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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Activation of BNGR-A24 by Direct Interaction with Tachykinin-Related Peptides from the Silkworm Bombyx mori Leads to the Gq- and Gs-Coupled Signaling Cascades.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Tachykinins constitute one of the largest peptide families in the animal kingdom and exert their diverse actions via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this study, the Bombyx tachykinin-related peptides (TKRPs) were identified as specific endogenous ligands for the Bombyx neuropeptide GPCR A24 (BNGR-A24) and thus designated BNGR-A24 as BmTKRPR. Using both mammalian cell line HEK293 and insect cell line Sf21, further characterization demonstrated that BmTKRPR was activated, thus resulting in intracellular accumulation of cAMP, Ca(2+) mobilization, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a Gs and Gq inhibitor-sensitive manner. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis and dsRNA-mediated knockdown experiments suggested a possible role for BmTKRPR in the regulation of feeding and growth. Our findings enhance the understanding of the Bombyx TKRP system in the regulation of fundamental physiological processes.
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Suppression of T-type Ca2+ channels inhibited human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell proliferation running title: roles of T-type Ca2+ channels in LSCC cell proliferation.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Despite the tight correlation between T-type Ca2+ channels and a great variety of tumors, the roles of alpha1G subunit of T-type Ca2+ channels in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) have not yet been investigated.
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Differential requirements of arrestin-3 and clathrin for ligand-dependent and -independent internalization of human G protein-coupled receptor 40.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) is believed to be an attractive target to enhance insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. GPR40 has been found to couple to Gq protein, leading to the activation of phospholipase C and subsequent increases in the intracellular Ca(2+) level. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate the internalization and desensitization of GPR40 remain to be elucidated. In the present study, a construct of GPR40 fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) at its C-terminus was constructed for direct imaging of the localization and internalization of GPR40 by confocal microscopy. In stably transfected HEK-293 cells, GPR40 receptors underwent rapid agonist-induced internalization and constitutive ligand-independent internalization. Our data demonstrated that the agonist-mediated internalization of GPR40 was significantly blocked by hypertonic sucrose treatment and by siRNA mediated depletion of the heavy chain of clathrin. In contrast, constitutive GPR40 internalization was not affected by hypertonic sucrose or by knock-down of clathrin expression, but it was affected by treatment with methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M?CD) and nystatin. Furthermore, our results using an arrestin-3-EGFP redistribution assay and siRNA-mediated knock-down of arrestin-3 and GRK2 expression revealed that arrestin-3 and GRK2 play an essential role in the regulation of agonist-mediated GPR40 internalization, but are not involved in the regulation of constitutive GPR40 internalization. Additionally, our observation showed that upon activation by agonist, the internalized GPR40 receptors were rapidly recycled back to the plasma membrane via Rab4/Rab5 positive endosomes, whereas the constitutively internalized GPR40 receptors were recycled back to the cell surface through Rab5 positive endosomes. Because FFA receptors exhibit a high level of homology, our observations could be applicable to other members of this family.
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Association mapping of yield-related traits and SSR markers in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.).
Breed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Wild soybean, the progenitor of cultivated soybean, is an important gene pool for ongoing soybean breeding efforts. To identify yield-enhancing quantitative trait locus (QTL) or gene from wild soybean, 113 wild soybeans accessions were phenotyped for five yield-related traits and genotyped with 85 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to conduct association mapping. A total of 892 alleles were detected for the 85 SSR markers, with an average 10.49 alleles; the corresponding PIC values ranged from 0.07 to 0.92, with an average 0.73. The genetic diversity of each SSR marker ranged from 0.07 to 0.93, with an average 0.75. A total of 18 SSR markers were identified for the five traits. Two SSR markers, sct_010 and satt316, which are associated with the yield per plant were stably expressed over two years at two experimental locations. Our results suggested that association mapping can be an effective approach for identifying QTL from wild soybean.
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Activation of Bombyx neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptor A4 via a G?i-dependent signaling pathway by direct interaction with neuropeptide F from silkworm, Bombyx mori.
Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2013
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Members of the mammalian neuropeptide Y (NPY) family serve as neurotransmitters and contribute to a diversity of physiological functions. Although neuropeptide F (NPF), the NPY-like orthologs from insects, have been identified, the NPF receptors and their signaling and physiological functions remain largely unknown. In this study, we established the stable and transient functional expression of a Bombyx orphan G protein-coupled receptor, BNGR-A4, in both mammalian HEK293 and insect SF21 cells. We identified Bombyx mori NPFs as specific endogenous ligands for the Bombyx Neuropeptide GPCR A4 (BNGR-A4) and, accordingly, named the receptor BomNPFR. Our results demonstrated that BomNPFR was activated by synthetic BomNPF1a and BomNPF1b at a high efficacy and by BomNPF2 at a low efficacy. This activation led to a decrease of forskolin or adipokinetic hormone peptide-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity, an increase of intracellular Ca(2+), the activation of ERK1/2 signaling and receptor internalization. Moreover, a Rhodamine-labeled BomNPF1a peptide was found to bind specifically to BomNPFR. The results derived from quantitative RT-PCR analysis and dsRNA-mediated knockdown experiments demonstrated the possible role of BomNPFR in the regulation of food intake and growth. Our results provide the first in-depth information on BomNPFR-mediated signaling for the further elucidation of the BomNPF/BomNPFR system in the regulation of fundamental physiological processes.
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Determination of the genetic architecture of seed size and shape via linkage and association analysis in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.).
Genetica
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Seed-size traits, which are controlled by multiple genes in soybean, play an important role in determining seed yield, quality and appearance. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling the size of soybean seeds remain unclear, and little research has been done to investigate these mechanisms. In this study, we performed a genetic analysis to determine the genetic architecture of soybean seed size and shape via linkage and association analyses. We used 184 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and 219 cultivated soybean accessions to evaluate seed length, seed width and seed height as seed-size traits, and their ratios of these values as seed-shape traits. Our results showed that all six traits had high heritability ranging from 92.46 to 98.47 %. Linkage analysis in the RILs identified 12 quantitative traits loci (QTLs), with five of these QTLs being associated with seed size, five with seed shape and two with the two first principal components of our principal component analysis (PCA). Association analysis in the 219 accessions detected 41 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-trait associations, with 20 of these SNPs being associated with seed-size traits, seven with seed-shape traits and 14 with the two first principal components of our PCA. This analysis reveals that seed-size and seed-shape may be controlled by different genetic factors. Our results provide a greater understanding of phenotypic structure and genetic architecture of soybean seed, and the QTLs detected in this study form a basis for future fine mapping, quantitative trait gene cloning and molecular breeding in soybean.
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Screening of candidate proteins interacting with IE-2 of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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IE-2 of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) has been shown to play important roles in baculovirus infection, which are involved in gene expression and viral replication. However, the mechanism remains unknown. In this paper, by TargetP software, four genes, i.e.-2, odv-e26, odv-e56 and BmNPV-gp101 (Ac-orf116) of BmNPV and Autographa californica multiple NPV (AcMNPV) were predicted to be located in mitochondria. By BLAST tool using BmNPV IE-2 protein sequence, 14 NPVs were found to have IE-2 homologues in GenBank, and most of them were predicted to be located in mitochondria, except for that of Antheraea pernyi NPV (AnpeNPV) and Anticarsia gemmatalis NPV (AngeNPV). To observe the subcellular localization of BmNPV IE-2, a recombinant virus overexpressed the IE-2 and eGFP fusion protein was constructed. In infected BmN cells, the fluorescence specifically enriched in the cellular mitochondria. This evidence was accordant with the prediction. Further, Pull-down assay was used to select protein candidates interacting with IE-2 in B. mori cells infected with BmNPV. Of several isolated protein components, sixteen candidates were identified by MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry, eight baculoviral proteins (ALK-EXO, F protein, IAP-1, LEF-3, LEF-9, ODV-NC42, TLP, and VP39), and eight proteins from B. mori (Actin, ADP/ATP translocase, ATP synthase subunit beta, Beta-tubulin, DNA topoisomerase 2, Histone H4, Soluble guanylyl cyclae alpha-1 subunit, Transketolase). From the functional point of view, most of these proteins were generally divided into two groups, mitochondrial interaction proteins and viral DNA replication proteins. These results implied that the IE-2 had multiple functions involved in regulating viral gene expression, viral replication and also as a component of mitochondrial factors to regulate the cellular energy supply and apoptosis.
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[Retrospective analysis of the treatment of recurrent congenital fistula or cyst in lateral cervical part].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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To analysis the therapeutic procedure on the recurrent congenital fistula or cyst in lateral cervical part.
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GmFtsH9 expression correlates with in vivo photosystem II function: chlorophyll a fluorescence transient analysis and eQTL mapping in soybean.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Filamentation temperature-sensitive H (FtsH) is an ATP-dependent zinc metalloprotease involved in diverse biological functions. There are 12 FtsH proteins in Arabidopsis, among which AtFtsH2 plays an important role in regulating the turnover of photosystem II (PSII) reaction center D1 protein and the development of the photosynthetic apparatus. Here, we have identified 11 FtsH genes in the soybean genome by a bioinformatics approach. These soybean FtsH genes corresponded to seven Arabidopsis FtsH genes, suggesting that the main characteristics of soybean FtsH genes were formed before the evolutionary split of soybean and Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analyses allowed us to clone a soybean AtFtsH2-like gene designated as GmFtsH9. The predicted protein of GmFtsH9 consists of 690 amino acids and contains three typical FtsH proteins conserved domains. The expression level of GmFtsH9 was determined in a soybean recombinant inbred line population under a pot experiment conducted for measuring chlorophyll a fluorescence transient parameters, photosynthetic CO(2) fixation rate (P (N)), and seed yield. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping revealed two trans-acting eQTLs for GmFtsH9. The significant correlation of gene expression level with chlorophyll a fluorescence transient parameters and the presence of overlapping eQTL (QTL) between gene expression level and chlorophyll a fluorescence transient parameters indicated that GmFtsH9 could be involved in regulating PSII function. These results further lead to the understanding of the mechanism underlying FtsH gene expression, and contribute to the development of marker-assisted selection breeding programs for modulating soybean FtsH gene expression.
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A study of miRNAs targets prediction and experimental validation.
Protein Cell
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2010
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microRNAs (miRNAs) are 20-24 nucleotide (nt) RNAs that regulate eukaryotic gene expression post-transcriptionally by the degradation or translational inhibition of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). To identify miRNA target genes will help a lot by understanding their biological functions. Sophisticated computational approaches for miRNA target prediction, and effective biological techniques for validating these targets now play a central role in elucidating their functions. Owing to the imperfect complementarity of animal miRNAs with their targets, it is difficult to judge the accuracy of the prediction. Complexity of regulation by miRNA-mediated targets at protein and mRNAs levels has made it more challenging to identify the targets. To date, only a few miRNAs targets are confirmed. In this article, we review the methods of miRNA target prediction and the experimental validation for their corresponding mRNA targets in animals.
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Silkworm coatomers and their role in tube expansion of posterior silkgland.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2010
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Coat protein complex I (COPI) vesicles, coated by seven coatomer subunits, are mainly responsible for Golgi-to-ER transport. Silkworm posterior silkgland (PSG), a highly differentiated secretory tissue, secretes fibroin for silk production, but many physiological processes in the PSG cells await further investigation.
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The G protein-coupled receptors in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.
Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest and most versatile family of transmembrane receptors in the cell, occupying the highest hierarchical positions in the regulation of many physiological processes. Although they have been extensively studied in a number of model insects, there have been few investigations of GPCRs in large Lepidopterans, such as Bombyx mori, an organism that provides a means to perform detailed tissue expression analyses, which may help to characterize GPCRs and their ligands. In addition, B. mori, also known as the silkworm, is an insect of substantial economic importance, due to its use in silk production and traditional medicines. In this work, we computationally identified 90 putative GPCRs in B. mori, 33 of which represent novel proteins. These GPCRs were annotated and compared with their homologs in Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae. Phylogenetics analyses of the GPCRs from these three insects showed that GPCRs may easily duplicate or disappear during insect evolution, especially in the neuropeptide and protein hormone receptor subfamily. Interestingly, we observed a decrease in the quantity and diversity of the stress-tolerance gene, Methuselah, in B. mori, which may be related to its long history of domestication. Moreover, the presence of many Bombyx-specific GPCRs suggests that neither Drosophila nor Anopheles is good representatives for the GPCRs in the Class Insecta.
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Mutation of a vitelline membrane protein, BmEP80, is responsible for the silkworm "Ming" lethal egg mutant.
Gene
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The egg stage is an important stage in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) life cycle. Normal silkworm eggs are usually short, elliptical, and laterally flattened, with a sometimes hollowed surface on the lateral side. However, the eggs laid by homozygous recessive "Ming" lethal egg mutants (l-e(m)) lose water and become concaved around 1h, ultimately exhibiting a triangular shape on the egg surfaces. We performed positional cloning, and narrowed down the region containing the gene responsible for the l-e(m) mutant to 360 kb on chromosome 10 using 2287 F(2) individuals. Using expression analysis and RNA interference, the best l-e(m) candidate gene was shown to be BmEP80. The results of the inverse polymerase chain reaction showed that an ~1.9 kb region from the 3 untranslated region of BmVMP23 to the forepart of BmEP80 was replaced by a >100 kb DNA fragment in the l-e(m) mutant. Several eggs laid by the normal moths injected with BmEP80 small interfering RNAs were evidently depressed and exhibited a triangular shape on the surface. The phenotype exhibited was consistent with the eggs laid by the l-e(m) mutant. Moreover, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that the BmEP80 protein was expressed in the ovary from the 9th day of the pupa stage to eclosion in the wild-type silkworm, but was absent in the l-e(m) mutant. These results indicate that BmEP80 is responsible for the l-e(m) mutation.
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cDNA cloning, expression, and enzymatic activity of a novel endogenous cellulase from the beetle Batocera horsfieldi.
Gene
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In this study, we report a novel cellulase [?-1,4-endoglucanase (EGase), EC 3.2.1.4] cDNA (Bh-EGase II) belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family (GHF) 45 from the beetle Batocera horsfieldi. The Bh-EGase II gene spans 720bp and consists of a single exon coding for 239 amino acid residues. Bh-EGase II showed 93.72% protein sequence identity to Ag-EGase II from the beetle Apriona germari. The GHF 45 catalytic site is conserved in Bh-EGase II. Bh-EGase II has three putative N-glycosylation sites at 56-58 (N-K-S), 99-101 (N-S-T), and 237-239 (N-Y-S), respectively. The cDNA encoding Bh-EGase II was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect BmN cells and Bombyx mori larvae. Recombinant Bh-EGase II from BmN cells and larval hemolymph had an enzymatic activity of approximately 928U/mg. The enzymatic catalysis of recombinant Bh-EGase II showed the highest activity at 50°C and pH6.0.
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Molecular epidemiology and functional assessment of novel allelic variants of SLC26A4 in non-syndromic hearing loss patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct in China.
PLoS ONE
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Mutations in SLC26A4, which encodes pendrin, are a common cause of deafness. SLC26A4 mutations are responsible for Pendred syndrome and non-syndromic enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA). The mutation spectrum of SLC26A4 varies widely among ethnic groups. To investigate the incidence of EVA in Chinese population and to provide appropriate genetic testing and counseling to patients with SLC26A4 variants, we conducted a large-scale molecular epidemiological survey of SLC26A4.
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Comparison of the structural characterization and biological activity of acidic polysaccharides from Cordyceps militaris cultured with different media.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
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Two acidic polysaccharide fractions, CM-jd-CPS2 and CM-jd(Y)-CPS2, were isolated from the fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps militaris grown on solid rice medium and silkworm pupa, respectively, by hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation and fractionation using ion-exchange column (DEAE-cellulose-52) and gel-filtration column (Sephadex G-100) chromatography. Their structural characterizations were performed by gas chromatography and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Some differences existed between their structures, which indicated that culture media could influence the structure of polysaccharides of C. militaris. The antioxidant activities of CM-jd-CPS2 and CM-jd(Y)-CPS2 were evaluated by various methods in vitro. They had strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ferrous ion-chelating capacity, but moderate reducing power. The antioxidant activities of CM-jd(Y)-CPS2 were slightly higher than those of CM-jd-CPS2. These two acidic fractions were evaluated for proliferation of mouse splenocyte activity in vitro. They both possessed does-dependent mitogenic effects on mouse splenocytes, and could synergistically promote murine T- and B-lymphocytes induced by Con A and LPS. CM-jd(Y)-CPS2 exhibited stronger stimulatory activities upon immunomodulation than CM-jd-CPS2. These results are beneficial for the interpretation of the connection between polysaccharide structures and their biological activities.
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Common molecular etiologies are rare in nonsyndromic Tibetan Chinese patients with hearing impairment.
PLoS ONE
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Thirty thousand infants are born every year with congenital hearing impairment in mainland China. Racial and regional factors are important in clinical diagnosis of genetic deafness. However, molecular etiology of hearing impairment in the Tibetan Chinese population living in the Tibetan Plateau has not been investigated. To provide appropriate genetic testing and counseling to Tibetan families, we investigated molecular etiology of nonsyndromic deafness in this population.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.