Objective: To examine the association between individual drug use and peer leaders use. Method: Analysis of drug use behaviors of 525 students randomized into three arms-control, standard, and networked where peers serve as group leaders. Results: Among the combined male and female group, there was no association between peer leader and individual use. Among males, peer leader use at baseline was positively associated with individual alcohol use at post-test. Among females, peer leader use at post-test was negatively associated with marijuana and cigarette use. Conclusion: Having peer leaders in the network condition decreased the odds of marijuana and cigarette use among females. The opposite effect was found in males.
Diabetes is associated with a poor prognosis for liver disease, particularly in chronic hepatitis carriers. We investigated the prevalence of factors associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) including diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among individuals with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationwide cross-sectional survey conducted between 2007 and 2011. Sociodemographic information was collected using a structured questionnaire. The HBV surface antigen, liver enzymes, and lipid profile were measured from blood samples.IFG was found in 18.1% of HBV carriers and 19.3% of noncarriers (P?=?0.25). Diabetes was observed in 10.0% of HBV carriers and 12.2% of noncarriers (P?=?0.08). Lower level of educational attainment was associated with a higher prevalence of IGT: high school education (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.94 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-3.29] and less than a high school education (OR?=?3.20 [95% CI, 1.66-6.15] vs more than or equal to a college education. Elevated alanine transaminase and triglyceride by 10 were associated with increased risk of IGT (OR?=?1.10 [95% CI, 1.01-1.20] and OR?=?1.04 [95% CI, 1.01-1.07], respectively). Being a man and older in age were associated with a higher prevalence of IGT, and individuals with a low body mass index were at lower risk for IGT.Given the synergistic effect of diabetes and HBV infection on liver disease prognosis, we recommend targeted IGT screening and follow-up for HBV carriers. These efforts should include health policies and intervention programs aimed at reducing educational disparities and encouraging early control of elevated liver enzymes or lipid profiles.
Adulteration of onion powder with cornstarch was identified by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The reflectance spectra of 180 pure and adulterated samples (1-35 wt % starch) were collected and preprocessed to generate calibration and prediction sets. A multivariate calibration model of partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was executed on the pretreated spectra to predict the presence of starch. The PLSR model predicted adulteration with an R(p)2 of 0.98 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 1.18% for the FT-NIR data and an R(p)2 of 0.90 and SEP of 3.12% for the FT-IR data. Thus, the FT-NIR data were of greater predictive value than the FT-IR data. Principal component analysis on the preprocessed data identified the onion powder in terms of added starch. The first three principal component loadings and ? coefficients of the PLSR model revealed starch-related absorption. These methods can be applied to rapidly detect adulteration in other spices.
A multi-spectral fluorescence imaging technique was used to detect defective cherry tomatoes. The fluorescence excitation and emission matrix was used to measure for defects, sound surface and stem areas to determine the optimal fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for discrimination. Two-way ANOVA revealed the optimal excitation wavelength for detecting defect areas was 410 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the fluorescence emission spectra of all regions at 410 nm excitation to determine the emission wavelengths for defect detection. The major emission wavelengths were 688 nm and 506 nm for the detection. Fluorescence images combined with the determined emission wavebands demonstrated the feasibility of detecting defective cherry tomatoes with >98% accuracy. Multi-spectral fluorescence imaging has potential utility in non-destructive quality sorting of cherry tomatoes.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hyperspectral near-infrared (NIR) reflectance imaging techniques for detecting cuticle cracks on tomatoes. A hyperspectral NIR reflectance imaging system that analyzed the spectral region of 1000-1700 nm was used to obtain hyperspectral reflectance images of 224 tomatoes: 112 with and 112 without cracks along the stem-scar region. The hyperspectral images were subjected to partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to classify and detect cracks on the tomatoes. Two morphological features, roundness (R) and minimum-maximum distance (D), were calculated from the PLS-DA images to quantify the shape of the stem scar. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and a support vector machine (SVM) were then used to classify R and D. The results revealed 94.6% and 96.4% accuracy for classifications made using LDA and SVM, respectively, for tomatoes with and without crack defects. These data suggest that the hyperspectral near-infrared reflectance imaging system, in addition to traditional NIR spectroscopy-based methods, could potentially be used to detect crack defects on tomatoes and perform quality assessments.
Epidemiological evidence suggests that the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of cervical cancer. However, research on the impact of MetS on prognosis in cervical cancer is lacking. This study investigated the association between MetS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. This is a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I-II cervical cancer in three tertiary hospitals during 2006-2009. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the association between MetS or MetS components and RFS. We were able to evaluate MetS status in 84 patients out of 127. Forty patients had MetS. RFS was not significantly different according to MetS status; however, there was no further event of recurrence in non-MetS group after 2 years from primary surgical treatment. Hypertriglyceridemia (HR 3.67, 95 % CI 1.18-11.43) and impaired fasting glucose (HR 4.30, 95 % CI 1.23-15.03) were independent risk factors for shorter RFS, after adjustment for age, lymph node involvement, tumor involvement of resection margin, parametrial invasion, FIGO stage at diagnosis, and adjuvant treatment. Hypertriglyceridemia and impaired fasting glucose were associated with higher risk of recurrence in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. Prospective validation in large populations and further studies on the impact of MetS treatment in patients with cervical cancer are warranted.
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy and has relatively favorable prognosis. Blood-borne metastases of PTC are very rare among the thyroid malignancies. Moreover a case of blood-borne central nervous system metastasized PTC with only unilateral Horner's syndrome, and without any abnormalities in laboratory or physical examinations has not been described before. A 53-year-old female patient had been managed in ophthalmologic clinic due to vague symptoms of right monocular blurred vision with eye dryness for 3 months, but showed no signs of improvement. So it was performed a magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography to evaluate the possibilities of cerebral lesion. And a left frontal mass was incidentally found, and the tumor turned out to be a PTC that had metastasized to brain, regional lymph node, cervical, thoracic spine, and lung. We describe a PTC with extraordinary initial symptoms that metastasized to an unusual site. We recommend that if a papillary thyroid tumor with unusual symptoms or at an advanced stage is found, further investigation should be performed for distant metastasis.
We report a very rare case of sellar and suprasellar atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) in a 42-year-old female patient. The tumor was removed subtotally with a transsphenoidal approach. Histopathologic study showed rhabdoid cells with prominent nucleoli and abundant cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry for INI1 was completely negative in the tumor cells, consistent with ATRT. After surgery, she received radiotherapy including spinal irradiation with proton beam therapy and subsequent chemotherapy, with no evidence of recurrence for more than 2 years. Up to date, this is the 8th case of an adult-onset ATRT in the sellar or suprasellar region. Despite its rarity, ATRTs should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an unclear malignant sellar or suprasellar lesion in adult patients and the treatment strategies for adult ATRT patients could be differentiated from those of pediatric ATRT patients.
This study investigated the treatment of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors across nine Korean institutions. We reviewed the medical records from 381 patients with histologically confirmed anaplastic oligodendroglioma or anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) from 2000 to 2010. Clinical factors and treatment patterns were analyzed for each year. Post-operative therapy was performed in 354 patients (94.1 %), of which 133 received radiotherapy (RT) alone and 189 received both RT and chemotherapy. RT alone was the preferred treatment toward the end of the study period (29.4 % in 2000-2001 vs. 56.3 % in 2010, P = 0.005). The use of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) decreased (57.6 % in 2000-2001 vs. 28.6 % in 2010, P = 0.001) and the use of temozolomide (TMZ) increased (0 % in 2000-2001 vs. 61.9 % in 2010, P < 0.001) over the study period. A combination of chemotherapy and RT was used more often than RT alone in young patients (P = 0.036) and patients with a good performance status (P = 0.023). The 1p/19q co-deletion status and O-6-methyguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylation were analyzed since 2004 but were not significant factors for determining whether to administer chemotherapy. Among the patients who received chemotherapy, TMZ was used more often in patients with AOA (P = 0.007) and PCV was used more often in patients with either multiple lesions (P = 0.027) or the 1p/19q co-deletion (P = 0.026). Our results demonstrate that the treatment pattern for oligodendroglial tumors changed significantly across the study period. In particular, TMZ has replaced PCV, and the use of molecular markers as well as RT alone has increased, but a unified protocol remains to be established.
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) influences cardiovascular homeostasis, and Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) is the main effector of RAS, and AGTR2 antagonizes AGTR1. Accumulating evidence supports the role of RAS in the paracrine regulation of tumorigenesis in several cancer types. Although treatment with AGTR1 antagonist (losartan) or AGTR2 agonist (CGP42112A) inhibits tumor progression in several cancer cells, their combined treatment has not been reported.
Controversy remains regarding the effect of obesity on the survival of patients with ovarian cancer in Asia. This study examined the impact of obesity on the survival outcomes in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) using Asian body mass index (BMI) criteria. The medical records of patients undergoing surgery for advanced (stage III and IV) EOC were reviewed. Statistical analyses included ANOVA, chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analysis. Among all 236 patients, there were no differences in overall survival according to BMI except in underweight patients. In a multivariate Cox analysis, surgical optimality and underweight status were independent and significant prognostic factors for survival (HR, 2.302; 95% CI, 1.326-3.995; P=0.003 and HR, 8.622; 95% CI, 1.871-39.737; P = 0.006, respectively). In the subgroup of serous histology and optimal surgery, overweight and obese I patients showed better survival than normal weight patients (P = 0.012). We found that underweight BMI and surgical optimality are independent risk factors for the survival of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. High BMI groups (overweight, obese I and II) are not associated with the survival of advanced EOC patient. However, in the subgroup of EOC patients with serous histology and after optimal operation, overweight and obese I group patients show better survival than the normal weight group patients.
In this study, we developed a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400-700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumination. A partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model is developed to classify viable and non-viable seeds. Four spectral ranges generated with four types of LEDs (blue, green, red, and RGB), which were pretreated using various methods, are investigated to develop the classification models. The optimal PLS-DA model based on the standard normal variate for RGB LED illumination (400-700 nm) yields discrimination accuracies of 96.7% and 99.4% for viable seeds and nonviable seeds, respectively. The use of images based on the PLS-DA model with the first-order derivative of a 31.5-nm gap for red LED illumination (600-700 nm) yields 100% discrimination accuracy for both viable and nonviable seeds. The results indicate that a hyperspectral imaging technique based on LED light can be potentially applied to high-quality pepper seed sorting.
Few studies have examined reasons why those with low socioeconomic status do not adequately receive cancer screening. We therefore conducted a qualitative study to assess the barriers to cancer screening in people with low socioeconomic status, and to examine the reasons why Medical Aid Program (MAP) recipients do not participate in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP). A focus group methodology was used. Participants included MAP recipients (men aged 45-79 years, women aged 35-79 years) who had been invited to cancer screening at least twice based on the NCSP protocol, but had not been screened for any cancer from 2009-2012. We recruited participants living in the cities of Goyang and Paju. A total of 23 MAP recipients participated in four focus group discussions, including 12 men and 11 women. In this qualitative study, we identified six barriers to screening: lack of trust in the NCSP and cancer screening units; fear of being diagnosed with cancer; discomfort or pain from the screening procedure; lack of time, lack of knowledge about cancer screening or lack of awareness of the existence of the NCSP; physical disability or underlying disease; and logistic barriers. Interventions such as individualized counseling, letters and reminders, or other individually-targeted strategies, especially for those with lower socioeconomic status are required to increase participation and reduce disparities in cancer screening.
The aim of our study is to establish the potential role of dual-phase 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography / computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in patients presenting ovarian masses with diffuse peritoneal infiltration for differentiating benign from malignant lesions.
To identify the prognostic implications of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cell cycle marker profiles in patients who have received a transoral lateral oropharyngectomy (TLO) as a primary treatment for tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC).
Osteoporosis and osteopenia are global health problems with increasing trend, particularly in developed regions. Apart from traditional well-recognized high-risk groups (i.e. postmenopausal women and elders), prevalence of such problems among adults should not be ignored because of the advantages of early detection and health promotion. Therefore, this preliminary study aims to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia among adult office workers, which represented a relatively large proportion of the population in urbanized cities.
To evaluate the utilization trends of advanced radiology, i.e. computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), examination in an emergency department (ED) of an academic medical center from 2001 to 2010.
Emergency tracheal intubation has achieved high success and low complication rates in the emergency department (ED). The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of post-intubation CA and determine the clinical factors associated with this complication.
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and identify the sociodemographic factors associated with alcohol consumption among individuals with hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection. We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, a nationwide survey conducted between 2007 and 2011. "Monthly alcohol consumption" was defined as having consumed alcohol at least once per month during the past year, and "high-risk alcohol consumption" was defined as having consumed alcohol twice or more per week and, for males, having consumed at least 60 g of alcohol on one occasion or, for females, having consumed at least 40 g of alcohol on more than one occasion. The prevalence of monthly alcohol consumption was 53.2%, and that of high-risk alcohol consumption was 11.8% among HBV carriers. Less education was associated with both monthly and high-risk alcohol consumption(OR?=?1.75 [95% CI?=?1.02-3.02] for monthly alcohol consumption among those with less than a high school education; OR?=?2.48 [95% CI?=?1.19-5.17] for high-risk alcohol consumption among those with less than a high school education and OR?=?2.02 [95% CI?=?1.12-3.64] among those with a high school education). Additionally, smoking and being male increased the risk of alcohol consumption, and older age and having a normal body mass index decreased the risk. HBV carriers who were less educated, overweight, and smokers were more likely to consume alcohol or meet criteria for high-risk drinking. Health policies and intervention programs aimed at promoting a generally healthy lifestyle in HBV carriers should consider educational inequalities and alcohol consumption.
This study aimed to determine and compare the prevalences of diabetes awareness, treatment, and adequate glycemic control among cancer survivors in a Korean population and two non-cancer control groups, comprising individuals without a history of cancer but with other chronic diseases (non-cancer, chronic disease controls) and individuals without a history of cancer or any other chronic disease (non-cancer, non-chronic disease controls).
Studies on the association between obesity and ovarian cancer survival have had conflicting results. We reviewed and quantitatively summarized the existing evidence, exploring potentially important sources of variability, such as the timing of body mass index (BMI) assessment, BMI cut points, references used in multivariate analysis, and ovarian cancer stage.
Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) is an important enzyme for lignin biosynthesis as it catalyzes the first specific committed step in monolignol biosynthesis. We have cloned a full length coding sequence of CCR from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), which contains a 1,020-bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding 339 amino acids of 37.37?kDa, with an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.27 (JX524276, HcCCR2). BLAST result found that it has high homology with other plant CCR orthologs. Multiple alignment with other plant CCR sequences showed that it contains two highly conserved motifs: NAD(P) binding domain (VTGAGGFIASWMVKLLLEKGY) at N-terminal and probable catalytic domain (NWYCYGK). According to phylogenetic analysis, it was closely related to CCR sequences of Gossypium hirsutum (ACQ59094) and Populus trichocarpa (CAC07424). HcCCR2 showed ubiquitous expression in various kenaf tissues and the highest expression was detected in mature flower. HcCCR2 was expressed differentially in response to various stresses, and the highest expression was observed by drought and NaCl treatments.
Few studies have examined the relationship between social support and stages of adoption of cancer screening. Here we investigated associations between both structural and functional aspects of social support and stages of adoption of gastric cancer screening in the general population of Korea. The study population was derived from the 2011 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), an annual cross-sectional survey that uses nationally representative random sampling to investigate cancer screening rates. Data were analyzed from 3,477 randomly selected respondents aged 40-74 years. Respondents were classified according to their stage of adoption of gastric cancer screening: precontemplation (13.2%), contemplation (18.0%), action/maintenance (56.1%), relapse risk (8.5%), and relapse stage (4.1%). Respondents with larger social networks were more likely to be in the contemplation/action/maintenance, or the relapse risk/relapse stages versus the precontemplation stage (OR=1.91, 95%CI: 1.52-2.91; p for tend=0.025). Emotional and instrumental supports were not associated with any stage of adoption of gastric cancer screening. However, respondents who reported receiving sufficient informational support were more likely to be in the relapse risk/relapse stages versus the precontemplation, or the contemplation/action/maintenance stage (p for trend=0.016). Interventions involving interactions between social network members could play an important role in increasing participation in gastric cancer screening.
In this prospective National Cancer Institute-funded American College of Radiology Imaging Network/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group cooperative group trial, we hypothesized that standardized uptake value (SUV) on post-treatment [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) correlates with survival in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Cervical cancer, which is common in developing countries, is also a major health issue in Korea. Our aim was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Koreas National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP), implemented in 1999.
Hearing loss is a well-known complication that may occur during microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS). Cause and risk factors are highly variable. We present cases of hearing loss induced by saline overinfusion after MVD.
To prospectively investigate the effect of radiotherapy fraction size on clinical outcomes in early glottic carcinoma METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with T1-2 glottic carcinoma were eligible for the protocol. Although 282 patients were required, the study was closed prematurely due to poor accrual with only 156 patients. Of these, 82 patients were allocated to conventional fractionation (CONV) arm (66Gy/33 fractions for T1 and 70Gy/35 fractions for T2), with 74 patients to hypofractionation (HYPO) arm (63Gy/28 fractions for T1 and 67.5Gy/30 fractions for T2). The primary objective was local progression-free survival (LPFS).
Human pituitary tumor transforming gene (hPTTG) is a multifunctional proto-oncogene implicated in the initiation and progression of several tumors. Phosphorylation of hPTTG is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDC2), whereas cellular expression is regulated by specificity protein 1 (SP1). The mechanisms underlying hPTTG propagation of aberrant thyroid cell growth have not been fully defined. We set out to investigate the interplay between hPTTG and growth factors, as well as the effects of phosphorylation and SP1 regulation on hPTTG expression and function. In our study, epidermal growth factor (EGF), TGF?, and IGF-1 induced hPTTG expression and phosphorylation in thyroid cells, which was associated with activation of MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Growth factors induced hPTTG independently of CDC2 and SP1 in thyroid carcinoma cells. Strikingly, CDC2 depletion in TPC-1 cells resulted in enhanced expression and phosphorylation of hPTTG and reduced cellular proliferation. In reciprocal experiments, hPTTG overexpression induced EGF, IGF-1, and TGF? mRNAs in primary human thyrocytes. Treatment of primary human thyrocytes with conditioned media derived from hPTTG-transfected cells resulted in autocrine upregulation of hPTTG protein, which was ameliorated by growth factor depletion or growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A transgenic murine model of thyroid targeted hPTTG overexpression (hPTTG-Tg) (FVB/N strain, both sexes) demonstrated smaller thyroids with reduced cellular proliferation and enhanced secretion of Egf. In contrast, Pttg(-/-) knockout mice (c57BL6 strain, both sexes) showed reduced thyroidal Egf mRNA expression. These results define hPTTG as having a central role in thyroid autocrine signaling mechanisms via growth factors, with profound implications for promotion of transformed cell growth.
Spectroscopy has proven to be an efficient tool for measuring the properties of meat. In this article, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) techniques are used to determine the moisture content in cooked chicken breast over the VIS/NIR (400-1,000 nm) spectral range. Moisture measurements were performed using an oven drying method. A partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was developed to extract a relationship between the HSI spectra and the moisture content. In the full wavelength range, the PLSR model possessed a maximum of 0.90 and an SEP of 0.74%. For the NIR range, the PLSR model yielded an of 0.94 and an SEP of 0.71%. The majority of the absorption peaks occurred around 760 and 970 nm, representing the water content in the samples. Finally, PLSR images were constructed to visualize the dehydration and water distribution within different sample regions. The high correlation coefficient and low prediction error from the PLSR analysis validates that HSI is an effective tool for visualizing the chemical properties of meat.
Although screening is necessary where gastric cancer is particularly common in Asia, the performance outcomes of mass screening programs have remained unclear. This study was conducted to evaluate cost-effectiveness outcomes of the national cancer screening program (NCSP) for gastric cancer in South Korea.
This goal of this research was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) for breast cancer in the Republic of Korea from a government expenditure perspective. In 2002-2003 (baseline), a total of 8,724,860 women aged 40 years or over were invited to attend breast cancer screening by the NCSP. Those who attended were identified using the NCSP database, and women were divided into two groups, women who attended screening at baseline (screened group) and those who did not (non-screened group). Breast cancer diagnosis in both groups at baseline, and during 5-year follow-up was identified using the Korean Central Cancer Registry. The effectiveness of the NCSP for breast cancer was estimated by comparing 5-year survival and life years saved (LYS) between the screened and the unscreened groups, measured using mortality data from the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation and the National Health Statistical Office. Direct screening costs, indirect screening costs, and productivity costs were considered in different combinations in the model. When all three of these costs were considered together, the incremental cost to save one life year of a breast cancer patient was 42,305,000 Korean Won (KW) (1 USD=1,088 KW) for the screened group compared to the non-screened group. In sensitivity analyses, reducing the false-positive rate of the screening program by half was the most cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, ICER=30,110,852 KW/LYS) strategy. When the upper age limit for screening was set at 70 years, it became more cost-effective (ICER=39,641,823 KW/LYS) than when no upper age limit was set. The NCSP for breast cancer in Korea seems to be accepted as cost-effective as ICER estimates were around the Gross Domestic Product. However, cost-effectiveness could be further improved by increasing the sensitivity of breast cancer screening and by setting appropriate age limits.
Liver cancer is the second most-frequent cause of cancer death in Korea. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of liver cancer, and this disease is effectively prevented by HBV vaccination. This study was conducted to investigate factors associated with the lack of HBV vaccine uptake in the general adult male population in Korea.
We investigated the cancer screening rates for five types of cancer (stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervix uteri) using data from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), which is a nationwide, annual cross-sectional survey. The eligible study population included cancer-free men 40 years of age and older and women 30 years of age and older. The lifetime screening rate and screening rate with recommendation were calculated. The lifetime screening rates for gastric, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers were 77.9%, 69.9%, 65.8%, 82.9%, and 77.1%, respectively. The screening rates with recommendation were 70.9%, 21.5%, 44.7%, 70.9%, and 67.9%, respectively. The most common reason for all types of cancer was "no symptoms, " followed by "lack of time" and "fear of the examination procedure. " Efforts to facilitate participation in liver and colorectal cancer screening among Korean men and women are needed.
The consensus guideline development committee of Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology was reconvened in March 2012. The committee consisted of 36 experts representing 12 university hospitals and professional organizations. The objective of this committee was to develop standardized guidelines for cervical cancer screening tests for Korean women and to distribute these guidelines to every clinician, eventually improving the quality of medical care. Since the establishment of the consensus guideline development committee, evidence-based guidelines have either been developed de novo considering specific Korean situations or by adaptation of preexisting consensus guidelines from other countries. Recommendations for cervical cancer screening tests, management of atypical squamous and glandular cells, and management of low-grade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were developed. Additionally, recommendations for human papillomavirus DNA testing and recommendations for adolescent and pregnant women with abnormal cervical screening test results were also included.
AIM: We evaluated the impact of cognitive impairment and depression on functional impairment in people aged in their early 60s. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 3034 inhabitants of a rural area of Korea aged 60-64 years. The Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), and Lawtons Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Scale were used to assess cognitive impairment, depression and functional impairment. RESULTS: A total of 30.8% of participants reported that they were dependent for at least one of the items on the IADL scale, and the overall prevalence of cognitive impairment and depression was 17.3% and 25.9%, respectively. The results showed that cognitive impairment had a stronger relationship with IADL impairment than did depression (odds ratio [OR]?=?4.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.91-6.17; c-statistics?=?0.647 and OR?=?2.05, 95% CI 1.67-2.50; c-statistics?=?0.622, respectively). In particular, subclinical levels of the MMSE-K and GDS-15 score were associated with IADL impairment in participants without cognitive impairment or depression (OR?=?0.73, 95% CI 0.67-0.80, OR?=?1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16, per 1?point score increase, respectively). Only the MMSE-K score showed a significant association in participants with either cognitive impairment or depression, or both. Our findings also showed the independent association of IADL impairment with age, employment status, education and type of insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with depression, cognitive impairment was more strongly associated with IADL impairment. Subclinical level of cognitive impairment and depression were also associated with IADL impairment in mentally healthy participants. Therefore, early intervention is required to prevent further decline. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2013; ??: ??-??.
An infrared lifetime thermal imaging technique for the measurement of lettuce seed viability was evaluated. Thermal emission signals from mid-infrared images of healthy seeds and seeds aged for 24, 48, and 72 h were obtained and reconstructed using regression analysis. The emission signals were fitted with a two-term exponential model that had two amplitudes and two time variables as lifetime parameters. The lifetime thermal decay parameters were significantly different for seeds with different aging times. Single-seed viability was visualized using thermal lifetime images constructed from the calculated lifetime parameter values. The time-dependent thermal signal decay characteristics, along with the decay amplitude and delay time images, can be used to distinguish aged lettuce seeds from normal seeds.
Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a common disorder and has a significant impact on the quality of life. Microvascular decompression (MVD) is an effective and safe treatment option for patients with HFS, however the effectiveness and safety of MVD in elderly patients with HFS is not clear.
We retrospectively analyzed the prognostic factors on overall survival (OS) in patients with brain metastasis (BM) and evaluated the role of combined primary tumor and extracranial metastasis (ECM) status as a constituent factor for prognostic index. This study involved 897 patients with BMs who underwent radiotherapy between April 2003 and December 2009. Among the clinical parameters, multivariate analysis showed that age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), combined primary tumor and ECM status, number of BMs, and treatment group were significant prognostic factors for OS (P < 0.05). To compare the discriminatory ability of 5 prognostic indices, i.e., recursive partitioning analysis (RPA), basic score for BMs (BSBM), score index for radiosurgery (SIR), graded prognostic assessment (GPA), and modified GPA including the combined primary tumor and ECM status (mGPA), the Akaike information criteria (AIC) were calculated. The mGPA showed the lowest AIC value, followed by RPA, GPA, SIR, and BSBM, in that order. It is implicated that modified score of pre-existing factors (i.e., age and KPS) and addition of the combined primary tumor and ECM status to the prognostic index can improve its discriminatory ability and the combined primary tumor and ECM status may be useful as one of constituent factors for prognostic index.
The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify preoperative imaging characteristics and surgical findings that predict pain relief after microvascular decompression (MVD) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). This study included 141 patients with follow-up ranging from 6 months to 10 years (mean follow-up=26.3 months). Preoperative images were assessed in 90 patients who were evaluated with constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) MRI in the last 6 years. These findings were compared with the severity of neurovascular conflict (NVC) found at operation to identify imaging findings useful for prognosis. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that the success rate of MVD was 91.1 ± 2.5% at 1 year and was 76.3 ± 7.5% after 5 years. A higher degree of NVC at operation (p=0.000), no vein compression (p=0.049) and single vessel compression (p=0.000) were good prognostic factors for pain relief. Two meaningful positive MRI findings, specifically, the "cerebrospinal fluid rim sign" and the "deviation sign" were statistically significantly associated with the severity of NVC at operation and MVD success (p=0.000). In this study, 34 patients (24.1%) complained of facial numbness postoperatively, and the oral herpes simplex virus was reactivated in 19 patients (13.4%). The involvement of a single arterial offender in NVC is the most important prognostic factor for MVD in TN, and the positive MRI findings described in this report may be helpful in selecting patients for MVD.
The Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), a nationwide, annual cross-sectional survey, has been conducted since 2004. The current study was conducted in order to report on trends in cancer screening rates for five types of cancer (stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervix uteri).
Microvascular decompression is a very effective and relatively safe surgical modality in the treatment of hemifacial spasm. But rare debilitating complications have been reported such as cranial nerve dysfunctions. We have experienced a very rare case of unilateral soft palate palsy without the involvement of vocal cord following microvascular decompression. A 33-year-old female presented to our out-patient clinic with a history of left hemifacial spasm for 5 years. On postoperative 5th day, patient started to exhibit hoarsness with swallowing difficulty. Symptoms persisted despite rehabilitation. Various laboratory work up with magnetic resonance image showed no abnormal lesions. Two years after surgery patient showed complete recovery of unitaleral soft palate palsy. Various etiologies of unilateral soft palate palsy are reviewed as the treatment and prognosis differs greatly on the cause. Although rare, it is important to keep in mind that such complication could occur after microvascular decompression.
The aims of the current study were to assess the validity of the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in an organized screening setting in Korea and to determine factors associated with FOBT validity, such as screening round, age group, and anatomical location of the cancer.
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of cognitive impairment, depression, and comorbidity of the two conditions and related factors in subjects aged in early 60s. This cross-sectional study included 3,174 inhabitants aged 60-64 years old in a rural area of Korea. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K), and depression was measured using the short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). The overall prevalence of cognitive impairment (MMSE-K?24) was 17.4%, that of depression was 26.0% (GDS-15?8), and the co-morbidity was 7.1%. Female gender, living with one housemate, and high GDS-15 score were significantly associated with increased cognitive impairment. Employment status and more years of schooling were associated with a decreased probability of cognitive impairment. Increased depression was significantly associated with bereavement and receiving benefits from the Medical Aid Program. Employed status, more years of schooling, and higher MMSE-K scores were significantly associated with decreased depression. The risk of comorbidity was associated with bereavement and receipt of Medical Aid benefits (odds ratio[OR], 1.85; 95% confidence interval[CI], 1.26-2.71; OR, 5.02; 95% CI, 2.37-10.63; respectively). Employment and more years of schooling were associated with a lower risk of comorbidity (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.34-0.62, P-trend <0.01). The correlated factors for cognitive impairment, depression, and comorbidity of the two conditions were similar, and employment status and years of schooling were associated with all three conditions.
The purpose of this study is to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a F5H gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Kenaf is a fast-growing dicotyledonous plant valued for its biomass. F5H, a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP84), is a key enzyme for syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The full length of the F5H ortholog was cloned and characterized. The full-length F5H ortholog consists of a 1,557-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 518 amino acids (GenBank Accession number JX524278). The deduced amino acid sequence showed that kenaf F5H had the highest similarity (78%) with that of Populus trichocarpa. Transcriptional analysis of F5H ortholog was conducted using quantitative real-time PCR during the developmental stages of various tissues and in response to various abiotic stresses. The highest transcript level of the F5H ortholog was observed in immature flower tissues and in early stage (6 week-old) of stem tissues, with a certain level of expression in all tissues tested. The highest transcript level of F5H ortholog was observed at the late time points after treatments with NaCl (48?h), wounding (24?h), cold (24?h), abscisic acid (24?h), and methyl jasmonate (24?h).
Modifiable lifestyle-related factors such as smoking and alcohol drinking are associated with cognitive impairment in the elderly population but the relationships have shown various results. To evaluate the relationship of alcohol drinking and smoking in the early 60 s with the risk of developing incident cognitive impairment. In 1999, we evaluated cognitive function, smoking, and drinking status in 3,174 inhabitants aged 60-64 years in a rural area of Korea, with a follow-up assessment of cognitive function 7 years later. A total of 1,810 individuals who did not show cognitive impairment at baseline were included. A stratified analysis was applied to evaluate how smoking and alcohol drinking affected the risk of developing cognitive impairment based on gender. Current smokers showed a higher risk for developing cognitive impairment than did never smokers (odds ratio [OR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-2.15). The OR for female current smokers compared with never smokers was 1.62 (95% CI, 1.05-2.52), and smokers with higher pack-years were more likely to develop cognitive impairment than never smokers, showing a dose-response relationship (P for trend?=?0.004). Frequent alcohol consumption increased the risk of developing cognitive impairment (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.01-2.78), and a dose-response relationship was observed among male subjects (P for trend?=?0.044). Infrequent drinking in females decreased the odds of developing cognitive impairment (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.42-1.00), whereas frequent drinking tended to increase the odds, although this trend was not significant, suggesting a U-shaped relationship. Although the sample was small for some analyses, especially in female, our data suggest that smoking and drinking in the early 60 s are associated with a risk of developing cognitive impairment, and this relationship is characterized by gender differences.
To investigate the factors associated with compliance with recommendations regarding liver cancer screening intervals and methods among individuals at high-risk for liver cancer in the Republic of Korea. We used data from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), a representative cross-sectional nationwide survey conducted between 2007 and 2009. The liver cancer screening rate and factors associated with compliance with recommended screening intervals (6 months) and methods (both abdominal ultrasonography and serum alpha-fetoprotein testing) among individuals at high risk for liver cancer such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers were investigated. Out of 24,871 KNHANES IV participants, 604 HBV carriers aged ? 20 years were included in our analysis. 39.6% of our study sample reported attending liver cancer screening at least once in their lifetime, 12.3% had attended within the previous 6 months, and 14.6% were screened using both recommended methods. Older age was associated with increased compliance with screening intervals (P-trend 0.011) and methods (40-49 year: OR = 3.25, 95% CI: 1.62-6.51; 50-59 years: OR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.44-6.66; 60-69 years: OR = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.28-7.82). Unawareness of HBV infection status was negatively related to compliance with screening intervals and methods (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.17-0.53; OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.26-0.79). Female sex (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.25-0.78), lower household income (P-trend 0.011), and routine and manual occupations (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.22-0.97) were associated with decreased compliance with screening methods. The liver cancer screening rate among high-risk individuals is much less suboptimal. Considering that those unaware of their HBV infection status got regular and complete liver cancer screening much less often, efforts should be made not only to decrease sociodemographic disparities, but also to better identify the high-risk population.
This study was performed to identify factors associated with screening for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2009 were analyzed. Of 24,871 participants, 1,288 patients diagnosed with diabetes at ?30 years of age were included. 36.3% received screening for diabetic retinopathy, and 40.5% received screening for diabetic nephropathy during the previous year. Patients living in rural areas, those with less education, those who had not received education about diabetes care, and those who did not receive medical care for diabetes were screened less often for retinopathy or nephropathy. Patients with poorer self-reported health status were screened more often. Occupation, smoking status, and diabetes duration were associated with retinopathy screening. Lower family income was associated with decreased nephropathy screening. Receiving education about diabetes care and receiving medical care for diabetes were significant factors in patients with a shorter duration of diabetes (the significant odds ratio [OR] of not receiving education varied between 0.27 and 0.51, and that of not receiving medical care varied between 0.34 and 0.42). Sociodemographic factors and health-related factors as well as education and medical care influenced screening for diabetic complications among those with a longer duration of diabetes (for retinopathy and nephropathy, the significant OR of living in a rural area varied between 0.56 and 0.61; for retinopathy, the significant OR of current smokers was 0.55, and the p-trend of subjective health status was <0.001; for nephropathy, the significant OR of a monthly household income of <3000 dollars was 0.61 and the p-trends of education and subjective health status were 0.030 and 0.007, respectively). Efforts to decrease sociodemographic disparities should be combined with education about diabetes care to increase the screening, especially for those with a longer duration of diabetes.
To evaluate the performance of five HPV tests (Hybrid Capture 2, Linear Array [LA], DNA chip, type-specific polymerase chain reaction [PCR], and sequencing) in detecting high-risk (HR) HPV DNA and high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer.
Since 2000, thyroid cancer has been increasing most rapidly in Korea. Although the cause of the increase is not clear, thyroid cancer screening could be identified as one of its causes. The purpose of this study was to examine the screening rate of thyroid cancer and its related factors using nationwide data.
The utility of a nursing model as a framework to understand and explain a health phenomenon is fundamental to guide nursing practice. In this article, the authors aim to provide an examination of the Roy adaptation model as a basis for the development of an instrument used for assessing the health needs of pregnant women. With the congruence between the concepts in the Roy adaptation model and antenatal practice, an antenatal assessment instrument is developed. The assessment areas focus on pregnant womens behaviors in the four adaptation modes. The current experience is valuable for nurses who are involved in instrument development and midwifery practice.
Gastric cancer (GC) screening is a major challenge in countries where the disease is highly prevalent. This study was conducted to identify the factors associated with participation in GC screening and on-time rescreening among the average-risk population in Korea. The study population was derived from the National Cancer Screening Program database. The population for this study was 22 913 618 individuals aged ?40 years who had been invited to participate in a GC screening program from 2005 to 2006. We determined whether these individuals had attended the GC screening program and which method - an upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) or endoscopy-they underwent. We followed the participants to determine whether they had a second GC screening after 2 years. The overall participation rate in the GC screening was 20.5%. More people underwent UGIS than endoscopy. Individuals who had been screened by endoscopy rather than UGIS were more likely to be younger, male, or those who were National Health Insurance (NHI) beneficiaries with a higher premium rate. Of those who underwent baseline screening, 59.4% participated in a rescreening program 2 years later. NHI beneficiaries with a higher premium rate were significantly more likely to be rescreened than medical aid recipients. The results from this study showed that the UGIS were more commonly used in organized GC screenings in Korea, and those who underwent UGIS were more likely to return for subsequent screening compared to those who underwent an endoscopy.
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) exhibits distinct patterns worldwide, but its prevalence has not been extensively evaluated in Korea. The E7 oncogene-mediated carcinogenesis and its meaning are yet to be uncovered for oropharyngeal SCCs.
Job stress is a well-known situation for nurses, especially for those working in the clinical environment. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the job stress level and stressors among nurses in a Zhuhai hospital. Ninety-three nurses were recruited for the study. Findings were that nurses had a relatively high level of stress, with "Working Environment and Resources" and "Workload and Time" identified as the major stressors. This study provided preliminary insights on relieving job stress among nurses in China.
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