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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mitochondrial biogenesis: regulation by endogenous gases during inflammation and organ stress.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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The influence of mitochondrial dysfunction on pathological states involving inflammatory and/or oxidative stress in tissues that do not show frank cellular apoptosis or necrosis has been rather difficult to unravel, and the literature is replete with contradictory information. Although such discrepancies have many potential causes related to the type of injurious agent, the severity and duration of the injury, and the particular cells and tissues and the functions involved, it is the successful induction of cellular adaptive responses that ultimately governs the resolution of mitochondrial dysfunction and survival of the cell. Much recent attention has been devoted to unraveling the signaling pathways that activate mitochondrial biogenesis and other processes involved in mitochondrial quality control (QC) during inflammatory and oxidative stress with an eye towards the development of novel targets for therapeutic mitigation of the resultant tissue damage. This review provides a brief overview of this emerging field with an emphasis on the role of signaling through the endogenous gases (NO, CO and H2S) and a redox-based approach that brings transparency to key factors that contribute to the resolution of mitochondrial dysfunction and the maintenance of cell vitality. We make the case that targeted stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis could be a potentially valuable approach for the development of new therapies for the treatment of diseases for which mitochondrial damage is a major consideration.
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Staphylococcus aureus sepsis induces early renal mitochondrial DNA repair and mitochondrial biogenesis in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) contributes to the high morbidity and mortality of multi-system organ failure in sepsis. However, recovery of renal function after sepsis-induced AKI suggests active repair of energy-producing pathways. Here, we tested the hypothesis in mice that Staphyloccocus aureus sepsis damages mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the kidney and activates mtDNA repair and mitochondrial biogenesis. Sepsis was induced in wild-type C57Bl/6J and Cox-8 Gfp-tagged mitochondrial-reporter mice via intraperitoneal fibrin clots embedded with S. aureus. Kidneys from surviving mice were harvested at time zero (control), 24, or 48 hours after infection and evaluated for renal inflammation, oxidative stress markers, mtDNA content, and mitochondrial biogenesis markers, and OGG1 and UDG mitochondrial DNA repair enzymes. We examined the kidneys of the mitochondrial reporter mice for changes in staining density and distribution. S. aureus sepsis induced sharp amplification of renal Tnf, Il-10, and Ngal mRNAs with decreased renal mtDNA content and increased tubular and glomerular cell death and accumulation of protein carbonyls and 8-OHdG. Subsequently, mtDNA repair and mitochondrial biogenesis was evidenced by elevated OGG1 levels and significant increases in NRF-1, NRF-2, and mtTFA expression. Overall, renal mitochondrial mass, tracked by citrate synthase mRNA and protein, increased in parallel with changes in mitochondrial GFP-fluorescence especially in proximal tubules in the renal cortex and medulla. Sub-lethal S. aureus sepsis thus induces widespread renal mitochondrial damage that triggers the induction of the renal mtDNA repair protein, OGG1, and mitochondrial biogenesis as a conspicuous resolution mechanism after systemic bacterial infection.
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? co-activator 1 ? as a critical co-activator of the murine hepatic oxidative stress response and mitochondrial biogenesis in S. aureus sepsis.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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A key transcriptional regulator of cell metabolism, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? co-activator 1 ? (PPARGC1? or PGC-1?) also regulates mitochondrial biogenesis, but its role in antioxidant gene regulation is not well understood. Here, we asked whether genetic heterozygosity of PGC-1? modulates gene expression for the mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme SOD-2 during hepatic inflammatory stress. Using S. aureus peritonitis in mice, we found significant Sod2 gene induction in WT mice while PGC-1? heterozygotes (PGC-1? +/-) failed to augment Sod2 mRNA and protein levels. Impaired Sod2 regulation in PGC-1? +/- mice was accompanied by oxidative stress shown by elevated mitochondrial GSSG/GSH and protein carbonyls. In silico analysis of the mouse proximal Sod2 promoter region revealed consensus binding sites for the Nfe2l2 (Nrf2) transcription factor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated diminished Nfe2l2 protein binding to the ARE promoter site proximal to the Sod2 start site in PGC-1? heterozygous mice, implicating PGC-1? in facilitation of Nfe2l2 DNA binding. Nuclear protein co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated an interaction between hepatic Nfe2l2 and PGC-1? in WT mice that was greatly reduced in PGC-1? +/- mice. The data indicate that PGC-1? promotes mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme expression through Nfe2l2-mediated SOD-2 expression in sepsis. The presence of this new PGC-1?-dependent signaling axis indicates that PGC-1? opposes mitochondrial oxidative stress by means of selective induction of one or more ARE-driven genes. By implication, exploitation of this axis could lead to new pharmacological interventions to improve the antioxidant defenses during oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage.
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A toll-like receptor 2 pathway regulates the Ppargc1a/b metabolic co-activators in mice with Staphylococcal aureus sepsis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Activation of the host antibacterial defenses by the toll-like receptors (TLR) also selectively activates energy-sensing and metabolic pathways, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. This includes the metabolic and mitochondrial biogenesis master co-activators, Ppargc1a (PGC-1?) and Ppargc1b (PGC-1?) in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) sepsis. The expression of these genes in the liver is markedly attenuated inTLR2(-/-) mice and markedly accentuated in TLR4(-/-) mice compared with wild type (WT) mice. We sought to explain this difference by using specific TLR-pathway knockout mice to test the hypothesis that these co-activator genes are directly regulated through TLR2 signaling. By comparing their responses to S. aureus with WT mice, we found that MyD88-deficient and MAL-deficient mice expressed hepatic Ppargc1a and Ppargc1b normally, but that neither gene was activated in TRAM-deficient mice. Ppargc1a/b activation did not require NF-k?, but did require an interferon response factor (IRF), because neither gene was activated in IRF-3/7 double-knockout mice in sepsis, but both were activated normally in Unc93b1-deficient (3d) mice. Nuclear IRF-7 levels in TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice decreased and increased respectively post-inoculation and IRF-7 DNA-binding at the Ppargc1a promoter was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Also, a TLR2-TLR4-TRAM native hepatic protein complex was detected by immunoprecipitation within 6 h of S. aureus inoculation that could support MyD88-independent signaling to Ppargc1a/b. Overall, these findings disclose a novel MyD88-independent pathway in S. aureus sepsis that links TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in innate immunity to Ppargc1a/b gene regulation in a critical metabolic organ, the liver, by means of TRAM, TRIF, and IRF-7.
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Heme oxygenase-1 couples activation of mitochondrial biogenesis to anti-inflammatory cytokine expression.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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The induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; Hmox1) by inflammation, for instance in sepsis, is associated both with an anti-inflammatory response and with mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, we tested the idea that HO-1, acting through the Nfe2l2 (Nrf2) transcription factor, links anti-inflammatory cytokine expression to activation of mitochondrial biogenesis. HO-1 induction after LPS stimulated anti-inflammatory IL-10 and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) expression in mouse liver, human HepG2 cells, and mouse J774.1 macrophages but blunted tumor necrosis factor-? expression. This was accompanied by nuclear Nfe2l2 accumulation and led us to identify abundant Nfe2l2 and other mitochondrial biogenesis transcription factor binding sites in the promoter regions of IL10 and IL1Ra compared with pro-inflammatory genes regulated by NF-??. Mechanistically, HO-1, through its CO product, enabled these transcription factors to bind the core IL10 and IL1Ra promoters, which for IL10 included Nfe2l2, nuclear respiratory factor (NRF)-2 (Gabpa), and MEF2, and for IL1Ra, included NRF-1 and MEF2. In cells, Hmox1 or Nfe2l2 RNA silencing prevented IL-10 and IL-1Ra up-regulation, and HO-1 induction failed post-LPS in Nfe2l2-silenced cells and post-sepsis in Nfe2l2(-/-) mice. Nfe2l2(-/-) mice compared with WT mice, showed more liver damage, higher mortality, and ineffective CO rescue in sepsis. Nfe2l2(-/-) mice in sepsis also generated higher hepatic TNF-? mRNA levels, lower NRF-1 and PGC-1? mRNA levels, and no enhancement of anti-inflammatory Il10, Socs3, or bcl-x(L) gene expression. These findings disclose a highly structured transcriptional network that couples mitochondrial biogenesis to counter-inflammation with major implications for immune suppression in sepsis.
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Staphylococcus aureus sepsis and mitochondrial accrual of the 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase DNA repair enzyme in mice.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2010
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Damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by the production of reactive oxygen species during inflammatory states, such as sepsis, is repaired by poorly understood mechanisms.
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Co-regulation of nuclear respiratory factor-1 by NFkappaB and CREB links LPS-induced inflammation to mitochondrial biogenesis.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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The nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1) gene is activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which might reflect TLR4-mediated mitigation of cellular inflammatory damage via initiation of mitochondrial biogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we examined NRF1 promoter regulation by NF?B, and identified interspecies-conserved ?B-responsive promoter and intronic elements in the NRF1 locus. In mice, activation of Nrf1 and its downstream target, Tfam, by Escherichia coli was contingent on NF?B, and in LPS-treated hepatocytes, NF?B served as an NRF1 enhancer element in conjunction with NF?B promoter binding. Unexpectedly, optimal NRF1 promoter activity after LPS also required binding by the energy-state-dependent transcription factor CREB. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed p65 and CREB binding to the NRF1 promoter and p65 binding to intron 1. Functionality for both transcription factors was validated by gene-knockdown studies. LPS regulation of NRF1 led to mtDNA-encoded gene expression and expansion of mtDNA copy number. In cells expressing plasmid constructs containing the NRF-1 promoter and GFP, LPS-dependent reporter activity was abolished by cis-acting ?B-element mutations, and nuclear accumulation of NF?B and CREB demonstrated dependence on mitochondrial H(2)O(2). These findings indicate that TLR4-dependent NF?B and CREB activation co-regulate the NRF1 promoter with NF?B intronic enhancement and redox-regulated nuclear translocation, leading to downstream target-gene expression, and identify NRF-1 as an early-phase component of the host antibacterial defenses.
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Survival in critical illness is associated with early activation of mitochondrial biogenesis.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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We previously reported outcome-associated decreases in muscle energetic status and mitochondrial dysfunction in septic patients with multiorgan failure. We postulate that survivors have a greater ability to maintain or recover normal mitochondrial functionality.
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Erythropoietin activates mitochondrial biogenesis and couples red cell mass to mitochondrial mass in the heart.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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Erythropoietin (EPO) is often administered to cardiac patients with anemia, particularly from chronic kidney disease, and stimulation of erythropoiesis may stabilize left ventricular and renal function by recruiting protective effects beyond the correction of anemia.
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Differential regulation of the PGC family of genes in a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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The PGC family of transcriptional co-activators (PGC-1alpha [Ppargc1a], PGC-1beta [Ppargc1b], and PRC [Pprc]) coordinates the upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and Ppargc1a is known to be activated in response to mitochondrial damage in sepsis. Therefore, we postulated that the PGC family is regulated by the innate immune system. We investigated whether mitochondrial biogenesis and PGC gene expression are disrupted in an established model of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis both in mice with impaired innate immune function (TLR2-/- and TLR4-/-) and in wild-type controls. We found an early up-regulation of Ppargc1a and Ppargc1b post-infection (at 6 h) in WT mice, but the expression of both genes was concordantly dysregulated in TLR2-/- mice (no increase at 6 h) and in TLR4-/- mice (amplified at 6 h). However, the third family member, PRC, was regulated differently, and its expression increased significantly at 24 h in all three mouse strains (WT, TLR2-/-, and TLR4-/-). In silico analyses showed that Ppargc1a and Ppargc1b share binding sites for microRNA mmu-mir-202-3p. Thus, miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional mRNA degradation could account for the failure to increase the expression of both genes in TLR2-/- mice. The expression of mmu-mir-202-3p was measured by real-time PCR and found to be significantly increased in TLR2-/- but not in WT or TLR4-/- mice. In addition, it was found that mir-202-3p functionally decreases Ppargc1a mRNA in vitro. Thus, both innate immune signaling through the TLRs and mir-202-3p-mediated mRNA degradation are implicated in the co-regulation of Ppargc1a and Ppargc1b during inflammation. Moreover, the identification of mir-202-3p as a potential factor for Ppargc1a and Ppargc1b repression in acute inflammation may open new avenues for mitochondrial research and, potentially, therapy.
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Nitric oxide synthase-2 induction optimizes cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis after endotoxemia.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2009
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Mitochondrial biogenesis protects metabolism from mitochondrial dysfunction produced by activation of innate immunity by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or other bacterial products. Here we tested the hypothesis in mouse heart that activation of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), which induces early-phase genes that damage mitochondria, also activates mitochondrial biogenesis through induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). We compared three strains of mice: wild type (Wt) C57BL/6J, TLR4(-/-), and NOS2(-/-)for cardiac mitochondrial damage and mitochondrial biogenesis by real-time RT-PCR, Western analysis, immunochemistry, and isoform analysis of myosin heavy chain (MHC) after sublethal heat-killed Escherichia coli (HkEC). After HkEC, Wt mice displayed significant myocardial mtDNA depletion along with enhanced TLR4 and NOS2 gene and protein expression that normalized in 72 h. HkEC generated less cytokine stress in TLR4(-/-)and NOS2(-/-)than Wt mice, NOS2(-/-)mice had mtDNA damage comparable to Wt, and both knockout strains failed to restore mtDNA copy number because of mitochondrial transcriptosome dysfunction. Wt mice also showed the largest beta-MHC isoform switch, but MHC recovery lagged in the NOS2(-/-)and TLR4(-/-)strains. The NOS2(-/-)mice also unexpectedly revealed the codependency of TLR4 expression on NOS2. These findings demonstrate the decisive participation of NOS2 induction by TLR4 in optimization of mitochondrial biogenesis and MHC expression after gram-negative challenge.
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Extracellular superoxide dismutase regulates cardiac function and fibrosis.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an antioxidant that protects the heart from ischemia and the lung from inflammation and fibrosis. The role of cardiac EC-SOD under normal conditions and injury remains unclear. Cardiac toxicity, a common side effect of doxorubicin, involves oxidative stress. We hypothesize that EC-SOD is critical for normal cardiac function and protects the heart from oxidant-induced fibrosis and loss of function. C57BL/6 and EC-SOD-null mice were treated with doxorubicin, 15 mg/kg (i.p.). After 15 days, echocardiography was used to assess cardiac function. Left ventricle (LV) tissue was used to assess fibrosis and inflammation by staining, Western blot, and hydroxyproline analysis. At baseline, EC-SOD-null mice have LV wall thinning and increases in LV end diastolic dimensions compared to wild-type mice but have normal cardiac function. After doxorubicin, EC-SOD-null mice have decreases in fractional shortening not apparent in WT mice. Lack of EC-SOD also leads to increases in myocardial apoptosis and significantly more LV fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. Administration of the metalloporphyrin AEOL 10150 abrogates the loss of cardiac function, and potentially fibrosis, associated with doxorubicin treatment in both wild-type and EC-SOD KO mice. EC-SOD is critical for normal cardiac morphology and protects the heart from oxidant-induced fibrosis, apoptosis, and loss of function. The antioxidant metalloporphyrin AEOL 10150 effectively protects cardiac function from doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress in vivo. These findings identify targets for the use of antioxidant agents in oxidant-induced cardiac fibrosis.
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Carbon monoxide, skeletal muscle oxidative stress, and mitochondrial biogenesis in humans.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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Given that the physiology of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) encompasses mitochondrial biogenesis, we tested the hypothesis that the HO-1 product, carbon monoxide (CO), activates mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and enhances maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)) in humans. In 10 healthy subjects, we biopsied the vastus lateralis and performed Vo(2max) tests followed by blinded randomization to air or CO breathing (1 h/day at 100 parts/million for 5 days), a contralateral muscle biopsy on day 5, and repeat Vo(2max) testing on day 8. Six independent subjects underwent CO breathing and two muscle biopsies without exercise testing. Molecular studies were performed by real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunochemistry. After Vo(2max) testing plus CO breathing, significant increases were found in mRNA levels for nuclear respiratory factor-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha, mitochondrial transcription factor-A (Tfam), and DNA polymerase gamma (Polgamma) with no change in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number or Vo(2max). Levels of myosin heavy chain I and nuclear-encoded HO-1, superoxide dismutase-2, citrate synthase, mitofusin-1 and -2, and mitochondrial-encoded cytochrome oxidase subunit-I (COX-I) and ATPase-6 proteins increased significantly. None of these responses were reproduced by Vo(2max) testing alone, whereas CO alone increased Tfam and Polgamma mRNA, and COX-I, ATPase-6, mitofusin-2, HO-1, and superoxide dismutase protein. These findings provide evidence linking the HO/CO response involved in mitochondrial biogenesis in rodents to skeletal muscle in humans through a set of responses involving regulation of the mtDNA transcriptosome and mitochondrial fusion proteins autonomously of changes in exercise capacity.
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Redox regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
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The cell renews, adapts, or expands its mitochondrial population during episodes of cell damage or periods of intensified energy demand by the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis. This bigenomic program is modulated by redox-sensitive signals that respond to physiological nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. This review summarizes our current ideas about the pathways involved in the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis by the physiological gases leading to changes in the redox milieu of the cell, with an emphasis on the responses to oxidative stress and inflammation. The cells energy supply is protected from conditions that damage mitochondria by an inducible transcriptional program of mitochondrial biogenesis that operates in large part through redox signals involving the nitric oxide synthase and the heme oxygenase-1/CO systems. These redox events stimulate the coordinated activities of several multifunctional transcription factors and coactivators also involved in the elimination of defective mitochondria and the expression of counterinflammatory and antioxidant genes, such as IL10 and SOD2, as part of a unified damage-control network. The redox-regulated mechanisms of mitochondrial biogenesis schematically outlined in the graphical abstract link mitochondrial quality control to an enhanced capacity to support the cells metabolic needs while improving its resistance to metabolic failure and avoidance of cell death during periods of oxidative stress.
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Nrf2 promotes alveolar mitochondrial biogenesis and resolution of lung injury in Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in mice.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
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Acute lung injury (ALI) initiates protective responses involving genes downstream of the Nrf2 (Nfe2l2) transcription factor, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and related anti-inflammatory processes. We examined mitochondrial biogenesis during Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in mice and the effect of Nrf2 deficiency on lung mitochondrial biogenesis and resolution of lung inflammation. S. aureus pneumonia established by nasal insufflation of live bacteria was studied in mitochondrial reporter (mt-COX8-GFP) mice, wild-type (WT) mice, and Nrf2?/? mice. Bronchoalveolar lavage, wet/dry ratios, real-time RT-PCR and Western analysis, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescence microscopy were performed on the lung at 0, 6, 24, and 48 h. The mice survived S. aureus inoculations at 5×10? CFU despite diffuse lung inflammation and edema, but the Nrf2?/? lung showed increased ALI. In mt-COX8-GFP mice, mitochondrial fluorescence was enhanced in bronchial and alveolar type II (AT2) epithelial cells. WT mice displayed rapid HO-1 upregulation and lower proinflammatory TNF-?, IL-1?, and CCL2 and, especially in AT2 cells, higher anti-inflammatory IL-10 and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 than Nrf2?/? mice. In the alveolar region, WT but not Nrf2?/? mice showed strongly induced nuclear respiratory factor-1, PGC-1?, mitochondrial transcription factor-A, SOD2, Bnip3, mtDNA copy number, and citrate synthase. These findings indicate that S. aureus pneumonia induces Nrf2-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis in the alveolar region, mainly in AT2 cells. Absence of Nrf2 suppresses the alveolar transcriptional network for mitochondrial biogenesis and anti-inflammation, which worsens ALI. The findings link redox activation of mitochondrial biogenesis to ALI resolution.
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Hedgehog controls hepatic stellate cell fate by regulating metabolism.
Gastroenterology
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The pathogenesis of cirrhosis, a disabling outcome of defective liver repair, involves deregulated accumulation of myofibroblasts derived from quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), but the mechanisms that control transdifferentiation of HSCs are poorly understood. We investigated whether the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway controls the fate of HSCs by regulating metabolism.
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What is the role of hyperbaric oxygen in the management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: a randomized controlled trial of hyperbaric oxygen as an adjunct to surgery and antibiotics.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
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This study tested hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) as an adjunct to surgery and antibiotics in the treatment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) and evaluated its effects on gingival healing, pain, and quality of life.
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Activation of mitochondrial biogenesis by heme oxygenase-1-mediated NF-E2-related factor-2 induction rescues mice from lethal Staphylococcus aureus sepsis.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
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Mitochondrial damage is an important component of multiple organ failure syndrome, a highly lethal complication of severe sepsis that lacks specific therapy. Mitochondrial quality control is regulated in part by the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; Hmox1) system through the redox-regulated NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) transcription factor, but its role in mitochondrial biogenesis in Staphylococcus aureus sepsis is unknown.
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Transcriptional control of mitochondrial biogenesis and its interface with inflammatory processes.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
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Cells avoid major mitochondrial damage and energy failure during systemic inflammatory states, such as severe acute infections, by specific targeting of the inflammatory response and by inducing anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant defenses. Recent evidence indicates that these cell defenses also include mitochondrial biogenesis and the clearance of damaged mitochondria through autophagy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.