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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The TLR4 Antagonist Eritoran Tetrasodium Attenuates Liver Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury Through Inhibition of HMGB1 Signaling.
Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) is ubiquitously expressed on parenchymal and immune cells of the liver and is the most studied TLR responsible for the activation of pro-inflammatory signaling cascades in liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Since pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 during the sterile inflammatory response of I/R has not been studied, we sought to determine whether Eritoran, a TLR4 antagonist trialed in sepsis, could block hepatic TLR4 mediated inflammation and end organ damage. When C57BL/6 mice were pre-treated with Eritoran and subjected to warm liver I/R, there was significantly less hepatocellular injury compared to control counterparts. Additionally, we found that Eritoran is protective in liver I/R through inhibition of high mobility group box protein B1 (HMGB1) mediated inflammatory signaling. When Eritoran was administered in conjunction with recombinant HMGB1 during liver I/R, there was significantly less injury, suggesting that Eritoran blocks the HMGB1/TLR4 interaction. Not only does Eritoran attenuate TLR4 dependent HMGB1 release in vivo, but this TLR4 antagonist also dampened HMGB1's release from hypoxic hepatocytes in vitro, and thereby weakened HMGB1's activation of innate immune cells. HMGB1 signaling through TLR4 makes an important contribution to the inflammatory response seen after liver I/R. This study demonstrates that novel blockade of HMGB1 by the TLR4 antagonist Eritoran leads to the amelioration of liver injury.
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[Construction of beta-catenin miRNA-expressing vectors and test of silencing effect in adipose-derived stem cells from Sprague-Dawley rats].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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OBEJECTIVE: To construct miRNA-expressing plasmid vector for interfering the expression of beta-catenin in adipose-derived stem cells from Sprague-Dawley rats.
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[Tension reduced incision through anterior tibial approach combined with locking compression plate fixation for treatment of elderly patients with distal tibiofibular fractures].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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To explore effective approaches of treating elderly patients with distal tibiofibular fractures.
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An AIE-active boron-difluoride complex: multi-stimuli-responsive fluorescence and application in data security protection.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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A novel AIE-active boron-difluoride complex (PTZ) was synthesized which exhibits multi-stimuli responsive characteristics. Its colours and emissions can be switched by mechanical grinding, organic solvent vapours and acid/base vapours. This complex can be utilized in data encryption and decryption based on the protonation-deprotonation effect.
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CpG oligodeoxynucleotide inhibits HBV replication in a hydrodynamic injection murine model.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a significant public health problem and one major cause of liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV impairs host immune system and results in Immunotolerance which is a major obstacle for HBV therapy. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) is a kind of strong immunostimulant by activating the innate immune response rapidly and was shown to be an efficient therapy agent in viral infection treatment. Here, we report the anti-HBV activity of CpG-1826 in a hydrodynamic injection murine model.
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Knockdown of NOB1 expression inhibits the malignant transformation of human prostate cancer cells.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Nin one binding-1 protein (NOB1) is a kind of zinc protein involved in ribosome biogenesis and controlled proteolysis. To explore the function of NOB1 in human prostate malignancy, we analyzed the expression of NOB1 in prostate cancer and found that NOB1 was elevated in prostate cancer tissues compared to the adjacent normal tissues. Knockdown of NOB1 by lentivirus-shRNA inhibited the proliferation and colony-formation ability of PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that silencing of NOB1 caused G0/G1 phase arrest and a slight decrease in S phase (P < 0.05). Furthermore, knockdown of NOB1 significantly suppressed the mobility of PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggested that NOB1 might be involved in tumorigenecity of prostate cancer, and could be a potential molecular target for prostate cancer gene therapy.
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Loss of function of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling genes leads to genome instability of human lung cancer.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes are frequently mutated in a variety of human cancers. We investigated the mutation incidence and the role of mSWI/SNF (BAF) complexes in human lung cancer. In the present study, we analyzed somatic mutations of BAF complexes and other driver mutated genes of lung carcinoma deposited in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database. BAF complexes were mutated in 282 of 803 (35.12%) lung carcinoma samples analyzed, ranking second to TP53. Significantly, BAF-mutated samples exhibited more genomic mutations than BAF wild-type ones. Moreover, a significant positive correlation existed between the BAF mutations and overall genomic mutations in these lung carcinoma samples (P<0.001, Pearson's correlation analysis). Specifically, the mutant-typing of 6 BAF genes, SMARCA4, ARID2, ARID1B, BCL11A, BCL11B and BRD9 was associated with more overall mutations in the lung carcinoma samples. A mutation reporter system was developed by means of the establishment of stable cell sublines with slippage-luciferase transcript in a lung adenocarcinoma cell line, Calu-3. SMARCA4, the most frequently mutated BAF gene in lung cancer, was stably knocked down by pSUPER constructs carrying short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Mutation ratios determined from the mutation reporters of Calu-3 cells were significantly increased upon stable SMARCA4 knockdown. We demonstrated that genetic mutations of BAF complexes lead to genome instability of lung carcinoma. Therefore, BAF complexes play an important role in maintaining genome stability in human lung cancer.
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Presynaptic HCN Channels Regulate Vesicular Glutamate Transport.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The amount of neurotransmitter stored in synaptic vesicles determines postsynaptic quantal size and thus the strength of synaptic transmission. However, little is known about regulation of vesicular neurotransmitter uptake. In recordings from the calyx of Held, a giant mammalian glutamatergic synapse, we found that changes in presynaptic Na(+) concentration above and below a resting value of 13 mM regulated vesicular glutamate uptake, consistent with activation of a vesicular monovalent cation Na(+)(K(+))/H(+) exchanger. Na(+) flux through presynaptic plasma membrane hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels enhanced presynaptic Na(+) concentration and thus controlled postsynaptic quantal size. Our results indicate that a plasma membrane ion channel controls synaptic strength by modulating vesicular neurotransmitter uptake through a Na(+)-dependent process.
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Enhancement of non-heme iron absorption by anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) muscle protein hydrolysate involves a nanoparticle-mediated mechanism.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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The mechanisms by which meat enhances human absorption of non-heme iron remain unknown. Recently, anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) muscle protein hydrolysate (AMPH) was found to mediate the formation of nanosized ferric hydrolysis products in vitro. The current paper evaluates the effects of AMPH on the bioavailability and the intestinal speciation of non-heme iron in rats, followed by an investigation of cellular uptake pathways of in vitro-formed AMPH-stabilized nanosized ferric hydrolysis products (ANPs) by polarized human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells. The hemoglobin regeneration efficiencies in anemic rats followed the order ferric citrate (9.79 ± 2.02%) < commercial bare ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (16.37 ± 6.65%) < mixture of ferric citrate and AMPH (40.33 ± 6.36%) ? ferrous sulfate (40.88 ± 7.67%) < ANPs (56.25 ± 11.35%). Percentage contents of intestinal low-molecular-weight iron in the groups of FC+AMPH, FeSO4, and ANPs were significantly lower than the corresponding hemoglobin regeneration efficiencies (P < 0.05), providing strong evidence for the involvement of nanosized iron in intestinal iron absorption from FC+AMPH, FeSO4, and ANPs. Calcein-fluorescence measurements of the labile iron pool of polarized Caco-2 cells revealed the involvement of both divalent transporter 1 and endocytosis in apical uptake of ANPs, with endocytosis dominating at acidic extracellular pH. Overall, AMPH enhancement of non-heme iron absorption involves a nanoparticle-mediated mechanism.
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Secreted clusterin (sCLU) regulates cell proliferation and chemosensitivity to cisplatin by modulating ERK1/2 signals in human osteosarcoma cells.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Several studies have shown that secreted clusterin (sCLU) up-regulation in multi-drug resistant osteosarcoma (OS) cells relates to enhanced drug resistance. Furthermore, sCLU silencing directed against sCLU induces significant reduction of cellular growth and sensitizes OS cells to chemotherapy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of sCLU on OS cells are not known.
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[A retrospective analysis of 412 cases of malignant tumors in parotid gland].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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To summarize the clinical and imaging features of malignant tumors in parotid gland.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the Piaractus brachypomus (Characiformes: Characidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the Piaractus brachypomus is described in the present study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,561?bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The P. brachypomus mitochondrial genome shows the similar gene order and composition with those of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand in descending order is 31.57% of A, 26.19% of C, 26.18% of T and 16.06% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand.
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Breakdown assisted by a novel electron drift injection in the J-TEXT tokamak.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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A novel electron drift injection (EDI) system aiming to improve breakdown behavior has been designed and constructed on the Joint Texas EXperiment Tokamak Tokamak. Electrons emitted by the system undergo the E×B drift, ?B drift and curvature drift in sequence in order to traverse the confining magnetic field. A local electrostatic well, generated by a concave-shaped plate biased more negative than the cathode, is introduced to interrupt the emitted electrons moving along the magnetic field line (in the parallel direction) in an attempt to bring an enhancement of the injection efficiency and depth. A series of experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of this method, and a penetration distance deeper than 9.5 cm is achieved. Notable breakdown improvements, including the reduction of breakdown delay and average loop voltage, are observed for discharges assisted by EDI. The lower limit of successfully ionized pressure is expanded.
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Studies on copper(I)-catalyzed highly regio- and stereo-selective hydroboration of alkynamides.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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The copper(I)-catalyzed hydroboration of alkynamides with B2pin2 afforded the alkenamide boronates in 66% to nearly quantitative yields with high regio- and stereo-selectivity. It was interesting to note that the regio-selectivity of the reaction is opposite to that observed in the carbometallation reaction of alkynamides, and the resulting alkenyl boronates provided access to ?,?-disubstituted (Z)-alkenamides through further elaboration.
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miR-218 modulate hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation through PTEN/AKT/PI3K pathway and HoxA10.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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To investigate the regulatory mechanism of miR-218 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Neutralizing antibodies respond to a bivalent dengue DNA vaccine or/and a recombinant bivalent antigen.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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There is currently no effective vaccine to prevent dengue infection, despite the existence of multiple studies on potential methods of immunization. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of DNA and/or recombinant protein on levels of neutralizing antibodies. For this purpose, envelope domain IIIs of dengue serotypes 1 and 2 (DEN-1/2)were spliced by a linker (Gly?Gly?Ser?Gly?Ser)3 and cloned into the prokaryotic expression plasmid pET30a (+) and eukaryotic vector pcDNA3.1 (+). The chimeric bivalent protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, and one?step purification by high?performance liquid chromatography was conducted. Protein expression levels of the DNA plasmid were tested in BHK?21 cells by indirect immunofluorescent assay. In order to explore a more effective immunization strategy and to develop neutralizing antibodies against the two serotypes, mice were inoculated with recombinant bivalent protein, the DNA vaccine, or the two given simultaneously. Presence of the specific antibodies was tested by ELISA and the presence of the neutralizing antibodies was determined by plaque reduction neutralization test. Results of the analysis indicated that the use of a combination of DNA and protein induced significantly higher titers of neutralizing antibodies against either DEN?1 or DEN?2 (1:64.0 and 1:76.1, respectively) compared with the DNA (1:24.7 and 1:26.9, DEN?1 and DEN?2, respectively) or the recombinant protein (1:34.9 and 1:45.3 in DEN?1 and DEN?2, respectively). The present study demonstrated that the combination of recombinant protein and DNA as an immunization strategy may be an effective method for the development of a vaccine to prevent dengue virus infection.
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Arsenic trioxide exerts anti-lung cancer activity by inhibiting angiogenesis.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been used in the clinic for the treatment of acute promyelocytic 1eukemia and some solid tumors. However, its effectiveness against lung cancer has not been well demonstrated, and the underlying mechanism(s) of action remain unclear. In the present study, we found that As2O3 significantly inhibited the growth of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) xenograft tumors. It was observed to have antiangiogenic effects in xenograft models and matrigel pellets. It also significantly inhibited the expression of VEGF-A, VEGFR-2, HIF-1?, Dll4 and Notch-1 in vivo. Moreover, As2O3 also inhibited the expression of HIF-1α, VEGFR-2, Dll4, and Notch-1 in lung cancer cell lines and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These findings suggest that As2O3 has significant anti-lung cancer activity, which may occur as a result of the antiangiogenic effects caused by the downregulation of the VEGF and Dll4-Notch signaling pathways.
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Overexpression of stathmin 1 is a poor prognostic biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Stathmin 1 (STMN1), a major microtubule-depolymerizing protein, is involved in cell cycle progression and cell motility. However, the clinical significance of STMN1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been determined. The expression pattern of STMN1 mRNA was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in 37 cases of NSCLC and in the corresponding non-tumor tissue samples. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry was performed to detect STMN1 protein expression in 113 primary NSCLC tissues. The functional role of STMN1 in lung cancer cell lines was evaluated by small interfering RNA-mediated depletion followed by analyses of cell proliferation and invasion. We found that the STMN1 mRNA and protein levels in NSCLC tissues were significantly higher than those in the corresponding non-tumor tissues (P<0.001). In addition, increased STMN1 expression was correlated with poor tumor differentiation (P<0.001), large tumor size (P=0.022), advanced N stage (P=0.033), and advanced TNM stage (P<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicates that NSCLC patients with higher STMN1 expression showed significantly worse survival. Moreover, multivariate analysis indicates that higher STMN1 protein expression was an independent prognostic factor of disease-specific survival (HR 2.247, 95%CI 1.320-3.825, P=0.003). Finally, the knockdown of STMN1 in lung cancer cells resulted in a decrease in cellular proliferation and invasion. Our findings suggest that STMN1 may have an important role in NSCLC progression and could serve as a potential prognostic marker for patients with NSCLC.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 10 November 2014; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2014.124.
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Chemical dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene with polyethylene glycol and hydroxide: dominant effect of temperature and ionic potential.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) originating from POP waste are playing an increasingly important role in the elevation of regional POP levels. In this study we realized the complete dechlorination of high concentration hexachlorobenzene (HCB) waste in the presence of polyethylene glycol and hydroxide, rather than using conventional high temperature incineration. Here, we demonstrate the dominant effect of temperature and hydroxide on HCB dechlorination in this process. Complete dechlorination of HCB was only observed at temperature about 200°C or above within 4?h reaction, and the apparent activation energy of this process was 43.1?kJ/mol. The alkalinity of hydroxides had notable effects on HCB dechlorination, and there was a considerable linear relationship between the natural logarithm of the HCB dechlorination rate constant and square root of the ionic potential of metal cation (R(2) = 0.9997, p = 0.0081, n = 3). This study highlights a promising technology to realize complete dechlorination of POP waste, especially at high concentrations, in the presence of PEG in conjunction with hydroxide.
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[Treatment of metastatic thoracolumbar tumors by percutaneous vertebroplasty combined with interstitial implantation of ¹²?I seeds].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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To explore the value of percutaneous vertebroplasty combined with interstitial implantation of ¹²?I seeds in the treatment of metastatic thoracolumbar tumors.
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Benzyl alcohol attenuates acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in a Toll-like receptor-4-dependent pattern in mice.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity is the most common cause of acute liver failure in industrialized countries. Understanding the mechanisms of APAP-induced liver injury as well as other forms of sterile liver injury is critical to improve the care of patients. Recent studies demonstrate that danger signaling and inflammasome activation play a role in APAP-induced injury. The aim of these investigations was to test the hypothesis that benzyl alcohol (BA) is a therapeutic agent that protects against APAP-induced liver injury by modulation of danger signaling. APAP-induced liver injury was dependent, in part, on Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 and receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) signaling. BA limited liver injury over a dose range of 135-540 ?g/g body weight or when delivered as a pre-, concurrent, or post-APAP therapeutic. Furthermore, BA abrogated APAP-induced cytokines and chemokines as well as high-mobility group box 1 release. Moreover, BA prevented APAP-induced inflammasome signaling as determined by interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-18, and caspase-1 cleavage in liver tissues. Interestingly, the protective effects of BA on limiting liver injury and inflammasome activation were dependent on TLR4 signaling, but not TLR2 or CD14. Cell-type-specific knockouts of TLR4 were utilized to further determine the protective mechanisms of BA. These studies found that TLR4 expression specifically in myeloid cells (LyzCre-tlr4-/-) were necessary for the protective effects of BA.
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Reduced hepatic arterial perfusion impairs the recovery from focal hepatic venous outflow obstruction in liver-resected rats.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Extended partial hepatectomy (PH) in patients is leading to portal hyperperfusion but reduced hepatic arterial perfusion (HAP), and is invariably causing focal hepatic venous outflow obstruction (FHVOO). We observed in a rat model that PH in combination with right median hepatic vein ligation (RMHV-L) caused confluent parenchymal necrosis interspersed with viable portal tracts in the obstructed territory and large sinusoidal vascular canals in the border zone. Lack of HAP impaired the spontaneous course of recovery in terms of enlarged parenchymal necrosis, delayed regeneration, and the absence of draining vascular canals. We aimed to investigate whether pharmacological intervention modulates the imbalance between portal venous and hepatic arterial inflow, aggravates the liver damage, and delays the recovery process after FHVOO in liver-resected rats.
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Polymorphisms of leptin-b gene associated with growth traits in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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In mammals, leptin has been demonstrated to perform important roles in many physiological activities and to influence development, growth, metabolism and reproduction. However, in fish, its function is still unclear. Duplicate leptin genes, leptin-a and leptin-b, have been identified in the orange-spotted grouper. In the present study, the polymorphisms in the leptin-b gene of the orange-spotted grouper were detected, and the relation between these polymorphisms and 12 growth traits were analyzed. Six polymorphisms (including 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (c.14G>A, c.93A>G, c.149G>A) in exon 1, 2 SNPs (c.181A>G, c.193G>A) in intron 1, and 1 SNP (c.360C>T) in exon 2) were identified and genotyped from 200 different individuals. The results revealed that the SNP c.149G>A was significantly associated with growth traits, that the heterozygous mutation genotype GA having negative effects on growth traits. However, the other five SNPs (c.14G>A, c.93A>G, c.181A>G, c.193G>A, c.360C>T) did not show significant associations with all the growth traits. Compared with our findings in leptin-a gene, the results suggested that the leptin-a hormone has more important physiological effects in fish bodies than the leptin-b type. Moreover, leptin genes were supposed to be one class of major candidate genes of regulating growth traits in the orange-spotted grouper.
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Enhancement of the effects of gemcitabine against pancreatic cancer by oridonin via the mitochondrial caspase-dependent signaling pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Gemcitabine is a first?line chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of pancreatic cancer; however resistance of the disease to the drug often develops over time. Agents that can either enhance the effects of gemcitabine, or help to overcome the chemoresistance to the drug are needed for the successful treatment of pancreatic cancer. Oridonin is one such agent which is safe and multi?targeted and has previously been shown to induce apoptosis in other tumor cells, through mitochondrial signaling pathways. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether oridonin may enhance the effects of gemcitabine on pancreatic cancer in vitro and to investigate the possible mechanisms of this enhancement. In vitro studies have previously shown that oridonin can inhibit the proliferation of the Panc?1 pancreatic cancer cell line, and potentiate gemcitabine?induced apoptosis, which was shown to be associated with cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that the expression levels of the anti?apoptotic gene Bcl?2 and the Bcl?2/Bax ratio in the oridonin and the oridonin plus gemcitabine groups were significantly downregulated as compared with the gemcitabine treatment and control groups. The expression levels of pro?apoptotic genes Bax, cytochrome c (cyt c), and caspase?3 and ?9 in the oridonin and the combination groups were significantly upregulated as compared with the other two groups. The results suggested that oridonin improved the anti?tumor effects of gemcitabine through the enhancement of gemcitabine?induced apoptosis.This mechanism may be through the downregulation of Bcl?2 expression and the upregulation of Bax expression, resulting in the reduction of the Bcl?2/Bax ratio. These effects may promote the release of cyt c from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm thus triggering the mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathway. Furthermore, caspase?3 and ?9 were shown to be activated as a result of the induction of apoptosis.
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Clinical Outcome of Middle Thoracic Esophageal Cancer with Intrathoracic or Cervical Anastomosis.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Backgrounds?What is the optimal way for the middle esophageal cancer? It is still controversial. In this study, the clinical outcome of middle thoracic esophageal cancer with either intrathoracic or cervical anastomosis was analyzed in our department. Patients and Methods?A total of 205 patients who suffered from middle thoracic esophageal cancer were divided into two groups. In group A, 91 patients received intrathoracic anastomosis above aortic arch after esophageal resection via single left thoracotomy, and in group B, 114 patients received cervical anastomosis after esophageal resection via right thoracotomy and median laparotomy. Data of these patients were collected, and morbidity and mortality were analyzed retrospectively. Survival rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and comparisons between groups were performed with log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox model to look for independent predictors of survival. Results?Postoperative complications occurred more frequently in group B, such as hemorrhage (p?=?0.011), wound infection (p?=?0.032), and temporary paresis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (p?=?0.001). Morbidity of anastomotic leak was higher in group B (8.8 vs. 2.2%; p?=?0.048), but the associated mortality was not increased. The extent of radical esophagectomy and lymphadenectomy was much greater in group B; therefore, longer esophagus was resected that reduced the cancer residual rate, and more positive lymph nodes were detected that enhanced the accuracy of clinical staging. Fortunately, more patients received adjuvant therapy after operation in group B, and the 5-year survival rate was improved. Conclusion?Anastomotic leak rate was higher in cervical anastomosis but with lower mortality. The 5-year survival rate was improved in cervical anastomosis group. The present data support the assumption that cervical anastomosis is a safer and more beneficial procedure for patients with middle thoracic esophageal cancer.
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Roles of small RNAs in plant disease resistance.
J Integr Plant Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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The interaction between plants and pathogens represents a dynamic competition between a robust immune system and efficient infectious strategies. Plant innate immunity is composed of complex and highly regulated molecular networks, which can be triggered by the perception of either conserved or race-specific pathogenic molecular signatures. Small RNAs are emerging as versatile regulators of plant development, growth and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. They act in different tiers of plant immunity, including the pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered and the effector-triggered immunity. On the other hand, pathogens have evolved effector molecules to suppress or hijack the host small RNA pathways. This leads to an arms race between plants and pathogens at the level of small RNA-mediated defense. Here, we review recent advances in small RNA-mediated defense responses and discuss the challenging questions in this area.
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Treatment of Ruptured Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Distal to the Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery: Stenting or Trapping?
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The treatment of ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) continues to be controversial. Our goal was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and long-term outcomes of internal trapping and stent-assisted coiling (SAC) for ruptured VADAs distal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (supra-PICA VADAs), which is the most common subset.
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WOX11 and 12 are involved in the first-step cell fate transition during de novo root organogenesis in Arabidopsis.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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De novo organogenesis is a process through which wounded or detached plant tissues or organs regenerate adventitious roots and shoots. Plant hormones play key roles in de novo organogenesis, whereas the mechanism by which hormonal actions result in the first-step cell fate transition in the whole process is unknown. Using leaf explants of Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that the homeobox genes WUSCHEL RELATED HOMEOBOX11 (WOX11) and WOX12 are involved in de novo root organogenesis. WOX11 directly responds to a wounding-induced auxin maximum in and surrounding the procambium and acts redundantly with its homolog WOX12 to upregulate LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN16 (LBD16) and LBD29, resulting in the first-step cell fate transition from a leaf procambium or its nearby parenchyma cell to a root founder cell. In addition, our results suggest that de novo root organogenesis and callus formation share a similar mechanism at initiation.
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An improved monomeric infrared fluorescent protein for neuronal and tumour brain imaging.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Infrared fluorescent proteins (IFPs) are ideal for in vivo imaging, and monomeric versions of these proteins can be advantageous as protein tags or for sensor development. In contrast to GFP, which requires only molecular oxygen for chromophore maturation, phytochrome-derived IFPs incorporate biliverdin (BV) as the chromophore. However, BV varies in concentration in different cells and organisms. Here we engineered cells to express the haeme oxygenase responsible for BV biosynthesis and a brighter monomeric IFP mutant (IFP2.0). Together, these tools improve the imaging capabilities of IFP2.0 compared with monomeric IFP1.4 and dimeric iRFP. By targeting IFP2.0 to the plasma membrane, we demonstrate robust labelling of neuronal processes in Drosophila larvae. We also show that this strategy improves the sensitivity when imaging brain tumours in whole mice. Our work shows promise in the application of IFPs for protein labelling and in vivo imaging.
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Disease and region-related cardiac fibroblast potassium current variations and potential functional significance.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Fibroblasts, which play an important role in cardiac function/dysfunction, including arrhythmogenesis, have voltage-dependent (Kv) currents of unknown importance. Here, we assessed the differential expression of Kv currents between atrial and ventricular fibroblasts from control dogs and dogs with an atrial arrhythmogenic substrate caused by congestive heart failure (CHF).
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Biomechanical Evaluation of a Novel Autogenous Bone Interbody Fusion Cage for Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in a Cadaveric Model.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Study Design. A human cadaveric biomechanical study of a novel, prefabricated autogenous bone interbody fusion (ABIF) cage.Objective. To evaluate the biomechanical properties of the ABIF cage in a single-level construct with and without transpedicular screw and rod fixation.Summary of Background Data. In current practice, posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) is generally carried out using synthetic interbody spacers or corticocancellous iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) in combination with posterior instrumentation. However, questions remain concerning the use of synthetic intervertebral implants as well as the morbidity ICBG harvesting. Therefore, ABIF cage has been developed to obviate some of the challenges in conventional PLIF instrumentation and to facilitate the fusion process.Methods. Eighteen adult cadaveric lumbosacral (L3-S1) specimens were tested. Test conditions included single lumbosacral segments across (1) intact, (2) decompressed, (3) intervertebral cage alone, and (4) intervertebral cage with bilateral transpedicular fixation. Range of motion (ROM), neutral zone (NZ) and axial failure load were tested for each condition.Resluts. The ICBG, PEEK cage or ABIF cage alone exhibited a significantly lower (p<0.05) ROM and NZ compared to the decompressed spine. In comparison with the intact spine, all three test conditions without supplemental fixation was able to decrease ROM and NZ to near intact levels. When stabilized with pedicle screws, the ROM was significantly less and the NZ significantly lower (p<0.05) for each group both compared to the intact spine. In axial compression testing, the failure load of PEEK cage was the highest, with no significant difference between the ICBG and the ABIF cage.Conclusion. These data suggest the novel ABIF cage can bear the physiologic intervertebral peak load, similar to ICBG. When combined with pedicle screw and rod fixation, it exhibits similar biomechanical properties as the PEEK cage plus posterior instrumentation. Based on the biomechanical properties of ABIF cage, the prospect of these cages in clinical practice is expected.
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Prostate specific membrane antigen knockdown impairs the tumorigenicity of LNCaP prostate cancer cells by inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) can facilitate the growth, migration, and invasion of the LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been clearly defined. Here, we investigated whether PSMA serves as a novel regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling by employing PSMA knockdown model and PI3K pharmacological inhibitor (LY294002) in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.
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Activation of nuclear factor ?B pathway and downstream targets survivin and livin by SHARPIN contributes to the progression and metastasis of prostate cancer.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) signaling is strongly associated with tumor progression, and studies have shown that SHANK-associated RH domain interacting protein (SHARPIN) is crucial for NF?B pathway activation. However, the expression and functions of SHARPIN in prostate cancer (PCa) have not yet been defined.
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Genetic and epigenetic controls of plant regeneration.
Curr. Top. Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Plants have evolved powerful regeneration abilities to recover from damage. Studies on plant regeneration are of high significance as the underlying mechanisms of plant regeneration are not only linking to the fundamental researches in many fields but also to the development of widely used plant biotechnology. Higher plants show three main types of regeneration: tissue regeneration, de novo organogenesis, and somatic embryogenesis. In this review, we summarize recent research on plant regeneration, mainly focusing on Arabidopsis thaliana and moss. New data suggest that plant hormones trigger regeneration and that several key transcription factors respond to hormone signals to determine cell-fate transition. Cell-fate transition requires genome-wide changes in gene expression, which are regulated via epigenetic pathways. Certain epigenetic factors may be recruited by transcription factors to relocate to new loci and regulate gene expression. Cross talk among hormone signaling, transcription factors, and epigenetic factors is involved in different types of plant regeneration, suggesting that elegant and complex regulatory mechanisms control which type of regeneration is triggered in plants under different circumstances. Since regeneration is initiated by wounding, identification of the wound signal is an important objective for future research.
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Suppression of CUGBP1 inhibits growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Clin Invest Med
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The multifunctional RNA-binding protein, CUGBP1, regulates splicing, stability and translation of mRNAs. Previous studies have shown that CUGBP1 is expressed at high levels in the liver, although its role in hepatocellular carcinoma is unknown. Our aim was to determine if CUGBP1 could regulate hepatocellular carcinoma growth.
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ISWI proteins participate in the genome-wide nucleosome distribution in Arabidopsis.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Chromatin is a highly organized structure with repetitive nucleosome subunits. Nucleosome distribution patterns, which contain information on epigenetic controls, are dynamically affected by ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors (remodelers). However, whether plants have specific nucleosome distribution patterns and how plant remodelers contribute to the pattern formation are not clear. In this study we used the micrococcal nuclease digestion followed by deep sequencing (MNase-seq) assay to show the genome-wide nucleosome pattern in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrated that the nucleosome distribution patterns of Arabidopsis are associated with the gene expression level, and have several specific characteristics that are different from those of animals and yeast. In addition, we found that remodelers in the A. thaliana imitation switch (AtISWI) subfamily are important for the formation of the nucleosome distribution pattern. Double mutations in the AtISWI genes, CHROMATIN REMODELING 11 (CHR11) and CHR17, resulted in the loss of the evenly spaced nucleosome pattern in gene bodies, but did not affect nucleosome density, supporting a previous idea that the primary role of ISWI is to slide nucleosomes in gene bodies for pattern formation.
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Autophagy defects suggested by low levels of autophagy activator MAP1S and high levels of autophagy inhibitor LRPPRC predict poor prognosis of prostate cancer patients.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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MAP1S (originally named C19ORF5) is a widely distributed homolog of neuronal-specific MAP1A and MAP1B, and bridges autophagic components with microtubules and mitochondria to affect autophagosomal biogenesis and degradation. Mitochondrion-associated protein LRPPRC functions as an inhibitor for autophagy initiation to protect mitochondria from autophagy degradation. MAP1S and LRPPRC interact with each other and may collaboratively regulate autophagy although the underlying mechanism is yet unknown. Previously, we have reported that LRPPRC levels serve as a prognosis marker of patients with prostate adenocarcinomas (PCA), and that patients with high LRPPRC levels survive a shorter period after surgery than those with low levels of LRPPRC. MAP1S levels are elevated in diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocelular carcinomas in wildtype mice and the exposed MAP1S-deficient mice develop more malignant hepatocellular carcinomas. We performed immunochemical analysis to evaluate the co-relationship among the levels of MAP1S, LRPPRC, P62, and ?-H2AX. Samples were collected from wildtype and prostate-specific PTEN-deficient mice, 111 patients with PCA who had been followed up for 10 years and 38 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia enrolled in hospitals in Guangzhou, China. The levels of MAP1S were generally elevated so the MAP1S-mediated autophagy was activated in PCA developed in either PTEN-deficient mice or patients than their respective benign tumors. The MAP1S levels among patients with PCA vary dramatically, and patients with low MAP1S levels survive a shorter period than those with high MAP1S levels. Levels of MAP1S in collaboration with levels of LRPPRC can serve as markers for prognosis of prostate cancer patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in SGC?7901 human gastric cancer cells by evodiamine.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Evodiamine is one of the major bioactive compounds isolated and purified from the fruit of Fructus Evodiae. Numerous studies have indicated that evodiamine exhibits activity against human tumor cells. In the present study, the effect of evodiamine on the proliferation and apoptosis of SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells and the correlative mechanisms were investigated. This may provide further experimental evidence of the pharmacological actions of evodiamine and a strategy for its use as a novel chemotherapeutic drug. Following treatment with evodiamine, the typical morphological changes of apoptosis were observed in human SGC-7901 cells. Cell cycle analysis indicated that evodiamine induced G2/M phase arrest in SGC-7901 cells and flow cytometry revealed that evodiamine induced apoptosis. Analysis of the enzymatic activity demonstrated that evodiamine increased the activity of caspase-3, -8 and -9 in SGC-7901 cells. The protein expression of caspase-3, -8 and -9 and Bax increased, and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased following treatment with evodiamine. These results suggest that evodiamine is able to inhibit the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells by inhibiting the cell cycle at G2/M phase and inducing apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells by activating caspase-3, -8 and -9, and altering the expression of caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2.
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Arsenic uptake by rice is influenced by microbe-mediated arsenic redox changes in the rhizosphere.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Arsenic (As) uptake by rice is largely determined by As speciation, which is strongly influenced by microbial activities. However, little is known about interactions between root and rhizosphere microbes, particularly on arsenic oxidation and reduction. In this study, two rice cultivars with different radial oxygen loss (ROL) ability were used to investigate the impact of microbially mediated As redox changes in the rhizosphere on As uptake. Results showed that the cultivar with higher ROL (Yangdao) had lower As uptake than that with lower ROL (Nongken). The enhancement of the rhizospheric effect on the abundance of the arsenite (As(III)) oxidase gene (aroA-like) was greater than on the arsenate (As(V)) reductase gene (arsC), and As(V) respiratory reductase gene (arrA), resulting in As oxidation and sequestration in the rhizosphere, particularly for cultivar Yangdao. The community of As(III)-oxidizing bacteria in the rhizosphere was dominated by ?-Proteobacteria and ?-Proteobacteria and was influenced by rhizospheric effects, rice straw application, growth stage, and cultivar. Application of rice straw into the soil increased As release and accumulation into rice plants. These results highlighted that uptake of As by rice is influenced by microbial processes, especially As oxidation in the rhizosphere, and these processes are influenced by root ROL and organic matter application.
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Ability of recombinant human catalase to suppress inflammation of the murine lung induced by influenza A.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Influenza A virus pandemics and emerging antiviral resistance highlight the urgent need for novel generic pharmacological strategies that reduce both viral replication and inflammation of the lung. We have previously investigated the therapeutic efficacy of recombinant human catalase (rhCAT) against viral pneumonia in mice, but the protection mechanisms involved were not explored. In the present study, we have performed a more in-depth analysis covering survival, lung inflammation, immune cell responses, production of cytokines, and inflammation signaling pathways in mice. Male imprinting control region mice were infected intranasally with high pathogenicity (H1N1) influenza A virus followed by treatment with recombinant human catalase. The administration of rhCAT resulted in a significant reduction in inflammatory cell infiltration (e.g., macrophages and neutrophils), inflammatory cytokine levels (e.g., IL-2, IL-6, TNF-?, IFN-?), the level of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 chemokine and the mRNA levels of toll-like receptors TLR-4, TLR-7, and NF-?B, as well as partially maintaining the activity of the antioxidant enzymes system. These findings indicated that rhCAT might play a key protective role in viral pneumonia of mice via suppression of inflammatory immune responses.
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Elevated levels of mitochondrion-associated autophagy inhibitor LRPPRC are associated with poor prognosis in patients with prostate cancer.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Autophagy has recently been found to play important roles in tumorigenesis and leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat motif-containing protein (LRPPRC) has been identified as an inhibitor that suppresses autophagy and mitophagy and maintains mitochondrial activity. The authors hypothesized that LRPPRC levels can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer.
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Cytoneme-mediated contact-dependent transport of the Drosophila decapentaplegic signaling protein.
Science
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Decapentaplegic (Dpp), a Drosophila morphogen signaling protein, transfers directly at synapses made at sites of contact between cells that produce Dpp and cytonemes that extend from recipient cells. The Dpp that cytonemes receive moves together with activated receptors toward the recipient cell body in motile puncta. Genetic loss-of-function conditions for diaphanous, shibire, neuroglian, and capricious perturbed cytonemes by reducing their number or only the synapses they make with cells they target, and reduced cytoneme-mediated transport of Dpp and Dpp signaling. These experiments provide direct evidence that cells use cytonemes to exchange signaling proteins, that cytoneme-based exchange is essential for signaling and normal development, and that morphogen distribution and signaling can be contact-dependent, requiring cytoneme synapses.
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A simple method suitable to study de novo root organogenesis.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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De novo root organogenesis is the process in which adventitious roots regenerate from detached or wounded plant tissues or organs. In tissue culture, appropriate types and concentrations of plant hormones in the medium are critical for inducing adventitious roots. However, in natural conditions, regeneration from detached organs is likely to rely on endogenous hormones. To investigate the actions of endogenous hormones and the molecular mechanisms guiding de novo root organogenesis, we developed a simple method to imitate natural conditions for adventitious root formation by culturing Arabidopsis thaliana leaf explants on B5 medium without additive hormones. Here we show that the ability of the leaf explants to regenerate roots depends on the age of the leaf and on certain nutrients in the medium. Based on these observations, we provide examples of how this method can be used in different situations, and how it can be optimized. This simple method could be used to investigate the effects of various physiological and molecular changes on the regeneration of adventitious roots. It is also useful for tracing cell lineage during the regeneration process by differential interference contrast observation of ?-glucuronidase staining, and by live imaging of proteins labeled with fluorescent tags.
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The clinical features of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in Chinese Han population: analysis from 1998 to 2010.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate clinical features of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) in Chinese Han population.
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CaCO3 Precipitation, Transport and Sensing in Porous Media with In Situ Generation of Reactants.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Ureolytically driven calcite precipitation is a promising approach for inducing subsurface mineral precipitation, but engineered application requires the ability to control and predict precipitate distribution. To study the coupling between reactant transport and precipitate distribution, columns with defined zones of immobilized urease were used to examine the distribution of calcium carbonate precipitation along the flow path, at two different initial flow rates. As expected, with slower flow precipitate was concentrated toward the upstream end of the enzyme zone and with higher flow the solid was more uniformly distributed over the enzyme zone. Under constant hydraulic head conditions the flow rate decreased as precipitates decreased porosity and permeability. The hydrolysis/precipitation zone was expected to become compressed in the upstream direction. However, apparent reductions in the urea hydrolysis rate and changes in the distribution of enzyme activity, possibly due to CaCO3 precipitate hindering urea transport to the enzyme, or enzyme mobilization, mitigated reaction zone compression. Co-injected strontium was expected to be sequestered by coprecipitation with CaCO3, but the results suggested that coprecipitation was not an effective sequestration mechanism in this system. In addition, spectral induced polarization (SIP) was used to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of the reaction zone.
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Limited Correlation between Conventional Pathologist and Automatic Computer-assisted Quantification of Hepatic Steatosis due to Difference between Event-based and Surface-based Analysis.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Computer-assisted automatic quantification (CAQ) was developed as an alternative method for diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in order to compensate for observer-dependent bias Here we aim to demonstrate that CAQ can provide an accurate and precise result in analysis of fatty content, but that it is inappropriate to validate CAQ by comparison with a conventional pathologist estimation (PE). Male rats were fed with a methionine-choline-deficient plus high-fat (MCD+HF) diet for 3days, 1week or 2weeks to induce mild, moderate or severe steatosis. Samples were collected from all liver lobes. Severity of hepatic steatosis was assessed by an experienced pathologist who estimated the percentage of hepatocytes containing lipid droplets. Fatty content was quantified by PE, CAQ, and biochemical analysis (BA). CAQ, PE and BA can correctly reflect severe fatty change. However, in the case of mild and moderate steatosis, PE could not reflect the true fatty content (r between PE and BA was <0). The result of CAQ correlated well with that of BA amongst the various degrees of severity of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, due to a difference between event-based and surface-based analysis, it is inappropriate to validate the CAQ of hepatic steatosis by comparison with PE.
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Role of Small Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels in Atrial Electrophysiology and Fibrillation in the Dog.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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Recent evidence points to functional Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) (SK)-channels in the heart that may govern atrial fibrillation (AF) risk, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study addressed the role of SK-channels in atrial repolarization and AF-persistence in a canine AF-model.
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Knockdown of Bmi1 inhibits the stemness properties and tumorigenicity of human bladder cancer stem cell-like side population cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2013
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B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1 (Bmi1) is directly involved in cell growth, proliferation and self-renewal of cancer stem cells (CSCs). The aim of the present study was to assess the role of Bmi1 in the maintenance of stemness properties and tumorigenicity of human bladder CSC-like side population (SP) cells. SP cells were sorted by flow cytometry using Hoechst 33342 staining. Bmi1 mRNA and protein expression in SP and non-SP (NSP) cells was analyzed by quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence and western blotting. The stemness properties of SP cells included cell proliferation, migration, self-renewal, chemotherapy resistance and cell cycle progression were assessed. Tumor formation was also assessed in human bladder cancer xenografts after Bmi1 silencing. The mRNA expression of Bmi1 was upregulated in SP cells when compared with that in the NSP cells. Knockdown of Bmi1 in SP cells resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and tumor sphere formation, enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin, and cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. Bmi1 knockdown inhibited cell cycle progression through derepression of the p16INK4a/p14ARF locus. Bmi1-siRNA SP cells failed to produce tumors in recipient mice, while typical urothelial carcinoma formed from subcutaneously injected scramble-siRNA SP cells. Bmi1 is crucial for the maintenance of stemness properties and tumorigenicity of human bladder CSC-like cells. Bmi1 may be a potential therapeutic target for the eradication of CSCs in bladder cancer.
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Oridonin induces apoptosis in SW1990 pancreatic cancer cells via p53- and caspase-dependent induction of p38 MAPK.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Oridonin, an active component isolated from Rabdosia rubescens, has been reported to exhibit antitumor effects. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor activity and the mechanisms of action of oridonin in pancreatic cancer. Oridonin treatment significantly induced apoptotic cell death in SW1990 pancreatic cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, cell apoptosis was markedly inhibited by PFT ? (pifithrin ?), a p53-specific inhibitor, which was applied to evaluate the function of p53, showing that p53 was responsible for the cytotoxity of oridonin. Moreover, oridonin increased the expression of p-p53 with a concomitant increase in p21 in the SW1990 cells. Following treatment with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors, PD98059 (ERK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), the cytotoxity of oridonin was not influenced by JNK (SP600125) and ERK (PD98059), but these effects were opposite to the cytotoxity of oridonin observed with SP203580 treatment. These findings confirmed that orodonin-induced apoptosis was p38-dependent, but JNK- and ERK-independent. Furthermore, the activation of the p38 kinase promoted the activation of p53 and its downstream target p21, and further caused caspase-9 and -3 activation, as demonstrated by evidence showing that the p38 inhibitor SB203580 not only blocked the phosphorylation of p38 but also reduced the activation of p53, p21 and caspase-9 and -3. Collectively, these results suggest that p53-dependent and caspase-dependent induction of p38 MAPK directly participates in apoptosis induced by oridonin.
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Effects of short interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing of SKA1 on proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the common causes of cancer resulting in death in China. Here, we found that spindle- and kinetochore-associated complex subunit 1 (SKA1) is a critical factor that plays an essential role in the regulation of HCC cell proliferation and apoptosis.
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Quantitative control of ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 expression is critical for leaf axial patterning in Arabidopsis.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2) is one of the key genes required for specifying leaf adaxial identity during leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity establishment. Previous data have shown that, in leaf development, AS2 is directly repressed by an abaxially located transcription factor KANADI1 (KAN1), so that the AS2 transcripts are restricted only in the adaxial leaf domain. It is shown here that, different from the spatial repression by KAN1, the quantitative repression of AS2 in the adaxial domain is also critical for ensuring normal leaf pattern formation. By analysing two gain-of-function as2 mutants, as2-5D and isoginchaku-2D (iso-2D), it is shown that the similar AS2-over-expressed phenotypes of these mutants reflect two different kinds of AS2 misexpression patterns. While as2-5D causes disruption of a KAN1-binding site at the AS2 promoter leading to derepression of AS2 in the abaxial side but without changing its expression level of a leaf, iso-2D results in over-expression of AS2 but without altering its adaxial expression pattern. In addition, it was found that, in iso-2D, levels of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and H3K4me3 at the AS2 locus are significantly reduced and increased, respectively, compared with those in the wild type and as2-5D. These results suggest that during leaf patterning, quantitative control of the AS2 expression level might involve epigenetic regulations.
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Inhibition of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha with etanercept provides protection against lethal H1N1 influenza infection in mice.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Factors implicated in influenza mediated morbidity and mortality include robust cytokine production (cytokine storm), excessive inflammatory infiltrates, and virus induced tissue destruction. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine present during influenza infection, but it is unclear whether direct inhibition of TNF-alpha can elicit protection against influenza infection.
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[Molecular epidemiological analysis of ?- and ?-thalassemia in Fujian province].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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To investigate the gene prevalence and spectrum of alpha- and beta-thalassemia in Fujian province.
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Histones activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in Kupffer cells during sterile inflammatory liver injury.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Cellular processes that drive sterile inflammatory injury after hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are not completely understood. Activation of the inflammasome plays a key role in response to invading intracellular pathogens, but mounting evidence suggests that it also plays a role in inflammation driven by endogenous danger-associate molecular pattern molecules released after ischemic injury. The nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is one such process, and the mechanism by which its activation results in damage and inflammatory responses following liver I/R is unknown. In this article, we report that both NLRP3 and its downstream target caspase-1 are activated during I/R and are essential for hepatic I/R injury, because both NLRP3 and caspase-1 knockout mice are protected from injury. Furthermore, inflammasome-mediated injury is dependent on caspase-1 expression in liver nonparenchymal cells. Although upstream signals that activate the inflammasome during ischemic injury are not well characterized, we show that endogenous extracellular histones activate the NLRP3 inflammasome during liver I/R through TLR9. This occurs through TLR9-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species. This mechanism is operant in resident liver Kupffer cells, which drive innate immune responses after I/R injury by recruiting additional cell types, including neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes. These novel findings illustrate a new mechanism by which extracellular histones and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome contribute to liver damage and the activation of innate immunity during sterile inflammation.
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Construct validity of the chicken crop model in the simulation of laparoscopic pyeloplasty.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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We examined the construct validity (ability to discriminate between experienced and inexperienced subjects) of the chicken crop model in the simulation of laparoscopic pyeloplasty.
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Extraperitoneal transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site radical prostatectomy using a homemade single-port device: 20 cases with midterm outcomes.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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To describe the surgical technique and to report the midterm outcomes of laparoendoscopic single-site radical prostatectomy (LESS-RP) with a homemade single-port device.
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Intravesical hyaluronidase causes chronic cystitis in a rat model: A potential model of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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To determine whether a potential rat model of bladder pain syndrome could be developed through long-term intermittent intravesical hyaluronidase.
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Preventing intra-abdominal adhesions with a sodium hyaluronate carboxymethylcellulose membrane enabled visualization of hepatic microcirculation.
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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We aimed to evaluate whether using sodium hyaluronate carboxymethylcellulose membrane (Seprafilm™) can facilitate assessment of hepatic microcirculation via orthogonal polarization spectroscopy (OPS) by preventing intra-abdominal adhesions and whether Seprafilm™ as a foreign material can evoke local or systemic inflammatory reactions. After the right median hepatic vein was ligated, rats received either placement of Seprafilm™ or untreated with observation of 1 or 4 weeks (n = 6/group). Hepatic microcirculation was visualized. Systemic and local inflammatory reactions were evaluated by blood count, histology and immunohistochemical staining for CD68. Seprafilm™ significantly (P < 0.05) prevented intra-abdominal adhesion formation compared to non-Seprafilm™ groups (adhesion score: 0 vs 1.3 ± 0.5 at POW1 and 0.3 ± 0.5 vs 3.5 ± 1.4 at POW4). Placement of Seprafilm™ provided sufficient liver surface for acquisition of OPS videos during the harvest procedure. Adhesiolysis in non-Seprafilm™ groups prevented visualization of hepatic microcirculation. A severe local foreign body reaction with formation of a "fibrin-like" membrane containing CD68-positive inflammatory histiocytic cells and mesothelial cells was observed in Seprafilm™ groups even at POW4. Use of Seprafilm™ conferred visualization of hepatic microcirculation after long term observation in experimental setting. In clinical situation, we would suggest being very cautious in immuno-compromised patients because of an ongoing local foreign body reaction caused by Seprafilm™.
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Warm temperatures induce transgenerational epigenetic release of RNA silencing by inhibiting siRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Owing to their sessile nature, plants have evolved sophisticated genetic and epigenetic regulatory systems to respond quickly and reversibly to daily and seasonal temperature changes. However, our knowledge of how plants sense and respond to warming ambient temperatures is rather limited. Here we show that an increase in growth temperature from 22 °C to 30 °C effectively inhibited transgene-induced posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, warmth-induced PTGS release exhibited transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. We discovered that the warmth-induced PTGS release occurred during a critical step that leads to the formation of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for producing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Deep sequencing of small RNAs and RNA blot analysis indicated that the 22-30 °C increase resulted in a significant reduction in the abundance of many trans-acting siRNAs that require dsRNA for biogenesis. We discovered that the temperature increase reduced the protein abundance of SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING 3, as a consequence, attenuating the formation of stable dsRNAs required for siRNA biogenesis. Importantly, SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING 3 overexpression released the warmth-triggered inhibition of siRNA biogenesis and reduced the transgenerational epigenetic memory. Thus, our study reveals a previously undescribed association between warming temperatures, an epigenetic system, and siRNA biogenesis.
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Clinical and radiological outcomes after treatment of sagittal fracture of mandibular condyle (SFMC) by using occlusal splint in children.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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This study was designed to investigate the effects of occlusal splints in the treatment of sagittal fractures of the mandibular condyle in children. From January 1995 to December 2011, 37 sagittal fractures of the mandibular condyle in 30 patients aged 4-8 years old were included in this study. All the patients were treated with 1-2mm occlusal splints in the molar region. The mouths of the patients were kept slightly open by the occlusal splints for 3-6 months, and we reviewed the clinical and radiological remodelling of the affected condyles after treatment. Excellent (n=20) and good (n=10) clinical outcomes were achieved with full radiological remodelling seen in 19 and partial remodelling in 11. Treatment with occlusal splints is effective in delivering good results and function with minimal morbidity in children with sagittal fractures of the condyle, while permitting ongoing remodelling and growth in the short term.
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Inhibition of Dengue virus 2 replication by artificial micrornas targeting the conserved regions.
Nucleic Acid Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes serious diseases and threatens public health in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. RNA interference (RNAi) is a prevailing strategy for antiviral therapy. In this paper, 6 single artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) targeting the highly conserved regions of the DENV-2 genome were identified and inhibited virus replication efficiently. Then, effective tandem amiRNAs targeting 2 different DENV-2 genome regions were constructed and expressed simultaneously from a single microRNA-like polycistron to avoid virus variation or mutation escape. Finally, the most high-performance tandem amiRNA was embedded in a lenti-viral vector and inhibited DENV-2 virus replication stably and dose-dependently. Overall, these results indicated that RNAi based on multiple amiRNAs targeting viral conserved regions was an effective approach for improvements of nucleic acid inhibitors of DENV and provided a new therapeutic strategy for DENV infection in humans.
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Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma: a case report.
Contemp Oncol (Pozn)
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) is a rare primary malignant tumor in which both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements occur. It can occur in many different organs and anatomical locations, such as the skin, thyroid gland, bone, urinary tract, breast, pancreas, liver and other areas. Of them, pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) is a rare malignant cancer composed of sarcoma and sarcoma-like tumors with spindle or giant cell features. Here a case of a 75-year-old Chinese man with a six-month history of cough and hemoptysis is reported. Chest X-ray showed a tumor shadow in the left lung field. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed a lobulated mass in his left hilum and even the left pulmonary artery. Pleomorphic interstitial cells were found by bronchoscopic brushing. To establish a definitive diagnosis for PSC, a left pneumonectomy was performed. The pathological stage was IIB (pT2N1M0) based on the tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system. The tumors pathology, histology, immunohistochemistry and treatment methods are discussed.
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The CaMV 35S enhancer has a function to change the histone modification state at insertion loci in Arabidopsis thaliana.
J. Plant Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Chromatin regions with different states usually harbor distinct epigenetic information, through which gene expression is regulated. Recent studies using mammalian cells showed that a chromatin state signature is associated with active developmental enhancers, defined by high levels of histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) and strong depletion of H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). These findings also imply that active enhancers may play a role in creating a chromatin state by changing histone modification markers, which in turn affects gene expression. To explore whether an active enhancer in plants affect histone modifications, we investigated the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S enhancer (35Senh) for understanding its action model in Arabidopsis. We report that the 35Senh has a function to change the histone modification pattern at its presenting loci, by characterization of the 35Senh activated BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP) silencing lines and the randomly selected 35Senh activation tagging lines. By analyzing histone modification markers reflecting the plant chromatin state, we show that the 35Senh is generally correlated with the reduced level of H3K27me3 and the increased level of H3K4me3 at the insertion loci. Our data are consistent with those in mammals and suggest that the enhancer sequence correlating with the active chromatin state signature may be generally present in the eukaryotic kingdom.
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Microbial arsenic methylation in soil and rice rhizosphere.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Methylated arsenic (As) species are a common constituent of rice grains accounting for 10-90% of the total As. Recent studies have shown that higher plants are unlikely to methylate As in vivo suggesting that As methylation is a microbial mediated process that occurs in soils prior to plant uptake. In this study, we designed primers according to the conserved essential amino acids and structural motifs of arsenite S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase (ArsM). We report for the first time the successful amplification of the prokaryotic arsM gene in 14 tested soils with wide ranging As concentrations. The abundance and diversity of the arsM gene in the rice rhizosphere soil and roots were analyzed using the designed primers. Results showed that microbes containing arsM genes were phylogenetically diverse, as revealed by the clone library and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, and were branched into various phyla. Concentration of methylated As species in the soil solution was elevated in the rhizosphere soil and also by the addition of rice straw into the paddy soil, corresponding to the elevated abundance of the arsM gene in the soil. These results, together with evidence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of the arsM gene, suggest the genes encoding ArsM in soils are widespread. These findings demonstrate why most rice, when compared with other cereals, contains unusually high concentrations of methylated As species.
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Acetylation-mediated proteasomal degradation of core histones during DNA repair and spermatogenesis.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Histone acetylation plays critical roles in chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, and epigenetic regulation of gene expression, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Proteasomes usually catalyze ATP- and polyubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Here, we show that the proteasomes containing the activator PA200 catalyze the polyubiquitin-independent degradation of histones. Most proteasomes in mammalian testes ("spermatoproteasomes") contain a spermatid/sperm-specific ? subunit ?4 s/PSMA8 and/or the catalytic ? subunits of immunoproteasomes in addition to PA200. Deletion of PA200 in mice abolishes acetylation-dependent degradation of somatic core histones during DNA double-strand breaks and delays core histone disappearance in elongated spermatids. Purified PA200 greatly promotes ATP-independent proteasomal degradation of the acetylated core histones, but not polyubiquitinated proteins. Furthermore, acetylation on histones is required for their binding to the bromodomain-like regions in PA200 and its yeast ortholog, Blm10. Thus, PA200/Blm10 specifically targets the core histones for acetylation-mediated degradation by proteasomes, providing mechanisms by which acetylation regulates histone degradation, DNA repair, and spermatogenesis.
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SLIDE, the protein interacting domain of Imitation Switch remodelers, binds DDT-domain proteins of different subfamilies in chromatin remodeling complexes.
J Integr Plant Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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The Imitation Switch (ISWI) type adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling factors are conserved proteins in eukaryotes, and some of them are known to form stable remodeling complexes with members from a family of proteins, termed DDT-domain proteins. Although it is well documented that ISWIs play important roles in different biological processes in many eukaryotic species, the molecular basis for protein interactions in ISWI complexes has not been fully addressed. Here, we report the identification of interaction domains for both ISWI and DDT-domain proteins. By analyzing CHROMATIN REMODELING11 (CHR11) and RINGLET1 (RLT1), an Arabidopsis thaliana ISWI (AtISWI) and AtDDT-domain protein, respectively, we show that the SLIDE domain of CHR11 and the DDT domain together with an adjacent sequence of RLT1 are responsible for their binding. The Arabidopsis genome contains at least 12 genes that encode DDT-domain proteins, which could be grouped into five subfamilies based on the sequence similarity. The SLIDE domain of AtISWI is able to bind members from different AtDDT subfamilies. Moreover, a human ISWI protein SNF2H is capable of binding AtDDT-domain proteins through its SLIDE domain, suggesting that binding to DDT-domain proteins is a conserved biochemical function for the SLIDE domain of ISWIs in eukaryotes.
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The "visual dilator system": initial experimental evaluation of an optical tract dilation technique in percutaneous nephrolithotomy.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Ascertaining the optimal depth of dilator progression is a crucial factor during tract dilation in percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Dilation is generally guided under fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, or combination of both techniques, and it is still difficult to prevent overdilation causing perforation and vascular injury or underdilation causing difficulty in establishment of access. Thus, improvements in dilation technique bears clinical significance. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility in an animal model of using the "visual dilator system" for optimal percutaneous tract dilation under real-time visual guidance.
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Molecular electric transducers as motion sensors: a review.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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This article reviews the development of a new category of motion sensors including linear and angular accelerometers and seismometers based on molecular electronic transducer (MET) technology. This technology utilizes a liquid not only as an inertial mass, but also as one of the main elements in the conversion of mechanical motion into electric current. The amplification process is similar to that in a vacuum triode. Therefore, it is possible to achieve signal amplification close to 10(8). Motion sensors demonstrating wide frequency and dynamic range and sensitivity that are one to two orders of magnitude better than MEMS devices of the same size have been developed.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.