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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Burnout is associated with elevated prolactin levels in men but not in women.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Prolactin levels have been shown to be increased by different types of psychosocial stress. Since burnout is a consequence of long-term psychosocial stress, prolactin levels might also be affected in burnout. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in prolactin levels between individuals who report burnout and others.
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Direct effects of metformin in the endometrium: a hypothetical mechanism for the treatment of women with PCOS and endometrial carcinoma.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Although a number of in vitro studies have demonstrated the antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and antimetastatic effects of metformin in multiple cancer cell types, its cellular and molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer action in the endometrium of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have not yet been fully elucidated. Organic cation transporters (OCTs) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) are known to be involved in metformin uptake and excretion in cells. In this article, we discuss the novel therapeutic possibilities for early-stage endometrial carcinoma (EC) in women with PCOS focusing on metformin, which might have a direct effect in the endometrium through the OCTs and MATEs. We then review the molecular mechanism(s) of the action of metformin in the endometrium and highlight possible mechanistic insights into the inhibition of cell proliferation and tumor growth and, ultimately, the reversal of early-stage EC into normal endometria in women with PCOS.
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Endometrial progesterone resistance and PCOS.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a state of altered steroid hormone production and activity. Chronic estrogen exposure or lack of progesterone due to ovarian dysfunction can result in endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. A key contributor to our understanding of progesterone as a critical regulator for normal uterine function has been the elucidation of progesterone receptor (PR) expression, regulation, and signaling pathways. Several human studies indicate that PR-mediated signaling pathways in the nucleus are associated with progesterone resistance in women with PCOS. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of endometrial progesterone resistance in women with PCOS; to present the PR structure, its different isoforms, and their expression in the endometrium; to illustrate the possible regulation of PR and PR-mediated signaling in progesterone resistance in women with PCOS; and to discuss current clinical treatments for atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma in women with PCOS and accompanying progesterone resistance.
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Combination of Diane-35 and Metformin to Treat Early Endometrial Carcinoma in PCOS Women with Insulin Resistance.
J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a high risk of developing endometrial carcinoma. There is a need for the development of new medical therapies that can reduce the need for surgical intervention so as to preserve the fertility of these patients. The aim of the study was to describe and discuss cases of PCOS and insulin resistance (IR) women with early endometrial carcinoma while being co-treated with Diane-35 and metformin.
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The elusive and controversial roles of estrogen and progesterone receptors in human endometriosis.
Am J Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Endometriosis is a complex and challenging disease that involves aberrant adhesion, growth, and progression of endometrial tissues outside of the uterine cavity, and there is evidence to suggest that estrogen plays a key role in its development and progression. Numerous in vivo clinical studies have described the ectopic expression and regulation of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in the different types of endometriosis compared to normal or eutopic endometrium. However, we have noticed that conflicting and contradictory results have been presented in terms of ER subtype (ER? and ER?) and PR isoform (PRA and PRB) expression. Both ER and PR are transcription factors and ER/PR-mediated responses depend on the coordinated, opposing, and compensatory functions of ER subtypes and PR isoforms. Moreover, analysis of the uterine phenotypes of ER?/ER? and PRA/PRB knockout mice indicates that different ER subtypes and PR isoforms mediate distinct responses to steroid hormones and play different roles in uterine function. In this review, we outline studies that have elucidated the molecules and signaling pathways that are linked to ER and/or PR signaling pathways in the development and progression of endometriosis.
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The onset of human ectopic pregnancy demonstrates a differential expression of miRNAs and their cognate targets in the Fallopian tube.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Human ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a leading cause of pregnancy-related death, but the molecular basis underlying the onset of tubal EP is largely unknown. Female Dicer1 conditional knockout mice are infertile with dysfunctional Fallopian tube and have a different miRNA expression profile compared to wild-type mice, and we speculated that Dicer-mediated regulation of miRNA expression and specific miRNA-controlled targets might contribute to the onset of tubal EP. In the present study, we used microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR to examine the expression of miRNAs and core miRNA regulatory components in Fallopian tube tissues from women with EP. We found that the levels of DICER1, four miRNAs (let-7i, miR-149, miR-182, and miR-424), and estrogen receptor ? distinguished the tubal implantation site from the non-implantation site. Computational algorithms and screening for interactions with the estrogen and progesterone receptor signaling pathways showed that the four miRNAs were predicted to target ten genes, including NEDD4, TAF15, and SPEN. Subsequent experiments showed differences in NEDD4 mRNA and protein levels between the implantation and non-implantation sites. Finally, we revealed that increases in smooth muscle cell NEDD4 and stromal cell TAF15, in parallel with a decrease in epithelial cell SPEN, were associated with tubal implantation. Our study suggests that changes in miRNA levels by the DICER-mediated miRNA-processing machinery result in aberrant expression of cell type-specific proteins that are potentially involved in the onset of tubal EP.
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The classical progesterone receptor mediates the rapid reduction of fallopian tube ciliary beat frequency by progesterone.
Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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BACKGROUND: The transport of gametes as well as the zygote is facilitated by motile cilia lining the inside of the fallopian tube. Progesterone reduces the ciliary beat frequency within 30 minutes in both cows and mice. This rapid reduction suggest the involvement of a non-genomic signaling mechanism, although it is not known which receptors that are involved. Here we investigated the possible involvement of the classical progesterone receptor in this process. METHOD: The ciliary beat frequency of mice fallopian tube was measured ex vivo using an inverted bright field microscope and a high speed camera. The effects of the agonists progesterone and promegestone and an antagonist, mifeprestone, were investigated in wildtype mice. The effect of progesterone was also investigated in mice lacking the classical progesterone receptor. RESULTS: Progesterone, as well as the more specific PR agonist promegestone, significantly reduced the CBF at concentrations of 10--100 nanomolar within 10--30 minutes. In the absence of progesterone, the PR antagonist mifeprestone had no effect on the ciliary beat frequency at a concentration of 1 micromolar. When ciliated cells were pre-incubated with 1 micromolar mifeprestone, addition of progesterone did not reduce the ciliary beat frequency. Accordingly, in ciliated cells from mice not expressing the classical progesterone receptor, exposure to 100 nanomolar progesterone did not reduce the ciliary beat frequency. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to provide comprehensive evidence that the classical progesterone receptor mediates the rapid reduction of the tubal ciliary beat frequency by progesterone.
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Aberrant alteration of vascular endothelial growth factor-family signaling in human tubal ectopic pregnancy: what is known and unknown?
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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More than 98% of ectopic pregnancies occur in the Fallopian tube. Because many facets of tubal ectopic pregnancy remain unclear, prediction, prevention and treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy are still a major clinical challenge. Compelling evidence suggests that angiogenic growth factors are involved in normal and abnormal implantation. While acknowledging the importance of an intrauterine pregnancy requires the development of a local blood supply and angiogenesis, we hypothesize that the hypoxic- and estrogen-dependent regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor/placental growth factor expression, secretion, and signaling pathways that are possibly involved in the pathophysiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. Our hypothesis may also lead to a new therapeutic strategy for women with tubal ectopic pregnancy.
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Comparison of the diagnostic values of circulating steroid hormones, VEGF-A, PIGF, and ADAM12 in women with ectopic pregnancy.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Several peripheral proteins that might be useful for detecting the presence of ectopic pregnancy (EP) have been evaluated, but none have been proven entirely useful in the clinic. We investigated the presence and the possible changes in circulating molecules that distinguish between normal intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) and tubal ectopic pregnancy.
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Linking DNA methylation to the onset of human tubal ectopic pregnancy.
Am J Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Ectopic pregnancy is a common reproductive disorder of unknown etiology and is a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality. Because of the asymptomatic nature of early tubal ectopic pregnancy and the lack of specific biomarkers for early diagnosis, a better understanding of the complex cellular and molecular interactions that contribute to tubal ectopic pregnancy is required. DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic process in various tissues and cells, and the goal of this article is to provide a brief review of recent work describing the potential mechanisms of DNA methylation and the biological function of such methylation in normal intrauterine pregnancy. Further, novel findings from our laboratory highlight the possible role of DNA methylation in human Fallopian tube dysfunction and suggest a possible correlation between methylation of estrogen receptor ? in women and the occurrence of tubal ectopic pregnancies.
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Electrical vs manual acupuncture stimulation in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome: different effects on muscle and fat tissue insulin signaling.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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In rats with dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), repeated low-frequency electrical stimulation of acupuncture needles restores whole-body insulin sensitivity measured by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. We hypothesized that electrical stimulation causing muscle contractions and manual stimulation causing needle sensation have different effects on insulin sensitivity and related signaling pathways in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, with electrical stimulation being more effective in DHT-induced PCOS rats. From age 70 days, rats received manual or low-frequency electrical stimulation of needles in abdominal and hind limb muscle five times/wk for 4-5 wks; controls were handled but untreated rats. Low-frequency electrical stimulation modified gene expression (decreased Tbc1d1 in soleus, increased Nr4a3 in mesenteric fat) and protein expression (increased pAS160/AS160, Nr4a3 and decreased GLUT4) by western blot and increased GLUT4 expression by immunohistochemistry in soleus muscle; glucose clearance during oral glucose tolerance tests was unaffected. Manual stimulation led to faster glucose clearance and modified mainly gene expression in mesenteric adipose tissue (increased Nr4a3, Mapk3/Erk, Adcy3, Gsk3b), but not protein expression to the same extent; however, Nr4a3 was reduced in soleus muscle. The novel finding is that electrical and manual muscle stimulation affect glucose homeostasis in DHT-induced PCOS rats through different mechanisms. Repeated electrical stimulation regulated key functional molecular pathways important for insulin sensitivity in soleus muscle and mesenteric adipose tissue to a larger extent than manual stimulation. Manual stimulation improved whole-body glucose tolerance, an effect not observed after electrical stimulation, but did not affect molecular signaling pathways to the same extent as electrical stimulation. Although more functional signaling pathways related to insulin sensitivity were affected by electrical stimulation, our findings suggest that manual stimulation of acupuncture needles has a greater effect on glucose tolerance. The underlying mechanism of the differential effects of the intermittent manual and the continuous electrical stimulation remains to be elucidated.
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Effects of androgen and leptin on behavioral and cellular responses in female rats.
Horm Behav
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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The causes of anxiety and depression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remain elusive. To identify steps linking androgen signaling to the regulation of affective symptoms in vivo, we compared behavioral responses in female rats continuously exposed to DHT from puberty (a model of DHT-induced PCOS) and in rats exposed to DHT for 1week. Continuous and 1week of DHT exposure resulted in a general decrease in locomotor activity and time spent on the open arms in the elevated plus maze, indicating anxiety-like behavior. Rats with DHT-induced PCOS have increases in adiposity and circulating leptin levels accompanied by leptin resistance. One week of DHT exposure decreased androgen receptor (AR) expression in the hypothalamus and leptin synthesis and function in adipocytes; it also inhibited signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and attenuated leptin activity by increasing levels of soluble leptin receptor, a leptin-binding protein, in the hypothalamus. This may affect the androgen-induced anxiety-related behavior in female rats. In conclusion, our results highlight the central role of androgens in behavioral function in female rats and suggest that androgens directly regulate the AR by decreasing its hypothalamic expression. Androgens also increase leptin synthesis in adipocytes, which drives central leptin signaling, and may regulate anxiety-related behaviors. Elucidating mechanisms by which androgens modulate female anxiety-like behavior may uncover useful approaches for treating women with PCOS who have symptoms of anxiety.
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Distinct expression pattern of Dicer1 correlates with ovarian-derived steroid hormone receptor expression in human Fallopian tubes during ovulation and the midsecretory phase.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Tissue-specific dicer1 knockout mice display severe, irreversible Fallopian tube damage and disrupted tubal transport. It is not known how Dicer1 affects human Fallopian tube function.
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Intense electroacupuncture normalizes insulin sensitivity, increases muscle GLUT4 content, and improves lipid profile in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance, possibly reflecting defects in skeletal muscle and adipocyte insulin signaling. Low-frequency (2 Hz) electroacupuncture (EA) increases insulin sensitivity in female rats with dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced PCOS, but the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that low-frequency EA regulates mediators involved in skeletal muscle glucose uptake and metabolism and alters the lipid profile in rats with DHT-induced PCOS. To test this hypothesis, we implanted in prepubescent female rats 90-day continuous-release pellets containing DHT (PCOS). At 70 days of age, the rats were randomly subdivided into two groups: one received low-frequency EA (evoking muscle twitches) for 20-25 min five times/wk for 4-5 wk; the other did not. Controls were implanted with pellets containing vehicle only. All three groups were otherwise handled similarly. Lipid profile was measured in fasting blood samples. Insulin sensitivity was determined by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, soleus muscle protein expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated Akt, and Akt substrate of 160 kDa was determined by Western blot analysis and GLUT4 location by immunofluorescence staining. PCOS EA rats had normalized insulin sensitivity, lower levels of total high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased expression of GLUT4 in different compartments of skeletal muscle compared with PCOS rats. Total weight and body composition did not differ in the groups. Thus, in rats with DHT-induced PCOS, low-frequency EA has systemic and local effects involving intracellular signaling pathways in muscle that may, at least in part, account for the marked improved insulin sensitivity.
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Nitric oxide synthases and tubal ectopic pregnancies induced by Chlamydia infection: basic and clinical insights.
Mol. Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
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Human ectopic pregnancy (EP) remains a common cause of pregnancy-related first trimester death. Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized from L-arginine by three NO synthases (NOS) in different tissues, including the Fallopian tube. Studies of knockout mouse models have improved our understanding of the function of NOS isoforms in reproduction, but their roles and specific mechanisms in infection-induced tubal dysfunction have not been fully elucidated. Here, we provide an overview of the expression, regulation and possible function of NOS isoforms in the Fallopian tube, highlighting the effects of infection-induced changes in the tubal cellular microenvironment (imbalance of NO production) on tubal dysfunction and the potential involvement of NOS isoforms in tubal EP after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection. The non-equivalent regulation of tubal NOS isoforms during the menstrual cycle suggests that endogenous ovarian steroid hormones regulate NOS in an isoform-specific manner. The current literature suggests that infection with C. trachomatis induces an inflammatory response that eventually leads to tubal epithelial destruction and functional impairment, caused by a high NO output mediated by inducible NOS (iNOS). Therefore, tissue-specific therapeutic approaches to suppress iNOS expression may help to prevent ectopic implantation in patients with prior C. trachomatis infection of the Fallopian tube.
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A common variant near the PRL gene is associated with increased adiposity in males.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
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A common variant (rs4712652) adjacent to the prolactin gene was recently associated with obesity using a genome-wide association study. The aim of this study was to replicate the association between rs4712652 and obesity and further examine if rs4712652 is associated with fat percentage and adiponectin levels in a population based Scandinavian cohort. rs4712652 was genotyped in 4879 participants (mean BMI 26.5±4.5 kg/m(2)) from the population-based PPP-Botnia Study and related to BMI, fat percentage and adiponectin levels. We found that the risk A allele of rs4712652 is associated with increased BMI and fat percentage in males (P=0.0047 and P=0.025, respectively), but not in females (P=0.98, P=0.45). Male A allele carriers have a higher risk of being overweight with an OR of 1.16 (P=0.025). While there was a significant negative correlation between adiponectin levels and fat percentage (r=-0.36; P=0.039) in male carriers of the protective GG genotype, this correlation was lost in male carriers of the risk rs4712652 A allele (P=0.33). Thus, the common SNP rs4712652 near the PRL gene seems to affect body fat and adiposity in a sex-specific fashion. It remains to be shown whether this is mediated by different prolactin concentrations or differences in tissue sensitivity to prolactin.
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Rapid effects of progesterone on ciliary beat frequency in the mouse fallopian tube.
Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2010
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The physiological regulation of ciliary beat frequency (CBF) within the fallopian tube is important for controlling the transport of gametes and the fertilized ovum. Progesterone influences gamete transport in the fallopian tube of several mammalian species. In fallopian tubes isolated from cows, treatment with 20 micromolar progesterone caused a rapid reduction of the tubal CBF. The aims of this study were to establish methodology for studying fallopian tube CBF in the mouse, as it is an important model species, and to investigate if progesterone rapidly affects the CBF of mice at nM concentrations.
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Spatiotemporal expression of androgen receptors in the female rat brain during the oestrous cycle and the impact of exogenous androgen administration: a comparison with gonadally intact males.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Little is known about the regulation and cellular distribution of androgen receptors (ARs) in female rodent brains at various stages of the oestrous cycle. This information is critical for further studies of androgen signalling in the regulation of brain function under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this report, we show that the distribution of AR immunoreactivity in the female rat brain is consistent with reported AR mRNA hybridisation signals in the male brain, except for the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses performed herein revealed that the onset of region-specific changes in AR proteins was strongly correlated with circulating and ovarian levels of estradiol and testosterone across the oestrous cycle. During the metestrus and diestrus stages, however, the highest levels of AR expression were abolished by chronic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment. This demonstrates that fluctuations in endogenous androgens are required for the regulation of AR expression in the female rat brain. Colocalisation studies revealed that: (1) anatomical variations in AR protein localisation existed between female and male brains, (2) AR immunoreactivity was both neuronal and non-neuronal, and (3) AR protein expression was lower in female rat brains at all stages of the oestrous cycle compared to age-matched males. Our results indicate the presence of regional sex differences in AR expression and changes in the proportion of AR between different subcellular compartments. Furthermore, DHT was found to down-regulate the level of AR in the subcellular compartment in females in a region-specific manner. As a whole, the present study provides the first step toward understanding the dynamics of AR expression and regulation in the brain during normal physiological conditions and for differences in neuronal androgen effects based on sex.
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Distribution and hormonal regulation of membrane progesterone receptors beta and gamma in ciliated epithelial cells of mouse and human fallopian tubes.
Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2009
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The controlled beating of cilia of the fallopian tube plays an important role in facilitating the meeting of gametes and subsequently transporting the fertilized egg to its implantation site. Rapid effects of progesterone on ciliary beat frequency have been reported in the fallopian tubes of cows, but the identity of the receptors mediating this non-genomic action of progesterone is not known. We recently identified a member of the non-genomic membrane progesterone receptor family, mPR gamma, as a candidate for mediating these actions of progesterone. Here, we investigated the possible presence of a related receptor, mPR beta, in the fallopian tubes of mice and women as well as the possible hormonal regulation of mPR beta and gamma.
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Hypothalamic neuroendocrine functions in rats with dihydrotestosterone-induced polycystic ovary syndrome: effects of low-frequency electro-acupuncture.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
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Adult female rats continuously exposed to androgens from prepuberty have reproductive and metabolic features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We investigated whether such exposure adversely affects estrous cyclicity and the expression and distribution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), GnRH receptors, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus and whether the effects are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR). We also assessed the effect of low-frequency electro-acupuncture (EA) on those variables. At 21 days of age, rats were randomly divided into three groups (control, PCOS, and PCOS EA; n = 12/group) and implanted subcutaneously with 90-day continuous-release pellets containing vehicle or 5alpha-dihydrostestosterone (DHT). From age 70 days, PCOS EA rats received 2-Hz EA (evoking muscle twitches) five times/week for 4-5 weeks. Hypothalamic protein expression was measured by immunohistochemistry and western blot. DHT-treated rats were acyclic, but controls had regular estrous cycles. In PCOS rats, hypothalamic medial preoptic AR protein expression and the number of AR- and GnRH-immunoreactive cells were increased, but CRH was not affected; however, GnRH receptor expression was decreased in both the pituitary and hypothalamus. Low-frequency EA restored estrous cyclicity within 1 week and reduced the elevated hypothalamic GnRH and AR expression levels. EA did not affect GnRH receptor or CRH expression. Interestingly, nuclear AR co-localized with GnRH in the hypothalamus. Thus, rats with DHT-induced PCOS have disrupted estrous cyclicity and an increased number of hypothalamic cells expressing GnRH, most likely mediated by AR activation. Repeated low-frequency EA normalized estrous cyclicity and restored GnRH and AR protein expression. These results may help explain the beneficial neuroendocrine effects of low-frequency EA in women with PCOS.
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Downregulation of cilia-localized Il-6R alpha by 17beta-estradiol in mouse and human fallopian tubes.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
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The action of interleukin-6 (IL-6) impacts female reproduction. Although IL-6 was recently shown to inhibit cilia activity in human fallopian tubes in vitro, the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-6 signaling to tubal function remain elusive. Here, we investigate the cellular localization, regulation, and possible function of two IL-6 receptors (IL-6R alpha and gp130) in mouse and human fallopian tubes in vivo. We show that IL-6R alpha is restricted to the cilia of epithelial cells in both mouse and human fallopian tubes. Exogenous 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), but not progesterone (P(4)), causes a time-dependent decrease in IL-6R alpha expression, which is blocked by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI-182,780. Exposure of different ER-selective agonists propyl-(1H)-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl-trisphenol or 2,3-bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile demonstrated an ER subtype-specific regulation of IL-6R alpha in mouse fallopian tubes. In contrast to IL-6R alpha, gp130 was detected in tubal epithelial cells in mice but not in humans. In humans, gp130 was found in the muscle cells and was decreased in the periovulatory and luteal phases during the reproductive cycles, indicating a species-specific expression and regulation of gp130 in the fallopian tube. Expression of tubal IL-6R alpha and gp130 in IL-6 knockout mice was found to be normal; however, E(2) treatment increased IL-6R alpha, but not gp130, in IL-6 knockout mice when compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, expression levels of IL-6R alpha, but not gp130, decreased in parallel with estrogenic accelerated oocyte-cumulus complex (OCC) transport in mouse fallopian tubes. Our findings open the possibility that cilia-specific IL-6R alpha may play a role in the regulation of OCC transport and suggest an estrogen-regulatory pathway of IL-6R alpha in the fallopian tube.
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Transcriptional effects of progesterone receptor antagonist in rat granulosa cells.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2009
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Progesterone, acting via the nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR), reduces apoptosis in periovulatory granulosa cells, and is a likely mediator of the anti-atretic actions of LH. The underlying mechanisms, however, have not been clearly defined. In this study, we sought to identify progesterone-mediated transcriptional changes involved in apoptosis regulation. Granulosa cells from immature, gonadotropin-primed female rats were treated in vitro with 100 nM of the PGR antagonist Org 31710. Transcriptional effects were analyzed after 5 and 22 h of incubation using microarrays, and the expression of 85 genes was subsequently measured by quantitative PCR. Follow-up experiments focused on genes related to the functional group "apoptosis". We have identified novel, early gene targets of PGR that may be involved in the control of apoptosis and other biologically significant functions in periovulatory granulosa cells. This study expands our knowledge of events that occur during the processes of ovulation and luteinization.
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Clomiphene citrate causes aberrant tubal apoptosis and estrogen receptor activation in rat fallopian tube: implications for tubal ectopic pregnancy.
Biol. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
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Clomiphene citrate (CC) therapy for disorders of anovulatory infertility has been linked to an increased frequency of tubal ectopic pregnancy. Although CC enhances apoptotic processes in the ovaries, villi, and decidual tissues, its effect on apoptosis in the fallopian tube is unknown. Here, we show that chronic treatment with CC induces tubal apoptosis, but not necrosis, through an intrinsic mitochondria-dependent signaling pathway in vivo. The apoptosis was specific to epithelial cells in the isthmus, and the damage was reversed with 17beta-estradiol (E2); however, pretreatment or concomitant treatment with E2 did not protect against tubal apoptosis induced by chronic treatment with CC. Chronic treatment activated estrogen receptors (ESRs), particularly cilia-localized ESR2A (formerly ERbeta2). In contrast to E2, acute treatment of superovulating rats with a high dose of CC or the ESR2-selective agonist 2,3-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN) significantly delayed the transport of oocyte-cumulus complexes through the fallopian tube. Our findings suggest that in response to chronic CC therapy, isthmus-specific apoptosis of epithelial cells and activation of cilia-ESR2A act in parallel to block gamete and embryo passage through the fallopian tube, eventually resulting in tubal ectopic pregnancy.
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Dominant role of nuclear progesterone receptor in the control of rat periovulatory granulosa cell apoptosis.
Biol. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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In this study, it was hypothesized that progesterone (P4) acts as a survival factor primarily by actions of the classic nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR) signaling pathway in rat periovulatory granulosa cells. Granulosa cells were isolated from immature female rats primed with equine chorionic gonadotropin/human chorionic gonadotropin and treated in vitro with PGR antagonists. As little as 10 nM of two different PGR antagonists (Org 31710 and RU 486) increased apoptosis measured as caspase 3/7 activity, which was reversed by cotreatment with the progestin R5020. Concurrently, P4 synthesis was decreased. Inhibition of P4 synthesis by cyanoketone similarly induced apoptosis but required greater inhibition of P4 synthesis than that seen after treatment with PGR antagonists. Therefore, the induction of apoptosis by PGR antagonists cannot be explained by decreased P4 synthesis alone. Low concentrations of R5020 also completely reversed the effects of cyanoketone. Inhibition of P4 synthesis was more effective in inducing apoptosis than treatment with PGR antagonists. However, cotreatment with PGR antagonists protected cells from the additional effects of cyanoketone, indicating partial agonist effects of the antagonists and a dominating role for PGR in P4-mediated regulation of apoptosis. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) was expressed in granulosa cells; however, an anti-PGRMC1 antibody did not induce apoptosis in periovulatory granulosa cells. Neither anti-PGRMC1 nor P4 or cyanoketone affected apoptosis of immature granulosa cells. In conclusion, we show that P4 regulates apoptosis in periovulatory granulosa cells by acting via the classic nuclear receptor.
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The role of estrogen in the pathophysiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy.
Am J Transl Res
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17?-estradiol, acting through estrogen receptors ? and ?, plays a fundamental role in the regulation of Fallopian tube cell homeostasis and in the modulation of normal tubal physiological processes. Fluctuations in E2 levels also play crucial roles in the initiation or progression of numerous human diseases. Fallopian tube malfunction often results in tubal ectopic pregnancy, which is one cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in women. Several factors have been proposed to be associated with increased risk of tubal ectopic pregnancy, but whether these factors are the cause of, or are merely symptoms of, such pregnancies remains unresolved due to the lack of knowledge in regards to the mechanisms by which embryos inadvertently implant in the Fallopian tube. This review summarizes recent findings, including data from our own laboratory, on E2 metabolism and estrogen receptor (ER) subtype expression within the Fallopian tube in humans and rodents. This review also outlines several important, unresolved questions in the field that, once addressed, could offer important clues into how E2/ER signaling contributes to the pathology of tubal function. A better understanding of the specific functions of estrogen receptor subtypes in vivo, as well as of the mechanism and consequences of receptor subtype interactions is critical to understanding their respective roles in Fallopian tube physiology and in the pathophysiology and etiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy.
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From mice to women and back again: causalities and clues for Chlamydia-induced tubal ectopic pregnancy.
Fertil. Steril.
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To provide an overview of knockout mouse models that have pathological tubal phenotypes after Chlamydia muridarum infection, discuss factors and pathological processes that contribute to inflammation, summarize data on tubal transport and progression of tubal implantation from studies in humans and animal models, and highlight research questions in the field.
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Coordinate regulation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein dynamics by steroid hormones in the human fallopian tube and endometrium in vivo and in vitro.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
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Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), which are chromatin-associated RNA-binding proteins, participate in mRNA stability, transport, intracellular localization, and translation by acting as transacting factors. Several studies have shown that steroid hormones can regulate hnRNP expression. However, to date, the regulation of hnRNPs and their interactions with steroid hormone signaling in fallopian tubes and endometrium are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we determined whether hnRNP expression is regulated during the menstrual cycle and correlates with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) levels in human fallopian tubes in vivo. Because of the limited availability of human tubal tissues for the research, we also explored the mechanisms of hnRNP regulation in human endometrium in vitro. Fallopian tissue was obtained from patients in the early, late, and postovulatory phases and the midsecretory phase and endometrial tissue from premenopausal and postmenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy. We measured expression of hnRNPs and assessed their intracellular localization and interactions with ERs and PRs. We also determined the effects of human chorionic gonadotropin, 17?-estradiol (E(2)), and progesterone (P(4)) on hnRNP expression. In fallopian tubes, mRNA and protein levels of hnRNP A1, AB, D, G, H, and U changed dynamically during ovulation and in the midsecretory phase. In coimmunolocation and coimmunoprecipitation experiments, hnRNPs interacted with each other and with ERs and PRs in fallopian tubes. After treatment with E(2) and/or P(4) to activate ERs and PRs, hnRNP A1, AB, D, G, and U proteins displayed overlapping but distinct patterns of regulation in the endometrium in vitro. Our findings expand the physiological repertoire of hnRNPs in human fallopian tubes and endometrium and suggest that steroid hormones regulate different hnRNPs directly by interacting with ERs and/or PRs or indirectly by binding other hnRNPs. Both actions may contribute to regulation of gene transcription.
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Sex steroid levels temporarily increase in response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men and women.
Int J Psychophysiol
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It is well known that acute psychosocial stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). However, the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and levels of sex steroids are less known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute psychosocial stress on serum concentrations of sex steroids in healthy men and women. Twenty men and 19 women (age 30-50 years) underwent Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. Concentrations of androgens were measured with high specificity LC-MS/MS method; concentrations of cortisol, estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined using immunoassays. In both men and women we observed significantly elevated levels of testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione and sex hormone binding globulin along with significantly increased adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum cortisol, heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) as a response to the stressor. Thus, even though the HPG axis and the production of sex steroids may be inhibited during prolonged periods of stress, the sex steroid levels may increase in the initial phase of acute psychosocial stress.
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Revealing the hidden mechanisms of smoke-induced fallopian tubal implantation.
Biol. Reprod.
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Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is an enigmatic reproductive disorder. Although tubal EP is difficult to predict, several hypotheses about its etiology have been proposed. In retrospective case-control studies, smoking is associated with an increased rate of EPs in the fallopian tube. Studies of experimental animals in vivo and human fallopian tubal tissues in vitro have suggested mechanisms of fallopian tubal damage and dysfunction induced by nicotine and other smoking-related chemicals that may explain this association. However, the pathogenesis of smoking-induced modulation of implantation leading to tubal EP is largely unknown. Because cigarette/tobacco smoke adversely affects the success of intrauterine implantation, there is a great need to determine how embryo implantation occurs in the fallopian tube in female smokers of reproductive age.
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Electrical and manual acupuncture stimulation affect oestrous cyclicity and neuroendocrine function in an 5?-dihydrotestosterone-induced rat polycystic ovary syndrome model.
Exp. Physiol.
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Both low-frequency electro-acupuncture (EA) and manual acupuncture improve menstrual frequency and decrease circulating androgens in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We sought to determine whether low-frequency EA is more effective than manual stimulation in regulating disturbed oestrous cyclicity in rats with PCOS induced by 5?-dihydrotestosterone. To identify the central mechanisms of the effects of stimulation, we assessed hypothalamic mRNA expression of molecules that regulate reproductive and neuroendocrine function. From age 70 days, rats received 2 Hz EA or manual stimulation with the needles five times per week for 4-5 weeks; untreated rats served as control animals. Specific hypothalamic nuclei were obtained by laser microdissection, and mRNA expression was measured with TaqMan low-density arrays. Untreated rats were acyclic. During the last 2 weeks of treatment, seven of eight (88%) rats in the EA group had epithelial keratinocytes, demonstrating oestrous cycle change (P = 0.034 versus control rats). In the manual group, five of eight (62%) rats had oestrous cycle changes (n.s. versus control animals). The mRNA expression of the opioid receptors Oprk1 and Oprm1 in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus was lower in the EA group than in untreated control rats. The mRNA expression of the steroid hormone receptors Esr2, Pgr and Kiss1r was lower in the manual group than in the control animals. In rats with 5?-dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS, low-frequency EA restored disturbed oestrous cyclicity but did not differ from the manual stimulation group, although electrical stimulation lowered serum testosterone in responders, those with restored oestrus cyclicity, and differed from both control animals and the manual stimulation group. Thus, EA cannot in all aspects be considered superior to manual stimulation. The effects of low-frequency EA may be mediated by central opioid receptors, while manual stimulation may involve regulation of steroid hormone/peptide receptors.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.