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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Examination of a Bifactor Model of the Three Domains of Disgust Scale: Specificity in Relation to Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms.
Psychol Assess
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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The current research evaluated a bifactor model for the Three Domains of Disgust Scale (TDDS) in 2 undergraduate samples. The goals were (a) to evaluate whether the TDDS should be scored as a unidimensional scale or whether subscales of pathogen, sex, and moral disgust should be additionally interpreted, and (b) to examine the utility of the TDDS subscales above and beyond the total score in predicting obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Results in Study 1 and Study 2 revealed that a bifactor model fit the TDDS data well and that all items were influenced by a general disgust dimension and by 1 of 3 content dimensions. However, model-based reliability estimated via omega hierarchical for the total score suggested that TDDS items are highly multidimensional. That is, the general disgust dimension only accounts for about half of the variability in the items of the total score, with the remaining variability accounted for by the specific disgust domains and other sources of variance. Despite the high degree of multidimensionality underlying the TDDS items, the pathogen and sex subscale scores were found to be relatively unreliable after controlling for the general disgust factor. Among the 3 domains, pathogen disgust had the most consistently significant relationship with an OCD symptom latent factor above and beyond the general disgust factor. The strengths and limitations of the TDDS are discussed in the context of these findings, and the implications for better understanding the structure of disgust and its relationship with OCD are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Long-term outcome after endoscopic submucosal dissection in patients with superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a single-center study.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SESCC) is being increasingly detected during screening endoscopy. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allows for en bloc and histologically complete resection of lesions. This study assessed the technical feasibility and long-term outcomes of ESD for SESCCs.
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All-in-One Centrifugal Microfluidic Device for Size-Selective Circulating Tumor Cell Isolation with High Purity.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have gained increasing attention owing to their roles in cancer recurrence and progression. Due to the rarity of CTCs in the bloodstream, an enrichment process is essential for effective target cell characterization. However, in a typical pressure-driven microfluidic system, the enrichment process generally requires complicated equipment and long processing times. Furthermore, the commonly used immunoaffinity-based positive selection method is limited, as its recovery rate relies on EpCAM expression of target CTCs, which shows heterogeneity among cell types. Here, we propose a centrifugal-force-based size-selective CTC isolation platform that can isolate and enumerate CTCs from whole blood within 30 s with high purity. The device was validated using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line spiked in phosphate-buffered saline and whole blood, and an average capture efficiency of 61% was achieved, which is typical for size-based filtration. The capture efficiency for whole blood samples varied from 44% to 84% under various flow conditions and dilution factors. Under the optimized operating conditions, a few hundred white blood cells per 1 mL of whole blood were captured, representing a 20-fold decrease compared to those obtained using a commercialized size-based CTC isolation device. In clinical validation, normalized CTC counts varied from 10 to 60 per 7.5 mL of blood from gastric and lung cancer patients, yielding a detection rate of 50% and 38%, respectively. Overall, our CTC isolation device enables rapid and label-free isolation of CTCs with high purity, which should greatly improve downstream molecular analyses of captured CTCs.
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Histopathological features of the gastroesophageal junction: an Eastern view.
Histol. Histopathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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The definition and features of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) and the histopathologic features of the cardiac mucosa remain controversial. Most reports originate from western countries, which have different prevalence of GEJ adenocarcinoma and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) compared to eastern countries. Therefore, we investigated GEJ anatomic and histopathologic features by histological mapping in 30 esophagogastrectomy specimens of middle and lower esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. We measured the lengths of the cardiac mucosa, oxyntocardiac mucosa, and esophageal cardiac-type glands. We assessed the presence of intestinal metaplasia, pancreatic acinar cells, Brunner's-like glands, and submucosal esophageal gland beneath cardiac mucosa and the relationship of these features with age and the circumferential location of cardiac mucosa. The lengths of cardiac mucosa and esophageal cardiac-type glands significantly increased with age (<63 years, 2767.86±734.95 µm vs. ?63 years, 5453.12±839.52 µm, P=0.025 and <63 years, 1151.78±452.81 µm vs. ?63 years, 2273.44±321.58 µm, P=0.049, respectively) and the presence of circumferential cardiac mucosa (+, 5731.25±721.57 vs. -, 2625.00±356.00 µm, P=0.007; +, 2425.00±326.13 µm vs. -, 400.00±204.80 µm, P<0.0001 respectively). The presence of intestinal metaplasia and irregular GEJ increased with age and the circumferential location of cardiac mucosa. The presence of esophageal submucosal glands beneath the cardiac mucosa, pancreatic acinar cells, and Brunner-like glands were seen in 8/30 (26.7%), 15/30 (50%), and 14/30 (46.7%) cases, respectively. These data indirectly suggest that cardiac mucosa originated from the distal esophagus and that the presence of cardiac mucosa may indicate GERD, in accordance with data from Western countries.
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Relationships between body mass index, fat mass, muscle mass, and musculoskeletal pain in community residents.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Objective. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationships between fat mass, muscle mass, fat/muscle mass ratio, metabolic syndrome, and musculoskeletal pain in community residents. Methods. In the Korean Health and Genome Study, 1530 participants (mean ± SD age 60.8 ± 8.60) completed pain questionnaires and underwent dual x-ray absorptiometry to calculate body composition. Pain was categorized according to the number of pain regions, such that the most severe category of pain was widespread pain, defined as pain above the waist, below the waist, on both sides of the body, and in the axial region. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the International Diabetes Federation 2005 recommendations, and the association between metabolic syndrome and pain was evaluated by dividing the population into four groups, according to the presence/absence of metabolic syndrome and of high BMI. Results. Total fat mass and fat/muscle ratio were significantly and positively associated with musculoskeletal pain only among females. Compared to the lowest quartile of fat/muscle ratio, the odds ratios for widespread pain of other quartiles were significantly increased after adjustment of confounders. Widespread pain was more prevalent among those with metabolic syndrome in both normal- and high-BMI subjects, especially among females. Conclusions. Increase in fat mass and fat/muscle mass ratio was significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain among females. Widespread pain was significantly associated with a high fat/muscle ratio after adjusting for confounders. Understanding the relation between fat mass and pain may provide insights into preventative measures and therapeutic strategies for musculoskeletal pain. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.
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Chloroquine has a cytotoxic effect on Acanthamoeba encystation through modulation of autophagy.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Encystation of Acanthamoeba castellanii is associated with resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Blocking the encystation process could potentiate the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents and biocides. During encystation, autophagy is highly stimulated and required for proper encystation of Acanthamoeba. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of chloroquine, a well-known autophagy-inhibitory drug, was tested in A. castellanii. Chloroquine was able to selectively reduce cell survival during the encystation of A. castellanii. However, A. castellanii trophozoites and mature cysts were resistant to chloroquine. Chloroquine treatment led to an increase in the number and size of lysosomes in encysting cells. Moreover, chloroquine inhibited the degradation of long-lived proteins in the encysting cells. Decreased autophagic flux, indicated by an increased number of lysosomes and decreased degradation of long-lived proteins, may be the mechanism by which cell death is induced by chloroquine in encysting Acanthamoeba. These results suggest a potential novel therapeutic application of chloroquine as an anti-Acanthamoeba drug. Our findings also suggest that targeting autophagy could be a therapeutic strategy against Acanthamoeba infection.
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Four-week effects of allopurinol and febuxostat treatments on blood pressure and serum creatinine level in gouty men.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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The aim of this study was to observe the effects of uric acid lowering therapy (UALT), febuxostat and allopurinol, on blood pressure (BP) and serum creatinine level. Post-hoc data were derived from a phase-III, randomised, double-blind, 4-week trial of male gouty patients that compared the safety and efficacy of febuxostat and allopurinol in adults with gout. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups, 35-37 in each group (febuxostat: 40, 80, 120 mg/d; allopurinol: 300 mg/d; control group: placebo). Blood pressure and serum creatinine level were measured at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Diastolic BP and creatinine level had decreased significantly in the UALT groups compared to the control group at week 4. Diastolic BP had decreased significantly in the allopurinol group and serum creatinine level had decreased significantly in the febuxostat groups at week 4. After adjusting for confounding variables, serum uric acid changes were found to be significantly correlated with changes in serum creatinine level but were not associated with changes in systolic or diastolic BP. UALT in gouty subjects significantly decreased diastolic BP and serum creatinine level. Changes in uric acid were significantly correlated with those in serum creatinine level, suggesting the feasibility of renal function improvement through UALT in gouty men.
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Treatment outcome for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma according to Helicobacter pylori infection status: a single-center experience.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy has been used as a first-line treatment for H. pylori-positive gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. However, the management strategy for H. pylori-negative MALT lymphoma remains controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the success rate of each treatment option for H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphomas.
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Plastic and biodegradable stents for complex and refractory benign esophageal strictures.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Endoscopic stent placement is a well-accepted and effective alternative treatment modality for complex and refractory esophageal strictures. Among the currently available types of stents, the partially covered self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) has a firm anchoring effect, preventing stent migration and ensuring effective covering of a narrowed segment. However, hyperplastic tissue reaction driven by the uncovered mesh may prevent easy and safe stent removal. As an alternative, a fully covered SEMS decreases the recurrence of dysphagia caused by hyperplastic tissue ingrowth; however, it has a high migration rate. Likewise, although a self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS) reduces reactive hyperplasia, the long-term outcome is disappointing because of the high rate of stent migration. A biodegradable stent has the main benefit of not requiring stent removal in comparison with SEMS and SEPS. However, it still has a somewhat high rate of hyperplastic reaction, and the long-term outcome does not satisfy expectations. Up to now, the question of which type of stent should be recommended for the effective treatment of complex and refractory benign strictures has no clear answer. Therefore, the selection of stent type for endoscopic treatment should be individualized, taking into consideration the endoscopist's experience as well as patient and stricture characteristics.
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Does clear cell carcinoma of stomach exist? Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of clear cell changes in gastric adenocarcinomas.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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In contrast to clear cell carcinomas developing in other organs (e.g. ovary and uterus), gastric adenocarcinomas with clear cell features are not well characterized.
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Acute ectopic pancreatitis occurring after endoscopic biopsy in a gastric ectopic pancreas.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Ectopic pancreas is a congenital anomaly and the most common type of ectopic tissue in the gastrointestinal tract. Most patients with an ectopic pancreas are asymptomatic and rarely have complications. Ectopic pancreatitis after an endoscopic biopsy has not been reported. We report a patient who developed acute ectopic pancreatitis in the stomach after an endoscopic biopsy. A 71-year-old male patient presented with a subepithelial tumor (SET) in the stomach and had no symptoms. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated a 30-mm hypoechoic mural mass, lobulated margins, and anechoic duct-like lesions. To obtain proper tissue specimen, endoscopic biopsy was performed through the opening on the surface of the mass. The pathologic results confirmed an ectopic pancreas. One day after the endoscopic biopsy, he developed persistent epigastric pain. His serum amylase and lipase elevated. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed swelling of the SET and diffuse edema of the gastric wall. His condition was diagnosed as acute ectopic pancreatitis occurring after endoscopic biopsy.
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Tat-biliverdin reductase A inhibits inflammatory response by regulation of MAPK and NF-?B pathways in Raw 264.7 cells and edema mouse model.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation induces oxidative stress and cell damage, which then activates several signaling pathways and triggers inflammatory response. Biliverdin is a natural product of heme metabolism which is converted to bilirubin by the enzyme biliverdin reductase A (BLVRA) which also plays a role in antioxidant activity via the ROS scavenging activity of bilirubin. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of Tat-BLVRA protein on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in Raw 264.7 macrophage cells. Transduction of Tat-BLVRA protein into Raw 264.7 cells and mice ear tissue was tested by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical analysis. Tat-BLVRA protein was effective in inhibiting mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Akt and NF-?B activation, intracellular ROS production and DNA fragmentation. Also, Tat-BLVRA protein significantly inhibited the expression of cytokines, COX-2, and iNOS. In a 12-O-tetradecanoylphobol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse model, mice ears treated with Tat-BLVRA protein showed decreased ear thickness and weight, as well as inhibited MAPKs activation and cytokine expression. Thus we suggested that Tat-BLVRA protein may provide an effective therapeutic agent for inflammatory skin diseases.
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Altered white matter integrity in the corpus callosum in fibromyalgia patients identified by tract-based spatial statistical analysis.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Although recent imaging studies of fibromyalgia (FM) have converged on a dysfunction of central pain processing as the primary pathophysiologic cause of the disorder, microstructural changes of the white matter (WM) suggestive of abnormalities in the anatomic connectivity of the brain have not been extensively examined. The aim of this study was to investigate WM integrity and its possible relationship to pain symptoms in women with FM.
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Predicting the invasion depth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: comparison of endoscopic ultrasonography and magnifying endoscopy.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Predicting the invasion depth of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SESCC) is important when selecting among therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to compare magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI) with endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for predicting the depth of tumor invasion in patients with SESCC.
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How to perform and interpret balloon expulsion test.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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The balloon expulsion test is a simple and useful method for investigating a defecatory disorder assessing the subject's ability to evacuate a simulated stool. However, there is no standard methodology and varying interpretations have been reported. This review discusses the techniques, interpretation and clinical utility of the balloon expulsion test.
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Clinical Implication of PET/MR Imaging in Preoperative Esophageal Cancer Staging: Comparison with PET/CT, Endoscopic Ultrasonography, and CT.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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This was a study to compare the diagnostic efficacies of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), CT, PET/MR imaging, and PET/CT for the preoperative local and regional staging of esophageal cancer, with postoperative pathologic stage used as the reference standard.
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[A single institution's experience of infundibulotomy in patients taking antiplatelet agents: outcomes, safety and complications].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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The diagnostic and therapeutic utility of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has been well demonstrated for biliary and pancreatic diseases. Biliary access can be allowed by infundibulotomy if failed by using the standard cannulation methods. However, no data are available regarding ERCP-related complications in patients taking antiplatelet agents who are undergoing infundibulotomy. Therefore, we aimed to assess the frequency of ERCP-related complications after infundibulotomy in patients taking antiplatelet agents.
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Comparison of the efficacy and safety profiles of a pelubiprofen versus celecoxib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a 6-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase III, non-inferiority clinical trial.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Pelubiprofen is a prodrug of 2-arylpropionic acid with relatively selective effects on cyclooxygenase-2 activity. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety profiles of pelubiprofen with those of celecoxib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
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Clinicopathologic factors predicting lymph node metastasis in superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SESCC), but it is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. Recently, endoscopic resection for SESCC has been indicated for patients with a low risk of lymph node metastasis (LNM). Therefore, to successfully treat SESCC with endoscopic resection, it is very important to identify patients with a low risk for LNM. The objective of this study was to investigate clinicopathologic factors that predict LNM in patients who underwent esophagectomy for SESCC.
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Tumor targeting RGD conjugated bio-reducible polymer for VEGF siRNA expressing plasmid delivery.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Targeted delivery of therapeutic genes to the tumor site is critical for successful and safe cancer gene therapy. The arginine grafted bio-reducible poly (cystamine bisacrylamide-diaminohexane, CBA-DAH) polymer (ABP) conjugated poly (amido amine) (PAMAM), PAM-ABP (PA) was designed previously as an efficient gene delivery carrier. To achieve high efficacy in cancer selective delivery, we developed the tumor targeting bio-reducible polymer, PA-PEG1k-RGD, by conjugating cyclic RGDfC (RGD) peptides, which bind ?v?3/5 integrins, to the PAM-ABP using polyethylene glycol (PEG, 1 kDa) as a spacer. Physical characterization showed nanocomplex formation with bio-reducible properties between PA-PEG1k-RGD and plasmid DNA (pDNA). In transfection assays, PA-PEG1k-RGD showed significantly higher transfection efficiency in comparison with PAM-ABP or PA-PEG1k-RAD in ?v?3/5 positive MCF7 breast cancer and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. The targeting ability of PA-PEG1k-RGD was further established using a competition assay. To confirm the therapeutic effect, the VEGF siRNA expressing plasmid was constructed and then delivered into cancer cells using PA-PEG1k-RGD. PA-PEG1k-RGD showed 20-59% higher cellular uptake rate into MCF7 and PANC-1 than that of non-targeted polymers. In addition, MCF7 and PANC-1 cancer cells transfected with PA-PEG1k-RGD/pshVEGF complexes had significantly decreased VEGF gene expression (51-71%) and cancer cell viability (35-43%) compared with control. These results demonstrate that a tumor targeting bio-reducible polymer with an anti-angiogenic therapeutic gene could be used for efficient and safe cancer gene therapy.
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The clinical characteristics of colonic pseudo-obstruction and the factors associated with medical treatment response: a study based on a multicenter database in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Colonic pseudo-obstruction (CPO) is defined as marked colonic distension in the absence of mechanical obstruction. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of CPO and the factors associated with the response to medical treatment by using a multicenter database in Korea. CPO was diagnosed as colonic dilatation without mechanical obstruction by using radiologic and/or endoscopic examinations. Acute CPO occurring in the postoperative period in surgical patients or as a response to an acute illness was excluded. CPO cases were identified in 15 tertiary referral hospitals between 2000 and 2011. The patients' data were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. In total, 104 patients (53 men; mean age at diagnosis, 47 yr) were identified. Seventy-seven of 104 patients (74%) showed a transition zone on abdominal computed tomography. Sixty of 104 patients (58%) showed poor responses to medical treatment and underwent surgery at the mean follow-up of 7.4 months (0.5-61 months). Younger age at the time of diagnosis, abdominal distension as a chief complaint, and greater cecal diameter were independently associated with the poor responses to medical treatment. These may be risk factors for a poor response to medical treatment.
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Delayed hypersensitivity reaction resulting in maculopapular-type eruption due to entecavir in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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Several clinical trials have demonstrated the potent antiviral efficacy of entecavir (ETV), and this relatively new nucleoside analogue drug has rapidly become a frequently prescribed therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) worldwide. While the studies have also shown a good overall safety profile for ETV, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in patients with advanced cirrhosis have been reported and represent a broad spectrum of drug-induced injuries, including lactic acidosis, myalgia, neuropathy, azotemia, hypophosphatemia, muscular weakness, and pancreatitis, as well as immune-mediated responses (i.e., allergic reactions). Cutaneous ADRs associated with ETV are very rare, with only two case reports in the publicly available literature; both of these cases were classified as unspecified hypersensitivity allergic (type I) ADR, but neither were reported as pathologically proven or as evaluated by cytokine release analysis. Here, we report the case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with a generalized maculopapular rash after one week of ETV treatment for lamivudine-resistant CHB. The patient reported having experienced a similar skin eruption during a previous three-month regimen of ETV, for which she had self-discontinued the medication. Histopathological analysis of a skin biopsy showed acanthotic epidermis with focal parakeratosis and a perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate admixed with interstitial eosinophils in the papillary and reticular dermis, consistent with a diagnosis of drug sensitivity. A lymphocyte stimulation test showed significantly enhanced IL-4, indicating a classification of type IVb delayed hypersensitivity. The patient was switched to an adefovir-lamivudine combination regimen and the skin eruption resolved two weeks after the ETV withdrawal. This case represents the first pathologically and immunologically evidenced ETV-induced delayed type hypersensitivity skin reaction reported to date. Physicians should be aware of the potential, although rare, for cutaneous ADRs associated with ETV treatment.
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Magnifying endoscopy of gastric epithelial dysplasia based on the morphologic characteristics.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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To investigate the difference in magnifying endoscopic findings of gastric epithelial dysplasias (GEDs) according to the morphologic characteristics.
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PI3K? inhibition reduces TNF secretion and neuroinflammation in a mouse cerebral stroke model.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Stroke is a major cause of death worldwide and the leading cause of permanent disability. Although reperfusion is currently used as treatment, the restoration of blood flow following ischaemia elicits a profound inflammatory response mediated by proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF), exacerbating tissue damage and worsening the outcomes for stroke patients. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3K?) controls intracellular TNF trafficking in macrophages and therefore represents a prospective target to limit neuroinflammation. Here we show that PI3K? inhibition confers protection in ischaemia/reperfusion models of stroke. In vitro, restoration of glucose supply following an episode of glucose deprivation potentiates TNF secretion from primary microglia-an effect that is sensitive to PI3K? inhibition. In vivo, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in kinase-dead PI3K? (p110?(D910A/D910A)) or wild-type mice pre- or post-treated with the PI3K? inhibitor CAL-101, leads to reduced TNF levels, decreased leukocyte infiltration, reduced infarct size and improved functional outcome. These data identify PI3K? as a potential therapeutic target in ischaemic stroke.
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Efficacy and safety of PG201 (Layla(®)) and celecoxib in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a double-blinded, randomized, multi-center, active drug comparative, parallel-group, non-inferiority, phase III study.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The objectives of the study are to demonstrate the non-inferiority of PG201 (Layla(®)) 600 mg in comparison with celecoxib 200 mg for the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). In total, 309 patients were randomly assigned to receive either the test drug, PG201 600 mg (n = 154) or celecoxib 200 mg (n = 155). The primary efficacy variable was improvement in mean 100-mm pain VAS score from baseline to the final visit (week 8), and this value was compared between the 2 treatment groups. Secondary outcome variables included changes from baseline in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain VAS score and subscale score, patient's global assessment of disease status quality of life (short form-36) and responder index at weeks 4 and 8. For safety assessment, adverse events were recorded at each clinical visit. At weeks 8, the 100-mm pain VAS scores were significantly decreased in patients receiving both PG201 600 mg (p < 0.0001) and celecoxib 200 mg (p < 0.0001) as compared to the baseline scores; however, no statistically significant differences in these values were noted between the groups (p = 0.312). These results met pre-specified criteria for non-inferiority for both the intent-to-treat and per-protocol populations. PG201 600 mg and celecoxib 200 mg were both well tolerated and no statistically significant differences in the tolerability profile between the groups. PG201 600 mg was as effective and safe as celecoxib 200 mg in the treatment of symptomatic knee OA and might be a useful new medication for the treatment of symptomatic knee OA.
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Delivery of hypoxia and glioma dual-specific suicide gene using dexamethasone conjugated polyethylenimine for glioblastoma-specific gene therapy.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Gene therapy has been considered a promising approach for glioblastoma therapy. To avoid side effects and increase the specificity of gene expression, gene expression should be tightly regulated. In this study, glioma and hypoxia dual-specific plasmids (pEpo-NI2-SV-Luc and pEpo-NI2-SV-HSVtk) were developed by combining the erythropoietin (Epo) enhancer and nestin intron 2 (NI2). In the in vitro studies, pEpo-NI2-SV-Luc showed higher gene expression under hypoxia than normoxia in a glioblastoma-specific manner. The MTT and caspase assays demonstrated that pEpo-NI2-SV-HSVtk specifically induced caspase activity and cell death in hypoxic glioblastoma cells. For in vivo evaluation, subcutaneous and intracranial glioblastoma models were established. Dexamethasone-conjugated-polyethylenimine (PEI-Dexa) was used as a gene carrier, since PEI-Dexa efficiently delivers plasmid to glioblastoma cells and also has an antitumor effect due to the effect of dexamethasone. In the in vivo study in the subcutaneous and intracranial glioblastoma models, the tumor size was reduced more effectively in the pEpo-NI2-SV-HSVtk group than in the control and pSV-HSVtk groups. In addition, higher levels of HSVtk gene expression and TUNEL-positive cells were observed in the pEpo-NI2-SV-HSVtk group compared with the control and pSV-HSVtk groups, suggesting that pEpo-NI2-SV-HSVtk increased the therapeutic efficacy in hypoxic glioblastoma. Therefore, pEpo-NI2-SV-HSVtk/PEI-Dexa complex may be useful for glioblastoma-specific gene therapy.
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Effect of pronase premedication on narrow-band imaging endoscopy in patients with precancerous conditions of stomach.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy improves the detection of intestinal metaplasia. However, strategies to improve the visibility and diagnostic performance of NBI should be sought, as endoscopic views are often obscured by the presence of mucus.
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Efficacy and Safety of Tiropramide in the Treatment of Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Non-inferiority Trial, Compared With Octylonium.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Antispasmodics such as octylonium are widely used to manage irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. However, the efficacy and safety of another antispasmodic, tiropramide, remain uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tiropramide compared with octylonium in patients with IBS.
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Clinicopathologic factors influencing the accuracy of EUS for superficial esophageal carcinoma.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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To identify clinicopathologic factors influencing the accuracy of a high-frequency catheter probe endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for superficial esophageal carcinomas (SECs).
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Sex-dependent effects of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor activity on outcome after ischemic stroke.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Experimental studies indicate that estrogen typically, but not universally, has a neuroprotective effect in stroke. Ischemic stroke increases membrane-bound G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) distribution and expression in the brain of male but not female mice. We hypothesized that GPER activation may have a greater neuroprotective effect in males than in females after stroke.
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Unveiling lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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With respect to gastric cancer treatment, improvements in endoscopic techniques and novel therapeutic modalities [such as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)] have been developed. Currently, EMR/ESD procedures are widely accepted treatment modalities for early gastric cancer (EGC). These procedures are most widely accepted in Asia, including in Korea and Japan. In the present era of endoscopic resection, accurate prediction of lymph node (LN) metastasis is a critical component of selecting suitable patients for EMR/ESD. Generally, indications for EMR/ESD are based on large Japanese datasets, which indicate that there is almost no risk of LN metastasis in the subgroup of EGC cases. However, there is some controversy among investigators regarding the validity of these criteria. Further, there are currently no accurate methods to predict LN metastasis in gastric cancer (for example, radiologic methods or methods based on molecular biomarkers). We recommend the use of a 2-step method for the management of early gastric cancer using endoscopic resection. The first step is the selection of suitable patients for endoscopic resection, based on endoscopic and histopathologic findings. After endoscopic resection, additional surgical intervention could be determined on the basis of a comprehensive review of the endoscopic mucosal resection/endoscopic submucosal dissection specimen, including lymphovascular tumor emboli, tumor size, histologic type, and depth of invasion. However, evaluation of clinical application data is essential for validating this recommendation. Moreover, gastroenterologists, surgeons, and pathologists should closely collaborate and communicate during these decision-making processes.
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Factors associated with the outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection in pyloric neoplasms.
Gastrointest. Endosc.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Pyloric neoplasms are one of the most technically difficult lesions to remove by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD).
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The efficacy of endoscopic submucosal dissection of type I gastric carcinoid tumors compared with conventional endoscopic mucosal resection.
Gastroenterol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Background and Aims. Conventional endoscopic submucosal resection (EMR) of carcinoid tumors often involves the resection margin, which necessitates further intervention. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is widely accepted for removing carcinoid tumors. We aimed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of ESD with that of EMR for resection of type I gastric carcinoid tumors. Patients and Methods. The study enrolled 62 patients (37 males, 25 females; median age, 50 years; range, 40-68 years) who were treated with EMR or ESD at three hospitals; the study group had 87 type I gastric carcinoid tumors with an estimated size of ?10?mm. The complete resection rate and the complications associated with these two procedures were analyzed. Results. The overall ESD complete resection rate was higher than that of the EMR rate (94.9% versus 83.3%, P value = 0.174). A statistically lower vertical margin involvement rate was achieved when ESD was performed compared to when EMR was performed (2.6% versus 16.7%, P value = 0.038). The complication rate was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions. ESD showed a higher complete resection rate, particularly for the vertical margin, with a similar complication rate. We mildly recommend ESD rather than EMR for removing type I gastric carcinoid tumors.
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Digital image analysis of endoscopic ultrasonography is helpful in diagnosing gastric mesenchymal tumors.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a valuable imaging tool for evaluating subepithelial lesions in the stomach. However, there are few studies on differentiation between gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and benign mesenchymal tumors, such as leiomyoma or schwannoma, with the use of EUS. In addition, there are limitations in the analysis of the characteristic features of such tumors due to poor interobserver agreement as a result of subjective interpretation of EUS images. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of digital image analysis in distinguishing the features of GISTs from those of benign mesenchymal tumors on EUS.
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PEP-1-PON1 protein regulates inflammatory response in raw 264.7 macrophages and ameliorates inflammation in a TPA-induced animal model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme which plays a central role in various diseases. However, the mechanism and function of PON1 protein in inflammation are poorly understood. Since PON1 protein alone cannot be delivered into cells, we generated a cell permeable PEP-1-PON1 protein using protein transduction domains, and examined whether it can protect against cell death in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated Raw 264.7 cells as well as mice with 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin inflammation. We demonstrated that PEP-1-PON1 protein transduced into Raw 264.7 cells and markedly protected against LPS or H2O2-induced cell death by inhibiting cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the inflammatory mediator's expression, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and cellular apoptosis. Furthermore, topically applied PEP-1-PON1 protein ameliorates TPA-treated mice skin inflammation via a reduction of inflammatory response. Our results indicate that PEP-1-PON1 protein plays a key role in inflammation and oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we suggest that PEP-1-PON1 protein may provide a potential protein therapy against oxidative stress and inflammation.
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NAMPT (visfatin), a direct target of hypoxia-inducible factor-2?, is an essential catabolic regulator of osteoarthritis.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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Hypoxia-inducible factor 2? (HIF-2?), encoded by Epas1, causes osteoarthritic cartilage destruction by regulating the expression of matrix-degrading enzymes. We undertook this study to explore the role of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT or visfatin) in HIF-2?-mediated osteoarthritic cartilage destruction.
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Comparison of 22-gauge aspiration needle with 22-gauge biopsy needle in endoscopic ultrasonography-guided subepithelial tumor sampling.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Abstract Objective. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) may facilitate tissue sampling for histopathological diagnosis of subepithelial tumors (SETs) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, immunohistochemistry is not always feasible using EUS-FNA samples due to the low quality of specimens often obtained by aspiration. This study aimed to compare the use of 22-gauge (G) EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) with 22G EUS-FNA for core sampling used for histopathological examination, including immunohistochemistry, in patients with GI SETs. Methods. Twenty-eight patients with GI SETs ?2 cm in size were prospectively enrolled at five university hospitals in Korea between January and June 2013. They were randomized to undergo either EUS-FNB or EUS-FNA. Results. A total of 22 patients was finally analyzed in this study: 10 and 12 patients underwent EUS-FNA and EUS-FNB, respectively. Compared to the EUS-FNA group, the EUS-FNB group had a significantly lower median number of needle passes to obtain macroscopically optimal core samples (4 vs. 2, p = 0.025); higher yield rates of macroscopically and histologically optimal core samples with three needle passes (30% vs. 92%, p = 0.006; 20% vs. 75%, p = 0.010, respectively); and a higher diagnostic sufficiency rate (20% vs. 75%, p = 0.010). No technical difficulties were encountered in either group. Conclusions. This study shows that EUS-FNB has a better ability to obtain histological core samples and a higher diagnostic sufficiency rate than EUS-FNA and that EUS-FNB is a feasible, safe, and preferable modality for adequate core sampling for histopathological diagnosis of GI SETs.
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Combined delivery of BCNU and VEGF siRNA using amphiphilic peptides for glioblastoma.
J Drug Target
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Abstract Combined delivery of chemical drug and therapeutic gene has been introduced as an efficient method for the treatment of cancers such as glioblastoma. In this study, bis-chloroethylnitrosourea (BCNU) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) small interfering RNA (VEGF-siRNA) were co-delivered into C6 glioblastoma cells using a non-toxic peptide-based carrier. The R3V6 peptides, which are composed of 3-arginine and 6-valine, formed self-assembled micelles in aqueous solution. BCNU, a hydrophobic anti-cancer drug, was loaded into the hydrophobic core of the micelles, forming BCNU-loaded R3V6 micelles (R3V6-BCNU). In gel retardation assay, R3V6-BCNU formed a stable complex with siRNA. In vitro transfection assay showed that the VEGF-siRNA/R3V6-BCNU complex had the highest transfection efficiency into C6 cells at a 1:20 weight ratio (VEGF-siRNA:R3V6-BCNU). In addition, the VEGF-siRNA/R3V6-BCNU complexes had higher delivery efficiency than lipofectamine or naked siRNA. VEGF expressions were remarkably decreased by transfection of the VEGF-siRNA/R3V6 or VEGF-siRNA/R3V6-BCNU complexes. Furthermore, R3V6-BCNU delivered BCNU more efficiently into the cells than BCNU only. Therefore, R3V6 delivered both VEGF-siRNA and BCNU efficiently into the glioblastoma cells. The results suggest that R3V6-BCNU may be useful for combined delivery of siRNA and chemical drug into cancer cells.
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Causes of missed synchronous gastric epithelial neoplasms with endoscopic submucosal dissection: a multicenter study.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Unlike surgery, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) removes gastric epithelial neoplasms within a tight margin, leaving most normal tissue around the neoplasm intact, thus resulting in a high risk for missed synchronous gastric epithelial neoplasms (mSGENs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and risk factors of mSGENs (mSGENs) compared to simultaneously identified SGENs (siSGENs) in patients who underwent ESD.
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Synergistically combined gene delivery for enhanced VEGF secretion and antiapoptosis.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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With current pharmacological treatments, preventing the remodeling of the left ventricle and the progression to heart failure is a difficult task. Gene therapy is considered to provide a direct treatment to the long-term complications of ischemic heart diseases. Although current gene therapies that use single molecular targets seem potentially possible, they have not achieved success in the treatment of ischemic diseases. With an efficient polymeric gene carrier, PAM-ABP, we designed a synergistically combined gene-delivery strategy to enhance vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and to prolong its antiapoptotic effects. A hypoxia-inducible plasmid expressing both hypoxia-inducible heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and the Src homology domain-2 containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 microRNA (miSHP-1) as well as a hypoxia-responsive VEGF plasmid were combined in this study. The positive feedback circuit between HO-1 and VEGF and the negative regulatory role of SHP-1 in angiogenesis enhance VEGF secretion synergistically. The synergy in VEGF secretion as a consequence of the gene combination and prolonged HO-1 activity was confirmed in hypoxic cardiomyocytes and cardiomyocyte apoptosis under hypoxia and was decreased synergistically. These results suggest that the synergistic combination of VEGF, HO-1, and miSHP-1 may be promising for the clinical treatment of ischemic diseases.
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Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues.
FEBS Open Bio
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1(?11)), in vegetative tissues.
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MicroRNA-127-5p Regulates Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 Expression and Interleukin-1?-Induced Catabolic Effects in Human Chondrocytes.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNA molecules, are involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases such as cancer and arthritis. The aim of this study was to determine whether miR-127-5p regulates interleukin-1? (IL-1?)-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) and other catabolic factors in human chondrocytes.
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Post-translational regulation of gene expression using the ATF4 oxygen-dependent degradation domain for hypoxia-specific gene therapy.
J Drug Target
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Solid tumors have hypoxic regions in their cores, due to low blood supply levels. Therefore, hypoxia-specific gene regulation systems have been developed for tumor-specific gene therapy. In this study, the oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain on activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) was evaluated for post-translational regulation of proteins. The ATF4 ODD cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR, and a luciferase plasmid containing the ATF4 ODD domain, pSV-Luc-ATF4-ODD, was constructed. Luciferase expression was induced under hypoxia by the ATF4 ODD domain in transfection assays into N2A neuroblastoma cells, C6 glioblastoma cells, and U87 glioblastoma cells. In the transfection assay with pSV-Luc-ATF4-ODD, RT-PCR results showed that the mRNA level did not change under hypoxia. This suggests that the induction of luciferase under hypoxia was mediated by post-translational regulation. A plasmid expressing thymidine kinase from herpes simplex virus (HSV-tk), pSV-HSVtk-ATF4-ODD, was constructed with the ATF4 ODD cDNA. The transfection assay with pSV-TK-ATF4-ODD showed that the ATF4 ODD domain induced HSV-tk expression under hypoxia and facilitated the death of C6 cells in the presence of ganciclovir (GCV). Furthermore, pSV-HSVtk-ATF4-ODD induced caspase-3 activity in the hypoxic cells. In conclusion, the ATF4 ODD may be useful for hypoxia-specific gene therapy by post-translational regulation of gene expression.
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Immune cell infiltration in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction: comparison with transient cerebral ischemia.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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We tested whether significant leukocyte infiltration occurs in a mouse model of permanent cerebral ischemia. C57BL6/J male mice underwent either permanent (3 or 24?hours) or transient (1 or 2?hours+22- to 23-hour reperfusion) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Using flow cytometry, we observed ?15,000 leukocytes (CD45(+high) cells) in the ischemic hemisphere as early as 3?hours after permanent MCAO (pMCAO), comprising ?40% lymphoid cells and ?60% myeloid cells. Neutrophils were the predominant cell type entering the brain, and were increased to ?5,000 as early as 3?hours after pMCAO. Several cell types (monocytes, macrophages, B lymphocytes, CD8(+) T lymphocytes, and natural killer cells) were also increased at 3?hours to levels sustained for 24?hours, whereas others (CD4(+) T cells, natural killer T cells, and dendritic cells) were unchanged at 3?hours, but were increased by 24?hours after pMCAO. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that leukocytes typically had entered and widely dispersed throughout the parenchyma of the infarct within 3?hours. Moreover, compared with pMCAO, there were ?50% fewer infiltrating leukocytes at 24?hours after transient MCAO (tMCAO), independent of infarct size. Microglial cell numbers were bilaterally increased in both models. These findings indicate that a profound infiltration of inflammatory cells occurs in the brain early after focal ischemia, especially without reperfusion.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 11 December 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.217.
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Mucin expression in gastric cancer: reappraisal of its clinicopathologic and prognostic significance.
Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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The clinical validity of mucin expression in gastric cancer is debated. Whereas several reports demonstrate a correlation between mucin expression and prognosis, others deny such an association.
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A case of squamous metaplasia of the stomach.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Intestinal metaplasia of the stomach is a common metaplastic lesion associated with chronic gastritis and mucosal atrophy. However, squamous metaplasia is a comparatively rare condition. On endoscopy, squamous metaplasia is usually observed as a whitish mucosal lesion in the lesser curvature of the cardiac region of the stomach. When Lugols iodine solution is applied, the lesion stains brown in the same way as normal esophageal mucosa. We report a case of 79-year-old man with a whitish flat lesion in the lesser curvature of the cardiac region on surveillance endoscopy after endoscopic treatment of gastric adenoma. The endoscopic biopsy showed stratified squamous epithelial mucosa.
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Long-term follow up of endoscopic resection for type 3 gastric NET.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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To clarify the short and long-term results and to prove the usefulness of endoscopic resection in type 3 gastric neuroendocrine tumors (NETs).
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Levofloxacin, Metronidazole, and Lansoprazole Triple Therapy Compared to Quadruple Therapy as a Second-Line Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Korea.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Several rescue therapies have been recommended to eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with a failure of first-line eradication therapy, but they still fail in more than 20% of cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of levofloxacin, metronidazole, and lansoprazole (LML) triple therapy relative to quadruple therapy as a second-line treatment.
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Image analysis of endosocopic ultrasonography in submucosal tumor using fuzzy inference.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2013
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Endoscopists usually make a diagnosis in the submucosal tumor depending on the subjective evaluation about general images obtained by endoscopic ultrasonography. In this paper, we propose a method to extract areas of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and lipoma automatically from the ultrasonic image to assist those specialists. We also propose an algorithm to differentiate GIST from non-GIST by fuzzy inference from such images after applying ROC curve with mean and standard deviation of brightness information. In experiments using real images that medical specialists use, we verify that our method is sufficiently helpful for such specialists for efficient classification of submucosal tumors.
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A case of bilateral hemarthrosis due to pseudoaneurysms in a patient on anticoagulation therapy.
J Clin Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Hemarthrosis can occur in patients with a predisposition to hemorrhage, such as hemophiliacs or patients on anticoagulation therapy. If hemarthrosis recurs after supportive treatment, however, other etiologies such as anatomical abnormalities should be considered. Spontaneous articular pseudoaneurysm associated with anticoagulation treatment has not been reported previously. We describe a patient on anticoagulation therapy with bilateral hemarthrosis due to pseudoaneurysms. After failing to respond to the correction of over-anticoagulation, magnetic resonance imaging led to the diagnosis of articular pseudoaneurysm. The patient was treated successfully by transarterial embolization.
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Bilateral biliary drainage for malignant hilar obstruction using the stent-in-stent method with a Y-stent: efficacy and complications.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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The usefulness of bilateral stent placement for malignant hilar obstruction is still under debate. Nevertheless, many endoscopists advocate the placement of an endoscopic bilateral metal stent using various new devices and techniques.
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Prevalence and risk factors of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia: a nationwide multicenter prospective study in Korea.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are premalignant gastric lesions. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of endoscopic AG and IM and to document the risk factors for these lesions.
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Resolving pathobiological mechanisms relating to Huntington disease: Gait, balance, and involuntary movements in mice with targeted ablation of striatal D1 dopamine receptor cells.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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Progressive cell loss is observed in the striatum, cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamic nucleus and hippocampus in Huntington disease. In the striatum, dopamine-responsive medium spiny neurons are preferentially lost. Clinical features include involuntary movements, gait and orofacial impairments in addition to cognitive deficits and psychosis, anxiety and mood disorders. We utilized the Cre-LoxP system to generate mutant mice with selective postnatal ablation of D1 dopamine receptor-expressing striatal neurons to determine which elements of the complex Huntington disease phenotype relate to loss of this neuronal subpopulation. Mutant mice had reduced body weight, locomotor slowing, reduced rearing, ataxia, a short stride length wide-based erratic gait, impairment in orofacial movements and displayed haloperidol-suppressible tic-like movements. The mutation was associated with an anxiolytic profile. Mutant mice had significant striatal-specific atrophy and astrogliosis. D1-expressing cell number was reduced throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the dorsal striatum consistent with partial destruction of the striatonigral pathway. Additional striatal changes included up-regulated D2 and enkephalin mRNA, and an increased density of D2 and preproenkephalin-expressing projection neurons, and striatal neuropeptide Y and cholinergic interneurons. These data suggest that striatal D1-cell-ablation alone may account for the involuntary movements and locomotor, balance and orofacial deficits seen not only in HD but also in HD phenocopy syndromes with striatal atrophy. Therapeutic strategies would therefore need to target striatal D1 cells to ameliorate deficits especially when the clinical presentation is dominated by a bradykinetic/ataxic phenotype with involuntary movements.
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[A case of epidural abscess occurred after liver abscess complicated by transarterial chemoembolization in a patient with metastatic cancer to liver].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is one of the most effective therapies for unresectable hepatocelluar carcinoma or metastatic hypervascular tumors. Abscess occurring in the other organs beside the liver after TACE is a complication that often occurs, sometimes potentially fatal. We report a case of spinal epidural abscess occurred after liver abscess complicated by TACE in a patient with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors to the liver. A 67-year-old female underwent TACE first for the metastatic lesions to liver, with a history of pancreatoduodenectomy for the primary pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Four days after TACE, sudden high fever occurred, and liver abscess was found on abdominal CT. Two days later, back pain and radiating pain to the right leg occurred, and lumbar spine MRI showed spinal epidural abscess. After intravenous antibiotics for 8 weeks and partial laminectomy, the patient recovered and was discharged without complications.
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Lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer: evaluation of a novel method for measuring submucosal invasion and development of a nodal predicting index.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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After endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer (EGC), it is imperative to accurately determine whether follow-up surgery is indicated, since this technique is used as a first line of treatment. Herein, we developed a scoring system to indicate the risk of lymph node metastasis in submucosal EGC (smEGC), and present a novel method to measure depth of submucosal invasion. In our series, 15.9% of the smEGC presented with lymph node metastasis. A nodal prediction index, based on the variables extracted from the univariate analysis and defined as nodal prediction index = (2.128 × lymphovascular tumor emboli) + (1.083 × submucosal invasion width ?0.75 cm) + (0.507 × submucosal invasion depth ?1000 ?m) + (0.515 × infiltrative growth pattern), yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.809 (P =.000, 95% CI = 0.713-0.096) in a training group, and showed comparable result in validation group (0.886, P =.000, 95% CI = 0.796-0.977). Depth of invasion was statistically higher in the metastatic group when measured from the lowest point of an imaginary line in continuity with the adjacent muscularis mucosa to the point of deepest tumor penetration, but not when using the classic measurement method. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the alternative measurement method was 0.652 (P =.013, 95% CI = 0.550-0.754) compared to 0.620 for the classic measurement method (P =.0480, 95% CI = 0.509-0.731). In deciding whether surgery is indicated after endoscopic submucosal dissection for smEGCs, we recommend to test our alternative method of measuring submucosal invasion and to evaluate our nodal prediction index as an adjunct tool.
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Phenotyping dividing cells in mouse models of neurodegenerative basal ganglia diseases.
BMC Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Mice generated by a Cre/LoxP transgenic paradigm were used to model neurodegenerative basal ganglia disease of which Huntington disease (HD) is the prototypical example. In HD, death occurs in striatal projection neurons as well as cortical neurons. Cortical and striatal neurons that express the D1 dopamine receptor (Drd1a) degenerate in HD. The contribution that death of specific neuronal cell populations makes to the HD disease phenotype and the response of the brain to loss of defined cell subtypes is largely unknown.
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A submucosal tumor-like recurrence of early esophageal cancer after endoscopic submucosal dissection.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2013
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Early esophageal cancer is defined as a tumor invading the mucosa with or without lymph node or distant organ metastasis. In the current guidelines for early esophageal cancer, absolute indication for endoscopic resection include lesions limited to the epithelium or lamina propria mucosa not exceeding two-thirds of the circumference, and relative indications include lesions limited to the muscularis mucosa or the upper third of the submucosal layer and not accompanied by clinical evidence of lymph node metastasis. After endoscopic submucosal dissection for early esophageal cancer, locally recurrent cancer can occur, especially in the case of incomplete resection. Here, we report a rare case of a submucosal tumor-like recurrence after endoscopic resection of early esophageal cancer.
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Decreased Muc5AC expression is associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Mucins reportedly play numerous key roles in carcinogenesis, including in tumor invasion, regulation of differentiation and tumor cell proliferation. We investigated the effect of Muc5AC, a secreted mucin, on the invasiveness/migratory capability of gastric cancer cells and the prognostic significance of Muc5AC in gastric cancer patients. The clinicopathological and prognostic significance of Muc5AC expression was validated using immunohistochemical analysis in 412 gastric cancer patients. Differential gene expression was investigated using complementary DNA microarray analysis of 48 fresh tumor tissue samples. Silencing of Muc5AC by using a small hairpin RNA-containing lentivirus increased the invasion and migration of SNU216 and AGS cells as well as Akt phosphorylation and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-7, which were blocked by inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Loss of Muc5AC expression was significantly associated with tumor progression (advanced T stage; p = 0.004), lymph node metastases (p = 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (p < 0.0001), and increased tumor size (p = 0.027). Lower MUC5AC expression was identified as an independent poor prognostic factor in diffuse-type gastric cancer by using the Cox regression proportional hazard model (hazard ratio, 2.39; p = 0.043). Complementary DNA microarray analysis revealed 86 differentially expressed genes, including genes related to metastasis and invasion, in gastric cancer tissues with high (?25%) and low (<25%) Muc5AC expression levels. Low Muc5AC expression increased the invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells and could be a useful biomarker of poor prognosis in gastric cancer.
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Hypoxia/hepatoma dual specific suicide gene expression plasmid delivery using bio-reducible polymer for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Gene therapy is suggested as a promising alternative strategy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called hepatoma) therapy. To achieve a successful and safe gene therapy, tight regulation of gene expression is required to minimize side-effects in normal tissues. In this study, we developed a novel hypoxia and hepatoma dual specific gene expression vector. The constructed vectors were transfected into various cell lines using bio-reducible polymer, PAM-ABP. First, pAFPS-Luc or pAFPL-Luc vector was constructed with the alpha-fectoprotein (AFP) promoter and enhancer for hepatoma tissue specific gene expression. Then, pEpo-AFPL-Luc was constructed by insertion of the erythropoietin (Epo) enhancer for hypoxic cancer specific gene expression. In vitro transfection assay showed that pEpo-AFPL-Luc transfected hepatoma cell increased gene expression under hypoxic condition. To confirm the therapeutic effect of dual specific vector, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene was introduced for cancer cell killing. The pEpo-AFPL-TK was transfected into hepatoma cell lines in the presence of ganciclovir (GCV) pro-drug. Caspase-3/7, MTT and TUNEL assays elucidated that pEpo-AFPL-TK transfected cells showed significant increasing of death rate in hypoxic hepatoma cells compared to controls. Therefore, the hypoxia/hepatoma dual specific gene expression vector with the Epo enhancer and AFP promoter may be useful for hepatoma specific gene therapy.
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Validation of circulating miRNA biomarkers for predicting lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.
J Mol Diagn
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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We validated candidate biomarkers using circulating miRNAs by analyzing serum miRNA concentrations from patients with gastric cancer (GC) to predict lymph node (LN) metastasis. In a pilot study, serum levels of miR-21, miR-27a, miR-106b, miR-146a, miR-148a, miR-223, and miR-433 were compared in 10 healthy donors, 16 LN-positive patients with GC, and 15 LN-negative patients with GC. Then, we compared the level of three miRNAs (miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-148a) with the total of 79 GC patients with or without LN metastasis. In the pilot study, miR-21, miR-27a, miR-106b, miR-146a, miR-148a, and miR-223 concentrations from LN-positive patients with GC were significantly different from those of LN-negative patients with GC (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.033, P < 0.001, P <0.001, and P = 0.017, respectively). In the validation study, levels of miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-148a increased as pN stage increased (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Levels of the miRNAs were significantly different between pN0 and pN0 in the pT1 group (P = 0.013, P = 0.004, and P = 0.035, respectively) and among clinical stages (P = 0.001, P = 0.002, and P < 0.001, respectively). No differences in miRNA levels were observed by pT stage, Laurens classification, sex, or age. Serum concentrations of miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-148a were closely associated with GC pN stage. These serum miRNA levels could be biomarker candidates to predict the presence of LN metastasis.
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Endoscopic resection of gastrointestinal lipomas: a single-center experience.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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Gastrointestinal (GI) lipomas are benign, slow-growing subepithelial tumors. Most lipomas are detected incidentally at endoscopy, but they can cause GI bleeding, abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, and intussusception, particularly if they are larger than 2 cm in diameter. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy, safety, and long-term prognosis of endoscopic treatment of GI lipomas.
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Prevalence and risk factor of neck pain in elderly Korean community residents.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal condition, which causes substantial medical cost. In Korea, prevalence of neck pain in community based population, especially in elderly subjects, has scarcely been reported. We evaluated the prevalence, the severity and the risk factors of neck pain in elderly Korean community residents. Data for neck pain were collected for 1,655 subjects from a rural farming community. The point, 6-months and cumulative lifetime prevalence of neck pain was obtained in addition to the measurement of the severity of neck pain. The mean age of the study subjects was 61 yr and 57% were females. The lifetime prevalence of neck pain was 20.8% with women having a higher prevalence. The prevalence did not increase with age, and the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain. Subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score in all domains except for mental health. The prevalence of neck pain was significantly associated with female gender, obesity and smoking. This is the first large-scale Korean study estimating the prevalence of neck pain in elderly population. Although the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain, subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score indicating that neck pain has significant health impact.
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Endoscopic resection of granular cell tumors in the gastrointestinal tract: a single center experience.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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The frequency of granular cell tumors (GCTs) identified in the gastrointestinal tract has recently increased with the increased use of routine endoscopy. Endoscopic treatment is increasingly used as an alternative to traditional surgical resection, but there are few reports on the efficacy, safety, and long-term prognosis of endoscopic treatment for GCTs. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety, and long-term prognosis of endoscopic resection for the gastrointestinal GCTs.
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Pathologic definition and number of lymphovascular emboli: impact on lymph node metastasis in endoscopically resected early gastric cancer.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is widely accepted as an appropriate treatment modality for early gastric cancer (EGC). Accepted indications for ESD are mostly based on the risk of lymph node (LN) metastasis in EGC. The presence of lymphovascular emboli (LVEs) is the most important risk factor for predicting LN metastasis, but the criteria for diagnosing LVEs are inconsistent and controversial. Here, we defined LVE as the presence of tumor cells within a space according to the following criteria: (1) red cells or lymphocytes surrounding the tumor cells, (2) an endothelial cell lining, and (3) attachment to the vascular wall. We reviewed a series of 102 patients with EGC who underwent gastrectomy after ESD, evaluated the definition of LVE, counted the number of LVEs in ESD specimens, and validated the significance of the definition and number of LVEs with regard to the presence of LN metastasis in gastrectomy specimens using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Overall, 13 instances (12.7%) of LN metastasis were identified among 102 patients with EGC who underwent gastrectomy after ESD. The LN metastasis-positive group showed higher numbers of definite (4.46 ± 2.45 versus 0.19 ± 0.07), suspicious (3.15 ± 0.76 versus 0.62 ± 0.14), and probable (1.62 ± 0.43 versus 0.43 ± 0.10) LVEs in ESD specimens than the LN metastasis-negative group. In ROC analysis, the area under the ROC curve was 0.851 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.711-0.991) for definite LVEs, compared with 0.82 (95% CI, 0.698-0.960) for suspicious LVEs and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.549-0.891) for probable LVEs. We recommend the use of strict LVE criteria to predict LN metastasis and determine the need for surgical intervention after ESD.
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Endoscopic ultrasonography in patients with elevated carbohydrate antigen 19-9 of obscure origin.
World J Gastrointest Endosc
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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To evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in patients with elevated carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 levels of obscure origin.
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Esophageal pyogenic granuloma: endosonographic findings and endoscopic treatments.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Pyogenic granuloma is a benign inflammatory vascular lesion, mainly found in the skin and oral mucosa. A few cases of pyogenic granuloma in the gastrointestinal tract have been reported, and the esophagus was the main site in these cases. These patients were diagnosed with pyogenic granuloma after they underwent upper endoscopy and biopsy. Endoscopic resection is a favorable treatment option for esophageal pyogenic granuloma. Recently, we observed characteristic endosonographic findings in two cases with esophageal pyogenic granuloma, which were then treated successfully by endoscopic resection.
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Improved transplantation outcome through delivery of DNA encoding secretion signal peptide-linked glucagon-like peptide-1 into mouse islets.
Transpl. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates cell proliferation and has anti-apoptotic effects on pancreatic islet ? cells. In our previous study, the transduction of mouse islets with a recombinant adenovirus containing GLP-1 cDNA enhanced islet graft survival. In this study, we sought to deliver the GLP-1 gene using a nonviral vector, which raises fewer safety issues in clinical application. We constructed a plasmid, p?-SP-GLP-1, in which a secretion signal peptide (SP) was inserted to increase GLP-1 secretion, and transfected mouse islets using the nonviral carrier Effectene. Transfection of p?-SP-GLP-1 induced a significant increase in bioactive GLP-1 levels in islet cultures. Islets transfected with p?-SP-GLP-1 were protected from H2 O2 -induced cell damage in vitro. In addition, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was significantly increased in p?-SP-GLP-1-transfected islets. Diabetic syngeneic mice transplanted under the kidney capsule with a marginal mass of p?-SP-GLP-1-transfected islets rapidly became normoglycemic, with 88% of recipients being normoglycemic at 30 days post-transplantation compared with 52% of mice that received p?-transfected islet grafts (P < 0.05). Islet grafts retrieved 7 days after transplantation revealed that the p?-SP-GLP-1-transfected group had significantly more Ki67-positive cells as compared with the p?-transfected group. In conclusion, delivery of a plasmid containing a secretion SP and GLP-1 cDNA using a nonviral carrier leads to efficient secretion of GLP-1 in mouse islet cells, enhances islet cell survival during the early post-transplant period, and improves islet transplantation outcome.
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Prevalence and risk factors of Helicobacter pylori infection in Korea: nationwide multicenter study over 13 years.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the time trend of seropositivity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) over the period of 13 years in an asymptomatic Korean population, and investigate associated risk factors.
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The Prevalence of Erosive Esophagitis Is Not Significantly Increased in a Healthy Korean Population - Could It Be Explained?: A Multi-center Prospective Study.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Researches on the potential risk factors for the development of erosive esophagitis have been conducted extensively, however, the results are conflicting. The aim of this multicenter study was to identify the prevalence rate and risk factors of erosive esophagitis and their interactions with residency status.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.