Coordinate regulation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein dynamics by steroid hormones in the human fallopian tube and endometrium in vivo and in vitro.
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), which are chromatin-associated RNA-binding proteins, participate in mRNA stability, transport, intracellular localization, and translation by acting as transacting factors. Several studies have shown that steroid hormones can regulate hnRNP expression. However, to date, the regulation of hnRNPs and their interactions with steroid hormone signaling in fallopian tubes and endometrium are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we determined whether hnRNP expression is regulated during the menstrual cycle and correlates with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) levels in human fallopian tubes in vivo. Because of the limited availability of human tubal tissues for the research, we also explored the mechanisms of hnRNP regulation in human endometrium in vitro. Fallopian tissue was obtained from patients in the early, late, and postovulatory phases and the midsecretory phase and endometrial tissue from premenopausal and postmenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy. We measured expression of hnRNPs and assessed their intracellular localization and interactions with ERs and PRs. We also determined the effects of human chorionic gonadotropin, 17?-estradiol (E(2)), and progesterone (P(4)) on hnRNP expression. In fallopian tubes, mRNA and protein levels of hnRNP A1, AB, D, G, H, and U changed dynamically during ovulation and in the midsecretory phase. In coimmunolocation and coimmunoprecipitation experiments, hnRNPs interacted with each other and with ERs and PRs in fallopian tubes. After treatment with E(2) and/or P(4) to activate ERs and PRs, hnRNP A1, AB, D, G, and U proteins displayed overlapping but distinct patterns of regulation in the endometrium in vitro. Our findings expand the physiological repertoire of hnRNPs in human fallopian tubes and endometrium and suggest that steroid hormones regulate different hnRNPs directly by interacting with ERs and/or PRs or indirectly by binding other hnRNPs. Both actions may contribute to regulation of gene transcription.