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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Proteomics-based strategies to identify proteins relevant to chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a malignant B-cell disorder, is characterized by a heterogeneous clinical course. Two-dimensional nano liquid chromatography (2D-nano-LC) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) (LC-MALDI) was used to perform qualitative and quantitative analysis on cellular extracts from 12 primary CLL samples. We identified 728 proteins and quantified 655 proteins using isobaric tag-labeled extracts. Four strategies were used to identify disease-related proteins. First, we integrated our CLL proteome with published gene expression data of normal B-cells and CLL cells to highlight proteins with preferential expression in the transcriptome of CLL. Second, as CLL's outcome is heterogeneous, our quantitative proteomic data were used to indicate heterogeneously expressed proteins. Third, we used the quantitative data to identify proteins with differential abundance in poor prognosis CLL samples. Fourth, hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to identify hidden patterns of protein expression. These strategies identified 63 proteins, and 4 were investigated in a CLL cohort (39 patients). Thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein 3, T-cell leukemia/lymphoma protein 1A, and S100A8 were associated with high-risk CLL. Myosin-9 exhibited reduced expression in CLL samples from high-risk patients. This study shows the usefulness of proteomic approaches, combined with transcriptomics, to identify disease-related proteins.
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Bezafibrate and medroxyprogesterone acetate target resting and CD40L-stimulated primary marginal zone lymphoma and show promise in indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHLs) are the most common adult hematological cancers and many remain incurable. Development of chemotherapy regimens is confounded by the prevalence of B-NHL in older, frailer patients and the chemo-protective tumor microenvironment. Although biological therapies such as rituximab have significantly improved outcomes and selective kinase inhibitors are showing promise, the rate of new drug discovery remains disappointing, the treatments expensive and long-term benefits uncertain. An alternative strategy is redeployment of available, inexpensive and non-toxic drugs. Here, we demonstrate the antiproliferative and mitochondrial superoxide (MSO) driven pro-apoptotic activities of bezafibrate (BEZ) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) against B-NHL cells, with a bias toward MZL, in the presence and absence of the microenvironmental signal CD40L. Our study is the first to confirm the presence of CD40L within the lymph node of B-NHL and its capacity to drive B-NHL proliferation. These findings implicate BEZ + MPA as a potential therapeutic strategy in B-NHL.
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Telomere dysfunction accurately predicts clinical outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, even in patients with early stage disease.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Defining the prognosis of individual cancer sufferers remains a significant clinical challenge. Here we assessed the ability of high-resolution single telomere length analysis (STELA), combined with an experimentally derived definition of telomere dysfunction, to predict the clinical outcome of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). We defined the upper telomere length threshold at which telomere fusions occur and then used the mean of the telomere 'fusogenic' range as a prognostic tool. Patients with telomeres within the fusogenic range had a significantly shorter overall survival (P < 0·0001; Hazard ratio [HR] = 13·2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 11·6-106·4) and this was preserved in early-stage disease patients (P < 0·0001, HR=19·3, 95% CI = 17·8-802·5). Indeed, our assay allowed the accurate stratification of Binet stage A patients into those with indolent disease (91% survival at 10 years) and those with poor prognosis (13% survival at 10 years). Furthermore, patients with telomeres above the fusogenic mean showed superior prognosis regardless of their IGHV mutation status or cytogenetic risk group. In keeping with this finding, telomere dysfunction was the dominant variable in multivariate analysis. Taken together, this study provides compelling evidence for the use of high-resolution telomere length analysis coupled with a definition of telomere dysfunction in the prognostic assessment of CLL.
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Development and characterization of a physiologically relevant model of lymphocyte migration in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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There is growing evidence that lymphocyte trafficking contributes to the clinical course of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but to date, only static in vitro cultures have been used to study these phenomena. To address this lack of data, we have developed a dynamic in vitro model in which CLL cells experience shear forces equivalent to those in capillary beds and are made to flow through capillary-like hollow fibers lined with endothelial cells. CLL cells treated in this way increased their expression of CD62L and CXCR4 (both P < .0001) and of CD49d and CD5 (both P = .003) directly as a result of the shear force. Furthermore, CLL cells migrated through the endothelium into the "extravascular" space (mean migration, 1.37% ± 2.14%; n = 21). Migrated CLL cells had significantly higher expression of CD49d (P = .02), matrix metallopeptidase-9 (P = .004), CD38 (P = .009), CD80 (P = .04), and CD69 (P = .04) compared with CLL cells that remained in the circulation. The degree of migration observed strongly correlated with CD49d expression (r(2), 0.47; P = .01), and treatment with the CD49d-blocking antibody natalizumab resulted in significantly decreased migration (P = .01). Taken together, our data provide evidence for a novel, dynamic, and tractable in vitro model of lymphocyte migration and confirm that CD49d is a critical regulator of this process in CLL.
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A novel Cdk9 inhibitor preferentially targets tumor cells and synergizes with fludarabine.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Cdk9 is a key elongation factor for RNA transcription and functions by phosphorylating the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Here we present direct evidence that cdk9 is important for cancer cell survival and describe the characterization of the potent cdk9 inhibitor CDKI-73 in primary human leukemia cells. CDKI-73 induced caspase-dependent apoptosis that was preceded by dephosphorylation of cdk9 and serine 2 of RNA polymerase II. CDKI-73 was more potent than the pan-cdk inhibitor flavopiridol and showed >200-fold selectivity against primary leukemia cells when compared with normal CD34+ cells. Furthermore, CDKI-73 was equipotent in poor prognostic sub-groups of leukemia patients and showed cytotoxic synergy with the nucleoside analog fludarabine. The Mechanism of synergy was associated with CDKI-73-mediated transcriptional inhibition of MCL1 and XIAP that was maintained when used in combination with fludarabine. Our data present a strong rationale for the development of cdk9 inhibitors such as CDKI-73 as anticancer therapeutics.
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MHC class I-associated phosphopeptides are the targets of memory-like immunity in leukemia.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Deregulation of signaling pathways is a hallmark of malignant transformation. Signaling-associated phosphoproteins can be degraded to generate cancer-specific phosphopeptides that are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules and recognized by T cells; however, the contribution of these phosphoprotein-specific T cells to immune surveillance is unclear. We identified 95 phosphopeptides presented on the surface of primary hematological tumors and normal tissues, including 61 that were tumor-specific. Phosphopeptides were more prevalent on more aggressive and malignant samples. CD8(+) T cell lines specific for these phosphopeptides recognized and killed both leukemia cell lines and human leukocyte antigen-matched primary leukemia cells ex vivo. Notably, healthy individuals showed robust CD8(+) T cell responses against many of these phosphopeptides within the circulating memory compartment. This immunity was significantly reduced or absent in some leukemia patients. This reduction correlated with clinical outcome; however, immunity was restored after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. These results suggest that phosphopeptides may be targets of cancer immune surveillance in humans, and point to their importance for development of vaccine-based and T cell adoptive transfer immunotherapies.
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A genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have shown that common genetic variation contributes to the heritable risk of CLL. To identify additional CLL susceptibility loci, we conducted a GWAS and performed a meta-analysis with a published GWAS totaling 1,739 individuals with CLL (cases) and 5,199 controls with validation in an additional 1,144 cases and 3,151 controls. A combined analysis identified new susceptibility loci mapping to 3q26.2 (rs10936599, P = 1.74 × 10(-9)), 4q26 (rs6858698, P = 3.07 × 10(-9)), 6q25.2 (IPCEF1, rs2236256, P = 1.50 × 10(-10)) and 7q31.33 (POT1, rs17246404, P = 3.40 × 10(-8)). Additionally, we identified a promising association at 5p15.33 (CLPTM1L, rs31490, P = 1.72 × 10(-7)) and validated recently reported putative associations at 5p15.33 (TERT, rs10069690, P = 1.12 × 10(-10)) and 8q22.3 (rs2511714, P = 2.90 × 10(-9)). These findings provide further insights into the genetic and biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to CLL.
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Common variation at 3q26.2, 6p21.33, 17p11.2 and 22q13.1 influences multiple myeloma risk.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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To identify variants for multiple myeloma risk, we conducted a genome-wide association study with validation in additional series totaling 4,692 individuals with multiple myeloma (cases) and 10,990 controls. We identified four risk loci at 3q26.2 (rs10936599, P = 8.70 × 10(-14)), 6p21.33 (rs2285803, PSORS1C2, P = 9.67 × 10(-11)), 17p11.2 (rs4273077, TNFRSF13B, P = 7.67 × 10(-9)) and 22q13.1 (rs877529, CBX7, P = 7.63 × 10(-16)). These data provide further evidence for genetic susceptibility to this B-cell hematological malignancy, as well as insight into the biological basis of predisposition.
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Defining the prognosis of early stage chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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Approximately 70% of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients present with early stage disease, therefore defining which patients will progress and require treatment is a major clinical challenge. Here, we present the largest study of prognostic markers ever carried out in Binet stage A patients (n?=?1154) with a median follow-up of 8?years. We assessed the prognostic impact of lymphocyte doubling time (LDT), immunoglobulin gene (IGHV) mutation status, CD38 expression, ZAP-70 expression and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) cytogenetics with regards to time to first treatment (TTFT) and overall survival (OS). Univariate analysis revealed LDT as the most prognostic parameter for TTFT, with IGHV mutation status most prognostic for OS. CD38 expression, ZAP-70 expression and FISH were also prognostic variables; combinations of these markers increased prognostic power in concordant cases. Multivariate analysis revealed that only LDT, IGHV mutation status, CD38 and age at diagnosis were independent prognostic variables for TTFT and OS. Therefore, IGHV mutation status and CD38 expression have independent prognostic value in early stage CLL and should be performed as part of the routine diagnostic workup. ZAP-70 expression and FISH were not independent prognostic markers in early stage disease and can be omitted at diagnosis but FISH analysis should be undertaken at disease progression to direct treatment strategy.
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Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia requires targeting of the protective lymph node environment with novel therapeutic approaches.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) remains associated with low complete response rates and high relapse rates. This is in part due to poor understanding of CLL biology and thus inadequate targeting of therapy. For years CLL has been proposed as bi-compartmental: the quiescent tumor in the periphery and the proliferating cells within specific microenvironments. Historically the bone marrow was considered the major tissue of the CLL microenvironment. However, many recent innovative studies have categorically shown that peripheral CLL cells are derived from the lymph nodes (LN). Proliferation here is largely driven by helper T cells via CD40-CD40L engagement. Critically, in vitro studies have shown that such engagement additionally protects LN CLLs from apoptosis. Agents inducing apoptosis in non-CD40 engaged CLL cells are frequently ineffective against those continually engaged with CD40L. This emphasizes that, in order to improve responses and prevent relapse, novel therapies must be assessed against CD40L engaged CLL cells to show effective targeting against the LN. This review discusses the evidence supporting the superior involvement of the LN in CLL, how CD40L engaged CLL studies should be conducted, and the novel therapies studied in vitro and in vivo that have been proposed to be effective in this setting.
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ATM germline heterozygosity does not play a role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia initiation but influences rapid disease progression through loss of the remaining ATM allele.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Ataxia telangiectasia patients, with constitutional bi-allelic ATM mutations, have a marked risk of lymphoid tumors and ATM mutation carriers have a smaller risk of cancer. Sporadic ATM mutations occur in 10-20% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and are often associated with chromosome 11q deletions which cause loss of an ATM allele. The role of constitutional ATM mutations in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia is unknown. Here we investigated the frequency of constitutional ATM mutations in either of two chronic lymphocytic leukemia cohorts, those with and without a chromosome 11q deletion. We found that in comparison to controls, constitutional pathogenic ATM mutations were increased in patients with chromosome 11q deletions (6 of 140 vs. 0 of 281, P = 0.001) but not in those without 11q deletions (2 of 178 vs. 0 of 281, P = 0.15). These results suggest that ATM germline heterozygosity does not play a role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia initiation but rather influences rapid disease progression through ATM loss.
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Guidelines for supportive care in multiple myeloma 2011.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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Supportive care plays an increasingly important role in the modern management of multiple myeloma. While modern treatments have significantly prolonged overall and progression free survival through improved disease control, the vast majority of patients remain incurable, and live with the burden of the disease itself and the cumulative side effects of treatments. Maintenance of quality of life presents challenges at all stages of the disease from diagnosis through the multiple phases of active treatment to the end of life. Written on behalf of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) and the UK Myeloma Forum (UKMF), these evidence based guidelines summarize the current national consensus for supportive and symptomatic care in multiple myeloma in the following areas; pain management, peripheral neuropathy, skeletal complications, infection, anaemia, haemostasis and thrombosis, sedation, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, constipation, diarrhoea, mucositis, bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw, complementary therapies, holistic needs assessment and end of life care. Although most aspects of supportive care can be supervised by haematology teams primarily responsible for patients with multiple myeloma, multidisciplinary collaboration involving specialists in palliative medicine, pain management, radiotherapy and surgical specialities is essential, and guidance is provided for appropriate interdisciplinary referral. These guidelines should be read in conjunction with the BCSH/UKMF Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Multiple Myeloma 2011.
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Dominant responses with conservation of T-cell receptor usage in the CD8+ T-cell recognition of a cancer testis antigen peptide presented through HLA-Cw7 in patients with multiple myeloma.
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Cancer testis antigens exhibit physiological expression within germ cells and are frequently expressed in malignant tissue. Interestingly, immunological tolerance to cancer testis proteins does not appear to be established, and the expression of CTAg proteins within malignant cells can therefore lead to induction of cellular and humoral immunity. A considerable body of evidence now indicates that CD8-specific immunity plays an important role in the control of cancer cell growth, and a number of vaccine studies are in progress to boost CTAg-specific cellular immune responses. We have previously identified CTAg-specific immune responses in patients with multiple myeloma and reported that recognition of the MAGE-A1(289-298) peptide, which is described as being restricted by HLA-B*0702, was the most frequent response seen with our peptide panel. Here, we studied seven CD8+ T-cell clones specific for this peptide which were isolated from three patients with myeloma at several time-points. The affinity of peptide recognition was high with 50% maximal interferon-? production observed at a peptide concentration of 10(-10) M and variation of only one order of magnitude between the affinities of the clones. Importantly, all the clones were able to recognise and kill multiple myeloma cell lines. Interestingly, one patient did not express HLA-B*0702, but three clones from this patient recognised the MAGE-A1(289-298) peptide on a lymphoblastoid cell line (LCLs) expressing HLA-Cw7, and we now show evidence that the MAGE-A1(289-298) peptide is expressed and recognised through Cw7. The T-cell receptor gene usage was determined in five clones and showed conserved features in both the ? and the ? chain genes indicating correlation between T-cell receptor usage and peptide specificity of cancer testis antigen-specific T-cell clones.
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The PARP inhibitor olaparib induces significant killing of ATM-deficient lymphoid tumor cells in vitro and in vivo.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2010
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The Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) gene is frequently inactivated in lymphoid malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and is associated with defective apoptosis in response to alkylating agents and purine analogues. ATM mutant cells exhibit impaired DNA double strand break repair. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition that imposes the requirement for DNA double strand break repair should selectively sensitize ATM-deficient tumor cells to killing. We investigated in vitro sensitivity to the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib (AZD2281) of 5 ATM mutant lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), an ATM mutant MCL cell line, an ATM knockdown PGA CLL cell line, and 9 ATM-deficient primary CLLs induced to cycle and observed differential killing compared with ATM wildtype counterparts. Pharmacologic inhibition of ATM and ATM knockdown confirmed the effect was ATM-dependent and mediated through mitotic catastrophe independently of apoptosis. A nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) murine xenograft model of an ATM mutant MCL cell line demonstrated significantly reduced tumor load and an increased survival of animals after olaparib treatment in vivo. Addition of olaparib sensitized ATM null tumor cells to DNA-damaging agents. We suggest that olaparib would be an appropriate agent for treating refractory ATM mutant lymphoid tumors.
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CD49d is an independent prognostic marker that is associated with CXCR4 expression in CLL.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2010
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The world of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) research is awash with prognostic markers. However, very few of the current group play a clearly defined role in the pathology of this disease and even fewer represent a tractable therapeutic target. One such marker that fulfils both of these criteria is the integrin CD49d. This molecule been implicated in the capacity of CLL cells to migrate into lymphoid tissues and there is a CD49d blocking antibody, Natalizumab, currently in clinical trials. Here we carried out the largest multi-centre evaluation of CD49d as a prognostic marker in 652 primary CLL samples. We confirm that CD49d is predictive for time to first treatment (P<0.0001) and overall survival (P<0.0001) and increases the prognostic power of CD38, ZAP-70 and IGHV gene mutation status in concordant cases. Furthermore, CD49d retained independent prognostic significance in multivariate analysis. In contrast to previous studies, we showed no correlation between CD49d expression and in vitro resistance to fludarabine in liquid cultures (P=0.28) but CD49d(hi) cells were significantly more resistant than CD49d(lo) cells when assays were carried out on fibronectin-coated plates (P=0.03). Furthermore, we showed for the first time that the expression of CD49d is strongly associated with expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 suggesting a co-ordinated role for these molecules in the trafficking of CLL cells to the lymphoid tissues. Taken together, our data support the introduction of CD49d into routine immunophenotyping panels for CLL and indicate that the therapeutic targeting of this molecule may prove useful in this disease.
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Lycorine sensitizes CD40 ligand-protected chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to bezafibrate- and medroxyprogesterone acetate-induced apoptosis but dasatanib does not overcome reported CD40-mediated drug resistance.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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Tumor cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia accumulate in the periphery through the proliferation of a minority of cells in lymph nodes. The proliferative and survival signals in these proliferation centers include interactions with T lymphocytes expressing CD40 ligand. We have demonstrated that the low toxicity combination of bezafibrate and medroxyprogesterone acetate induces mitochondrial superoxide-mediated apoptosis of non-CD40-liganded cells but not of cells exposed to CD40 ligand. Here, we assessed the ability of dasatinib and lycorine to restore bezafibrate- and medroxyprogesterone acetate- induced apoptosis in cells exposed to CD40 ligand. In parallel experiments we compared the ability of dasatinib to induce apoptosis of cells co-treated with fludarabine.
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Chronic graft versus host disease is associated with an immune response to autologous human leukocyte antigen-derived peptides.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2010
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) the immunopathogenesis of which is not well understood. Humoral and cellular immunity are both implicated, patients express a range of autoantibodies, but the targets of cellular immunity are not well defined. Autologous human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-derived peptides constitute a significant proportion of the repertoire.
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Telomere dysfunction and fusion during the progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: evidence for a telomere crisis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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We performed single-molecule telomere length and telomere fusion analysis in patients at different stages of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Our work identified the shortest telomeres ever recorded in primary human tissue, reinforcing the concept that there is significant cell division in CLL. Furthermore, we provide direct evidence that critical telomere shortening, dysfunction, and fusion contribute to disease progression. The frequency of short telomeres and fusion events increased with advanced disease, but importantly these were also found in a subset of early-stage patient samples, indicating that these events can precede disease progression. Sequence analysis of fusion events isolated from persons with the shortest telomeres revealed limited numbers of repeats at the breakpoint, subtelomeric deletion, and microhomology. Array-comparative genome hybridization analysis of persons displaying evidence of telomere dysfunction revealed large-scale genomic rearrangements that were concentrated in the telomeric regions; this was not observed in samples with longer telomeres. The telomere dynamics observed in CLL B cells were indistinguishable from that observed in cells undergoing crisis in culture after abrogation of the p53 pathway. Taken together, our data support the concept that telomere erosion and subsequent telomere fusion are critical in the progression of CLL and that this paradigm may extend to other malignancies.
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The NF-kappaB inhibitor LC-1 has single agent activity in multiple myeloma cells and synergizes with bortezomib.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Multiple myeloma remains incurable with conventional therapeutics. Thus, new treatments for this condition are clearly required. In this study we evaluated the novel NF-kappaB inhibitor LC-1 in multiple myeloma cell lines and plasma cells derived from multiple myeloma patients. LC-1 was cytotoxic to multiple myeloma cell lines H929, U266, and JJN3, and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner with an overall LD(50) of 3.6 micromol/L (+/-1.8) after 48 hours in culture. Primary multiple myeloma cells, identified by CD38 and CD138 positivity, had a mean LD(50) for LC-1 of 4.9 micromol/L (+/-1.6); normal bone marrow cells were significantly less sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of LC-1 (P = 0.0002). Treatment of multiple myeloma cell lines with LC-1 resulted in decreased nuclear localization of the NF-kappaB subunit Rel A and the inhibition of NF-kappaB target genes. In addition, LC-1 showed synergy with melphalan, bortezomib, and doxorubicin (combination indices of 0.72, 0.61, and 0.78, respectively), and was more effective when cells were cultured on fibronectin. These data show that LC-1 has activity in multiple myeloma cell lines and primary multiple myeloma cells, and its ability to inhibit NF-kappaB seems important for its cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, LC-1-induced transcriptional suppression of survivin and MCL1 provides a potential explanation for its synergy with conventional agents.
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CD8(+) T-cell immunity against cancer-testis antigens develops following allogeneic stem cell transplantation and reveals a potential mechanism for the graft-versus-leukemia effect.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is associated with a powerful graft-versus-leukemia effect that is generally considered to result from an alloreactive T-cell immune response. However, disease remission can also be observed after syngeneic transplantation and we investigated whether a T-cell immune response to cancer-testis antigens can be detected in patients in the post-transplant period.
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Multiple myeloma with monoclonal free IgG3 heavy chains and free kappa light chains.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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We describe the case of a 34-year-old gentleman investigated for persistent neutropaenia following two episodes of pneumonia. Specialist investigations led to the diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM) producing a truncated monoclonal gamma(3) heavy chain (HC) immunoglobulin molecule unattached to a light chain (LC) with atypical features for both MM and HC disease. Western blot showed gamma(3)HC was truncated with a large deletion (75 kDa). Flow cytometry of the bone marrow aspirate revealed an unusual staining pattern. This plasma cell dyscrasia was also unusual in that a subpopulation (30%) secreted large quantities of free LC (FLC) as well as truncated IgG HC. This is the first description, investigation and treatment of MM with a plasma cell population producing truncated gamma(3)HC and kappaFLC M-proteins and illustrates a number of unique immunological and clinical features.
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Common variants at 2q37.3, 8q24.21, 15q21.3 and 16q24.1 influence chronic lymphocytic leukemia risk.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2010
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To identify new risk variants for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we conducted a genome-wide association study of 299,983 tagging SNPs, with validation in four additional series totaling 2,503 cases and 5,789 controls. We identified four new risk loci for CLL at 2q37.3 (rs757978, FARP2; odds ratio (OR) = 1.39; P = 2.11 x 10(-9)), 8q24.21 (rs2456449; OR = 1.26; P = 7.84 x 10(-10)), 15q21.3 (rs7169431; OR = 1.36; P = 4.74 x 10(-7)) and 16q24.1 (rs305061; OR = 1.22; P = 3.60 x 10(-7)). We also found evidence for risk loci at 15q25.2 (rs783540, CPEB1; OR = 1.18; P = 3.67 x 10(-6)) and 18q21.1 (rs1036935; OR = 1.22; P = 2.28 x 10(-6)). These data provide further evidence for genetic susceptibility to this B-cell hematological malignancy.
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Beta2-microglobulin is a better predictor of treatment-free survival in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia if adjusted according to glomerular filtration rate.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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Even in the era of newer and sophisticated prognostic markers, beta(2)-microglobulin (B2M) remains a simple but very powerful predictor of treatment-free survival (TFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). However, B2M levels are heavily influenced by the patients glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and this study aimed to evaluate whether GFR-adjusted B2M (GFR-B2M) had improved prognostic value compared to unadjusted B2M in a cohort of over 450 consecutive CLL patients from two separate institutions. Multivariate analysis identified a significantly shorter TFS in patients who were ZAP-70 + (P < 0.001), with increased GFR-B2M (P < 0.001), and del(11q) or del(17p) as detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH; P < 0.001). When OS was evaluated by multivariate analysis, age 65 years or older (P < 0.001) and poor risk FISH abnormalities (P < 0.001) had a confirmed adverse prognostic impact, but the predictive value of GFR-B2M was lost in the validation analysis. In all survival models, B2M did not attain independent significance unless GFR-B2M was eliminated from the analysis. In conclusion, GFR-B2M is a better predictor of TFS than unadjusted B2M in CLL patients.
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Abnormal serum free light chain ratios are associated with poor survival and may reflect biological subgroups in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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The measurement of immunoglobulin serum free light chains (sFLC) has prognostic significance in plasma cell dyscrasias but its role in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is unknown. This retrospective study from three UK hospitals analysed sFLC in 181 untreated/pre-treatment CLL patients and 78 treated CLL patients, with samples taken later in their disease. An abnormal sFLC ratio was significantly associated with poor overall survival for the 181 untreated/pre-treatment patients (P = 0.0001) and for all patients (P = 0.002), irrespective of cause of death. Using multivariate analysis (n = 194), four independent prognostic variables for overall survival were identified namely Zap-70 (P = 0.0001), beta2M (P = 0.01), IGHV mutation status (P = 0.017) and an abnormal sFLC ratio (P = 0.024). For CLL patients with unmutated IGHV genes, elevated kappa/lambda ratios were adversely prognostic. For patients with mutated IGHV genes, reduced kappa/lambda ratios were adversely prognostic and associated with the poor prognostic IGHV3-21, IGHV3-48 and IGHV3-53 subgroups, suggesting an abnormal sFLC ratio may reflect biological subgroups within CLL. Abnormal sFLC ratios need to be studied prospectively in CLL patients and the biological rationale for their abnormality investigated.
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Rel a is an independent biomarker of clinical outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
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We recently demonstrated the biologic importance of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) subunit Rel A in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and hypothesized that Rel A DNA binding would have prognostic significance in this disease.
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Results of a randomized trial of chlorambucil versus fludarabine for patients with untreated Waldenström macroglobulinemia, marginal zone lymphoma, or lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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Treatment options for patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) and closely related disorders include alkylating agents, purine analogs, and monoclonal antibodies. No large randomized studies have yet been reported comparing any of these approaches.
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The genotype of RAET1L (ULBP6), a ligand for human NKG2D (KLRK1), markedly influences the clinical outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Br. J. Haematol.
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NKG2D (KLRK1) is an activating receptor on natural killer (NK) and T-cells and binds a diverse panel of polymorphic ligands encoded by the MIC and RAET1 gene families. We studied the clinical importance of retinoic acid early transcript-1 (RAET1) polymorphism in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) by determining the frequency of 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and individual RAET1 alleles in 371 patient-donor pairs and relating this to clinical outcome. A strong association was observed between the presence of five SNPs within the patient RAET1L (ULBP6) gene and relapse-free survival and overall survival. Two common alleles of RAET1L were determined and the presence of the protective RAET1L*02 allele in the patient was associated with a relapse-free survival of 44% at 8 years compared with just 25% in patients who lacked a RAET1L*02 allele (P < 0·001). Overall survival at this time was 55% in those with RAET1L*02 allele compared to 39% in patients who lacked a RAET1L*02 allele (P = 0·003). These novel findings indicate a critical role for NKG2D-RAET1L interactions in determining SCT clinical outcome and show RAET1L may have an important influence on regulating the strength of the alloreactive immune response. The data will be of value in guiding the development of future transplant therapy protocols.
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Recruitment mechanisms of primary and malignant B cells to the human liver.
Hepatology
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B cells are present within chronically inflamed liver tissue and recent evidence implicates them in the progression of liver disease. In addition, a large proportion of hepatic lymphomas are of B-cell origin. The molecular signals that regulate normal and malignant B-cell recruitment into peripheral tissue from blood are poorly understood, leading us to study human B-cell migration through hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells in flow-based adhesion assays. In such assays, human blood-derived B cells were captured from shear flow without a previous rolling phase and underwent firm adhesion mediated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Unlike T cells, which displayed vigorous crawling behavior on the endothelium, B cells remained static before a proportion underwent transendothelial migration mediated by a combination of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion protein-1, common lymphatic endothelial and vascular endothelial receptor-1/stabilin-1, and the chemokine receptors, CXCR3 and CXCR4. B-cell lymphoma cell lines and primary malignant B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and marginal zone B cell lymphoma also underwent integrin-mediated firm adhesion involving ICAM-1 and/or VCAM-1 and demonstrated ICAM-1-dependent shape-change and crawling behavior. Unlike primary lymphocytes, the malignant cells did not undergo transendothelial migration, which could explain why lymphomas are frequently characterized by the intravascular accumulation of malignant cells in the hepatic sinusoids. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that distinct combinations of signals promote B-cell recruitment to the liver, suggesting the possibility of novel targets to modulate liver inflammation in disease. Certain features of lymphocyte homing are maintained in lymphoma recruitment to the liver, suggesting that therapeutic targets for lymphocyte recruitment may also prevent hepatic lymphoma dissemination.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.