The Arg188His polymorphism in the XRCC2 gene has been suggested as a risk factor for cancer with inconclusive results. The aim of the current study is to investigate the association between the polymorphism with of cancer by meta-analysis. A total of 33 case-control studies from 27 publications were included for data analyses. The results suggested that the Arg188His polymorphism was not associated with increased/decreased risk of cancer in total analysis (Arg/His+His/His vs. Arg/Arg: OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.91-1.06). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, no statistical significant association was found in Europeans. In the subgroup analysis by cancer types, statistical significant association was found in ovarian cancer but not in other cancers. The current meta-analysis indicated that the Arg188His polymorphism in the XRCC2 gene might be a risk factor for ovarian cancer. In the future, more large-scale case-control studies are needed to validate our results.
The Lys751Gln polymorphism in the XPD gene have been suggested as a risk factor for bladder cancer, however the results were inconclusive. The aim of the current study is to assess the association by meta-analysis. A total of 15 case-control studies concerning the association between the XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and bladder cancer risk were included in the meta-analysis. The results suggested that the Lys751Gln polymorphism was not associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in the dominant model (OR = 1.03, 95 % CI 0.95-1.11, P = 0.53 for Lys/Gln+Gln/Gln vs. Lys/Lys) in overall analysis. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, no significant association was found in Caucasians or Asians. Other comparatives suggested a slight significant association between the polymorphism with the risk of bladder cancer in the recessive comparative (OR = 1.14, 95 % CI 1.02-1.29, P = 0.03). The current meta-analysis indicated that the Lys751Gln polymorphism in the XPD gene might be a risk factor for bladder cancer. In the future, more large-scale case-control studies are needed to validate our results.
Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful technique to investigate comparative gene expression. In general, normalization of results using a highly stable housekeeping gene (HKG) as an internal control is recommended and necessary. However, there are several reports suggesting that regulation of some HKGs is affected by different conditions. The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of corn in the United States and Europe. The expression profile of target genes related to insecticide exposure, resistance, and RNA interference has become an important experimental technique for study of western corn rootworms; however, lack of information on reliable HKGs under different conditions makes the interpretation of qRT-PCR results difficult. In this study, four distinct algorithms (Genorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and delta-CT) and five candidate HKGs to genes of reference (?-actin; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; ?-tubulin; RPS9, ribosomal protein S9; EF1a, elongation factor-1?) were evaluated to determine the most reliable HKG under different experimental conditions including exposure to dsRNA and Bt toxins and among different tissues and developmental stages. Although all the HKGs tested exhibited relatively stable expression among the different treatments, some differences were noted. Among the five candidate reference genes evaluated, ?-actin exhibited highly stable expression among different life stages. RPS9 exhibited the most similar pattern of expression among dsRNA treatments, and both experiments indicated that EF1a was the second most stable gene. EF1a was also the most stable for Bt exposure and among different tissues. These results will enable researchers to use more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in WCR experiments.
Cellulose is an important nutritional resource for a number of insect herbivores. Digestion of cellulose and other polysaccharides in plant-based diets requires several types of enzymes including a number of glycoside hydrolase (GH) families. In a previous study, we showed that a single GH45 gene is present in the midgut tissue of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). However, the presence of multiple enzymes was also suggested by the lack of a significant biological response when the expression of the gene was silenced by RNA interference. In order to clarify the repertoire of cellulose-degrading enzymes and related GH family proteins in D. v. virgifera, we performed next-generation sequencing and assembled transcriptomes from the tissue of three different developmental stages (eggs, neonates, and third instar larvae). Results of this study revealed the presence of seventy-eight genes that potentially encode GH enzymes belonging to eight families (GH45, GH48, GH28, GH16, GH31, GH27, GH5, and GH1). The numbers of GH45 and GH28 genes identified in D. v. virgifera are among the largest in insects where these genes have been identified. Three GH family genes (GH45, GH48, and GH28) are found almost exclusively in two coleopteran superfamilies (Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea) among insects, indicating the possibility of their acquisitions by horizontal gene transfer rather than simple vertical transmission from ancestral lineages of insects. Acquisition of GH genes by horizontal gene transfers and subsequent lineage-specific GH gene expansion appear to have played important roles for phytophagous beetles in specializing on particular groups of host plants and in the case of D. v. virgifera, its close association with maize.
Transgenic corn hybrids that express toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis has suppressed European corn borer populations and reduced the pest status of this insect throughout much of the U.S. Corn Belt. A major assumption of the high-dose/refuge strategy proposed for insect resistance management and Bt corn is that the frequency of resistance alleles is low so that resistant pests surviving exposure to Bt corn will be rare.
The associations between the polymorphisms in Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4) gene and Graves disease (GD) have been extensively investigated in Chinese population. However, the results were inconsistent. The objective of this study is to investigate the associations between the polymorphisms in CTLA-4 gene and the risk of GD by meta-analysis.
Polymorphisms in the MGMT gene have been implicated in susceptibility to cancer, but the published studies have reported inconclusive results. The objective of the current study was to investigate the genetic risk of polymorphisms in the MGMT gene for cancer. A meta-analysis was carried out to analyze the association between polymorphisms in the MGMT gene and cancer risk. Five polymorphisms (Leu84Phe, Leu53Leu, Ile143Val, Lys178Arg, and -485C/A) with 98 case-control studies from 49 articles were analyzed. The results indicated that individuals who carried the Phe/Phe homozygote genotype of Leu84Phe had a 31 % increased risk of cancer compared with the Leu allele (Leu + Leu/Phe) carriers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.32, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-1.52, P < 0.0001 for Phe/Phe vs. Phe/Leu + Leu/Leu). However, there was no significant association between the risk of cancer and the other four polymorphisms (Leu53Leu, Ile143Val, Lys178Arg, and -485C/A). In further stratified analyses for the Leu84Phe and Ile143Val polymorphisms, the increased risk of cancer remained in subgroups of Caucasians, patients with esophageal cancer for the Leu84Phe polymorphism, and patients with lung cancer for the Ile143Val polymorphism. Results from the current meta-analysis suggested that Leu84Phe and Ile143Val in the MGMT gene are risk factors for cancer. In the future, more studies should be performed to validate our results.
The poly(A) polymorphism (L/S) in the VDR gene has been implicated in susceptibility of cancer, but a number of studies have reported inconclusive results. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the poly(A) polymorphism in the VDR gene and cancer risk by meta-analysis. We searched PubMed database, EMBASE database, CNKI database, and Wanfang database, covering all studies until January 22, 2013. Statistical analysis was performed by using the software Revman4.2 and STATA 10.0. A total 8,186 cancer cases and 8,685 controls in 19 case-control studies from 15 studies were identified for data analysis. The results suggested that the S allele carriers (SS+SL) did not have an increased or decreased risk of cancer when compared with the homozygote LL carriers (odds ratio (OR)?=0.96, 95 % CI=0.87-1.06, P=0.43 for SS+SL vs. LL). In addition, in the subgroup analysis by ethnicity and cancer type, no significant association was found among Caucasians, African-Americans, prostate cancer, or breast cancer. This current meta-analysis suggested that the poly(A) polymorphism in the VDR gene may not contribute to the risk of cancer. Future studies are needed to validate our findings.
The Cdx-2 polymorphism in VDR gene has been extensively investigated for association with cancer risk, however, results of different studies have been inconsistent. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship of the Cdx-2 polymorphism in VDR and cancer risk by meta-analysis. All eligible case-control studies were searched in Pubmed, Embase, CNKI and Wanfang databases. Odds ratios (OR) with the 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the association. A total of 12,906 cases and 13,700 controls in 18 case-control studies were included. The results indicated that the AA homozygote carriers had a 16 % increased risk of cancer, when compared with the homozygote GG and heterozygote AG (OR = 1.16, 95 % CI 1.05-1.29 for AA vs. GG+AG). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significant elevated risks were associated with AA homozygote carriers in Caucasians (OR = 1.16, 95 % CI 1.01-1.33, and P = 0.04) and African Americans (OR = 1.31, 95 % CI 1.07-1.61, and P = 0.01). In the subgroup analysis by cancer types, the polymorphism was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.23, 95 % CI 1.04-1.46, and P = 0.02). This meta-analysis suggested that the Cdx-2 polymorphism of VDR gene would be a risk factor for cancer. To further evaluate gene-to-gene and gene-to-environmental interactions between polymorphisms of VDR gene and cancer risk, more studies with large groups of patients are required.
The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an introduced crop pest in North America that causes major damage to corn and reduces yield of food, feed, and biofuel materials. The Cry1F toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic hybrid corn is highly toxic to O. nubilalis larvae and effective in minimizing feeding damage. A laboratory colony of O. nubilalis was selected for high levels of Cry1F resistance (>12,000-fold compared to susceptible larvae) and is capable of survival on transgenic hybrid corn. Genetic linkage maps with segregating AFLP markers show that the Cry1F resistance trait is controlled by a single quantitative trait locus (QTL) on linkage group 12. The map position of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers indicated that midgut Bt toxin-receptor genes, alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase N, and cadherin, are not linked with the Cry1F QTL. Evidence suggests that genes within this genome interval may give rise to a novel Bt toxin resistance trait for Lepidoptera that appears independent of known receptor-based mechanisms of resistance.
DNA extraction is a routine step in many insect molecular studies. A variety of methods have been used to isolate DNA molecules from insects, and many commercial kits are available. Extraction methods need to be evaluated for their efficiency, cost, and side effects such as DNA degradation during extraction.
Arginine kinase (AK), a primary enzyme in cell metabolism and adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP)-consuming processes, plays an important role in cellular energy metabolism and maintaining constant ATP levels in invertebrate cells. In order to identify genes that are differentially expressed between larvae and adults, queens and workers, and female alates (winged) and queens (wingless), AK cDNA was obtained from the red imported fire ant. The cDNA sequence of the gene has open reading frames of 1065 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 355 amino acid residues that includes the substrate recognition region, the signature sequence pattern of ATP:guanidino kinases, and an "actinin-type" actin binding domain. Northern blot analysis and protein activity analysis demonstrated that the expression of the AK gene and its protein activity were developmentally, caste specifically, and tissue specifically regulated in red imported fire ants with a descending order of worker> alate (winged adult) female> alate (winged adult) male> larvae> worker pupae approximately alate pupae. These results suggest a different demand for energy-consumption and production in the different castes of the red imported fire ant, which may be linked to their different missions and physiological activities in the colonies. The highest level of the AK gene expression and activity was identified in head tissue of both female alates and workers and thorax tissue of workers, followed by thorax tissue of female alates and abdomen tissue of male alates, suggesting the main tissues or cells in these body parts, such as brain, neurons and muscles, which have been identified as the major tissues and/or cells that display high and variable rates of energy turnover in other organisms, play a key role in energy production and its utilization in the fire ant. In contrast, in the male alate, the highest AK expression and activity were found in the abdomen, suggesting that here energy demand may relate to sperm formation and reproduction.
Feeding damage caused by the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is destructive to corn plants in North America and Europe where control remains challenging due to evolution of resistance to chemical and transgenic toxins. A BAC library, DvvBAC1, containing 109,486 clones with 104 ± 34.5?kb inserts was created, which has an ~4.56X genome coverage based upon a 2.58?Gb (2.80?pg) flow cytometry-estimated haploid genome size. Paired end sequencing of 1037 BAC inserts produced 1.17?Mb of data (~0.05% genome coverage) and indicated ~9.4 and 16.0% of reads encode, respectively, endogenous genes and transposable elements (TEs). Sequencing genes within BAC full inserts demonstrated that TE densities are high within intergenic and intron regions and contribute to the increased gene size. Comparison of homologous genome regions cloned within different BAC clones indicated that TE movement may cause haplotype variation within the inbred strain. The data presented here indicate that the D. virgifera virgifera genome is large in size and contains a high proportion of repetitive sequence. These BAC sequencing methods that are applicable for characterization of genomes prior to sequencing may likely be valuable resources for genome annotation as well as scaffolding.
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