JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Interest in dietary recommendations for obese pregnant women.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have read the comments by Poston et al. regarding the importance of dietary recommendations for obese women (1). We agree with the necessity for dietary intervention in obese pregnant women and the hypothesis regarding glucose control based on our experience. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Related JoVE Video
The attitude of South korean people regarding usage of the internet perinatal consultation.
Int J Fertil Steril
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To the general public, the Internet is an acceptable method of obtaining information. It also plays an important role in guiding patients and solving their problems. We investigated the clinical characteristics of an Internet website to provide guidelines and tips for consultation.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of computer-assisted, 3D motion-capture toothbrushing instruction.
Clin Oral Investig
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of computer-assisted TBI using a smart toothbrush (ST) and smart mirror (SM) in plaque control to that of conventional TBI.
Related JoVE Video
Impaired Fasting Glucose and Impaired Glucose Tolerance Do Not Predict Hypertension: A Community Cohort Study.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Insulin resistance has an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) which represents insulin resistance would predict the development of hypertension.
Related JoVE Video
Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion Protein-1 (MATE1/SLC47A1) Is a Novel Flavonoid Transporter.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dietary flavonoids have various biological functions. However, their cellular transport mechanisms are largely unknown. We have determined that the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion transporter-1 (MATE1) is a membrane transporter for flavonoids and has a high affinity for quercetin. HEK293T cells overexpressing MATE1 exhibited increased intracellular quercetin accumulation. This effect disappeared in the presence of a MATE1 inhibitor and after MATE1 gene knockdown. HepG2 cells expressed MATE1 significantly, with the uptake quercetin of which was dramatically reduced with MATE1 inhibition. On the basis of immunofluorescence analysis, MATE1 was highly expressed in peroxisomes and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as in plasma membranes in the liver and intestine, which suggests potential accumulation of quercetin in peroxisomes and the ER in these tissues. Fluorescent microscopic analysis confirmed selective accumulation of qurcetin in peroxisome. The effects of quercetin on cellular lipid reduction and glucose uptake were exaggerated with MATE1 overexpression. In conclusion, MATE1 is a membrane transporter for quercetin; its overexpression enhances the hypolipidemic activity of quercetin and cellular glucose transport. Considering the low bioavailability of quercetin, appropriate regulation of MATE1 expression may optimize cellular quercetin concentrations and promote health benefits.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of the brother of the regulator of imprinted sites gene in the sputum of patients with lung cancer.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Brother of the regulator of imprinted sites (BORIS) is a putative new oncogene that is classified as a cancer germline gene; however, its role in the development of cancer is unclear. This study investigated the expression of BORIS in lung cancer and its clinical implications.
Related JoVE Video
Gender Differences in the Association between Serum ?-Glutamyltransferase and Blood Pressure Change: A Prospective Community-Based Cohort Study.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We evaluated the gender differences in the relation of baseline serum ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels to blood pressure (BP) change during 4 yr. 4,025 normotensive subjects (1,945 men and 2,080 women) who aged 40-69 yr at baseline participated in the Ansung-Ansan cohort of the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study were included. The associations of GGT with baseline BP or 4-yr change of BP were evaluated. GGT levels were associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at baseline after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, C-reactive protein (CRP), current smoking status and alcohol intake (SBP, ?=1.28, P<0.001; DBP, ?=1.41, P<0.001). GGT levels were also associated with 4-yr change in BP after adjusting for age, BMI, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, CRP, current smoking status, alcohol intake and SBP (SBP, ?=1.08, P=0.001; DBP, ?=0.64, P=0.003). This association was statistically significant in men (SBP, ?=1.82, P<0.001; DBP, ?=1.05, P=0.001), but not in women (SBP, ?=0.38, P=0.466; DBP, ?=-0.37, P=0.304). Remarkably, this association between GGT and BP was significant in men at 40-49 yr of age. In summary, we found positive associations between GGT levels at baseline and the change of BP. The relation of GGT level and the change of BP was only significant in men, not in women, which warrants further studies to elucidate the biologic mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of boost radiotherapy in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ breast cancer: a multicenter, retrospective study in Korea (KROG 11-04).
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To estimate the effect of boost radiotherapy on local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) breast cancer. We included patients from nine institutions who met the following criteria: having Tis, age 18 years or older, having breast conserving surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy within 12 weeks after surgery. From 1995 through 2006, 728 patients were analyzed retrospectively by the Korean Radiation Oncology Group. All patients received whole-breast radiation therapy (WBRT) after BCS. 232 patients (31.9 %) also received boost radiation therapy (RT) (median 10 Gy). After median follow-up of 82 months, 5-year LRFS was 98.4 % and 10-year LRFS was 95.8 % for all patients. There was no statistically significant difference of LRFS between the boost and no-boost groups. Nineteen (2.6 %) patients had ipsilateral breast recurrences, including 12 of invasive recurrence and 7 DCIS. The presence of the HER2 receptor was associated with more invasive recurrences. Nine (1.2 %) patients developed contralateral breast cancer, including six invasive breast cancer and three DCIS. In the multivariate analysis, only the margin status was a significant prognostic factor for LRFS. Boost RT was not associated with further improvement of local control in DCIS after BCS and WBRT. HER2 receptor-positive patients may need further treatment with the anti-HER2 agents.
Related JoVE Video
Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in perimenopausal women.
J Menopausal Med
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) of perimenopausal women at a university hospital along with their menstrual characters.
Related JoVE Video
Sclerosing stromal tumor in an elderly postmenopausal woman.
J Menopausal Med
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) of the ovary is a rare tumor derived from the sex cord stroma. This tumor was first described by Chalvaridjian and Scully in 1973. SST of the ovary is prevalence of 1.5% to 6% of ovarian stromal tumors. Patients are most commonly diagnosed in their 20s and 30s. There have been reports of SST postmenopausal women aged 65-, 67-, and 71 in the Republic of Korea; however, no report of this disease has been reported in women older than 80. In this study, we would like to report an 80-year-old postmenopausal woman who did not previously complain of any symptoms, and was finally diagnosed with SST. She was involved in a traffic accident, and huge pelvic mass was found during the evaluation of intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed ; a final pathologic diagnosis reported SST.
Related JoVE Video
Amlodipine and cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients: meta-analysis comparing amlodipine-based versus other antihypertensive therapy.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This meta-analysis compared the effects of amlodipine besylate, a charged dihydropyridine-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), with other non-CCB antihypertensive therapies regarding the cardiovascular outcome.
Related JoVE Video
The impact of hepatitis B on heart transplantation: 19 years of national experience in Korea.
Ann. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in Korea. With an increasing number of heart transplantation, problems associated with hepatitis B reactivation are becoming an important issue. We aimed to evaluate the functional significance of HBV infection on outcomes of heart transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
Linalool is a PPAR? ligand that reduces plasma TG levels and rewires the hepatic transcriptome and plasma metabolome.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the hypotriglyceridemic mechanism of action of linalool, an aromatic monoterpene present in teas and fragrant herbs. Reporter gene and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays demonstrated that linalool is a direct ligand of PPAR?. Linalool stimulation reduced cellular lipid accumulation regulating PPAR?-responsive genes and significantly induced FA oxidation, and its effects were markedly attenuated by silencing PPAR? expression. In mice, the oral administration of linalool for 3 weeks reduced plasma TG concentrations in Western-diet-fed C57BL/6J mice (31%, P < 0.05) and human apo E2 mice (50%, P < 0.05) and regulated hepatic PPAR? target genes. However, no such effects were seen in PPAR?-deficient mice. Transcriptome profiling revealed that linalool stimulation rewired global gene expression in lipid-loaded hepatocytes and that the effects of 1 mM linalool were comparable to those of 0.1 mM fenofibrate. Metabolomic analysis of the mouse plasma revealed that the global metabolite profiles were significantly distinguishable between linalool-fed mice and controls. Notably, the concentrations of saturated FAs were significantly reduced in linalool-fed mice. These findings suggest that the appropriate intake of a natural aromatic compound could exert beneficial metabolic effects by regulating a cellular nutrient sensor.
Related JoVE Video
trans-Caryophyllene is a natural agonistic ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intake of dietary aroma compounds may regulate cellular lipid metabolism. We demonstrated that trans-caryophyllene, a flavor compound in plant foods and teas, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? through direct interaction with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR-?. The agonistic activity of trans-caryophyllene was investigated by the luciferase reporter assay, surface plasmon resonance, and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. Following the stimulation of cells with trans-caryophyllene, intracellular triglyceride concentrations were significantly reduced by 17%, and hepatic fatty acid uptake was significantly increased by 31%. The rate of fatty acid oxidation was also significantly increased. The expressions of PPAR-? and its target genes and proteins in fatty acid uptake and oxidation were significantly up-regulated as well. In HepG2 cells transfected with small interfering RNA of PPAR-?, the effects of trans-caryophyllene on PPAR-? responsive gene expressions, intracellular triglyceride, fatty acid uptake and oxidation were disappeared. These results indicate that the aroma compound, trans-caryophyllene, is PPAR-? agonist thus regulates cellular lipid metabolism in PPAR-? dependent manners.
Related JoVE Video
Saccular aneurysm of the external jugular vein: a case report.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Saccular aneurysm of the external jugular vein presenting as a neck mass is very rare. We report the surgical treatment of an external jugular venous aneurysm in a 48-year-old female patient due to the cosmetic problem of neck engorgement, concomitant with thyroidectomy for cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Percutaneous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for graft dysfunction after heart transplantation.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We evaluated the safety and efficacy of percutaneous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with primary graft dysfunction after heart transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
The Dipeptide H-Trp-Arg-OH (WR) Is a PPAR? Agonist and Reduces Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Lipid-Loaded H4IIE Cells.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dipeptides absorbed by the intestinal epithelium are delivered to circulation, but their metabolic roles are not yet clearly understood. We investigated the biological activities of a dietary dipeptide, H-Trp-Arg-OH (WR), on the regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? activity. Reporter gene assays revealed that WR dose-dependently induced PPAR? transactivation. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated that WR interacts directly with the PPAR? ligand binding domain, and time-resolved fluorescence energy transfer analyses revealed recruitment of a co-activator peptide, fluorescein-PGC1?, to PPAR?, confirming the direct binding of WR to PPAR? and occurrence of conformational changes. WR induced cellular fatty acid uptake and the expression of PPAR? response genes in fatty acid oxidation, thus reducing intracellular triglyceride accumulation in lipid-loaded hepatocytes. In conclusion, the dietary dipeptide WR activates PPAR? and reduces hepatic lipid accumulation in lipid-loaded hepatocytes.
Related JoVE Video
The dipeptide H-Trp-Glu-OH (WE) shows agonistic activity to peroxisome proliferator-activated protein-? and reduces hepatic lipid accumulation in lipid-loaded H4IIE cells.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dipeptides digested from dietary proteins can be directly absorbed by the intestine and delivered to the circulatory system. However, the dipeptides' metabolic roles and biological activities are largely unknown. Lipid-loaded HII4E cells stimulated with H-Trp-Glu-OH (WE) exhibited reduced lipid accumulation, of which the effect was abolished by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? gene knock down. A luciferase assay showed that the WE dipeptide induced PPAR? transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. Surface plasmon resonance and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses demonstrated that WE interacts directly with the PPAR? ligand binding domain (KD, 120 ?M; EC50, 83 ?M). Cells stimulated with WE induced PPAR? and its responsive genes and increased cellular fatty acid uptake. In conclusion, WE reduces hepatic lipid accumulation in lipid-loaded hepatocytes via the activation of PPAR? by a direct interaction.
Related JoVE Video
Postmenopausal hypertension and sodium sensitivity.
J Menopausal Med
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been well established that women generally have lower incidence rates of hypertension than men at similar ages and these differences may vary with age. It also has been observed in many studies that after menopause, blood pressure (BP) increases in women to levels even higher than in men. The lack of estrogens may not be suggested as the only component involved in the development of postmenopausal hypertension. Thus, in this mini-review, the possible mechanisms by which sex hormones may influence the BP are discussed. This review also examines the renal regulatory mechanisms for gender differences in BP and explores the effects of salt intake on BP (salt-sensitivity) in pre and post-menopausal women. Estrogen has been shown to stimulate nitric oxide (NO) production, thus female sex hormones have a beneficial effect on BP control. Evidences that angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) is up-regulated by estrogen support the favorable effects on BPs in women than men. The kidney plays an integral role in the regulation of arterial pressure through the mechanism of pressure-natriuresis, which has been shown to be modulated by the RAS. The prevalence of salt-sensitivity increases with age and low-salt diets has shown to help reduce systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP. While oral hormone replacement therapy has yielded only a neutral or minimal effect on the elevation of SBP, both the transdermal route replacement and a novel progestin with anti-aldosterone activity (drospirenone) has also shown to reduce SBP.
Related JoVE Video
A multicentre cohort study of acute heart failure syndromes in Korea: rationale, design, and interim observations of the Korean Acute Heart Failure (KorAHF) registry.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Korean Acute Heart Failure registry (KorAHF) aims to evaluate the clinical characteristics, management, hospital course, and long-term outcomes of patients hospitalized for acute heart failure syndrome (AHFS) in Korea.
Related JoVE Video
Primary epithelial myoepithelial lung carcinoma.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Primary epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) of the lung is an extremely rare neoplasm that originates from submucosal bronchial glands and has been found in the salivary glands, breast tissue, and sweat glands. However, only a few cases in the respiratory tract have been identified. In the literature, most pulmonary EMCs have been reported to have developed endobronchially although a few EMC cases have been presented as intraparenchymatous tumors. We have identified a case of primary EMC that developed in the peripheral lung parenchyma.
Related JoVE Video
Trends in hospitalized acute myocardial infarction patients with heart failure in Korea at 1998 and 2008.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heart failure (HF) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is common and is associated with poor clinical outcome. Limited data exist regarding the incidence and in-hospital mortality of AMI with HF (AMI-HF). We retrospectively analyzed 1,427 consecutive patients with AMI in the five major university hospitals in Korea at two time points, 1998 (n = 608) and 2008 (n = 819). Two hundred twenty eight patients (37.5%) in 1998 and 324 patients (39.5%) in 2008 of AMI patients complicated with HF (P = 0.429). AMI-HF patients in 2008 were older, had more hypertension, previous AMI, and lower systolic blood pressure than those in 1998. Regarding treatments, AMI-HF patients in 2008 received more revascularization procedures, more evidence based medical treatment and adjuvant therapy, such as mechanical ventilators, intra-aortic balloon pulsation compared to those in 1998. However, overall in-hospital mortality rates (6.4% vs 11.1%, P = 0.071) of AMI-HF patients were unchanged and still high even after propensity score matching analysis, irrespective of types of AMI and revascularization methods. In conclusion, more evidence-based medical and advanced procedural managements were applied for patients with AMI-HF in 2008 than in 1998. However the incidence and in-hospital mortality of AMI-HF patients were not significantly changed between the two time points.
Related JoVE Video
Hypolipidemic and antiinflammation activities of fermented soybean fibers from meju in C57BL/6?J mice.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Meju, a naturally fermented soy block used to produce soy paste and soy sauce in Korea, is suggested to exhibit hypolipidemic and antiinflammatory activities; however, its mechanisms of action are elusive. Here, we report that the water-soluble fibers but not the amino acids and peptides from meju exhibited hypolipidemic activity in vivo. Feeding of fermented soybean fibers (FSF) from meju reduced plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, adipocyte size, and hepatic lipid accumulation in C57BL/6?J mice. FSF treatment reduced HMG-CoA reductase expression, whereas the expression of genes in the fatty acid uptake and subsequent beta-oxidation were significantly induced in the livers. Hepatic lipogenic genes, including Srebp1c and Lxr?, were unaltered. Feeding with the fermented soybean peptides and amino acids (FSPA) induced the expression of lipogenic genes, which may have canceled the induction of low-density lipoprotein receptor and Cyp7a1 gene expressions in FSPA livers. The plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein, TNF-?, and interlukin-6 were significantly reduced in the FSF, FSPA, and meju groups compared with the control groups, suggesting that both of the fibers and peptides/amino acids from meju may be beneficial. These findings suggest that soluble fibers from meju are critical hypolipidemic components that regulate hepatic gene expressions and reduce proinflammatory cytokines in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Endosalpingiosis in postmenopausal elderly women.
J Menopausal Med
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In gynecology, endosalpingiosis is a benign condition in which the fallopian tube-like epithelium is found outside the fallopian tube. The thirty-four point five percent of endosalpingiosis cases have concurrent endometriosis and 40% of the endosalpingiosis group are in postmenopausal states. In contrast with endometriosis, there are no significant links between infertility, chronic pelvic pain and endosalpingiosis. The symptoms of endosalpingiosis are not yet settled. Endosalpingiosis is almost always an incidental finding; it is commonly found through microscopic examinations, and is then confirmed by pathologists for excision and biopsy. Therefore, the clinical differential diagnosis of an intramural mass is more important for clinicians when discussing further surgery with the patients. We report case of woman who has endosalpingiosis and is presented with vaginal bleeding. We first suspect the disease during physical examination. Under the impression of pelvic mass, laboratory tests and radiological images of contrast enhanced chest computer tomography are taken. Images show multisepted cystic masses in left adnexa. To rule out the pelvic mass, we executed exploratory laparotomy. Pathologic results show endosalpingiosis near the ovary section. But the endosalpingiosis, is not generally considered a pathology, and thus, no treatment is necessary.
Related JoVE Video
Statins and renin-angiotensin system inhibitor combination treatment to prevent cardiovascular disease.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension are common risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Updated guidelines emphasize target reductions of overall cardiovascular risks. Experimental studies have shown reciprocal relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and endothelial dysfunction. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension have a synergistic deleterious effect on IR and endothelial dysfunction. Unregulated renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and hypertension. Various strategies with different classes of antihypertensive medications to reach target goals have failed to reduce residual CVD risk further. Of interest, treating moderate cholesterol elevations with low-dose statins in hypertensive patients reduced CVD risk by 35-40% further. Therefore, statins are important in reducing CVD risk. Unfortunately, statin therapy causes IR and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. RAS inhibitors improve both endothelial dysfunction and IR. Further, cross-talk between hypercholesterolemia and RAS exists at multiple steps of IR and endothelial dysfunction. In this regard, combined therapy with statins and RAS inhibitors demonstrates additive/synergistic effects on endothelial dysfunction and IR in addition to lowering cholesterol levels and blood pressure when compared with either monotherapy in patients. This is mediated by both distinct and interrelated mechanisms. Therefore, combined therapy with statins and RAS inhibitors may be important in developing optimal management strategies in patients with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, or obesity to prevent CVD.??
Related JoVE Video
Effects of intensive versus mild lipid lowering by statins in patients with ischemic congestive heart failure: Korean Pitavastatin Heart Failure (SAPHIRE) study.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was designed to evaluate the dose-effect relationship of statins in patients with ischemic congestive heart failure (CHF), since the role of statins in CHF remains unclear.
Related JoVE Video
An unusual form of coronary artery fistula: a small aneurysm of vieussens' arterial ring communicating with the pulmonary artery.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vieussens' arterial ring (VAR) is the connection between the conus branch of the right coronary artery and the proximal right ventricular branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery. VARs are found in 48% of the population; however, pathologic VAR is rare. We experienced a case of pathologic VAR that involved a fistula connecting to the main pulmonary artery.
Related JoVE Video
Alpha-fetoprotein, identified as a novel marker for the antioxidant effect of placental extract, exhibits synergistic antioxidant activity in the presence of estradiol.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Placenta, as a reservoir of nutrients, has been widely used in medical and cosmetic materials. Here, we focused on the antioxidant properties of placental extract and attempted to isolate and identify the main antioxidant factors. Porcine placental extracts were prepared through homogenization or acid hydrolysis, and their antioxidant activity was investigated in the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. Treatment with homogenized placental extract (H-PE) increased the cell viability of H2O2-treated HaCaT cells more than two-fold. H-PE treatment suppressed H2O2-induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death and decreased intracellular ROS levels in H2O2-treated HaCaT cells. The antioxidant factors in H-PE were found to be thermo-unstable and were thus expected to include proteins. The candidate antioxidant proteins were fractionated with cation-exchange, anion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography, and the antioxidant properties of the chromatographic fractions were investigated. We obtained specific antioxidant fractions that suppressed ROS generation and ROS-induced DNA strand breaks. From silver staining and MALDI-TOF analyses, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) precursor was identified as a main marker for the antioxidant effect of H-PE. Purified AFP or ectopically expressed AFP exhibited synergistic antioxidant activity in the presence of estradiol. Taken together, our data suggest that AFP, a serum glycoprotein produced at high levels during fetal development, is a novel marker protein for the antioxidant effect of the placenta that exhibits synergistic antioxidant activity in the presence of estradiol.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of perioperative renal dysfunction in heart transplantation: combined heart and kidney transplantation could help to reduce postoperative mortality.
Ann. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Renal dysfunction is a frequent problem in heart failure patients. We aimed to investigate the predictors of mortality after heart transplantation and the impact of perioperative renal dysfunction on short-term and long-term prognosis.
Related JoVE Video
Mechanism of edge restenosis after drug-eluting stent implantation.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background:?Edge restenosis is not an unusual finding after implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES). We hypothesized that mechanical stress imposed on the stent edge would cause vessel wall injury and inflammation, which may consequently lead to edge restenosis. Methods and Results:?In total, 1,496 patients were implanted with a sirolimus-eluting stent (SES), paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) or zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) in Seoul National University Hospital between 2007 and 2009. Binary restenosis occurred in 161 lesions in 119 patients. We retrospectively compared the 3 DES with regard to the percentage of edge stent restenosis among all cases of restenosis. We also evaluated the maximal, minimal, and ? (maximal angle-minimal angle) angles. The percentage of edge restenosis was higher for SES than for ZES (37.5% vs. 16.7%, P=0.017). Maximal angle at the proximal edge was 64.82°±33.46° for 26 stents with proximal edge restenosis compared with 31.84°±31.51° for 89 stents without proximal edge restenosis (P=0.001). The ? angle was also significantly different between the 2 groups (14.81°±15.98° vs. 7.60°±8.86°, P=0.035). Similar findings were observed for distal edge restenosis. Both the maximal angle (39.09°±21.04° vs. 22.71°±22.83°, P=0.010) and ? angle (20.23°±15.39° vs. 9.18°±9.66°, P=0.016) at the distal edge were significantly different between the 2 groups. Conclusions:?Physical stress determined by angulation at the stent edge segment and biomechanical properties of the DES can be considered as one of the plausible mechanisms for edge stent restenosis.??(Circ J?2013; 77: 2928-2935).
Related JoVE Video
Usefulness of the SYNTAX and Clinical SYNTAX Scores in Predicting Clinical Outcome After Unrestricted Use of Sirolimus- and Everolimus-Eluting Stents.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background:?The SYNTAX score (SS) and clinical SS (cSS) can assess coronary lesion complexity and are useful indices in predicting outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, their validity has not been fully investigated in daily practice where "limus"-eluting stents are used. Methods and Results:?The SS and cSS were independently assessed from the Efficacy of Xience/Promus vs. Cypher in rEducing Late Loss after stENTing (EXCELLENT) registry, together with the 1-year patient-oriented composite endpoint (POCE; all-cause death, any myocardial infarction (MI), and any revascularization) and target-lesion failure (TLF; cardiac death, target-vessel MI, and target-lesion revascularization). Among 5,102 patients, tertiles for SS were defined as low-SS <8, 8?mid-SS?16, high-SS >16. Both POCE (4.2% vs. 7.7% vs. 12.2%, P<0.001) and TLF (1.6% vs. 2.4% vs. 4.5%, P<0.001) increased significantly with increasing SS tertile, and SS was an independent predictor of POCE (P<0.001 for trend) and TLF (P=0.023 for trend) in multivariate analysis. The predictability of SS and cSS was similar for POCE (area under the curve (AUC): 0.635 vs. 0.629, P=0.599), whereas SS was superior in predicting restenosis-related outcomes such as revascularization (AUC: 0.624 vs. 0.577, P<0.001) and cSS was superior in other components such as death (AUC: 0.654 vs. 0.795, P<0.001). Conclusions:?Both SS and cSS were applicable to unrestricted use of "limus"-eluting stents in predicting the risk of 1-year clinical outcomes.??(Circ J?2013; 77: 2912-2921).
Related JoVE Video
Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy accompanied by fetal growth restriction.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy, a rare condition, is defined as thrombosis in the fetal circulation of placenta causing fibrotic villi and its detection before delivery is difficult. Thrombosis in fetal placenta involves various problems such as uteroplacental insufficiency, central nervous system injury and even perinatal death. Here, we report a case of fetal arterial thrombosis predisposed to neonatal neurologic impairment. This case emphasizes an importance of placental biopsy, especially when the neonate seems to have problems. We recommend that pathological examination of placenta be performed not only when abnormal gross findings of placenta, but also when fetal abnormalities are observed.
Related JoVE Video
Discrepancy-plus-search processes in prospective memory retrieval.
Mem Cognit
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the present study, we investigated the processes underlying prospective memory (PM) retrieval, focusing specifically on two possible spontaneous processes: discrepancy-plus-search and familiarity. Discrepancy was elicited by orthogonally manipulating the processing difficulties of the PM targets and the nontargets. Participants performed a PM task while solving anagrams with two levels of difficulty (easy or difficult). Assuming that the ease of processing easy anagrams would heighten a sense of familiarity, the familiarity view predicted better PM performance with easy anagrams as the PM targets. In contrast, the discrepancy-plus-search view predicted higher PM performance for the PM targets that were anagrams whose difficulty level mismatched that of the surrounding nontargets, as compared to PM targets whose difficulty matched that of the surrounding nontargets. This prediction was based on the idea that mismatching rather than matching difficulty levels would create discrepancy, thereby signaling significance for the target. Participants were more likely to perform the PM task for PM targets that were discrepant, supporting the discrepancy-plus-search view.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of Antiplatelet Effect and Safety of Clopidogrel Napadisilate with Clopidogrel Bisulfate in Coronary Artery Disease Patients: Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Phase IV, Non-inferiority Clinical Trial.
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clopidogrel napadisilate has better clopidogrel stability than clopidogrel bisulfate. There are no data, however, on the antiplatelet efficacy and tolerability of clopidogrel napadisilate in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of a highly skin permeable low-molecular-weight protamine conjugated epidermal growth factor for novel burn wound healing therapy.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We evaluated the laser induced burn wound healing efficacy of a recombinant low-molecular-weight protamine conjugated epidermal growth factor (rLMWP-EGF). rLMWP-EGF was prepared by genetically combining LMWP with the N-terminal sequence of EGF; we obtained a homogeneous modified EGF without reduced biological activity. Because of the protein transduction domain of LMWP, rLMWP-EGF showed enhanced drug penetration across artificial skin constructs and excised mouse skin layers versus EGF and showed significantly improved burn wound healing efficacy, with accelerated wound closure and minimized eschar and scar formation, compared with EGF or no treatment. Histological examination also revealed that rLMWP-EGF permeated through the intact skin around the wound and facilitated residual epithelial cell proliferation in an integrated manner to reform an intact epidermis. Radiofrequency microwound formation was effective for reducing large hypertrophic scars formed after severe laser burning by collagen remodeling but rLMWP-EGF did not show a meaningful synergistic effect in burn scar reduction. However, rLMWP-EGF was helpful for forming skin with a more normal appearance and texture. Thus, rLMWP-EGF demonstrated therapeutic potential as a novel topical burn wound healing drug with no obvious toxic effect.
Related JoVE Video
PPAR? modulates vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype via a protein kinase G-dependent pathway and reduces neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) undergo phenotypic changes in response to vascular injury such as angioplasty. Protein kinase G (PKG) has an important role in the process of VSMC phenotype switching. In this study, we examined whether rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? agonist, could modulate VSMC phenotype through the PKG pathway to reduce neointimal hyperplasia after angioplasty. In vitro experiments showed that rosiglitazone inhibited the phenotype change of VSMCs from a contractile to a synthetic form. The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced reduction of PKG level was reversed by rosiglitazone treatment, resulting in increased PKG activity. This increased activity of PKG resulted in phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein at serine 239, leading to inhibited proliferation of VSMCs. Interestingly, rosiglitazone did not change the level of nitric oxide (NO) or cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which are upstream of PKG, suggesting that rosiglitazone influences PKG itself. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays for the PKG promoter showed that the activation of PKG by rosiglitazone was mediated by the increased binding of Sp1 on the promoter region of PKG. In vivo experiments showed that rosiglitazone significantly inhibited neointimal formation after balloon injury. Immunohistochemistry staining for calponin and thrombospondin showed that this effect of rosiglitazone was mediated by modulating VSMC phenotype. Our findings demonstrate that rosiglitazone is a potent modulator of VSMC phenotype, which is regulated by PKG. This activation of PKG by rosiglitazone results in reduced neointimal hyperplasia after angioplasty. These results provide important mechanistic insight into the cardiovascular-protective effect of PPAR?.
Related JoVE Video
Under-utilization of donor hearts in the initial era of the heart transplant program in Korea- review of 13 years’ experience from the Korea national registry.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heart transplantation (HTPL) is the effective treatment option to improve quality of life as well as survival of terminal heart failure patients. Shortage of donors, however, limits HTPL to all indicated cases. The temporal trend and clinical characteristics of HTPL donors in Korea were therefore investigated.
Related JoVE Video
Chronic vaginal discharge and left leg edema after a transobturator tape procedure.
Int Urogynecol J
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report on a patient who underwent total vaginal hysterectomy for urinary incontinence 8 years previously with a sling operation using transobturator tape (TOT). She was admitted to our hospital after complaints of vaginal discharge, foul odor, and bleeding, left thigh pain, and edema. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) revealed a fistula tract from the vagina or urethra with remnant sling tape. We removed the remnant tape using intraoperative ultrasonography. This case exemplifies the rare occurrence of a vaginal fistula extending to the obturator, adductor, and pectineus muscles combined with myositis after TOT placement. It is important that urogynecologists recognize that TOT procedures may result in complications accompanied by common recurrent vaginal symptoms, such as vaginal odor and spotting, which can be identified by MRI or CT.
Related JoVE Video
Rho GTPase activating protein 15 (arhGAP15) siRNA effect apoptosis-induced by ethanol in bovine fibroblast cells.
Pak J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Rho GTPases are the sub-group of Ras super family and identified in all eukaryotes. The Rho GTPases effect different cellular signaling pathways involved in a number of diseases such as cancer, neurological and cardiovascular disorders. Members of Rho GTPases including RhoA, RhoC and Rac1 play a major role in regulation of apoptosis in different kind of stress conditions. Here we investigated the Rho GTPase activating protein 15 (ArhGAP15) gene knock-down effect on apoptosis induced by ethanol in bovine fibroblast cells. The bovine Fibroblast cells were treated and transfected with two different concentrations (50 and 100 nM) of ArhGAP15 siRNA for 48 h respectively. Both concentrations of siRNA were effective and the results of RT-PCR revealed an efficient knock-down of ArhGAP15 mRNA in fibroblast cells. Further, the normal cells exposed to a 100 mM ethanol concentration showed a reduction in cell viability and induced the ratio of apoptosis related Bax/Bcl-2 proteins compared with ArhGAP15 siRNA transfected ethanol treated cells. Ethanol also increased caspase-3 expression in normal fibroblast cells compared with transfected cells. The ArhGAP15 knock-down cells treated with ethanol decreased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and lower caspase-3 protein levels in ArhGAP15 knocked-down cells. Our results suggest that apoptosis induced by ethanol involves the activation of Rho GTPase activating protein 15 and silencing of the said gene protects apoptosis.
Related JoVE Video
Cyanidin, a natural flavonoid, is an agonistic ligand for liver X receptor alpha and beta and reduces cellular lipid accumulation in macrophages and hepatocytes.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cyanidin, a natural flavonoid abundant in fruits and vegetables, is known to regulate cellular lipid metabolism; however, its underlying mechanism of action and protein targets remain unknown. Here, the ligand binding activity of cyanidin on liver X receptors (LXRs) was investigated utilizing surface plasmon resonance and time-resolved fluorescence energy transfer (TR-FRET) analyses. LXRs are nuclear receptors which function as critical transcription factors in the regulation of cellular lipid and glucose metabolism. This includes the stimulation of high-density-lipoprotein synthesis and activation of reverse cholesterol transport. The present findings show that cyanidin induces the transactivation of LXRs and binds directly to the ligand-binding domain of both LXR? and LXR? with dissociation constants of 2.2 and 73.2?M, respectively. Cell-free FRET analysis demonstrated that cyanidin induces the recruitment of co-activator peptide for LXR? and LXR? with EC50 of 3.5?M and 125.2?M, respectively. In addition, intracellular cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) concentrations were reduced in macrophages following cyanidin stimulation. In cultured hepatocytes, cyanidin mildly induced SREBP1c gene expression but marginally affected cellular TG concentrations as well as reduced cellular cholesterol accumulations which activated the expression of genes for reverse cholesterol transport. Two cyanidin metabolites, procatechic acid and phloroglucinaldehyde, did not directly bind or activate LXRs. These results demonstrate that cyanidin is a direct ligand for both LXR? and LXR?, suggesting that cyanidin may operate, at least in part, through modulation of cellular LXR activity.
Related JoVE Video
Characteristics of primary cutaneous lymphoma according to WHO-EORTC classification in Korea.
Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Primary cutaneous lymphoma (PCL) is an extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma with primary involvement of the skin. Epidemiological data on PCLs according to the World Health Organization/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer classification (WHO-EORTC) has not been investigated in Korea to date.
Related JoVE Video
Palpation versus ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injections and short-term effect in the distal radioulnar joint disorder: a randomized, prospective single-blinded study.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to conduct a randomized, prospective single-blinded clinical study on the mid-term benefits and accuracy rate of the ultrasound (US)-guided versus palpation-guided intra-articular (IA) injections for the treatment of distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) disorder. Subjects with DRUJ disorder (n?=?60) were randomly assigned to undergo US-guided or palpation-guided IA injection. Primary outcomes were measured with Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH) and secondary outcomes included Verbal Numeric Pain Scale (VNS), Modified Mayo Wrist Score (MMWS), range of motion (ROM), and accuracy rate between two groups; 1.25 mL of mixed material (0.5 ml Omnipaque?+?1 % lidocaine 0.25 ml?+?triamcinolone 20 mg 0.5 ml) was injected into the intra-articular space of the DRUJ. Treatment effects were assessed by using VNS, DASH, MMWS, and passive ROM of the DRUJ (supination, pronation from neutral) before the injections and at 1, 3, and 6 months after the injections. After the US-guided and palpation-guided IA injection into DRUJ, a radiographic image was taken to determine whether the injected material had reached the IA space or infiltrated into the soft tissue. US-guided IA injections showed significantly higher accuracy (100 %) than palpation-guided IA injections (75.8 %) in DRUJ. VNS, DASH, MMWS, and ROM were improved at 1, 3, and 6 months in both groups. There was no significant difference in clinical outcomes between the group receiving US-guided injections and the group receiving palpation-guided injections. US-guided IA injection showed significantly higher accuracy than palpation-guided IA injection in the DRUJ, and corticosteroid IA injections were effective in improving of the pain of patients with DRUJ disorder during 6 months of follow-up.
Related JoVE Video
Anthocyanins protect against ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis via GABAB1 receptors intracellular signaling in prenatal rat hippocampal neurons.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Here, we investigated the possible involvement of gamma-aminobutyric acid B1 receptor (GABAB1R) in mediating the protective effects of black soybean anthocyanins against ethanol-induced apoptosis in prenatal hippocampal neurons because GABARs are known to play an important role in the development of central nervous system. Treatments were performed on primary cultures of prenatal rat hippocampal neurons transfected with or without GABAB1R small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results showed that, when ethanol treatment was followed by anthocyanins treatment, cellular levels of proapoptotic proteins such as Bax, activated caspase-3, and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) were decreased, and the cellular level of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was increased compared to treatment with ethanol alone. Furthermore, the effects of ethanol on cellular levels of GABAB1R and its downstream signaling molecules such as protein kinase A, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein were diminished or reversed by anthocyanins treatment. The ability of anthocyanins to reverse the effects of ethanol on cellular levels of Bax, Bcl-2, active caspase-3, cleaved PARP-1, GABAB1R, and CaMKII were abrogated in cells transfected with GABAB1R siRNA. In a GABAB1R-dependent manner, anthocyanins also inhibited the ability of ethanol to elevate intracellular free Ca(2+) level and increase the proportion of cells with low mitochondrial membrane potential in the population. Cell apoptosis assay and morphological studies also confirmed the neuroprotective effect of anthocyanins against ethanol via GABAB1R. Our data suggest that GABAB1R plays an important role in the neuroprotective effects of anthocyanins against ethanol.
Related JoVE Video
Heart transplantation in the elderly patients: midterm results.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heart transplantation in elderly patients has raised concerns because of co-morbidities and limited life expectancy in the era of donor shortage. We examined the outcomes after heart transplantation in elderly patients.
Related JoVE Video
Vascular calcifying progenitor cells possess bidirectional differentiation potentials.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vascular calcification is an advanced feature of atherosclerosis for which no effective therapy is available. To investigate the modulation or reversal of calcification, we identified calcifying progenitor cells and investigated their calcifying/decalcifying potentials. Cells from the aortas of mice were sorted into four groups using Sca-1 and PDGFR? markers. Sca-1(+) (Sca-1(+)/PDGFR?(+) and Sca-1(+)/PDGFR?(-)) progenitor cells exhibited greater osteoblastic differentiation potentials than Sca-1(-) (Sca-1(-)/PDGFR?(+) and Sca-1(-)/PDGFR?(-)) progenitor cells. Among Sca-1(+) progenitor populations, Sca-1(+)/PDGFR?(-) cells possessed bidirectional differentiation potentials towards both osteoblastic and osteoclastic lineages, whereas Sca-1(+)/PDGFR?(+) cells differentiated into an osteoblastic lineage unidirectionally. When treated with a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist, Sca-1(+)/PDGFR?(-) cells preferentially differentiated into osteoclast-like cells. Sca-1(+) progenitor cells in the artery originated from the bone marrow (BM) and could be clonally expanded. Vessel-resident BM-derived Sca-1(+) calcifying progenitor cells displayed nonhematopoietic, mesenchymal characteristics. To evaluate the modulation of in vivo calcification, we established models of ectopic and atherosclerotic calcification. Computed tomography indicated that Sca-1(+) progenitor cells increased the volume and calcium scores of ectopic calcification. However, Sca-1(+)/PDGFR?(-) cells treated with a PPAR? agonist decreased bone formation 2-fold compared with untreated cells. Systemic infusion of Sca-1(+)/PDGFR?(-) cells into Apoe(-/-) mice increased the severity of calcified atherosclerotic plaques. However, Sca-1(+)/PDGFR?(-) cells in which PPAR? was activated displayed markedly decreased plaque severity. Immunofluorescent staining indicated that Sca-1(+)/PDGFR?(-) cells mainly expressed osteocalcin; however, activation of PPAR? triggered receptor activator for nuclear factor-?B (RANK) expression, indicating their bidirectional fate in vivo. These findings suggest that a subtype of BM-derived and vessel-resident progenitor cells offer a therapeutic target for the prevention of vascular calcification and that PPAR? activation may be an option to reverse calcification.
Related JoVE Video
Perivascular adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adipose tissue, which has been considered mainly as a site of energy storage and mobilization, is found in many depots throughout the body. Adipose depots may have structural properties such as, for instance, the fat pads located in the hands and feet and the periorbital fat supporting the eyes. Adipose tissue also shows remarkable regional heterogeneity. For instance, substantial differences have been reported in the metabolic properties of visceral (intra-abdominal) vs. subcutaneous adipose depots. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has active endocrine and paracrine functions with the secretion of various pro-inflammatory chemokines potentially contributing to the progression of atherosclerosis related with obesity. In addition, adipose depots surrounding the heart, such as epicardial (EAT) and perivascular adipose tissues (PAT) may also exert important roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease beyond the contribution of VAT due to their close anatomic relationships with vascular structures and myocardium. The purpose of the present review is to outline the current understanding of the pathophysiological links between EAT, PAT and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Also, we discuss the current investigative methods for PAT quantification and discuss the potential impact of PAT on cardiovascular risk prediction. Finally, potential clinical implications of these notions are discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment Effects of Ultrasound Guide Selective Nerve Root Block for Lower Cervical Radicular Pain: A Retrospective Study of 1-Year Follow-up.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the long-term effects and advantages of ultrasound (US)-guided selective cervical nerve root block with fluoroscopy (FL)-guided transforaminal block.
Related JoVE Video
Neuroprotective profile of pyruvate against ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in developing mice brain.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Exposure to ethanol during developmental stages leads to several types of neurological disorders. Apoptotic neurodegeneration due to ethanol exposure is a main feature in alcoholism. Exposure of developing animals to alcohol induces apoptotic neuronal death and causes fetal alcohol syndrome. In the present study, we observed the possible protective effect of pyruvate against ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. Exposure of developing mice to ethanol (2.5 g/kg) induces apoptotic neurodegeneration and widespread neuronal cell death in the cortex and thalamus. Co-treatment of pyruvate (500 mg/kg) protects neuronal cell against ethanol by the reduced expression of caspase-3 in these brain regions. Immunohistochemical analysis and TUNNEL at 24 h showed that apoptotic cell death induced by ethanol in the cortex and thalamus is reduced by pyruvate. Histomorphological analysis at 24 h with cresyl violet staining also proved that pyruvate reduced the number of neuronal cell loss in the cortex and thalamus. The results showed that ethanol increased the expression of caspase-3 and thus induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing mice cortex and thalamus, while co-treatment of pyruvate inhibits the induction of caspase-3 and reduced the cell death in these brain regions. These findings, therefore, showed that treatment of pyruvate inhibits ethanol-induced neuronal cell loss in the postnatal seven (P7) developing mice brain and may appear as a safe neuroprotectant for treating neurodegenerative disorders in newborns and infants.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of Two Different Strategies of Intravascular Ultrasound Guidance during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Routine versus Selective.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is helpful during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), because it can be used to confirm good apposition or optimal expansion of stents. In this study, we compared angiographic result as well as clinical outcomes between two different strategies of IVUS-guidance, the selective vs. the routine.
Related JoVE Video
Criterion noise in ratings-based recognition: evidence from the effects of response scale length on recognition accuracy.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rating scales are a standard measurement tool in psychological research. However, research has suggested that the cognitive burden involved in maintaining the criteria used to parcel subjective evidence into ratings introduces decision noise and affects estimates of performance in the underlying task. There has been debate over whether such decision noise is evident in recognition, with some authors arguing that it is substantial and others arguing that it is trivial or nonexistent. Here we directly assess the presence of decision noise by evaluating whether the length of a rating scale on which recognition judgments are provided is inversely related to performance on the recognition task. That prediction was confirmed: Rating scales with more options led to lower estimates of recognition than did scales with fewer options. This result supports the claim that decision noise contributes to recognition judgments and additionally suggests that caution is warranted when using rating scales more generally.
Related JoVE Video
A Novel Noninvasive Technology for Treatment Planning Using Virtual Coronary Stenting and Computed Tomography-Derived Computed Fractional Flow Reserve.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study sought to determine whether computational modeling can be used to predict the functional outcome of coronary stenting by virtual stenting of ischemia-causing stenoses identified on the pre-treatment model.
Related JoVE Video
Randomized trial comparing the efficacy between different types of paclitaxel-eluting stents: the comparison of efficacy between COroflex PLEASe ANd Taxus stent (ECO-PLEASANT) randomized controlled trial.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Paclitaxel-eluting stents (PESs) have been shown to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia after percutaneous coronary intervention. Coroflex Please (B Braun, Melsungen, Germany) is a newly developed PES. We compared the clinical and angiographic efficacy of Coroflex Please with Taxus Liberte (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA) in a real-world practice.
Related JoVE Video
Paraoxonase 1 gene polymorphism does not affect clopidogrel response variability but is associated with clinical outcome after PCI.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Paraoxonase (PON) is a high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) associated enzyme with antioxidative and anti-atherogenic property. Its function is associated with coronary artery disease and its activity genetically controlled. We evaluated whether genetic variation of PON-1 is associated with clinical outcome in a large cohort of Korean patients with drug-eluting stents implantation.
Related JoVE Video
CYP3A4 genetic status may be associated with increased vulnerability to the inhibitory effect of calcium-channel blockers on clopidogrel.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Calcium-channel blockers (CCBs) inhibit the CYP3A4 enzyme, which is involved in clopidogrel activation. Studies have shown conflicting results regarding the effect of concomitant CCB administration on clopidogrel response. We investigated the relationship between CYP3A4 genotype and the inhibitory effect of CCBs on clopidogrel response.
Related JoVE Video
Evidence for a detrimental relationship between hypertension history, prospective memory, and prefrontal cortex white matter in cognitively normal older adults.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hypertension affects many older adults and is associated with impaired neural and cognitive functioning. We investigated whether a history of hypertension was associated with impairments to prospective memory, which refers to the ability to remember to perform delayed intentions, such as remembering to take medication. Thirty-two cognitively normal older adult participants with or without a history of hypertension (self-reported) performed two laboratory prospective memory tasks, one that relied more strongly on executive control (nonfocal prospective memory) and one that relied more strongly on spontaneous memory retrieval processes (focal prospective memory). We observed hypertension-related impairments for nonfocal, but not focal, prospective memory. To complement our behavioral approach, we conducted a retrospective analysis of available structural magnetic resonance imaging data. Lower white matter volume estimates in the anterior prefrontal cortex were associated with lower nonfocal prospective memory and with a history of hypertension. A history of hypertension may be associated with worsened executive control and lower prefrontal white matter volume. The translational implication is that individuals who must remember to take antihypertensive medications and to monitor their blood pressure at home may be impaired in the executive control process that helps to support these prospective memory behaviors.
Related JoVE Video
Gynecologic complication of chronic graft-versus-host disease: Vaginal obstruction.
Obstet Gynecol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Allogenic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (Allo-PBSCT) is being used to treat hematological malignancies with increasing frequency. Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a complex complication of PBSCT. A 43-year-old woman came to the gynecology clinic for amenorrhea. She had been diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia 2 years earlier and treated with induction and consolidation chemotherapy. After developing complete remission, she underwent Allo-PBSCT. When she started chemotherapy, her menstrual cycle completely disappeared. Fourteen months after menopausal hormone replacement therapy, it was discovered that her upper vaginal canal was completely obstructed. The lower vagina had an atrophic appearance. We report a rare case of partial vaginal obstruction as a complication of chronic GvHD and review the literature. We expect that this case report provides an opportunity to remind clinician of the gynecologic complications of GvHD.
Related JoVE Video
Ultrasound versus palpation guidance for intra-articular injections in patients with degenerative osteoarthritis of the elbow.
J Clin Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy rate of ultrasound (US) -guided intra-articular (IA) injections in patients by posterior approach with osteoarthritis (OA) of the elbow.
Related JoVE Video
Anthocyanins attenuate body weight gain via modulating neuropeptide Y and GABAB1 receptor in rats hypothalamus.
Neuropeptides
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Anthocyanins in a variety of plant species have been identified and are known for its hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects. The effect of anthocyanins extracted from black soybean on body weight and daily food intake in adult rats raised on normal diet were studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily intra-gastric administered water or anthocyanins 6 mg/kg and 24 mg/kg for 40 days. During this period daily food intake and body weight were measured prior to anthocyanins treatment. These findings showed that anthocyanins treatment resulted in significantly lowered body weight and food intake compared with water treated rats. In addition, anthocyanins dose dependently reduced the adipose tissue size compared with control group. Western blot analysis showed that high dose of anthocyanins treatment significantly reduced the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and increased ?-amino butyric acid receptor (GABAB1R) in hypothalamus. Furthermore, these events were followed by a decreased in expression of GABAB1R downstream signaling molecules protein kinase A-? (PKA) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB) in hypothalamus. These data support the concept that anthocyanins even in normal circumstances have the capability to reduce body weight and food intake through its modulatory effect on NPY and GABAB1R in hypothalamus. These results suggest that anthocyanins from black soybean seed coat might have a novel role in preventing obesity in rats on normal diet.
Related JoVE Video
Reversal of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin oligomerization by sulfiredoxin.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) regulates the structure and function of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs). Upon oxidation by excess H(2)O(2), Prxs become overoxidized to a sulfinic acid of its peroxidatic cysteine residue, resulting in a structural change from a small oligomer with peroxidase function to a large oligomer with chaperone function. Then, sulfiredoxin (Srx) reduces the overoxidized Prxs by an ATP-dependent mechanism. Although Srx is known to repair the overoxidized forms of Prx, the role of Srx in the reversal of Prx oligomerization remains to be elucidated. Here we investigated whether Srx1 directly facilitates the dissociation of yeast Prx1 (YPrx1) from a high-molecular-weight (HMW) complex to a low-molecular-weight (LMW) complex in vitro. Srx1 reactivates the YPrx1 peroxidase activity that is inactivated by H(2)O(2), whereas it decreases the chaperone activity enhanced by H(2)O(2). We show that Srx1 dissociates the H(2)O(2)-induced HMW YPrx1 complex, and that the Srx1 Cys84 residue is critical for its dissociation. In contrast to wild-type Srx1, an inactive Srx1 mutant (Srx1-C84S) did not induce the reactivation of inactivated YPrx1 or dissociation of the HMW YPrx1 complex. We revealed that Srx1 interacts directly with YPrx1 in yeast cells using bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Taken together, these findings suggest that Srx1 regulates YPrx1 function and structure in yeast cells through a direct interaction.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of ultrasound (US)-guided intra-articular injections by in-plain and out-of-plain on medial portal of the knee.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the accuracy rates between ultrasound (US)-guided in-plain (IP), out-of-plain (OOP) and blind knee intra-articular (IA) injection via the mid-medial portal. US-guided IA injection in the IP, OOP, and blind methods was performed on 126 knees with radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 or 3) without effusion. About 6 ml of a mixed material containing 1% lidocaine (1 mL) and triamcinolone 20 mg (1 mL) and nonionic contrast (4 mL) was injected into the IA space of the knee through the mid-medial portals. After an US-guided and blind IA injection into the knee joint, a radiographic image was taken to determine whether the injected material had reached the IA space or infiltrated into the soft tissue. US-guided IA injections in the IP (97%; P < 0.05) and OOP method (95%; P < 0.05) showed significantly higher accuracy rate than injections in the blind injection (78%). Both US-guided IA injection methods may be used to access the knee joint with high degree of accuracy.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of the growth stage and cultivar on policosanol profiles of barley sprouts and their adenosine 5-monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adenosine 5-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an intracellular sensor that can regulate glucose levels within the cell. For this reason, it is well-known to be a target for drugs against diabetes and obesity. AMPK was activated significantly by the hexane extract of barley sprouts. This AMPK activation emerges across the growth stages of the sprout, becoming most significant (3 times above the initial stages) 10 days after sprouting. After this time, the activation decreased between 13 and 20 days post-sprouting. Analysis of the hexane extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the amounts of policosanols (PCs, which are linear, primary aliphatic alcohols with 20-30 carbons) in the plant dramatically increased between 5 days (109.7 mg/100 g) and 10 days (343.7 mg/100 g) post-sprouting and then levels fell back down, reaching 76.4 mg/100 g at 20 days post-sprouting. This trend is consistent with PCs being the active ingredient in the barley plants. We validate this by showing that hexacosanol is an activator of AMPK. The richest cultivar for PCs was found to be the Daejin cultivar. Cultivars had a significant effect on the total PC content (113.2-183.5 mg/100 g) within the plant up to 5 days post-sprouting. However this dependence upon the cultivar was not so apparent at peak stages of PC production (10 days post-sprouting). The most abundant PC in barley sprout, hexacosanol, contributed 62-80% of the total PC content at every stage. These results are valuable to determine the optimal times of harvest to obtain the highest yield of PCs.
Related JoVE Video
Hypolipidemic effect of Goami-3 rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Goami-3) on C57BL/6J mice is mediated by the regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? and -?.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the hypolipidemic effects of Goami-3 rice (GR; Oryza sativa L. cv. Goami-3), a newly developed strain with high levels of amylose and fibers. Diet-induced obese mice were fed three types of isocaloric diets for 8 weeks: a high-fat diet, a high-fat diet with GR or control rice (CR; O. sativa L. cv. Ilpumbyeo). Mice fed GR exhibited a significant reduction in body fat (-23%), total cholesterol (-20%) and triglyceride concentrations (-30%) compared to mice fed CR. The mice fed GR showed induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? and inhibition of ? expressions in the liver and adipose tissue. The reduced adiposity of mice fed GC was supported by changes in the expression of genes related to lipid accumulation and hydrolysis in adipose tissues and the plasma concentrations of insulin, adiponectin and leptin. Principal components analysis with gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomic data revealed that the average level of specific plasma metabolites in the GR group was statistically different from that in the other groups after 4weeks. These metabolites included propionic acid, valine, leucine and proline. Based on partial least-squares analysis, the plasma concentrations of valine were inversely correlated with the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to non-HDL and HDL to total cholesterol ratios. In conclusion, GR feeding for 8 weeks significantly improved dyslipidemia and adiposity in diet-induced obese mice by regulating gene expression of PPARs and its target genes. Key plasma metabolites (including valine) were significantly altered by the hypolipidemic effects of GR.
Related JoVE Video
Critical role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? on body fat reduction in C57BL/6J and human apolipoprotein E2 transgenic mice fed delipidated soybean.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The consumption of soy protein and fiber reduces body fat accumulation; however, the mechanism of this effect has not been clearly understood. We investigated the antiobesogenic effect of soy protein and fiber in two different mouse models. Normolipidemic nonobese C57BL/6J and hyperlipidemic obese human apolipoprotein E2 transgenic mice were fed either delipidated soybean (DLSB) containing soy protein and fiber or a control diet. The DLSB-fed mice showed a significant reduction in body weight gain and adiposity compared with controls, in both C57BL/6J and apoE2 mice. All metabolic parameters were significantly improved in the DLSB group compared with controls: total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin, and leptin levels were significantly reduced. Adiponectin concentrations were significantly elevated, and glucose tolerance was improved. In both types of DLSB-fed mice, the specific induction of PPAR-? protein expression was evident in muscle and adipose tissues. The expression of PPAR-? target genes in the DLSB-fed mice was also significantly altered. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 and fatty acid synthase levels in adipose tissue were downregulated, and uncoupling protein-2 in muscle was upregulated. Intestinal expression of fatty acid transport protein-4, cluster of differentiation-36, and acyl-CoA synthetase were significantly downregulated. We propose that marked activation of PPAR-? is the primary mechanism mediating the antiobesogenic effect of soybean and that PPAR-? has multiple actions: induction of thermogenesis in muscle, reduction of fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue, and reduction of fatty acid uptake in intestinal tissue.
Related JoVE Video
Restoration of autophagy by puerarin in ethanol-treated hepatocytes via the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the effects of puerarin, the major isoflavone in Kudzu roots, on the regulation of autophagy in ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Incubation in ethanol (100 mM) for 24 h reduced cell viability by 20% and increased the cellular concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides by 40% and 20%, respectively. Puerarin stimulation significantly recovered cell viability and reduced cellular lipid accumulation to a level comparable to that in untreated control cells. Ethanol incubation reduced autophagy significantly as assessed by microtubule-associated protein1 light chain 3 (LC3) expression using immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis. The reduced expression of LC3 was restored by puerarin in a dose-dependent manner in ethanol-treated cells. The effect of puerarin on mammalian targets of rapamycin (mTOR), a key regulator of autophagy, was examined in ethanol-treated hepatocytes. Immunoblotting revealed that puerarin significantly induced the phosphorylation of 5AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), thereby suppressing the mTOR target proteins S6 ribosomal protein and 4E-binding protein 1. These data suggest that puerarin restored the viability of cells and reduced lipid accumulation in ethanol-treated hepatocytes by activating autophagy via AMPK/mTOR-mediated signaling.
Related JoVE Video
Protective function of nicotinamide against ketamine-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the infant rat brain.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During development, anesthetics activate neuroapoptosis and produce damage in the central nervous system that leads to several types of neurological disorders. A single dose of ketamine (40 mg/kg) during synaptogenesis in a 7-day-old rat brain activated the apoptotic cascade and caused extensive neuronal cell death in the forebrain. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of nicotinamide against ketamine-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration. After 4 h, neuronal cell death induced by ketamine was associated with the induction of Bax, release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and activation of caspase-3. One single dose of 1 mg/g nicotinamide was administered to a developing rat and was found to inhibit ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis by downregulating Bax, inhibiting cytochrome c release from mitochondria into cytosol, and inhibiting the expression of activated caspase-3. TUNEL and immunohistochemical analyses showed that ketamine-induced cell death occurred through apoptosis and that it was inhibited by nicotinamide. Fluoro-Jade-B staining demonstrated an increased number of dead cells in the cortex and thalamus after ketamine treatment; treatment with nicotinamide reduced the number of dead cells in these brain regions. Our findings suggest that nicotinamide attenuated ketamine-induced neuronal cell loss in the developing rat brain and is a promising therapeutic and neuroprotective agent for the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term echocardiographic follow-up after posterior mitral annuloplasty using a vascular strip for ischemic mitral regurgitation: ten-years of experience at a single center.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Management of ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) is challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term clinical and echocardiographic results of restrictive mitral annuloplasty for ischemic MR. From 2001 through 2010, 96 patients who underwent myocardial revascularization with restrictive mitral annuloplasty using a vascular strip for ischemic MR were analyzed. Patients were stratified into two groups based on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF): group I, n = 50, with LVEF > 35% and group II, n = 46, with LVEF ? 35%. The early mortality rate was 2.1% (2/96) and the late cardiac mortality rate was 11.5% (11/96). MR grade was reduced at discharge (0.8 ± 0.7) but increased during follow-up (1.1 ± 0.8, P = 0.001). There was no intergroup difference in terms of freedom from recurrent MR ? moderate eight years after surgery (94.1% ± 5.7%, group I vs 87.8% ± 7.2%, group II; P = 0.575). NYHA functional class (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; P = 0.044) and early postoperative residual MR ? mild (OR, 25.4; P < 0.001) were independent predictors of recurrent MR. Restrictive mitral annuloplasty using a vascular strip is effective in ischemic MR. It is important to avoid early postoperative residual MR.
Related JoVE Video
Presenting features of pyometra including an increase in iatrogenic causes.
J Low Genit Tract Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A retrospective case series of 14 patients were diagnosed with pyometra for 10 years at our hospital. We reported iatrogenic causes, such as radiofrequency or uterine artery embolization, and other pyometra causes in our hospital to provide guidance for diagnosis by a gynecologist.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of predicting thrombotic events with combination of dual point-of-care testing (POCT) after drug-eluting stent implantation for coronary heart disease: results from the CILON-T randomized trial POCT substudy.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies regarding on-treatment platelet reactivity have focused on response variability to individual antiplatelet agents. There are limited data on [1] response variability to both of these anti-platelet drugs, [2] efficacy of combining two point-of-care tests (POCT) simultaneously and [3] how it predicts the clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis and characterization of new dithienosilole-based copolymers for polymer solar cells.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of dithienosilole-based copolymers, poly [(4,4-bis(2-hexyl)dithieno[3,2-b:2,3-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-5,5-diyl] (P1), poly[(4,4-bis(2-hexyl)dithieno[3,2-b:2,3-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(2,2-bithiazole)-5,5-diyl] (P2), poly[(4,4-bis(2-hexyl)dithieno[3,2-b:2,3-d]silole)-2, 6-diyl-alt-(10 -methyl-phenothiazine)-3,7-diyl](P3), poly[(4,4-bis(2-hexyl)dithieno[3,2-b:2,3-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(4,7-bis(2-thienyl)-9,10-anthracene)-5,5-diyl] (P4) were synthesized by the Pd-catalyzed Stille polymerization method. Electron-deficient benzothiadiazole and bithiazole units and electron-rich phenothiazine and anthracene moieties were incorporated into the polymer backbone to obtain the broad absorption spectrum and to improve the hole-transporting characteristics, respectively. The polymer solar cell (PSC) was fabricated with a layered structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polymer:C71-PCBM (1:3)/LiF/Al. The best performance of PSC was obtained at P3:C71-PCBM which reaches a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.18%, with a short circuit current density (J(sc)) of 4.75 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.71 V, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.35 under AM 1.5G irradiation (100 mW/cm2).
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.