It has been estimated that the proportion of never-smokers among females with lung cancer is 53% worldwide and 75% in Korea. We conducted a two-stage study to identify genetic factors responsible for lung cancer susceptibility in female never-smokers.
This study was conducted to investigate the associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 19q13.3 and survival of patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and to define the causative functional SNP of the association.
This study was conducted to analyze a comprehensive panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in DNA repair and apoptosis pathways and determine the relationship between polymorphisms and treatment outcomes of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with first-line paclitaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy. Three hundred eighty two patients with NSCLC were enrolled. Seventy-four SNPs in 48 genes (42 SNPs in 27 DNA repair pathway genes and 32 SNPs in 21 apoptotic pathway genes) were genotyped and their associations with chemotherapy response and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Among SNPs in DNA repair genes, BRCA1 rs799917 was significantly associated with both chemotherapy response and OS. XRCC1 rs25487 exhibited a significant association with chemotherapy response and ERCC2 rs1052555 with OS. Four SNPs in apoptotic genes (TNFRSF1B rs1061624, BCL2 rs2279115, BIRC5 rs9904341, and CASP8 rs3769818) were significantly associated with OS, but not with response to chemotherapy. When the six SNPs which were associated with OS in individual analysis were combined, OS decreased as the number of bad genotypes increased (P(trend) = 2 × 10(-6)). Patients with 3, and 4-6 bad genotypes had significantly worse OS compared with those carrying 0-2 bad genotypes (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.14-2.08, P = 0.005; aHR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.55-2.85, P = 2 × 10(-6), respectively). In conclusion, these findings suggest that the six SNPs identified, particularly their combined genotypes, could be used as biomarkers predicting chemotherapy response and survival of NSCLC patients treated with first-line paclitaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy.
Apoptosis plays an essential role in the elimination of mutated or transformed cells from the body. Therefore, polymorphisms of apoptosis-related genes may lead to an alteration in apoptotic capacity, thereby affecting the occurrence of TP53 mutations in lung cancer. We investigated the relationship between potentially functional polymorphisms of apoptosis-related genes and TP53 mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Twenty-seven single nucleotide polymorphisms in 20 apoptosis-related genes were genotyped by a sequenome mass spectrometry-based genotyping assay in 173 NSCLCs and the associations with TP53 mutations in the entire coding exons (exons 2-11), including splicing sites of the gene, were analyzed. None of the 27 polymorphisms was significantly associated with the occurrence of TP53 mutations. This suggests that apoptosis-related genes may not play an important role in the occurrence of TP53 mutations in lung cancer.
This study was conducted to determine the impact of a functional tandem repeat minisatellite (MNS16A) polymorphism in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene on the risk of lung cancer, as well as on survival of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The effect of the MNS16A variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism on the risk of lung cancer was evaluated in a case-control study that consisted of 937 lung cancer patients and 943 healthy controls. The effect of the polymorphism on survival outcome was evaluated in 703 patients with surgically resected NSCLC. Compared with the VNTR-302 allele, the VNTR-243 allele was associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-2.25; P = 0.02). In addition, the genotypes carrying at least one VNTR-243 allele were associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer compared with the genotypes with no VNTR-243 allele (adjusted odds ratio, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.09-2.38; P = 0.02). In contrast to the effect of the polymorphism on the risk of lung cancer, the genotypes carrying at least one VNTR-243 allele were associated with a significantly better overall survival in patients with surgically resected NSCLC (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.28-0.93; P = 0.03). These findings suggest that the MNS16A VNTR polymorphism in the TERT gene has dual, conflicting roles in lung carcinogenesis. This polymorphism may increase the risk of lung cancer development, and may improve survival in lung cancer patients.
This study was conducted to analyze a comprehensive panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in DNA repair genes to determine the relationship between polymorphisms and the survival outcome of patients with early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Three hundred and ten consecutive patients with surgically resected NSCLC were enrolled. Forty-eight SNP in 27 DNA repair genes were genotyped and their associations with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed. Individually, six SNP exhibited significant associations with survival outcome. When the six SNP were combined, OS and DFS decreased as the number of bad genotypes increased (P(trend) <0.0001 for both). Patients with three, and four or five bad genotypes had a significantly worse OS and DFS compared with those carrying zero or one bad genotypes (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] for OS=3.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.25-9.97, P=0.02, and aHR for DFS=3.31, 95% CI=1.41-7.76, P=0.006; and aHR for OS=5.47, 95% CI=1.87-16.00, P=0.002, and aHR for DFS=4.42, 95% CI=1.82-10.74, P=0.001, respectively). These findings suggest that the six SNP identified can be used as prognostic markers for patients with surgically resected early stage NSCLC.
Based on the important role of microRNA (miRNA) biosynthesis genes in carcinogenesis, we hypothesized that polymorphisms in the miRNA biosynthesis genes may modulate susceptibility to lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a two-stage study to evaluate the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the miRNA biosynthesis genes and the risk of lung cancer. In stage 1 of the study, 24 SNPs in the 11 miRNA biosynthesis genes (DROSHA, DGCR8, RAN, XPO5, DICER, AGO1, AGO2, HIWI, GEMIN3, GEMIN4, and TRBP) were genotyped in 100 lung cancer patients and 100 healthy controls using a sequenome mass spectrometry-based genotyping assay. One promising SNP (AGO1 rs636832A?>?G) was selected for stage 2 of the study, and genotyped by a melting-curve analysis using fluorescence-labeled hybridization probes in an independent set of 552 cases and 552 controls. The AGO1 rs636832A?>?G exhibited highly consistent results between the two stages of the study. In combined analysis, the 636832A?>?G was associated with a significantly decreased risk of lung cancer in a dose-dependent manner (P(trend)?= 6.0 × 10(-4)). Individuals with at least one rs636832G allele were at a significantly decreased risk of lung cancer compared with those with the AA genotype (adjusted odds ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval = 0.53-0.84, P = 4.0 × 10(-4)). This finding suggests that the AGO1 rs636832A?>?G might be a useful marker for determining the susceptibility to lung cancer and that the AGO1 gene might be involved in the development of lung cancer.
Caspases (CASPs) are important regulators and executioners in apoptosis pathway and play a crucial role in the development and progression of cancer. On the basis of the interactions of CASPs in the apoptotic pathway, we evaluated the association between 11 polymorphisms of CASP3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 genes and the risk of lung cancer.
This study was conducted to determine the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in apoptosis-related genes and survival outcomes of patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
A comprehensive SAR investigation of the C2-position of pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) monomer antitumor agents is reported, establishing the molecular requirements for optimal in vitro cytotoxicity and DNA-binding affinity. Both carbocyclic and heterocyclic C2-aryl substituents have been studied ranging from single aryl rings to fused ring systems, and also styryl substituents, establishing across a library of 80 analogues that C2-aryl and styryl substituents significantly enhance both DNA-binding affinity and in vitro cytotoxicity, with a correlation between the two. The optimal C2-grouping for both DNA-binding affinity and cytotoxicity was found to be the C2-quinolinyl moiety which, according to molecular modeling, is due to the overall fit of the molecule in the DNA minor groove, and potential specific contacts with functional groups in the floor and walls of the groove. This analogue (14l) was shown to delay tumor growth in a HCT-116 (bowel) human tumor xenograft model.
A number of genome-wide linkage analyses have identified the 2q33.3-2q37.2 region as most likely to contain the genes that contribute to the susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It was hypothesized that the SERPINE2 gene, which is one of the genes located at the 2q33.3-2q37.2 region, may act as a low-penetrance susceptibility gene for COPD. To test this hypothesis, the association of four SERPINE2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs16865421A>G, rs7583463A>C, rs729631C>G, and rs6734100C>G) with the risk of COPD was investigated in a case-control study of 311 COPD patients and 386 controls. The SNP rs16865421 was associated with a significantly decreased risk of COPD in a dominant model for the polymorphic allele (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.45-0.97, P=0.03). In haplotype analysis, the GACC haplotype carrying the polymorphic allele at the rs16865421 was associated with a significantly decreased risk of COPD when compared to the AACC haplotype (adjusted OR=0.58, 95% CI=0.38-0.89, P=0.01), and this effect was evident in younger individuals (adjusted OR=0.30, 95% CI=0.14-0.64, P=0.002). This study suggests that the SERPINE2 gene contributes to the susceptibility to COPD.
This study was conducted to comprehensively evaluate the associations between polymorphisms in telomere maintenance genes (TERT, TRF1, TNKS1, TRF2, RAP1, and POT1) and lung cancer risk. We captured 35 polymorphisms in the genes and determined their frequencies in 27 healthy Koreans. Ten haplotype-tagging polymorphisms were examined in a case-control study that consisted of 720 lung cancer patients and 720 healthy controls. The TERT rs2735940 g.C > T and rs2736098 g.G > A, and TNKS1 rs6985140 g.A > G were significantly associated with the risk of lung cancer. In the haplotype analysis, the TERT rs2735940T/rs2736098A haplotype (ht4) was associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer compared with the rs2735940C/rs2736098G haplotype (adjusted odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.50; P = 0.008). When the TERT ht4 and TNKS1 rs6985140G as risk alleles, the risk of lung cancer increased in a dose-dependent manner as the number of risk alleles increased (P(trend) < 0.001). Subjects with two to four risk alleles were at a significantly increased risk of lung cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-2.27; P = 0.001) compared with subjects with zero risk allele. These findings suggest that genetic variants in the TERT and TNKS1 genes contribute to genetic susceptibility to lung cancer.
Caspase7 (CASP7) is an executioner CASP that conducted a coordinated program of proteolysis that results in the destruction of critical cell structures, and it plays an important role in the development and progression of cancer. The purpose of this study is to comprehensively evaluate potential functional polymorphisms in the CASP7 gene in relation to the risk of lung cancer.
Haliclonin A (1), a macrocyclic diamide of a novel skeletal class, was isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. collected from Korean waters. The structure of this compound was determined using a combination of spectroscopic and chemical analyses. The new compound exhibited moderate cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity against diverse microbial strains.
A genome-wide association study has identified the 15q25 region as being associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Caucasians. This study intended as a confirmatory assessment of this association in a Korean population. The rs6495309C > T polymorphism in the promoter of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit 3 (CHRNA3) gene was investigated in a case-control study that consisted of 406 patients with COPD and 394 healthy control subjects. The rs6495309 CT or TT genotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk of COPD when compared to the rs6495309 CC genotype (adjusted odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval = 0.50-0.95, P = 0.023). The effect of the rs6495309C > T on the risk of COPD was more evident in moderate to very severe COPD than in mild COPD under a dominant model for the variant T allele (P = 0.024 for homogeneity). The CHRNA3 rs6495309C > T polymorphism on chromosome 15q25 is associated with the risk of COPD in a Korean population.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified the three chromosomal regions, 5p15, 6p21 and 15q25, as being associated with lung cancer risk in European populations. This study was performed to confirm these associations in Korean patients with lung cancer.
A fusion gene between echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has been identified in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Although a few studies have evaluated EML4-ALK fusion genes in Korean NSCLCs, the prevalence of different EML4-ALK fusion variants has yet to be clearly assessed. Herein, we have examined the profiles of EML4-ALK fusion gene variants in Korean patients of NSCLCs. EML4-ALK fusion genes have been detected in 10 (6.0%) of 167 patients of NSCLCs and in 9 (7.4%) of 121 patients of adenocarcinoma. Of the 10 patients with fusion genes identified, 8 (80%) were E13;A20 (variant 1) and 2 (20%) were E6;A20, with an additional 33-bp sequence derived from intron 6 of EML4 (variant 3b). These results indicate that the profiles of EML4-ALK fusion gene variants in Korean patients of NSCLC may differ from those in other ethnic populations. Herein, we describe for the first time the profiles of EML4-ALK fusion variants of Korean patients with NSCLCs.
Telomerase play a key role in the maintenance of telomere length and chromosome integrity. We have evaluated the association between telomerase activity and the risk of lung cancer in peripheral blood. Telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured by a PCR-designed telomeric repeat amplification protocol in 63 lung cancer patients and 190 healthy controls that were matched for age, gender, and smoking status. Telomerase activity was significantly lower in the lung cancer patients than in controls (mean ± standard deviation; 1.32 ± 1.65 vs 2.60 ± 3.09, P < 1 × 10(-4)). When telomerase activity was categorized into quartiles based on telomerase activity in the controls, the risk of lung cancer increased as telomerase activity reduced (P(trend) = 1 × 10(-4)). Moreover, when the subjects were categorized based on the median value of telomerase activity, subjects with low telomerase activity were at a significantly increased risk of lung cancer compared to subjects with high telomerase activity (adjusted odds ratio = 3.05, 95% confidence interval = 1.60-5.82, P = 7 × 10(-4)). These findings suggest that telomerase activity may affect telomere maintenance, thereby contributing to susceptibility to lung cancer.
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