humans and dogs in Tibet. The similarities in the sets of loci that exhibit putative signatures of selection and the hemoglobin levels between humans and dogs of the same environment, but not between human populations in different regions, suggests an extraordinary landscape of convergent evolution between human beings and their best friend on the Tibetan plateau.
Related JoVE Video
[Development of a chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer for continuous measurements of atmospheric hydroxyl radical].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A home-made chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) has been developed for continuous measurements of atmospheric hydroxyl radical. Based on the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization technique, an ionization source with orthogonal dual tube structure was adopted in the instrument, which minimized the interference between the reagent gas ionization and the titration reaction. A 63Ni radioactive source was fixed inside one of the orthogonal tubes to generate reactant ion of NO(-)(3) from HNO3 vapor. Hydroxyl radical was first titrated by excess SO2 to form equivalent concentrations of H2SO4 in the other orthogonal tube, and then reacted with NO(-)(3) ions in the chemical ionization chamber, leading to HSO(-)(4) formation. The concentration of atmospheric hydroxyl radical can be directly calculated by measuring the intensities of the HSOj product ions and the NO(-)(3) reactant ions. The analytical capability of the instrument was demonstrated by measuring hydroxyl radical in laboratory air, and the concentration of the hydroxyl radical in the investigated air was calculated to be 1.6 x 106 molecules*cm ', based on 5 seconds integration. The results have shown that the instrument is competent for in situ continuous measurements of atmospheric trace radical.
Related JoVE Video
Protective effects of Vitamin C against spinal cord injury-induced renal damage through suppression of NF-?B and proinflammatory cytokines.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Spinal cord injury [SCI] leads to complex cellular and molecular interactions which affects various organ systems. The present study focused on determining the protection offered by Vitamin C against spinal injury-induced kidney damage in wistar rats. The experimental protocol was performed with three groups; Sham, SCI and Vitamin C [20 mg/kg/bw] followed by SCI. The kidney tissue was investigated for oxidative stress parameters [reactive oxygen species, protein carbonyl, sulphydryl content, thiobarbituric acid reactive species [TBARS], and myeloperoxidase activity] and antioxidant status [glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase activity]. Further, inflammation studies were performed by analyzing expression of NF-?B, cycloxygenase-2, iNOS through western blot analysis and inflammatory cytokines by TNF-? and IL-1? levels. The present study shows clear evidence that Vitamin C treatment abrogated spinal injury-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses and enhanced the antioxidant status. Thus, the protection offered by Vitamin C against spinal cord injury-induced kidney damage is attributed to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
Related JoVE Video
Differentiation therapy: sesamin as an effective agent in targeting cancer stem-like side population cells of human gallbladder carcinoma.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies have demonstrated that side population (SP) cells isolated from various cancer cell lines and primary tumors possess stem cell-like properties. Sesamin, a food-derived agent, possesses anti-cancer activities both in vitro and in vivo. The present study was designed to determine whether sesamin also have effects on cancer stem-like SP cells from gallbladder cancer (GBC).
Related JoVE Video
Genetic diversity and evolution of two capsid protein genes of citrus tristeza virus isolates from China.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The genetic diversity and population structure of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates from China were investigated based on partial sequences spanning the C-terminal end of p61 and the complete sequences of the CPm and CP genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed five known groups (RB, T30, T36, HA and VT) and one new group (VI) consisting of only Chinese CTV isolates. Incongruent phylogenetic trees coupled with recombination analysis suggested several recombination events in the CPm gene. Positive selection was detected at codon 9 of CPm and codons 31, 41 and 68 of CP. The widespread CTV subpopulation AT-1 found in China has a unique amino acid insertion at the C-terminus of p61, which could increase CTV population complexity with implications for the evolutionary history of the virus. Our results suggest relevant roles for gene flow, purifying selection and recombination in shaping the CTV population in China.
Related JoVE Video
[Study on mechanism of combined administration of Coptidis Rhizoma and Rehmanniae Radix in treating type II diabetes mellitus].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To make a preliminary study on the mechanism of Coptidis Rhizoma(CR) and Rehmanniae Radix(RR) before and after the combined administration in treating type II diabetes mellitus. The type I diabetes animal model in rats was established by fat emulsion and intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin, in order to compare the hpyerglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of CR, RR and their combined administration of different ratio. The urinary metabolic profiling in rats of Coptidis Rhizoma and Rehmanniae Radix before and after the combined administration was analyzed by using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The differences among groups in metabolome were analyzed by the principal component analysis (PCA). The biochemical index results indicated that both CR and RR before and after the combined administration could lower high blood glucose, hypertriglyceride and high cholesterol. According to the analytical results of PCA of the rats' urine samples, the CR group was the most close to the normal group, with no significant difference in CR and RR group of different combination ratios. Twelve differentiated metabolites were identified to be related to type II diabetes. Compared with the normal group, the CR-treated group showed significant increase in seven differentiated metabolites. Among CR and RR drugs with different combination ratios, CR played a major role and thus acted as the monarch drug. Whereas RR served as the ministerial drug and assisted CR to show the efficacy. This study laid a foundation for the explanation of the combination mechanism of traditional Chinese medicines.
Related JoVE Video
The association between the upper digestive tract microbiota by HOMIM and oral health in a population-based study in Linxian, China.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bacteria affect oral health, but few studies have systematically examined the role of bacterial communities in oral diseases. We examined this relationship in a large population-based Chinese cancer screening cohort.
Related JoVE Video
Monoterpene derivatives from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora and their anti-proliferative activity.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An unusual nor-monoterpene with only nine carbons, nor-paeonilactone (1), two new monoterpenes, paeonisuffrone C (2), paeonilactone D (9), and a new monoterpene glucoside, paeonin D (3), along with ten known compounds were isolated from the dried roots of Paeonia lactiflora. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR, and computational data. Compounds 4-14 were evaluated for their anti-proliferative activities against BT 483 human breast cancer cells and OVCA 429 human ovarian cancer cells by MTT assay.
Related JoVE Video
[Soil respiration dynamics and its controlling factors of typical vegetation communities on meadow steppes in the western Songnen Plain].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to accurately explore the soil respiration dynamics and its controlling factors of typical vegetation types in the western Songnen Plain, soil respiration rates of Chloris virgata, Puccinellia distans, Phragmites australis and Leymus chinensis communities were measured. The results showed that the diurnal curves of soil respiration rates of the four vegetation communities had simple peak values, which appeared at 11:00-15:00, and the valley values occurred at 21:00-1:00 or 3:00-5:00. The seasonal dynamic patterns of their soil respiration rates were similar, with the maximum (3.21-4.84 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1)) occurring in July and August and the minimum (0.46-1.51 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1)) in October. The soil respiration rates of the four vegetation communities had significant exponential correlations with ambient air temperature and soil temperature. Soil moisture, however, only played an important role in affecting the soil respiration rate of C. virgata community while air humidity near the soil surface was significantly correlated with the soil respiration rates of P. australis and L. chinensis communities. The soil salt contents seriously constrained the CO2 dioxide emission, and the soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) could explain 87%-91% spatial variations of the soil respiration rate.
Related JoVE Video
The brown fat-enriched secreted factor Nrg4 preserves metabolic homeostasis through attenuation of hepatic lipogenesis.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Brown fat activates uncoupled respiration in response to cold temperature and contributes to systemic metabolic homeostasis. To date, the metabolic action of brown fat has been primarily attributed to its role in fuel oxidation and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated thermogenesis. Whether brown fat engages other tissues through secreted factors remains largely unexplored. Here we show that neuregulin 4 (Nrg4), a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of extracellular ligands, is highly expressed in adipose tissues, enriched in brown fat and markedly increased during brown adipocyte differentiation. Adipose tissue Nrg4 expression was reduced in rodent and human obesity. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in mice demonstrated that Nrg4 protects against diet-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis through attenuating hepatic lipogenic signaling. Mechanistically, Nrg4 activates ErbB3 and ErbB4 signaling in hepatocytes and negatively regulates de novo lipogenesis mediated by LXR and SREBP1c in a cell-autonomous manner. These results establish Nrg4 as a brown fat-enriched endocrine factor with therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity-associated disorders, including type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
Related JoVE Video
Association between upper digestive tract microbiota and cancer-predisposing states in the esophagus and stomach.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The human upper digestive tract microbial community (microbiota) is not well characterized and few studies have explored how it relates to human health. We examined the relationship between upper digestive tract microbiota and two cancer-predisposing states, serum pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio (PGI/II; predictor of gastric cancer risk) and esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD; the precursor lesion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; ESCC) in a cross-sectional design.
Related JoVE Video
Protein-protein interactions between proteins of Citrus tristeza virus isolates.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most devastating pathogens of citrus. Its genome is organized into 12 open reading frames (ORFs), of which ten ORFs located at the 3'-terminus of the genome have multiple biological functions. The ten genes at the 3'-terminus of the genome of a severe isolate (CTV-S4) and three ORFs (CP, CPm and p20) of three other isolates (N4, S45 and HB1) were cloned into pGBKT7 and pGADT7 yeast shuttle vectors. Yeast two-hybridization (Y2H) assays results revealed a strong self-interaction for CP and p20, and a unique interaction between the CPm of CTV-S4 (severe) and CP of CTV-N4 (mild) isolates. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation also confirmed these interactions. Analysis of the deletion mutants delineated the domains of CP and p20 self-interaction. Furthermore, the domains responsible for CP and p20 self-interactions were mapped at the CP amino acids sites 41-84 and p20 amino acids sites 1-21 by Y2H. This study provided new information on CTV protein interactions which will help for further understanding the biological functions.
Related JoVE Video
Elevated microRNA-155 promotes foam cell formation by targeting HBP1 in atherogenesis.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in inflammatory responses of macrophages. However, the function of miRNAs in macrophage-derived foam cell formation is unclear. Here, we investigated the role of miRNAs in macrophage-derived foam cell formation and atherosclerotic development.
Related JoVE Video
A long noncoding RNA transcriptional regulatory circuit drives thermogenic adipocyte differentiation.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Brown and beige/brite fats generate heat via uncoupled respiration to defend against cold. The total mass and activity of thermogenic adipose tissues are also tightly linked to systemic energy and nutrient homeostasis. Despite originating from distinct progenitors, brown and beige adipocytes acquire remarkably similar molecular and metabolic characteristics during differentiation through the action of a network of transcription factors and cofactors. How this regulatory network interfaces with long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), an emerging class of developmental regulators, remains largely unexplored. Here, we globally profiled lncRNA gene expression during thermogenic adipocyte formation and identified Brown fat lncRNA 1 (Blnc1) as a nuclear lncRNA that promotes brown and beige adipocyte differentiation and function. Blnc1 forms a ribonucleoprotein complex with transcription factor EBF2 to stimulate the thermogenic gene program. Further, Blnc1 itself is a target of EBF2, thereby forming a feedforward regulatory loop to drive adipogenesis toward thermogenic phenotype.
Related JoVE Video
Volatiles Emitted from Tea Plants Infested by Ectropis obliqua Larvae Are Attractive to Conspecific Moths.
J. Chem. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles have been reported to play a role in the host-searching behavior of herbivores. However, next to nothing is known about the effect of volatiles emitted from tea plants infested by Ectropis obliqua larvae on the behavior of conspecific adults. Here, we found that tea plants infested by E. obliqua caterpillars for 24 h were more attractive to both virgin male and female E. obliqua adults than were intact, uninfested tea plants; moreover, mated female E. obliqua moths were more attracted by infested tea plants and preferentially oviposited on these plants, whereas male moths were repelled by infested plants once they had mated. Volatile analysis revealed that the herbivore infestation dramatically increased the emission of volatiles. Among these volatiles, 17 compounds elicited antennal responses from both male and female virginal moths. Using a Y-tube olfactometer, we found that 3 of the 17 chemicals, benzyl alcohol, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate, and (Z)-3-hexenal, were attractive, but two compounds, linalool and benzyl nitril, were repellent to virgin male and female moths. One chemical, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, was attractive only to virgin males. Mated females were attracted by three compounds, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and (Z)-3-hexenal; whereas mated males were repelled by (Z)-3-hexenol. The findings provide new insights into the interaction between tea plants and the herbivores, and may help scientists develop new measures with which to control E. obliqua.
Related JoVE Video
P53 dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening is required for dexamethasone-induced death of osteoblasts.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prolonged or overdose glucocorticoids (GCs) usage is the common cause of osteoporosis. In the present study, we studied the cellular mechanism of dexamethasone (Dex)-induce osteoblast cell death by focusing on the role of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). In cultured osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, Dex-induced mPTP opening, which was demonstrated by mitochondrial membrane potential (MPP) decrease, cyclophilin-D (CyPD)-adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT-1) mitochondrial complexation and cytochrome C (cyto-C) release. The mPTP inhibitor sanglifehrin A (SfA) dramatically inhibited Dex-induced MPP loss, cyto-C release and MC3T3-E1 cell death. Dex-induced cell death requires mPTP composing protein CyPD, as CyPD inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA) and CyPD siRNA knockdown inhibited Dex-induced MC3T3-E1 cell death, while CyPD overexpression aggravated Dex's cytotoxic effect. We found that Dex induced P53 phosphorylation and translocation to mitochondria, where it formed a complex with CyPD. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) siRNA knockdown, or P53 inhibition (by its inhibitor pifithrin-? or shRNA silencing) suppressed Dex-induced CyPD-P53 mitochondrial association and subsequent MC3T3-E1 cell death. Finally, in primary cultured osteoblasts, Dex-induced cell death was inhibited by CsA, SfA or pifithrin-?. Together, our data suggest that Dex-induced osteoblast cell death is associated with GR-P53-regulated mPTP opening.
Related JoVE Video
[EMA-pCR detection of enterohemorrhagic Eschrichia coli O157:H7].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A rapid and effective method with ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA) in combination with PCR (EMA-PCR) was established to detect live Enterohemorrhagic Eschrichia Coli O157:H7.
Related JoVE Video
Population variation revealed high-altitude adaptation of Tibetan mastiffs.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With the assistance of their human companions, dogs have dispersed into new environments during the expansion of human civilization. Tibetan Mastiff (TM), a native of the Tibetan Plateau, was derived from the domesticated Chinese native dog and, like Tibetans, has adapted to the extreme environment of high altitude. Here, we genotyped genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 32 TMs and compared them with SNPs from 20 Chinese native dogs and 14 gray wolves (Canis lupus). We identified 16 genes with signals of positive selection in the TM, with 12 of these candidate genes associated with functions that have roles in adaptation to high-altitude adaptation, such as EPAS1, SIRT7, PLXNA4, and MAFG that have roles in responses to hypoxia. This study provides important information on the genetic diversity of the TM and potential mechanisms for adaptation to hypoxia.
Related JoVE Video
Phenolic compounds from Origanum vulgare and their antioxidant and antiviral activities.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the present study, six new phenolic compounds (1-6) along with five known ones were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole plants of Origanum vulgare. The structures of the new compounds were identified on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, NMR, and HRESIMS) and acid hydrolysis. Twenty-one phenolic compounds isolated from O. vulgare in our previous and present studies were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays; twelve of them including two new compounds exhibited significant antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid. In addition, the antiviral effects against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were tested by cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of routine biopsies in endoscopic screening for esophagogastric junction cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore whether routine biopsies at the high incidence spot of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) cancer are justified in endoscopic screening.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment with Lingqi capsules suppresses colorectal cancer by inhibiting the hepatocyte growth factor/c?Met signal transduction pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lingqi capsules (LQCs) are commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine to support the immune system and inhibit tumor growth. The capsules are considered to have a direct effect on tumor cell proliferation and support tumor cell apoptosis. In the present study, the effects of LQC serum on the colorectal cancer cell line, LoVo, and on tumors induced by the cell line were investigated in nude mice. LQC serum was generated by feeding Wistar rats LQC and isolating the serum from blood samples obtained from the rats. The serum was then used to treat LoVo cells for 24, 48 and 72 h, after which the cell morphology and proliferation were assessed. In addition, nude mice were injected with 0.2 ml LoVo cells subcutaneously to produce tumors. After 24 h, xenografted nude mice were treated with 5.0, 2.5 or 1.25 g/kg/day LQC serum by gavage for 21 days and the tumor growth, morphology, apoptosis of tumor cells and expression profiles of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c?Met, were investigated. Compared with the negative controls, inhibition of cell growth was clearly visible in the LoVo cells treated for 24, 48 and 72 h and this inhibition was enhanced as the exposure time and drug concentration increased. The growth of solid tumors induced by the transplantation of LoVo cells into nude mice was inhibited to differing degrees. Following LQC treatment, the apoptotic rates of the cells were increased, the protein and mRNA expression levels of HGF were downregulated and those of c?Met were upregulated. These findings suggest that LQC treatment inhibits colorectal cancer by downregulating the HGF/c?Met signal transduction pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Mitochondrial KATP channel involvement in angiotensin II-induced autophagy in vascular smooth muscle cells.
Basic Res. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autophagy has emerged as a powerful process in the response to cellular injury. The present study was designed to investigate signal transduction pathways in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced autophagy. Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were stimulated with different doses of Ang II (10(-9)-10(-5) mol/L) for different time periods (6-72 h). Incubation with Ang II increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased the LC3-II to LC3-I ratio, increased beclin-1 expression, and decreased SQSTM1/p62 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, Ang II increased autophagosome formation. Increased ROS production induced by Ang II was inhibited by Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1) blockers (Olmesartan and Candesartan, ARB), a NADPH Oxidase inhibitor (apocynin), and mitochondrial KATP channels inhibitor (5-hydroxydecanoate, 5HD). Ang II (10(-7) mol/L, 48 h)-induced increase in the LC3-II to LC3-I ratio, the formation of autophagosomes, expression of beclin-1 and decrease in the expression of SQSTM1/p62 were also inhibited by pretreatment with 3-methyladenine or bafilomycin A1 (inhibitors of autophagy), olmesartan and candesartan (in dose-dependent manners), apocynin, 5HD, and siRNA Atg5. Our results indicate that Ang II increases autophagy levels via activation of AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase. Mitochondrial KATP channels also play an important role in Ang II-induced autophagy. Our results may provide a new strategy for treatment of cardiovascular diseases with Ang II.
Related JoVE Video
The function of aquaporin4 in ischemic brain edema.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cerebral ischemia injury is a primary cause of human death and long-term disability. We know that the cerebral edema induced by ischemia injury has a fatal effect on humans, which is the main cause of death for cerebral ischemia because it produces elevated intracranial pressure that leads to secondary brain damage, such as further impaired vascular perfusion and herniation of brain. Therefore, reducing the severity of brain edema has become the main therapeutic strategy for the treatment of CI. However, current treatment options for brain edema are limited and problematic. Therefore, finding novel strategies for overcoming this problem is crucial. Numerous studies demonstrated that cerebral edema may be attenuated via the regulation of AQP4 expression, thus initiating a novel therapeutic strategy against this possibly fatal condition. This review focuses on the role of AQP4 in ischemic brain edema, and its prospect as a therapeutic target.
Related JoVE Video
Thyroid cancer in systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta analysis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Considering inconclusive and heterogenous results, the aim of this study was to investigate the risk of thyroid cancer in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by a quantitatively systematic review with meta-analysis.
Related JoVE Video
Balancing Selection on CDH2 May Be Related to the Behavioral Features of the Belgian Malinois.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Belgian Malinois (BM) is an excellent working dog that typically shows a circling behavior when placed in a confined space. Moreover, individuals showing moderate running in circles (one kind of obsessive compulsive behavior) in confined spaces typically show better work performance compared to those without the circling behavior or to those with a serious circling behavior (which can be defined as an obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)). To determine whether the candidate gene CDH2, Cadherin 2, which is associated with OCD in the Doberman pinscher breed of dogs and in humans, was linked with this behavioral character in the BM, population genetic analyses were performed on a BM population and a natural population of the Chinese indigenous dog (CID). Many genetic signals of balancing selection were detected for one specific region of the CDH2 gene, which suggests that a genomic block, which is included in the CDH2 gene, experienced balancing selection in the BM, and that the CDH2 gene might be associated with the behavioral characteristics of the BM dog (a balance between circling behavior and work performance). Moreover one specific variant, G63913941A, which creates a predicted transcription factor-binding site, may be the key mutation in the CDH2 gene affecting the behavior of BMs by allowing the binding of a transcription factor and increasing CDH2 expression.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical effectiveness analysis of dextran 40 plus dexamethasone on the prevention of fat embolism syndrome.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aims to investigate the clinical efficacy of Dextran 40 plus dexamethasone on the prevention of fat embolism syndrome (FES) in high-risk patients with long bone shaft fractures. According to the different preventive medication, a total of 1837 cases of long bone shaft fracture patients with injury severity score (ISS) > 16 were divided into four groups: dextran plus dexamethasone group, dextran group, dexamethasone group and control group. The morbidity and mortality of FES in each group were analyzed with pairwise comparison analysis. There were totally 17 cases of FES and 1 case died. The morbidity of FES was 0.33% in dextran plus dexamethasone group and significantly lowers than that of other groups (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference among other groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion from our data is dextran 40 plus dexamethasone can effectively prevent long bone shaft fractures occurring in high-risk patients with FES.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells with VEGFR-3 siRNA delivered with PEI-alginate nanoparticles.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lymphangiogenesis is implicated in lymphatic metastasis of tumor cells. Recently, growing evidences show that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in lymphangiogenesis. This study has investigated effects of VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3) signaling pathway on EPC differentiation and effectiveness of inhibiting lymphatic formation of EPCs with VEGFR-3 siRNA delivered in PEI (polyethylenimine)-alginate nanoparticles. CD34(+)VEGFR-3(+) EPCs were sorted from mononuclear cells of human cord blood. Under induction with VEGF-C, the cells differentiated toward lymphatic endothelial cells. The nanoparticles were formulated with 25 kDa branched PEI and alginate. The size and surface charge of PEI-alginate nanoparticles loading VEGFR-3 siRNA (N/P = 16) are 139.1 nm and 7.56 mV respectively. VEGFR-3 siRNA specifically inhibited expression of VEGFR-3 mRNA in the cells. After treatment with PEI-alginate/siRNA nanocomplexes, EPCs could not differentiate into lymphatic endothelial cells, and proliferation, migration and lymphatic formation of EPC-derived cells were suppressed significantly. These results demonstrate that VEGFR-3 signaling plays an important role in differentiation of CD34(+)VEGFR-3(+) EPCs. VEGFR-3 siRNA delivered with PEI-alginate nanoparticles can effectively inhibit differentiation and lymphangiogenesis of EPCs. Inhibiting VEGFR-3 signaling with siRNA/nanocomplexes would be a potential therapy for suppression of tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis.
Related JoVE Video
ERK/CANP rapid signaling mediates 17?-estradiol-induced proliferation of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
17?-estradiol (E2) exerts its functions through both genomic and non-genomic signaling pathways. Because E2 is important in breast cancer development, we investigated whether its actions in promoting breast cancer cell proliferation occur through the non-genomic signaling pathway via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)/calcium-activated neutral protease (CANP).
Related JoVE Video
Otopetrin 1 protects mice from obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction through attenuating adipose tissue inflammation.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic low-grade inflammation is emerging as a pathogenic link between obesity and metabolic disease. Persistent immune activation in white adipose tissue (WAT) impairs insulin sensitivity and systemic metabolism in part through the actions of proinflammatory cytokines. Whether obesity engages an adaptive mechanism to counteract chronic inflammation in adipose tissues has not been elucidated. Here we identified Otopetrin 1 (Otop1) as a component of a counter-inflammatory pathway that is induced in WAT during obesity. Otop1 expression is markedly increased in obese mouse WAT and is stimulated by TNF? in cultured adipocytes. Otop1 mutant mice respond to high-fat diet with pronounced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis, accompanied by augmented adipose tissue inflammation. Otop1 attenuates interferon ? (IFN?) signaling in adipocytes through selective downregulation of the transcription factor STAT1. Using a tagged vector, we found that Otop1 physically interacts with endogenous STAT1. Thus, Otop1 defines a unique target of cytokine signaling that attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and plays an adaptive role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis in obesity.
Related JoVE Video
[Involvement of cross interaction between central cholinergic and histaminergic systems in the nucleus tractus solitarius in regulating carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex].
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex (CSR) is an important approach for regulating arterial blood pressure homeostasis instantaneously and physiologically. Activation of the central histaminergic or cholinergic systems results in CSR functional inhibitory resetting. However, it is unclear whether two systems at the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) level display cross interaction to regulate the CSR or not. In the present study, the left or right carotid sinus region was isolated from the systemic circulation in Sprague-Dawley rats (sinus nerve was reserved) anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. Respective intubation was conducted into one side isolated carotid sinus and into the femoral artery for recording the intracarotid sinus pressure (ISP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) simultaneously with pressure transducers connection in vivo. ISP was set at the level of 0 mmHg to eliminate the effect of initial internal pressure of the carotid sinus on the CSR function. To trigger CSR, the ISP was quickly elevated from 0 mmHg to 280 mmHg in a stepwise manner (40 mmHg) which was added at every step for over 4 s, and then ISP returned to 0 mmHg in similar steps. The original data of ISP and corresponding MAP were fitted to a modified logistic equation with five parameters to obtain the ISP-MAP, ISP-Gain relationship curves and the CSR characteristic parameters, which were statistically compared and analyzed separately. Under the precondition of no influence on the basic levels of the artery blood pressure, the effects and potential regulatory mechanism of preceding microinjection with different cholinoceptor antagonists, the selective cholinergic M1 receptor antagonist, i.e., pirenzepine (PRZ), the M2 receptor antagonist, i.e., methoctramine (MTR) or the N1 receptor antagonist, i.e., hexamethonium (HEX) into the NTS on the changes in function of CSR induced by intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v.) of histamine (HA) in rats were observed. Meanwhile, the actions and possible modulatory mechanism of preceding microinjection with different histaminergic receptor antagonists, the selective histaminergic H1 receptor antagonist, i.e., chlorpheniramine (CHL) or the H2 receptor antagonist, i.e., cimetidine (CIM) into the NTS on the changes in function of CSR resulted from the i.c.v. cholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine (PHY) were also examined in order to confirm and to analyze effects of cross interaction between central histaminergic and cholinergic systems on CSR. The main results obtained are as follows. (1) Standalone microinjection of different selective cholinergic receptor antagonists (PRZ, MTR or HEX) or different selective histaminergic receptor antagonists (CHL or CIM) into the NTS with each given dose had no effects on the CSR function and on the basic levels of the artery blood pressure, respectively (P > 0.05). (2) The pretreatment of PRZ or MTR into the NTS with each corresponding dose could attenuate CSR resetting resulted from i.c.v. HA in some degrees, which remarkably moved the posterior half range of ISP-MAP relationship curve downwards (P < 0.05), shifted the middle part of ISP-Gain relationship curve upwards (P < 0.05), and increased reflex parameters such as the MAP range and maximum gain (P < 0.05), but decreased parameters such as saturation pressure and intracarotid sinus pressure at maximum gain (P < 0.05). The catabatic effects of pretreatment with MTR into the NTS on CSR resetting induced by i.c.v. HA were more obvious than those with PRZ (P < 0.05), but pretreatment of HEX with given dose into the NTS had no effects on CSR resetting induced by i.c.v. HA (P > 0.05). (3) The effects of pretreatment of CHL or CIM into the NTS with each corresponding dose on CSR resetting made by i.c.v. PHY were similar to those of pretreatment of PRZ or MTR into the NTS on CSR resetting resulted from i.c.v. HA, and the decreasing effects of pretreatment with CHL into the NTS on CSR resetting induced by i.c.v. PHY were more remarkable than those with CIM (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that CSR resetting resulted from either HA or PHY into the lateral ventricle may partly involve the descending histaminergic or cholinergic pathway from the hypothalamus to NTS, which might evoke a cross activation of the cholinergic system in the NTS, via cholinergic M1 and M2 receptors mediation, especially the M2 receptors showing actions, or trigger another cross activation of the histaminergic system in the NTS, by histaminergic H1 and H2 receptors mediation, especially the H1 receptors displaying effects.
Related JoVE Video
[Association between the distribution of feeding index and physical development of infants and young children aged 6-35 months in rural areas of Lhasa in 2010].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Using infant and child feeding index (ICFI) to evaluate the relationship between infant feeding and physical development indicators in rural areas of Lhasa.
Related JoVE Video
[Role of transcription factor ETS-1 and B cell in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the effects of transcription factor ETS-1 mRNA and B lymphocyte-associated cytokines on the differentiation of B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and explore its pathogenic and clinical significance.
Related JoVE Video
[Characterization of processing batch for preparation of radix scutellariae based on dependent component analysis and infrared spectrometry].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dependent component analysis (DCA) was applied to directly estimate source spectral profiles from IR spectra of synthetic mixtures and characterize processing batch for preparation of radix scutellariae. The results show that DCA can estimate information of dependent components (DCs) from the measured infrared spectral (IR) signal obtained during the processing batch for preparation of radix scutellariae, and the estimated information of DCs is corresponding to the IR features of the active components of scutelliare; by inspection of the change trends of the estimated DCs, the endpoint of the processing batch was determined as 55 min. The proposed approach provides a novel way for process analysis and endpoint determination of procedure for preparation of scutellariae.
Related JoVE Video
[Long-term outcomes of endoscopic argon plasma coagulation (APC) therapy for early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the long-term outcomes of endoscopic argon plasma coagulation (APC) therapy for early esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions.
Related JoVE Video
Measuring telomere length for the early detection of precursor lesions of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide; current early detection screening tests are inadequate. Esophageal balloon cytology successfully retrieves exfoliated and scraped superficial esophageal epithelial cells, but cytologic reading of these cells has poor sensitivity and specificity for detecting esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), the precursor lesion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Measuring telomere length, a marker for chromosomal instability, may improve the utility of balloon cytology for detecting ESD and early ESCC.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors for survival after colorectal cancer resection.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe survival rates and prognostic factors for colorectal cancer (CRC) operated in a district general hospital setting with a special focus on the number of lymph nodes examined.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of posterior tibial slope on non-contact anterior cruciate ligament rupture and stability of anterior cruciate ligament rupture knee].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To retrospectively explore the correlation between anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-ruptured knees, stability of ACL-rupture knee and posterior tibial slope (PTS).
Related JoVE Video
[Correlation between soil-transmitted nematode infections and childrens growth].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To understand the infection status of soil-transmitted nematodes in southwest China and the correlation between soil-transmitted nematode infections and childrens growth.
Related JoVE Video
Laevinoids A and B: two diterpenoids with an unprecedented backbone from Croton laevigatus.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chemical fractionation of the ethanolic extract of a Chinese herbal plant, Croton laevigatus, yielded laevinoids A (1) and B (2) with a new rearranged ent-clerodane scaffold named as laevinane. The structures of 1 and 2 were assigned on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses with their absolute configurations being established via single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies.
Related JoVE Video
Associations between Fas/FasL polymorphisms and susceptibility to cervical cancer: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic polymorphisms in the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) gene were proposed to be associated with susceptibility to cervical cancer, but previous studies reported controversial findings. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the associations between Fas/FasL polymorphisms and susceptibility to cervical cancer. We carried out a literature search in PubMed and Embase databases for studies on the associations between Fas/FasL polymorphisms and susceptibility to cervical cancer. The associations were assessed by odds ratio (OR) together with its 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Eleven individual studies with a total of 6,919 subjects were finally included into the meta-analysis. Overall, there was no association between Fas 1377G?>?A polymorphism and susceptibility to cervical cancer (A vs. G: OR?=?0.99, 95 % CI 0.88-1.12, P?=?0.91; AA vs. GG: OR?=?1.00, 95 % CI 0.76-1.32, P?=?0.99; AA/GA vs. GG: OR?=?0.95, 95 % CI 0.81-1.12, P?=?0.54; AA vs.
Related JoVE Video
The epitope structure of Citrus tristeza virus coat protein mapped by recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been known that there exists serological differentiation among Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates. The present study reports three linear epitopes (aa 48-63, 97-104, and 114-125) identified by using bacterially expressed truncated coat proteins and ten monoclonal antibodies against the native virions of CTV-S4. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis demonstrated that the mutation D98G within the newly identified epitope (97)DDDSTGIT(104) abolished its reaction to MAbs 1, 4, and 10, and the presence of G98 in HB1-CP also resulted in its failure to recognize the three MAbs. Our results suggest that the conformational differences in the epitope I (48)LGTQQNAALNRDLFLT(63) between the CPs of isolates S4 and HB1 might contribute to the different reactions of two isolates to MAbs 5 and 6. This study provides new information for the antigenic structures of CTV, and will extend the understanding of the processes required for antibody binding and aid the development of epitope-based diagnostic tools.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA in CD4(+)CD25 (+) T regulatory cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Clin. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease with complex genetic predisposing factors involved. Ets-1 transcription factor plays an important role in the suppressive activity of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells and stable expression of FOXP3. To find its potential role in the pathogenesis of SLE, we investigate the mRNA expression of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells from patients with SLE. Real-time transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to determine the expression of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA in CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells from 36 patients with SLE and 18 sex-and-age-matched healthy controls. The Ets-1 mRNA expression level was decreased in patients with SLE [0.225 (0.135, 0.337)] than healthy controls [0.528 (0.303, 0.681)] (P < 0.001). The expression levels of FOXP3 mRNA were lower in SLE patients [0.608 (0.272, 1.164)] than healthy controls [0.919 (0.690, 1.223)], but the difference was not significant (P = 0.106). Significant reduction in Ets-1 and FOXP3 expression was also found in new-onset SLE subgroup when compared with healthy controls (P < 0.001). The level of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA was not significantly different in hyperactive and lower active SLE group when compared with inactive SLE group, respectively (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences between SLE with lupus nephritis (LN) and SLE without LN either (P > 0.05). Associations of Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA expression levels with major clinical and laboratory parameters of SLE patients were also analyzed. However, no significant association was found. Significant positive correlation was found between Ets-1 and FOXP3 mRNA expression in CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells from SLE patients (r = 0.698, P < 0.001). Our results found that the expression levels of Ets-1 mRNA were decreased in SLE patients and Ets-1 expression was positively correlated with the expression of FOXP3. It indicated that Ets-1 may play an important role in the stable expression of FOXP3 in CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells.
Related JoVE Video
Soybean GmbZIP123 gene enhances lipid content in the seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis plants.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Soybean is one of most important oil crops and a significant increase in lipid content in soybean seeds would facilitate vegetable oil production in the world. Although the pathways for lipid biosynthesis in higher plants have been uncovered, our understanding of regulatory mechanism controlling lipid accumulation is still limited. In this study, we identified 87 transcription factor genes with a higher abundance at the stage of lipid accumulation in soybean seeds. One of these genes, GmbZIP123, was selected to further study its function in regulation of lipid accumulation. Overexpression of GmbZIP123 enhanced lipid content in the seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. The GmbZIP123 transgene promoted expression of two sucrose transporter genes (SUC1 and SUC5) and three cell-wall invertase genes (cwINV1, cwINV3, and cwINV6) by binding directly to the promoters of these genes. Consistently, the cell-wall invertase activity and sugar translocation were all enhanced in siliques of GmbZIP123 transgenic plants. Higher levels of glucose, fructose, and sucrose were also found in seeds of GmbZIP123 transgenic plants. These results suggest that GmbZIP123 may participate in regulation of lipid accumulation in soybean seeds by controlling sugar transport into seeds from photoautotrophic tissues. This study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for lipid accumulation in seeds and may facilitate improvements in oil production in soybean and other oil crops through genetic manipulation of the GmbZIP123 gene.
Related JoVE Video
New ursane-type triterpenoid saponins from the stem bark of Schefflera heptaphylla.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Phytochemical investigation on the stem bark of Schefflera heptaphylla led to the isolation of five new ursane-type triterpenoid saponins (1-5). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. It is noteworthy in this study that the genins of all compounds are reported for the first time. All compounds isolated from this plant were evaluated for their inhibitory activities on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells, and compounds 2 and 5 showed weak anti-inflammatory activities under their non-cytotoxic concentrations.
Related JoVE Video
Triterpenoid saponins from the stem barks of Schefflera heptaphylla.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nine new triterpenoid saponins, including four ursane-type triterpenoid saponins named heptursosides A-D (1-4), four oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins named heptoleosides A-D (5-8), and one dammarane-type triterpenoid saponin, heptdamoside A (9), along with two known saponins, asiaticoside D (10) and scheffoleoside B (11), were isolated from the stem barks of Schefflera heptaphylla. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. It is noteworthy in this study that the aglycone of 1-6 is reported for the first time, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for the presence of the tetracyclic triterpenoid saponin from Schefflera. All the saponins were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells, and 2, 6, 7, and 10 showed anti-inflammatory activities under their noncytotoxic concentrations.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of siRNA Against ?-NGF on Nerve Fibers of a Rat Model With Endometriosis.
Reprod Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective:This study examines whether silencing specific ?-nerve growth factor small interfering RNA (?-NGF siRNA) can affect the growth of ectopic endometriotic implants, generalized hyperalgesia, and nerve fiber density in endometriosis.Methods:Four specific ?-NGF siRNAs were detected by Western blot analysis, and the most efficient specific siRNA was transferred into rats with surgically induced endometriosis through gene transfer. The length × width × height of each ectopic transplant that survived from 2 groups were measured at pre-and postbombardment after 2 weeks. The transplants were collected 2 weeks after bombardment. Warm-water tail flick test was performed before the rats were sacrificed. The specimens were sectioned and stained immunohistochemically with antibodies against the types of nerve fibers to compare the presence of different nerve fibers in the treatment and control groups. The serums and supernatants of the peritoneal washings in the treatment and control groups were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. The extra rats were successfully induced with endometriosis and through gene transfer as described above. The spherical volumes of the transplants and tail flick latency post-bombardment after 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks were measured.Results:The spherical volumes in the treatment group were much smaller than those in the control group, and tail flick latency significantly increased in the treatment group postbombardment after 2 weeks. The ELISA analysis showed that the concentrations of ?-NGF in the serums and supernatants of the peritoneal fluid decreased in the treatment group unlike in the control group. Less sympathetic and sensory innervation was observed in the treatment group postbombardment after 2 weeks. The outcomes of the spherical volumes of the transplants and tail flick latency postbombardment after 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks showed that the sizes of the transplants did not return to their previous size and that the treatment had some effects on generalized hyperalgesia.Conclusion:Specific siRNA-mediated silencing of the ?-NGF gene expression after gene transfer suppressed the growth of ectopic endometriotic implants resulted in a significant improvement in generalized hyperalgesia as well as reduced sympathetic and sensory nerve fiber density in the treatment group.
Related JoVE Video
A modified reduction malarplasty utilizing 2 oblique osteotomies for prominent zygomatic body and arch.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The shape of the zygomatic body and arch have great influences to the facial contour of Orientals. The prominent zygoma makes the appearance look more fierce. Nowadays in China, the number of patients who underwent reduction malarplasty is increasing rapidly. Therefore, it is important to develop a reliable surgical procedure with small wound and good effects. Included in this report were 46 patients with prominent zygomatic body and arch treated between October 2007 and November 2010. Combined intraoral and extraoral approaches were used, and 2 oblique osteotomies were performed to anterior and posterior part of malar complex, respectively. The isolated zygoma segment was then internalized utilizing z-plasty for the posterior end and inward sliding and internal fixation for the anterior end. The extraoral approach was made through a small temple incision. All patients were subjectively satisfied with the postoperative appearance. Their face contours were effectively improved by the modified procedure. One patient had short-term numbness of the medial zygomatic region skin; no other complications were observed during the follow-up period. This surgical procedure was carried out using combined intraoral and extraoral approaches. No visible scars left on the face. After 2 oblique osteotomies were made, the anterior inward sliding and posterior z-plasty could be easily performed to the isolated zygomatic bone. No segmental bone removal was required. The natural curve of the face contour was maintained while the malar complex was reshaped. We concluded that it is an effective and safe reduction malarplasty technique for Orientals.
Related JoVE Video
Fast and high-accuracy localization for three-dimensional single-particle tracking.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a non-iterative localization algorithm that utilizes the scaling of a three-dimensional (3D) image in the axial direction and focuses on evaluating the radial symmetry center of the scaled image to achieve the desired single-particle localization. Using this approach, we analyzed simulated 3D particle images by wide-field microscopy and confocal microscopy respectively, and the 3D trajectory of quantum dots (QDs)-labeled influenza virus in live cells. Both applications indicate that the method can achieve 3D single-particle localization with a sub-pixel precision and sub-millisecond computation time. The precision is almost the same as that of the iterative nonlinear least-squares 3D Gaussian fitting method, but with two orders of magnitude higher computation speed. This approach can reduce considerably the time and costs for processing the large volume data of 3D images for 3D single-particle tracking, which is especially suited for 3D high-precision single-particle tracking, 3D single-molecule imaging and even new microscopy techniques.
Related JoVE Video
Pioglitazone enhances the blood pressure-lowering effect of losartan via synergistic attenuation of angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of synergistic antihypertensive effect produced by combination therapy of losartan and pioglitazone in metabolic syndrome (MS) rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An MS model was induced by feeding rats a high-fat, high-sodium diet and 20% sucrose solution. Losartan (20 mg/kg/day), pioglitazone (10 mg/kg/day), and their combination were orally administered for eight consecutive weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured using the tail-cuff method and carotid arterial catheterization, respectively. The aortas were isolated and in vitro vascular reactivity studies were performed. The protein expression of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), phosphorylated eNOS and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit p47(phox), level of nitrotyrosine as well as activity of eNOS and NADPH oxidase in aortas of MS rats were detected. RESULTS: After eight weeks of treatment, the SBP and MAP in the losartan (115 ± 5 and 106 ± 6 mmHg), pioglitazone (130 ± 6 and 118 ± 6 mmHg), and combination therapy (105 ± 6 and 98 ± 5 mmHg) groups were lower than those in the model group (150 ± 8 and 136 ± 9 mmHg). Combination therapy of losartan and pioglitazone reduced BP more than either monotherapy, and showed additive effects on improving endothelial dysfunction and abolishing the increased vascular responsiveness to angiotensin II. These synergistic effects were associated with further reductions in protein expression of p47(phox) and AT1, NADPH oxidase activity, and nitrotyrosine level. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that combined treatment exerts more beneficial effects on lowering BP and improving vascular lesions.
Related JoVE Video
[Sodium content and energy of 47 commercial dishes in four restaurants in Beijing].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the sodium content and energy of commercial dishes in 4 Chinese restaurants in Beijing.
Related JoVE Video
A New Fixation Method for Stick-shaped Specimens in Microtensile Tests: Laboratory Tests and FEA.
J Adhes Dent
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Purpose: To introduce a new fixation method for stick-shaped specimens for use in microtensile tests and to evaluate the effect of this new method on microtensile bond strength, failure modes, and stress distribution. Materials and Methods: Flat mid-coronal dentin surfaces were prepared on 12 caries-free human third molars and randomly divided into two groups for testing with two dental adhesives (Adper Single Bond 2 [SB2] and Clearfil SE Bond [SEB]). Following adhesive application and composite buildups, the bonded teeth were sectioned into beams. Sticks from each tooth were then equally divided into two subgroups for microtensile bond testing according to the utilized gripping devices (a flat Ciucchis jig and the experimental setup). Failure modes were examined with a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Three-dimensional models of each gripping device and specimen were developed, and stress distributions were analyzed by finite element analysis (FEA). Statistical significance was set at ? = 0.05 Results: Compared to those fixed using a flat Ciucchis jig, sticks fixed with the experimental setup yielded lower bond strength values (p = 0.021 for SB2 and p = 0.007 for SEB) and more mixed failure patterns (p = 0.036 for both SB2 and SEB). In addition, the experimental setup guaranteed a uniaxial tensile force that was perpendicular to the bonding interface and produced a more uniform stress distribution at the bonding interface. Conclusion: An experimental setup for fixing microtensile sticks was proposed that was designed to provide a uniform stress distribution at the adhesive interface. FEA and failure mode analysis confirmed such uniform distribution, thus supporting the validity of the bond strength results obtained with this new fixture design.
Related JoVE Video
Predicting a novel pathogenicity island in Helicobacter pylori by genomic barcoding.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To apply a new, integrated technique for visualizing bacterial genomes to identify novel pathogenicity islands in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori).
Related JoVE Video
Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products contributes to aortic remodeling and endothelial dysfunction in sinoaortic denervated rats.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of present study was to test the hypothesis that activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) pathway contributes to aortic remodeling and endothelial dysfunction in sinoaortic denervated (SAD) rats.
Related JoVE Video
Relationship between cancer-related fatigue and personality in patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the relationship between cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and personality in patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to study the relationship between CRF and personality in breast cancer patients after chemotherapy. CRF and personality were measured by the cancer fatigue score and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 300 breast cancer patients who had received chemotherapy were recruited to this study. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire scores of psychoticism, introversion, and extroversion in the patients were lower than the norm level (p?
Related JoVE Video
Apoptosis and autophagy contribute to gender difference in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion induced injury in rats.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gender difference in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induced injury has been reported in animal models. However, a large-scale clinical trial found an increase in cardiovascular incidents in women with hormone replacement therapy. The present study is aimed to explore possible mechanisms of gender difference in cardiac IR induced injury.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.