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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
WHO Western Pacific Regional Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs (2014-2020).
Epidemiol Health
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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This is an excerpt of the "Western Pacific Regional Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases (2014-2020)" (RAP NCD) which has been endorsed by the Member States of the Western Pacific Region of World Health Organization (WHO) in October 2013. The Regional plan is fully harmonized with the Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases (2013-2020). The regional plan calls for a systematic approach to NCD prevention and control. The plan provides a road map and a menu of very cost-effective interventions for all Member States and other stakeholders, to take coordinated and coherent action at all levels to attain the nine voluntary global target by 2025. The original version of RAP NCD is downloadable from the website (http://www.wpro.who.int/noncommunicable_diseases/ WHO_NCD_RAP.pdf?ua=1). In addition, there are NCD tools in the WHO homepage (http://www.who.int/nmh/ncd-tools/en/).
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Gene polymorphisms in the ornithine decarboxylase-polyamine pathway modify gastric cancer risk by interaction with isoflavone concentrations.
Gastric Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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The study aimed to examine the association between genes encoding molecules in the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)-polyamine pathway (ODC1, AMD1, NQO1, NOS2A, and OAZ2) and gastric cancer risk and whether the gene-phytoestrogen interaction modifies gastric cancer risk.
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Control of clonorchiasis in Korea: effectiveness of health education for community leaders and individuals in an endemic area.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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To develop effective intervention programmes to control Clonorchis sinensis infection, three interventions were evaluated in a clonorchiasis-endemic area of Korea.
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Attributable fraction of alcohol consumption on cancer using population-based nationwide cancer incidence and mortality data in the Republic of Korea.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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In the Republic of Korea, cancer is the most common cause of death, and cancer incidence and mortality rates are the highest in East Asia. As alcoholic beverages are carcinogenic to humans, we estimated the burden of cancer related to alcohol consumption in the Korean population.
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Attributable fraction of tobacco smoking on cancer using population-based nationwide cancer incidence and mortality data in Korea.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Smoking is by far the most important cause of cancer that can be modified at the individual level. Cancer incidence and mortality rates in Korea are the highest among all Asian countries, and smoking prevalence in Korean men is one of the highest in developed countries. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic review and provide an evidence-based assessment of the burden of tobacco smoking-related cancers in the Korean population.
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Human papillomavirus DNA prevalence and type distribution in anal carcinomas worldwide.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Knowledge about human papillomaviruses (HPV) types involved in anal cancers in some world regions is scanty. Here, we describe the HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in a series of invasive anal cancers and anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AIN) grades 2/3 from 24 countries. We analyzed 43 AIN 2/3 cases and 496 anal cancers diagnosed from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of 116 cancers was further tested for p16(INK4a) expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV-associated transformation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance in the anal cancer data set. HPV DNA was detected in 88.3% of anal cancers (95% confidence interval [CI]: 85.1-91.0%) and in 95.3% of AIN 2/3 (95% CI: 84.2-99.4%). Among cancers, the highest prevalence was observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, in younger patients and in North American geographical region. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence by gender. HPV16 was the most frequent HPV type detected in both cancers (80.7%) and AIN 2/3 lesions (75.4%). HPV18 was the second most common type in invasive cancers (3.6%). p16(INK4a) overexpression was found in 95% of HPV DNA-positive anal cancers. In view of the results of HPV DNA and high proportion of p16(INK4a) overexpression, infection by HPV is most likely to be a necessary cause for anal cancers in both men and women. The large contribution of HPV16 reinforces the potential impact of HPV vaccines in the prevention of these lesions.
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Osteopontin and latent-TGF ? binding-protein 2 as potential diagnostic markers for HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Chronic Hepatitis B (HB) is the main risk factor for chronic liver disease (CLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in many low-resource countries, where diagnosis is constrained by lack of clinical, histopathological and biomarker resources. We have used proteomics to detect plasma biomarkers that outperform ?-Fetoprotein (AFP), the most widely used biomarker for HCC diagnosis in low-resource contexts. Deep-plasma proteome analysis was performed in HCC patients, patients with CLD and in HB-carrier controls from Thailand (South-East Asia) and The Gambia (West-Africa). Mass spectrometry profiling identified latent-transforming growth factor ? binding-protein 2 (LTBP2) and Osteopontin (OPN) as being significantly elevated in HCC versus CLD and controls. These two proteins were further analyzed by ELISA in a total of 684 plasma samples, including 183 HCC, 274 CLD and 227 asymptomatic controls. When combined, LTBP2 and OPN showed an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.85 in distinguishing HCC from CLD in subjects with AFP <20 ng/mL. In a prospective cohort of 115 CLD patients from Korea, increased plasma levels of LTBP2 and/or OPN were detected in plasma collected over 2 years prior to diagnosis in 21 subjects who developed HCC. Thus, the combination of LTBP2 and OPN outperformed AFP for diagnosis and prediction of HCC and may therefore improve biomarker-based detection of HBV-related HCC.
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Population-attributable causes of cancer in Korea: obesity and physical inactivity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Changes in lifestyle including obesity epidemic and reduced physical activity influenced greatly to increase the cancer burden in Korea. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic assessment of cancers attributable to obesity and physical inactivity in Korea.
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Intake of soy products and other foods and gastric cancer risk: a prospective study.
J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Gastric cancer, the most common cancer in the world, is affected by some foods or food groups. We examined the relationship between dietary intake and stomach cancer risk in the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort (KMCC).
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A prospective cohort study on the relationship of sleep duration with all-cause and disease-specific mortality in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort study.
J Prev Med Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Emerging evidence indicates that sleep duration is associated with health outcomes. However, the relationship of sleep duration with long-term health is unclear. This study was designed to determine the relationship of sleep duration with mortality as a parameter for long-term health in a large prospective cohort study in Korea.
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Time trends of human papillomavirus types in invasive cervical cancer, from 1940 to 2007.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Contribution over time of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in human cancers has been poorly documented. Such data is fundamental to measure current HPV vaccines impact in the years to come. We estimated the HPV type-specific distribution in a large international series of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) over 70 years prior to vaccination. Paraffin embedded ICC cases diagnosed between 1940 and 2007 were retrieved from eleven countries in Central-South America, Asia and Europe. Included countries reported to have low-medium cervical cancer screening uptake. Information on age at and year of diagnosis was collected from medical records. After histological confirmation, HPV DNA detection was performed by SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 (version1). Logistic regression models were used for estimating the adjusted relative contributions (RC) of HPV16 and of HPV18 over time. Among 4,771 HPV DNA positive ICC cases, HPV16 and HPV18 were the two most common HPVs in all the decades with no statistically significant variations of their adjusted-RC from 1940-59 to 2000-07 (HPV16-from 61.5 to 62.1%, and HPV18-from 6.9 to 7.2%). As well, the RC of other HPV types did not varied over time. In the stratified analysis by histology, HPV16 adjusted-RC significantly increased across decades in adenocarcinomas. Regarding age, cases associated to either HPV16, 18 or 45 were younger than those with other HPV types in all the evaluated decades. The observed stability on the HPV type distribution predicts a high and stable impact of HPV vaccination in reducing the cervical cancer burden in future vaccinated generations.
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Laser capture microdissection shows HPV11 as both a causal and a coincidental infection in cervical cancer specimens with multiple HPV types.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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To identify, by laser capture microdissection (LCM), the cellular localization of HPV11 when present with carcinogenic HPV in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) specimens, and to relate this to p16(INK) (4a) expression.
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Individualized risk prediction model for lung cancer in Korean men.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Korea. The objective of the present study was to develop an individualized risk prediction model for lung cancer in Korean men using population-based cohort data.
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Independent and supra-additive effects of alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and metabolic syndrome on the elevation of serum liver enzyme levels.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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We investigated the independent and combined effects of alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome on abnormal liver function, i.e., the elevation of serum liver enzyme levels. Participants of a Korean population-based prospective cohort aged ?30 years without liver disease, diabetes, or cardiovascular diseases were included. Information on alcohol consumption, smoking status, and metabolic syndrome, defined as per the criteria of the Adult Treatment Panel III, were applied to evaluate their impact on serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome were the significant individual factors that elevated serum liver enzyme levels. Supra-additive effects of metabolic syndrome and either alcohol consumption or cigarette smoking were also identified. The combination of heavy drinking (?24 g/day) and metabolic syndrome conferred an effect that was higher than the sum of the two individual effects (Synergic Index (SI): AST, 2.37 [1.20-4.67]; GGT, 1.91 [1.17-3.13]). Only GGT level (odds ratio 6.04 [3.68-9.94], SI 2.33 [1.24-4.41]) was significantly elevated when the effect of moderate drinking (<24 g/day) and metabolic syndrome was combined. The combined effect of any level of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking was also supra-additive on the elevation of GGT level with SIs of 5.57 for drinking <24 g/day and smoking ?20 pack years, 5.12 for <24 g/day and >20 pack years, 1.80 for ?24 g/day and ?20 pack years, 2.03 for ?24 g/day and >20 pack years, while only the combined effect of drinking ?24 g/day and smoking >20 pack years elevated the AST level (SI 4.55 [3.12-6.61]). The combined effect of cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome was not supra-additive. To prevent fatty liver disease and other related diseases, a multifactorial prevention strategy that includes limited alcohol consumption, smoking cessation and rectification of adverse metabolic profiles is required.
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Oncogenic CagA promotes gastric cancer risk via activating ERK signaling pathways: a nested case-control study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2011
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CagA cellular interaction via activation of the ERK signaling pathway may be a starting point in the development of gastric cancer. This study aimed to evaluate whether genes involved in ERK downstream signaling pathways activated by CagA are susceptible genetic markers for gastric cancer.
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A population-based cohort study of HRT use and breast cancer in Korea.
Asia Pac J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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The incidence of breast cancer has recently been ranked first in Korea. This is a population-based cohort study that aims to evaluate the risk of breast cancer from the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A total of 9579 participants were observed between January 1998 and June 2004; 6108 women who took HRT constituted the HRT group, and 3471 women who did not take HRT constituted the non-HRT group. Using the database from the Korea Central Cancer Registry, the authors examined the incidence of breast cancer from HRT. A total of 26 cases of breast cancer developed in the HRT group as compared with the 13 cases in the non-HRT group, during the follow-up period. The relative risk of developing breast cancer in the HRT group was 1.16 times higher than in the non-HRT group, with a population attributable risk of 29.9%. The risk of breast cancer in the HRT group increased when the risk factors were adjusted in the model.
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Type-specific human papillomavirus distribution in invasive cervical cancer in Korea, 1958-2004.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2010
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To describe the HPV genotype distribution and to investigate the underlying secular trend in the relative contribution of HPV types 16-18 in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) over a period of 47 years (1958-2004) in South Korea.
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Human papillomavirus genotype attribution in invasive cervical cancer: a retrospective cross-sectional worldwide study.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2010
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Knowledge about the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in invasive cervical cancer is crucial to guide the introduction of prophylactic vaccines. We aimed to provide novel and comprehensive data about the worldwide genotype distribution in patients with invasive cervical cancer.
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Cervical Cancer Working Group report.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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Disease burden of cervical cancer in Asia was summarized. Human papillomavirus 16 is the most oncogenic human papillomavirus type. Koreas national cervical cancer screening program targets women aged 30 or over, with coverage of almost 80%. Japan has a long history (50 years) of cervical cancer screening, and cytological screening programs have reduced the incidence/mortality of cervical cancer by 70%. But, recent cervical cancer screening coverage is ?24%. Modeling suggested that vaccination of all 12-year-old girls would reduce cervical cancer cases by 73% in Japan. India has no cervical cancer screening program, as well as a serious lack of awareness in the general population, medical professionals and policy-makers. A realistic, affordable approach would be a low-volume, once-in-a-lifetime human papillomavirus-based screening program. In Australia, the national cervical cancer program has been very successful in reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. Australia was the first country to implement free, national human papillomavirus immunization (April 2007), expected to reduce human papillomavirus 16 infections by 56% in 2010 and 92% in 2050. A comparison of the UK and Japan was demonstrated that in the UK, cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus vaccination uptakes are high because the government provides adequate education/funding. The Japanese government needs to put more emphasis on womens health and preventative medicine. Our conclusion and recommendations are that heightened public awareness of cervical cancer prevention, focusing on screening and vaccination will lead to improved survival and a better quality of life.
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Prevalence and seroprevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection.
Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2010
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To estimate the prevalence and seroprevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in Korean girls and women.
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Distribution of lymphoid neoplasms in the Republic of Korea: analysis of 5318 cases according to the World Health Organization classification.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2010
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Compared with the West, the overall incidence of lymphoid neoplasms is lower, and the subtype distribution is distinct in Asia. To comprehensively investigate the subtype distribution with the age and sex factors, and temporal changes of subtype proportions, we re-assessed all patients with lymphoid neoplasms diagnosed at a large oncology service in the Republic of Korea from 1989 to 2008 using the World Health Organization classifications. Of the total 5,318 patients, 66.9% had mature B-cell neoplasms, 12.5% had mature T/natural killer (NK)-cell neoplasms, 16.4% had precursor lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL/LBL), and 4.1% had Hodgkins lymphoma. The most common subtypes were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (30.5%), plasma cell myeloma (14.0%), extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma; 12.4%), B-cell ALL/LBL (11.3%), Hodgkins lymphoma (4.1%), peripheral T-cell lymphoma unspecified (4.0%), T-cell ALL/LBL (3.9%), and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma of nasal type (3.9%). Most subtypes showed male predominance, with an average M/F ratio of 1.3. Most mature lymphoid neoplasms were diseases of adults (mean age, 53.5 yr), whereas ALL/LBLs were of young individuals (mean age, 20.3 yr). When the relative proportion of subtypes were compared between two decades (1989-1998 vs. 1999-2008), especially MALT lymphoma has increased in proportion, whereas T/NK-cell neoplasms and ALL/LBL have slightly decreased. In summary, the lymphoid neoplasms of Koreans shared some epidemiologic features similar to those of other countries, whereas some subtypes showed distinct features. Although the increase in incidence of lymphoid neoplasms is relatively modest in Korea, recent increase of MALT lymphoma and decrease of T/NK-cell neoplasms and ALL/LBL are interesting findings.
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Comparison of incidence of intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma--focus on East and South-Eastern Asia.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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The term "cholangiocarcinoma" was originally used only for intrahepatic bile duct (adeno)carcinomas, but is now regarded as inclusive of intrahepatic, perihilar, and distal extrahepatic tumors of the bile ducts. A rise in incidence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma has been recently reported in Western countries but comparatively little is known about recent cholangiocarcinoma incidence trends in East and South-Eastern Asia.
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High prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections in Korean patients with hematopoietic malignancies.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2010
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We performed a large case-control study (3,932 cases, 15,562 controls) to investigate the association of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) with hematopoietic malignancies in Korea, where HBV is endemic. HBV was present in 636 control patients (4.1%), 333 lymphoma patients (12.4%), and 75 leukemia patients (6.0%). HCV infection was present in 173 control patients (1.1%), 76 lymphoma patients (2.8%), and 18 leukemia patients (1.4%). Co-infection of HBV and HCV was present in one (0.007%) control patient, seven lymphoma patients (0.3%), and one leukemia patient (0.08%). HBV infection was associated with increased risks for most subtypes of B and T/NK-cell lymphomas, Hodgkins lymphoma, and acute myeloid leukemia. HCV infection was associated with increased risks for diffuse large B cell lymphoma, extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma, peripheral T cell lymphoma, and acute lymphoid leukemia B cell early pre-B type. HBV seems to have a more important role than HCV in the pathogenesis of specific hematologic malignancies in Korea.
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Fifty years of cancer incidence: CI5 I-IX.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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The Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) series comprises nine volumes that bring together peer-reviewed results from population-based cancer registries worldwide. The aim of each is to make available comparable data on cancer incidence from as wide a range of geographical locations as possible. In addition, the existence of long time series of data allows the evolution of risk in different populations over time to be studied. The CI5 I-IX database brings together the results from all nine volumes, spanning a period of some 50 years. In addition, unpublished annual data, with more diagnostic detail, are made available for many cancer registries with 15 or more years of recent data. We describe the construction and composition of the CI5 databases, and provide examples of how they can be used to prepare tables and graphs comparing incidence rates between populations. This is the classical role of descriptive statistics: to allow formulation of hypotheses that might explain the observed differences (geographically, over time, in population subgroups) and that can be tested by further study. Such statistics are also essential components in the planning and evaluation of cancer control programmes.
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Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 cancers in 2008 have been prepared for 182 countries as part of the GLOBOCAN series published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In this article, we present the results for 20 world regions, summarizing the global patterns for the eight most common cancers. Overall, an estimated 12.7 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur in 2008, with 56% of new cancer cases and 63% of the cancer deaths occurring in the less developed regions of the world. The most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide are lung (1.61 million, 12.7% of the total), breast (1.38 million, 10.9%) and colorectal cancers (1.23 million, 9.7%). The most common causes of cancer death are lung cancer (1.38 million, 18.2% of the total), stomach cancer (738,000 deaths, 9.7%) and liver cancer (696,000 deaths, 9.2%). Cancer is neither rare anywhere in the world, nor mainly confined to high-resource countries. Striking differences in the patterns of cancer from region to region are observed.
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Cancer epidemiology and control in north-East Asia - past, present and future.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
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China, Mongolia, Korea and Japan constitute North-East Asia. For reasons of largely shared ethnicity and culture, with various degress of mixed Chinese and Altaic elements, as well as geographical contiguity, they can be usefully grouped together for studies of chronic disease prevalence and particularly cancer. The fact of problems shared in common, with increasing disease rates, underlines the necessity for a coordinated approach to research and development of control measures. To provide a knowledge base, the present review of cancer registration and epidemiology data was conducted. The most frequent cancers in males of North-East Asia are in the lung, liver and stomach, with considerable geographical and temporal variation in their respective prevalences. However, colorectal cancer is also of increasing importance. In females the breast, together with the lung in China, the liver in Mongolia and the stomach in Korea and Japan, are most frequent. Variation in risk factors depends to a large extent on the local level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control.
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Cancer in Asia - Incidence rates based on data in cancer incidence in five continents IX (1998-2002).
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
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Data from 44 cancer registries in 15 countries in Asia were published in Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Volume IX (CI5 IX). These and findings from 3 other registries were here analysed to provide an overview on the incidence and characteristics of specific cancers by country/region in Asia. Using the collected database, the annual number of cancer cases and the corresponding population numbers divided into six age groups (0-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70 and more) were extracted and used for incidence estimation. The incidence rates of cancer across Asia vary greatly, with approximately three fold differences in both males and females.
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Recent trends and patterns in breast cancer incidence among Eastern and Southeastern Asian women.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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Incidence of breast cancer is rising in Asian countries, and breast cancer is the most common cancer among Asian women. However, there are few recent descriptive reports on the epidemiology of breast cancer among Eastern and Southeastern Asian populations.
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A comparison of two methods to estimate the cancer incidence and mortality burden in China in 2005.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2010
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Knowledge of the cancer profile is an important step in planning rational cancer control programs and evaluation of their impact. Due to rapid changes in cancer incidence in China, national surveys may be insufficiently timely to provide adequate descriptions of the national burden. To evaluate the utility of cancer registries in describing the national cancer profile, this study compared two methods of estimating national cancer-specific incidence and mortality in China 2005, based on the Third National Death Survey (method I) as compared with registry material (method II). A total of 2.6 million cancer cases and 1.8 million cancer deaths were estimated by method I, as compared to 2.8 million cancer cases and 1.9 million cancer deaths using method II. The higher level of burden using the latter method in part may be due to a sizable differential in the magnitude of incidence rates across registries for certain cancer sites. Most cancer registries have been located in relatively more developed urban areas, or rural areas associated with higher risk for certain cancers. There are substantial differences in the cancer profile between urban and rural communities in China, and there may be concerns regarding the national representativeness of the data aggregated from this set of cancer registries. Timely and reliable estimation of cancer can only be realized if accurate information is available from cancer registries covering representative samples of the country.
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Long-term survival of cancer patients in Korea, 1993-2007: National Cancer Registry Study.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2010
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Although survival rates are very useful for monitoring the effects of early cancer detection and treatment, at present there are only limited population-based estimates of long-term survival rates in Korea. Furthermore, published data are only available for 5-year survival; 10-year survival rates have hitherto not been reported. We therefore analysed data from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Database between 1993 and 2007 and followed through into 2008 to estimate long-term survival rates and trends at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of all cancers combined. Further analysis was conducted on the 19 most common cancers in Korea. From 1993 to 2007, the 10-year relative survival rates (RSRs) for all cancer types combined were 36.3% and 56.4% in Korean men and women, respectively. The 10-year RSRs for all cancers combined improved from 29.5% and 50.5% during 1993-1998 to 39.2% and 58.9% during 1999-2007 in Korean men and women, respectively. From 1993 to 2007, the 5-year and 10-year RSRs thus improved in both sexes for the most common cancers. In the 75 years and older group, increases of the 5-year and 10-year RSR for all combined, and for most of the major cancers were lower than all other age groups. This study provides population-based estimates of long-term survival and confirms improvements of long-term survivals for all cancer sites and for most of the major cancer sites. Improvements of survival for young patients are more significant than for older patients. The results may help clinicians and patients assess long-term prognosis.
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Long-term trends in cancer mortality in Korea (1983-2007): a joinpoint regression analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2010
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Cancer has been the most common cause of death in Korea since 1983 and is a major public concern. The aim of this study was to analyze the secular trend of cancer mortality in Korea from 1983 to 2007. Mortality and population data from 1983 to 2007 were obtained from the Korea Statistical Office. The annual cancer death rates for 18 age groups were estimated, and joinpoint regression was applied to detect significant changes in cancer mortality. The age-standardized mortality rate for all sites combined increased until the mid-1990s and has been decreasing thereafter, this also being the case for cancers of the esophagus, liver, lung and bladder, as well as leukemia. With stomach and uterine cancers a constant reduction was evident throughout the period. The declines in stomach, liver, and uterine cancer mortality have made major contributions to the recent overall favorable trend. Mortality for cancers of the colon and rectum and the prostate increased in the early 2000s and then leveled off, whereas female breast cancer mortality has displayed a constant increasing trend. In conclusion, overall cancer mortality is decreasing in men and women in Korea, and this trend will probably continue and improve further in line with advances in management as well as the expected impact of the national screening program for major five cancers over the next decades.
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Isoflavones from phytoestrogens and gastric cancer risk: a nested case-control study within the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2010
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The role of soybean products in gastric cancer risk is not clear in epidemiologic studies due to measurement error from dietary intake questionnaires and due to different degrees of bias according to study design. To examine the association between soybean products and gastric cancer risk, we measured phytoestrogen biological markers in a nested case-control study.
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[Cigarette smoking and mortality in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort (KMCC) study].
J Prev Med Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between cigarette smoking and total mortality, cancer mortality and other disease mortalities in Korean adults.
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Cancer statistics in Korea: incidence, mortality and survival in 2006-2007.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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Cancer has been the leading cause of death in Korea. Korea is facing a very rapid change and increase in cancer incidence, which draws much attention in public health. This paper overviews the nationwide cancer statistics, including incidence, mortality, and survival rates, and their trends in Korea based on the cancer incidence data from The Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) in year 2006 and 2007. In Korea, there were 153,237 cancer cases and 65,519, cancer deaths observed in 2006, and 161,920 cancer cases and 67,561 cancer deaths in 2007, respectively. The incidence rate for all cancer combined showed an annual increase of 2.8% from 1999 to 2007. Specifically, there was significant increase in the incidence of colorectal, thyroid, female breast, and prostate cancers. The number of cancer deaths has increased over the past two decades, due mostly to population aging, while the age-standardized mortality rates have decreased in both men and women since 2002. Notable improvement has been observed in the 5-yr relative survival rates for most major cancers and for all cancer combined, with the exception of pancreatic cancer. The nationwide cancer statistics in this paper will provide essential data for cancer research and evidence-based health policy in Korea.
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Secular trends in breast cancer mortality in five East Asian populations: Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2010
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Breast cancer risk is increasing in most Asian female populations, but little is known about the long-term mortality trend of the disease among these populations. We extracted data for Hong Kong (1979-2005), Japan (1963-2006), Korea (1985-2006), and Singapore (1963-2006) from the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database and for Taiwan (1964-2007) from the Taiwan cancer registry. The annual age-standardized, truncated (to > or =20 years) breast cancer death rates for 11 age groups were estimated and joinpoint regression was applied to detect significant changes in breast cancer mortality. We also compared age-specific mortality rates for three calendar periods (1975-1984, 1985-1994, and 1995-2006). After 1990, breast cancer mortality tended to decrease slightly in Hong Kong and Singapore except for women aged 70+. In Taiwan and Japan, in contrast, breast cancer death rates increased throughout the entire study period. Before the 1990s, breast cancer death rates were almost the same in Taiwan and Japan; thereafter, up to 1996, they rose more steeply in Taiwan and then they began rising more rapidly in Japan than in Taiwan after 1996. The most rapid increases in breast cancer mortality, and for all age groups, were in Korea. Breast cancer mortality trends are expected to maintain the secular trend for the next decade mainly as the prevalence of risk factors changes and population ages in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Early detection and treatment improvement will continue to reduce the mortality rates in Hong Kong and Singapore as observed in Western countries.
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Descriptive epidemiology of cholangiocarcinoma and clonorchiasis in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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In 2009, infection with the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) was classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1) based on its involvement in the etiology of cholangiocarcinoma by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, little is known about the descriptive epidemiology of cholangiocarcinoma in Korea. We examined incidence trends of intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, using data from the Korea National Cancer Incidence database for 1999-2005. The prevalence of C. sinensis infection was estimated from a recent population-based survey in rural endemic areas. Cholangiocarcinoma incidence rates are currently rising, even while primary liver cancer incidence rates are decreasing. Annual percent changes in cholangiocarcinoma incidence rates were 8% for males and 11% in females. Known areas of C. sinensis endemicity showed high incidence rates of cholangiocarcinoma. The positivity of C. sinensis eggs in stool samples from endemic areas was more than 25% of adults tested during 2005-2008. From a meta-analysis, the summary odds ratio for cholangiocarcinoma due to C. sinensis infection was 4.7 (95% confidence interval: 2.2-9.8). Approximately 10% of cholangiocarcinomas in Korea were caused by chronic C. sinensis infections. More specific policies, including health education and an extensive effort for early detection in endemic areas, are needed.
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Cancer survival in Africa, Asia, and Central America: a population-based study.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2009
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Population-based cancer survival data, a key indicator for monitoring progress against cancer, are not widely available from countries in Africa, Asia, and Central America. The aim of this study is to describe and discuss cancer survival in these regions.
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Epidemiology of cholangiocarcinoma: an update focusing on risk factors.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2009
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Cholangiocarcinoma is relatively rare, but high incidence rates have been reported in Eastern Asia, especially in Thailand. The etiology of this cancer of the bile ducts appears to be mostly due to specific infectious agents. In 2009, infections with the liver flukes, Clonorchis sinensis or Opistorchis viverrini, were both classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cholangiocarcinoma. In addition, a possible association between chronic infection with hepatitis B and C viruses and cholangiocarcinoma was also noted. The meta-analysis of published literature revealed the summary relative risks of infection with liver fluke (both Opistorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus to be 4.8 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 2.8-8.4), 2.6 (95% CI: 1.5-4.6), and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4-2.4), respectively - liver fluke infection being the strongest risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma. Countries where human liver fluke infection is endemic include China, Korea, Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The number of infected persons with Clonorchis sinensis in China has been estimated at 12.5 million with considerable variations among different regions. A significant regional variation in Opistorchis viverrini prevalence was also noted in Thailand (average 9.6% or 6 million people). The implementation of a more intensive preventive and therapeutic program for liver fluke infection may reduce incidence rates of cholangiocarcinoma in endemic areas. Recently, advances have been made in the diagnosis and management of cholangiocarcinoma. Although progress on cholangiocarcinoma prevention and treatment has been steady, more studies related to classification and risk factors will be helpful to develop an advanced strategy to cure and prevent cholangiocarcinoma.
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Nationwide cancer incidence in Korea, 2003-2005.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2009
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To estimate the current cancer burden in Korea, newly diagnosed cancer cases and cancer incidence rates were calculated for the years 2003~2005.
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Sexual activity and hepatitis B and C virus infection among young adults after introduction of a vaccination program in an area of high endemicity.
J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2009
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In areas where hepatitis is endemic, little is known about the sexual transmission of HBV after introduction of an HBV vaccination program.
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Cancer statistics in Korea: incidence, mortality and survival in 2005.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2009
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Cancer has been the most common cause of death in Korea since 1983 and is a major public health concern. This paper overviews the nationwide cancer statistics, including incidence, mortality, and survival rates, and their trends in Korea. In 2005, 142,610 new cancer cases and 65,117 cancer deaths occurred in Korea. The incidence rate for all cancer combined increased by 2.6% annually from 1999 to 2005. Significant increases have occurred in the incidence of colorectal, thyroid, female breast, and prostate cancers. The number of cancer deaths has increased over the past two decades, due mostly to population aging, while the age-standardized mortality rates have decreased in both men and women since 2002. Notable improvement has been observed in the 5-yr relative survival rates for most major cancers and for all cancer combined, with the exception of pancreatic cancer. The nationwide cancer statistics in this paper will provide essential data for evidence-based decisions in the national cancer control program in Korea.
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The role of TNF genetic variants and the interaction with cigarette smoking for gastric cancer risk: a nested case-control study.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
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The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TNF genetic variants and the combined effect between TNF gene and cigarette smoking in the development of gastric cancer in the Korean population.
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Awareness of and attitude towards human papillomavirus infection and vaccination for cervical cancer prevention among adult males and females in Korea: a nationwide interview survey.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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We assessed adult male and female awareness and acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and vaccination for cervical cancer prevention, as well as factors associated with willingness to be administered the HPV vaccine. A nationwide population-based interview survey was conducted in Korea. One thousand male and female adults were included with random sampling. Despite the fact that awareness of HPV infection (13.3%) and the preventive effect of HPV vaccination (8.6%) were low, willingness to vaccinate against HPV (55.0%) was relatively high, especially with regard to participants daughters (77.0%). Those who were informed about HPV infection (adjusted odds ratio, aOR=2.5 and 95% confidence interval, CI=1.1-5.3 in males; aOR=2.5 and 95% CI=1.5-4.2 in females) or vaccination (aOR=2.9 and 95% CI=1.1-7.6 in males; aOR=2.9 and 95% CI=1.6-5.4 in females), or who perceived a susceptibility to HPV infection (aOR=3.6 and 95% CI=1.9-6.8 in males; aOR=2.8 and 95% CI=1.6-5.0 in females) were more accepting of vaccination than those who did not. Appropriate knowledge transfer, guidance from a health professional, and reductions in the cost of the vaccine are key issues in promoting awareness of HPV infection and vaccination for cervical cancer prevention.
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Factors associated with awareness of infection status among chronic hepatitis B and C carriers in Korea.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
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Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viral infections are the most important risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is responsible for 17.5% of cancer deaths in Korea. The objectives of this study were to identify demographic characteristics that may affect hepatitis carriers awareness of their infection status, and to assess whether health-related behaviors differed by awareness of the infection. Among 18,636 persons who were recruited from a cancer screenee cohort, 904 were HBV carriers and 146 were HCV carriers. Among the HBV carriers, 74.2% were aware of their infection status. Higher education (odds ratio, 1.8; college versus middle school or less), family history of liver cancer or disease, and marriage were associated with awareness of HBV infection status. Participants who were aware of their HBV carrier status were more likely to be former smokers or drinkers than those who were not aware of their status. Only 34.9% of HCV carriers were aware of their HCV infection status. No demographic characteristics were related to awareness of HCV infection status among HCV carriers. However, HCV carriers who were aware of their infection status were more likely to be former drinkers (odds ratio, 9.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-47.2). In conclusion, two thirds of HCV carriers and one fourth of HBV carriers in this study population were not aware of their infection status, and awareness of hepatitis infection status was significantly associated with other risk behaviors, such as alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking.
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Geographic variation in the prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and risk factors for transmission.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in the female general population, to define geographic variation in and heterosexual transmission of the virus.
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Dietary intake, eating habits, and metabolic syndrome in Korean men.
J Am Diet Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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Dietary factors contribute to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, a disorder associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and some cancers.
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Soybean product intake modifies the association between interleukin-10 genetic polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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In this study, our aim was to investigate the association of inflammation-related genetic polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk and to examine whether the combined effect of soybean product intake modified cancer risk. Eighty-four incident gastric cancer cases and 336 matched controls were selected from the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort. We selected 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 5 genes [interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, and IL-10] and used unconditional logistic regression model to calculate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI adjusting for H. pylori seropositivity, smoking, age, sex, enrollment year, and residential area. The risk for gastric cancer in relation to genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes were assessed according to soybean product intake levels. Although no single SNP effect was found, the combined effect between IL-10 gene variants of -592 GG/GA, -819 TC/CC, or -1082 AG/GG and low intake of soybean products had an increased risk for gastric cancer compared with the group with no risk gene variants and a high intake of soybean products (OR [95% CI] = 2.82 [1.04-7.62], 2.75 [1.02-7.44], and 4.34 [1.51-12.5], respectively). Among the low-soybean product intake group, IL-10 CCG haplotype had an increased risk of gastric cancer (OR = 3.38 [1.40-8.13]) relative to the ATA haplotype. Our results suggest that the association between IL-10 genetic polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk was modified by soybean product intake.
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Homozygous deletion of CDKN2A (p16, p14) and CDKN2B (p15) genes is a poor prognostic factor in adult but not in childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a comparative deletion and hypermethylation study.
Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2009
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The biological behavior of childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is different from that of adults. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the deletion and the methylation profile of CDKN2A (hereafter identified separately as p16 and p14, for the different proteins encoded) and CDKN2B (hereafter p15) in 91 newly diagnosed B-ALL patients (61 children, 30 adults). The prognostic significance of the profiles of these genes and the association between alterations in these genes and known cytogenetic prognostic factors (BCR/ABL; ETV6/RUNX1, formerly TEL/AML1; MLL rearrangement; and ploidy changes of chromosomes) were also assessed. The prevalence of homozygous deletion, hemizygous deletion, and no deletion of the 9p21 region was 11.5%, 16.4%, and 72.1%, respectively, in children and 30.0%, 20.0%, and 50.0%, respectively, in adults; the higher incidence of homozygous deletion in adults was significant (P=0.029). Homozygous deletion was associated with poor overall survival in adults (P=0.019), but not in children. The incidence of promoter methylation of p16, p14, and p15 was 34.4%, 14.8%, and 34.4%, respectively, in children and 26.7%, 10.0%, and 40.0%, respectively, in adults, with no significant difference between the two groups. No significant association was observed between deletion and methylation or with known cytogenetic prognostic factors. The difference in incidence, distribution, and prognostic effect of homozygous deletion in children and adults may explain the prognostic disparity.
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Prevalence of human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women attending cervical cancer screening in the Republic of Korea.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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Cervical cancer screening with the conventional Papanicolaou test is recommended for the women aged 30 years and more in Korea. Cervical infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important cause of cervical cancer and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection and may also be associated with risk of cervical cancer. A cross-sectional study of women attending the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Busan and Suwon was carried out. Exfoliated cervical cells were collected, and questionnaires were administered to 4595 women. High-risk HPV types and CT were tested by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). HPV genotyping of 355 high-risk HPV-positive women at HC2 was performed using linear array. Age-standardized prevalence of high-risk HPV types and CT was 10.4% (95% confidence interval: 9.5-11.3) and 4.3% (95% confidence interval: 3.7-4.8). That 68.5% of women were high-risk HPV-positive at HC2 was confirmed by Linear Array whereas 17.5% seemed to be infected with only low-risk HPV types, not normally detected by HC2. Korean women showed a relatively high prevalence of high-risk HPV and a rather low prevalence of CT. As in cancer-free women in other Asian populations, HPV 52, 58, and 39 were detected more frequently than HPV 16. Cross-reaction of HC2 with low-risk HPV types is of some concern, were the test to be used in primary screening.
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Interaction of body mass index and diabetes as modifiers of cardiovascular mortality in a cohort study.
J Prev Med Public Health
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Diabetes and obesity each increases mortality, but recent papers have shown that lean Asian persons were at greater risk for mortality than were obese persons. The objective of this study is to determine whether an interaction exists between body mass index (BMI) and diabetes, which can modify the risk of death by cardiovascular disease (CVD).
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Genetic susceptibility factors on genes involved in the steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway and progesterone receptor for gastric cancer risk.
PLoS ONE
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The objective of the study was to investigate the role of genes (HSD3B1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, HSD17B2, HSD17B1) involved in the steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway and progesterone receptor (PGR) in the etiology of gastric cancer in a population-based two-phase genetic association study.
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Alcohol consumption and mortality in the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort Study.
J Prev Med Public Health
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To examine the association between alcohol consumption habit, types of beverages, alcohol consumption quantity, and overall and cancer-specific mortality among Korean adults.
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Interaction effects between genes involved in the AKT signaling pathway and phytoestrogens in gastric carcinogenesis: a nested case-control study from the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort.
Mol Nutr Food Res
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To investigate whether genes involved in AKT/nuclear factor kappa B signaling and/or gene-environment interactions between the genes and phytoestrogens may be susceptible factors for gastric cancer.
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Multiplicative synergistic risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development among hepatitis B and C co-infected subjects in HBV endemic area: a community-based cohort study.
BMC Cancer
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There has been limited study on the effect of infection with different hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemic regions of Asia.
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Soluble c-Met protein as a susceptible biomarker for gastric cancer risk: A nested case-control study within the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort.
Int. J. Cancer
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This study was conducted to evaluate the relevance of the soluble form of c-Met protein, a truncated form of the c-Met membrane receptor involved in the CagA pathway, as a potential biomarker for gastric cancer. Among 290 gastric cancer case-control sets selected from the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort, the plasma concentrations of soluble c-Met protein were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Using analysis of variance and covariance models with age, sex, smoking, Helicobacter pylori infection, and CagA seropositivity, the mean concentrations of soluble c-Met protein between cases and controls were compared. To evaluate the association between gastric cancer and a c-Met protein level, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. Interactions between CagA-related genes and the soluble c-Met protein concentration were also investigated. The overall median plasma concentration of soluble c-Met among cases was significantly lower than those of controls (1.390 vs. 1.610 ng/mL, p < 0.0001). Closer to the onset of gastric cancer, the soluble c-Met protein level decreased linearly in a time-dependent manner (p for trend = 0.0002). The combined effects between the CagA-related genes and the soluble c-Met protein concentration significantly intensified risks for gastric cancer. Restricted analyses including cases that had been diagnosed within 1 year after entering the cohort had a fair degree of ability (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73-0.77) to discriminate gastric cancer cases from normal controls. Our findings demonstrate the potential of the soluble form of c-Met protein as a novel biomarker for gastric cancer. The beneficial effects of a high soluble c-Met concentration in human plasma are strongly supported.
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Prevalence and seroprevalence of low-risk human papillomavirus in Korean women.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
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Little is known about the prevalence and seroprevalence of low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and the risk factors for HPV infection in Korean women. We determined the prevalence of low-risk HPV among 902 women aged 20-59 yr and the seroprevalence of low-risk HPV subtypes 6 and 11 among 1,094 women aged 9-59 yr in the general population. Genital low-risk HPV DNA was assessed by liquid hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Antibody titers against HPV 6 and 11 were measured by a multiplexed competitive luminex technique. The prevalence of genital low-risk HPV was 4.9%. It reached its highest peak of 10.3% at 20-29 yr of age and a second peak of 3.2% at 50-59 yr of age. The seroprevalence of HPV 6 or 11 was 9.4%. It reached its highest peak of 12.7% at 25-29 yr of age and a second peak of 12.3% at 50-59 yr of age. In multivariable analysis, the number of lifetime sexual partners and past history of sexually transmitted diseases were associated with the seroprevalence but not prevalence of HPV. It is suggested that younger women should receive prophylactic HPV vaccination before they become sexually active and exposed to HPV in their 20s. This study provides baseline data for developing HPV vaccination programs and monitoring vaccine efficacy in Korea.
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Cancer control in the Asia Pacific region: current status and concerns.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
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Cancer is becoming an increasingly important health problem in the low- and middle-income countries in the Asia Pacific region, as well as in high-income countries because of ageing populations and changes in lifestyle associated with economic development and epidemiologic transition. This paper reviews the cancer burden and control in the Asia Pacific region (limited to East Asia, South Eastern Asia and Pacific Islands countries, territories and other areas), with relevant information primarily extracted from the GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series and WHO websites. Most low- and middle-income countries have a cancer control strategy and/or an action plan; however, coverage of cancer registration is still very low and does not meet the international standard in terms of quality. Therefore, only limited data were available for the recent global estimation of cancer burden. Large variations, in both cancer incidence and mortality, were observed in the populations in the different sub-regions of Asia. The most common cancer in males is lung cancer in the Eastern and South Eastern sub-regions, while prostate cancer comes close to lung cancer in the Pacific Island countries. In females, breast cancer is the most common in all three regions. The predominance of lung, stomach, colorectal, prostate, breast and cervical cancers makes cancer control more amenable in the Asia Pacific region. Up-to-date statistics on cancer occurrence and outcome are essential for the planning and evaluation of cancer control programmes. Priority can be given to population-based cancer registration, risk reduction, especially tobacco control, and primary health care based enhancement of health care systems to diagnose and manage cancer specifically in low- and middle-income countries.
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Genetic susceptibility on CagA-interacting molecules and gene-environment interaction with phytoestrogens: a putative risk factor for gastric cancer.
PLoS ONE
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To evaluate whether genes that encode CagA-interacting molecules (SRC, PTPN11, CRK, CRKL, CSK, c-MET and GRB2) are associated with gastric cancer risk and whether an interaction between these genes and phytoestrogens modify gastric cancer risk.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.