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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Identifying the distinct features of geometric structures for hole trapping to generate radicals on rutile TiO2(110) in photooxidation using density functional theory calculations with hybrid functional.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Using density functional theory calculations with HSE 06 functional, we obtained the structures of spin-polarized radicals on rutile TiO2(110), which is crucial to understand the photooxidation at the atomic level, and further calculate the thermodynamic stabilities of these radicals. By analyzing the results, we identify the structural features for hole trapping in the system, and reveal the mutual effects among the geometric structures, the energy levels of trapped hole states and their hole trapping capacities. Furthermore, the results from HSE 06 functional are compared to those from DFT + U and the stability trend of radicals against the number of slabs is tested. The effect of trapped holes on two important steps of the oxygen evolution reaction, i.e. water dissociation and the oxygen removal, is investigated and discussed.
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Construction of a genetic map of sunflower using a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs).
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A genetic linkage map of sunflower was constructed by combined applying the SSR and AFLP markers using 187 F5:6 individuals of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) which derived from the cross between Helianthus annuus K55 and Helianthus annuus K58 through single-seed descent (SSD). Using 78 pairs of SSR primers and 48 pairs of AFLP primer, 341 and 1119 bands were amplified, respectively. Among these 1460 bands, 557 bands (39.52%) were polymorphic, including 184 bands by SSR markers and 393 bands by AFLP markers. In the group of these polymorphic bands, 84 bands from SSR markers and 108 bands from AFLP markers showed the genetic distortion (P = 0.05). A total of 192 segregation distortion markers were obtained in this study. By using the JoinMap 4.0 software to do the linkage analysis, a genetic linkage map was established with length of 2759.4 cM, consisted of 17 linkage groups, and comprised of 495 polymorphic molecular markers including 170 segregation distortion markers. The mean marker interval distance is 5.57 cM between markers. In addition, the number of markers in the linkage groups varied from 5 to 72, and the length of linkage groups were from 68.88 cM to 250.17 cM. The genetic map developed in the present study could be used for QTL mapping and gene cloning of sunflower important genes.
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Catalytic Diamination of Olefins via N-N Bond Activation.
Acc. Chem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Conspectus Vicinal diamines are important structural motifs present in various biologically and chemically significant molecules. Direct diamination of olefins provides an effective approach to this class of compounds. Unlike well-established oxidation processes such as epoxidation, dihydroxylation, and aminohydroxylation, direct diamination of olefins had remained a long-standing challenge and had been less well developed. In this Account, we summarize our recent studies on Pd(0)- and Cu(I)-catalyzed diaminations of olefins using di-tert-butyldiaziridinone and its related analogues as nitrogen sources via N-N bond activation. A wide variety of imidazolidinones, cyclic sulfamides, indolines, imidazolinones, and cyclic guanidines can be obtained from conjugated dienes and terminal olefins. For conjugated dienes, the diamination proceeds regioselectively at the internal double bond with the Pd(0) catalyst. Mechanistic studies show that the diamination likely involves a four-membered Pd(II) species resulting from the insertion of Pd(0) into the N-N bond of di-tert-butyldiaziridinone. Interestingly, the Cu(I)-catalyzed process occurs regioselectively at either the terminal or internal double bond depending on the reaction conditions via two mechanistically distinct pathways. The Cu(I) catalyst cleaves the N-N bond of di-tert-butyldiaziridinone to form a Cu(II) nitrogen radical and a four-membered Cu(III) species, which are likely in rapid equilibrium. The Cu(II) nitrogen radical and the four-membered Cu(III) species lead to the terminal and internal diamination, respectively. Terminal olefins are effectively C-H diaminated at the allylic and homoallylic carbons with Pd(0) as catalyst and di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as nitrogen source, likely involving a diene intermediate generated in situ from the terminal olefin via formation of a ?-allyl Pd complex and subsequent ?-hydride elimination. When di-tert-butylthiadiaziridine 1,1-dioxide is used as nitrogen source, cyclic sulfamides are installed at the terminal carbons via a dehydrogenative diamination process. When ?-methylstyrenes (lacking homoallylic hydrogens) react with Pd(0) and di-tert-butyldiaziridinone, spirocyclic indolines are formed with generation of four C-N bonds and one spiro quaternary carbon via allylic and aromatic C-H amination. With Cu(I) catalysts, various terminal olefins can be effectively diaminated at the double bonds using di-tert-butyldiaziridinone, di-tert-butylthiadiaziridine 1,1-dioxide, and 1,2-di-tert-butyl-3-(cyanimino)-diaziridine as nitrogen sources, giving a variety of imidazolidinones, cyclic sulfamides, and cyclic guanidines in good yields, respectively. In the case of monosubstituted olefins using di-tert-butyldiaziridinone as nitrogen source, the resulting diamination products (imidazolidinones) are readily dehydrogenated under the reaction conditions, leading to the corresponding imidazolinones in good yields. Esters can also be diaminated to form the corresponding hydantoins with di-tert-butyldiaziridinone in the presence of a Cu(I) catalyst. A radical mechanism is likely to be operating in these Cu(I)-catalyzed reaction processes. Asymmetric processes have also been developed for the Pd(0)- and Cu(I)-catalyzed diamination reactions. Biologically active compounds such as (+)-CP-99,994 and Sch 425078 have been synthesized via the diamination processes. The diamination reactions described herein provide efficient methods to access a wide variety of vicinal diamines from readily available olefins and show great potential for synthetic applications.
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Measurement of large discontinuities using single white light interferogram.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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White light interferometry is a widely used tool to extend the unambiguous measurement range of a monochromatic interferometer. In this work, we discuss Hilbert transformation analysis of a single white light interferogram acquired with a single-chip color CCD camera for step height measurement which lies beyond the unambiguous range of the monochromatic interferometry. The color interferogram is decomposed and phase maps for red, green, and blue components are calculated independently using Hilbert transformation. This procedure makes the measurement faster, simpler, and cost-effective. The usefulness of the technique is demonstrated on micro-sample.
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Asymmetric synthesis of axially chiral anilides by Pd-catalyzed allylic substitutions with P/olefin ligands.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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As an attractive class of non-biaryl atropisomeric compounds, C-N axially chiral anilides have received considerable attention, and several methods have been successfully developed for their synthesis. Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic amination was proved to be an effective approach for the chiral anilide synthesis, although only moderate enantioselectivity and relatively narrow substrate scope have been achieved in the previous work. Searching for highly efficient methods for the synthesis of axially chiral anilides is therefore of great interest in synthetic and pharmaceutical chemistry. In this paper, a palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution of ortho-substituted anilides using phosphorus amidite-olefin ligands was successfully achieved to afford a variety of axially chiral anilides in high yields with up to 84% ee. The absolute configurations of chiral anilides were also determined from X-ray and CD spectra.
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Janus ultrathin film from multi-level self-assembly at air-water interfaces.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Ultrathin free-standing Janus films were fabricated at air-water interfaces using azopyridine derivatives and poly(acrylic acid) via multi-level self-assembly on molecular and microscopic scales, which showed distinct asymmetric water wetting abilities on different surfaces.
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The evolutionary history and spatiotemporal dynamics of the fever, thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia syndrome virus (FTLSV) in China.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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In 2007, a novel bunyavirus was found in Henan Province, China and named fever, thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia syndrome virus (FTLSV); since then, FTLSV has been found in ticks and animals in many Chinese provinces. Human-to-human transmission has been documented, indicating that FTLSV should be considered a potential public health threat. Determining the historical spread of FTLSV could help curtail its spread and prevent future movement of this virus.
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A Highly cis-Selective and Enantioselective Metal-Free Hydrogenation of 2,3-Disubstituted Quinoxalines.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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A wide range of 2,3-disubstituted quinoxalines have been successfully hydrogenated with H2 using borane catalysts to produce the desired tetrahydroquinoxalines in 80-99?% yields with excellent cis selectivity. Significantly, the asymmetric reaction employing chiral borane catalysts generated by the in situ hydroboration of chiral dienes with HB(C6 F5 )2 under mild reaction conditions has also been achieved with up to 96?% ee, and represents the first catalytic asymmetric system to furnish optically active cis-2,3-disubstituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoxalines.
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Thermal conductivity of a single Bi?.?Sb?.?Te? single-crystalline nanowire.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Single-crystalline Bi?.?Sb?.?Te? nanowires were fabricated by a template-assisted pulsed electrodeposition technique; the thermal conductivity of a single Bi?.?Sb?.?Te? nanowire of different diameters was characterized through a self-heating 3 ? method. The temperature-dependent resistance measurements prove the semiconductor behavior of the nanowires. The extremely low thermal conductivity of the nanowires was found compared with the corresponding bulk, and the Umklapp peaks shift to a higher temperature as the decreasing nanowire's diameter decreases, which qualitatively agrees with the theoretical calculations based on the Callaway model. The boundary scattering plays an important role in the reduction of the thermal conductivity and in the shift of the Umklapp peak of the Bi?.?Sb?.?Te? nanowires.
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A highly enantioselective hydrogenation of silyl enol ethers catalyzed by chiral frustrated Lewis pairs.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Using a simple combination of tri-tert-butylphosphine and chiral borane generated in situ by the hydroboration of chiral diene with HB(C6F5)2 as a frustrated Lewis pair catalyst, a highly enantioselective metal-free hydrogenation of silyl enol ethers was successfully realized to furnish a variety of optically active secondary alcohols in 93-99% yields with 88->99% ee's.
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The HIRA complex that deposits the histone H3.3 is conserved in Arabidopsis and facilitates transcriptional dynamics.
Biol Open
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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In animals, replication-independent incorporation of nucleosomes containing the histone variant H3.3 enables global reprogramming of histone modifications and transcriptional profiles. H3.3 enrichment over gene bodies correlates with gene transcription in animals and plants. In animals, H3.3 is deposited into chromatin by specific protein complexes, including the HIRA complex. H3.3 variants evolved independently and acquired similar properties in animals and plants, questioning how the H3.3 deposition machinery evolved in plants and what are its biological functions. We performed phylogenetic analyses in the plant kingdom and identified in Arabidopsis all orthologs of human genes encoding members of the HIRA complex. Genetic analyses, biochemical data and protein localisation suggest that these proteins form a complex able to interact with H3.3 in Arabidopsis in a manner similar to that described in mammals. In contrast to animals, where HIRA is required for fertilization and early development, loss of function of HIRA in Arabidopsis causes mild phenotypes in the adult plant and does not perturb sexual reproduction and embryogenesis. Rather, HIRA function is required for transcriptional reprogramming during dedifferentiation of plant cells that precedes vegetative propagation and for the appropriate transcription of genes responsive to biotic and abiotic factors. We conclude that the molecular function of the HIRA complex is conserved between plants and animals. Yet plants diversified HIRA functions to enable asexual reproduction and responsiveness to the environment in response to the plant sessile lifestyle.
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Integrating atomic layer deposition and ultra-high vacuum physical vapor deposition for in situ fabrication of tunnel junctions.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a promising technique for growing ultrathin, pristine dielectrics on metal substrates, which is essential to many electronic devices. Tunnel junctions are an excellent example which require a leak-free, ultrathin dielectric tunnel barrier of typical thickness around 1 nm between two metal electrodes. A challenge in the development of ultrathin dielectric tunnel barriers using ALD is controlling the nucleation of dielectrics on metals with minimal formation of native oxides at the metal surface for high-quality interfaces between the tunnel barrier and metal electrodes. This poses a critical need for integrating ALD with ultra-high vacuum (UHV) physical vapor deposition. In order to address these challenges, a viscous-flow ALD chamber was designed and interfaced to an UHV magnetron sputtering chamber via a load lock. A sample transportation system was implemented for in situ sample transfer between the ALD, load lock, and sputtering chambers. Using this integrated ALD-UHV sputtering system, superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Nb-Al/Al2O2/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions were fabricated with tunnel barriers of thickness varied from sub-nm to ~1 nm. The suitability of using an Al wetting layer for initiation of the ALD Al2O3 tunnel barrier was investigated with ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and electrical transport measurements. With optimized processing conditions, leak-free SIS tunnel junctions were obtained, demonstrating the viability of this integrated ALD-UHV sputtering system for the fabrication of tunnel junctions and devices comprised of metal-dielectric-metal multilayers.
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Sliding filaments and mitotic spindle organization.
Nat. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Mitosis depends upon the action of the mitotic spindle, a subcellular machine that uses microtubules (MTs) and motors to assemble itself and to coordinate chromosome segregation. Recent work illuminates how the motor-driven poleward sliding of MTs - nucleated at centrosomes, chromosomes and on pre-existing MTs - contributes to spindle assembly and length control.
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Dietary rice bran protects against rotavirus diarrhea and promotes Th1-type immune responses to human rotavirus vaccine in gnotobiotic pigs.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Rice bran (RB) contains a distinct stoichiometry of phytochemicals that can promote gut mucosal immune responses against enteric pathogens. The effects of RB on rotavirus diarrhea and immunogenicity of an attenuated human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine were evaluated in gnotobiotic pigs. The four treatment groups studied were RB plus vaccine, vaccine only, RB only, and mock control. Pigs in the RB groups were fed the amount of RB that replaced 10% of the pigs' total daily calorie intake from milk starting from 5 days of age until they were euthanized. Pigs in the vaccine groups were orally inoculated with two doses of the attenuated HRV vaccine. A subset of pigs from each group was orally challenged with the homologous virulent HRV on postinoculation day 28. Diarrhea and virus shedding were monitored daily from postchallenge day 0 to day 7. RB feeding significantly protected against diarrhea upon virulent HRV challenge and enhanced the protective rate of the vaccine against rotavirus diarrhea. Consistent with protection, RB significantly increased gamma interferon (IFN-?)-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses in intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues. Furthermore, RB also increased the number of total IgM- and IgA-secreting cells, total serum IgM, IgG, and IgA titers, and HRV-specific IgA titers in intestinal contents. RB reduced the numbers of intestinal and systemic HRV-specific IgA and IgG antibody-secreting cells and reduced serum HRV-specific IgA and IgG antibody titers before the challenge. These results demonstrate clear beneficial effects of RB in protection against rotavirus diarrhea and stimulation of nonspecific and HRV-specific immune responses, as well as its biased Th1-type adjuvant effect for the vaccine.
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Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: Results from a Pilot Randomized Trial.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot randomized trial of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) versus psychosocial treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BP). Methods: We recruited participants 12-18 years of age with a primary BP diagnosis (I, II, or operationalized not otherwise specified [NOS] criteria) from a pediatric specialty clinic. Eligible patients were assigned using a 2:1 randomization structure to either DBT (n=14) or psychosocial TAU (n=6). All patients received medication management from a study-affiliated psychiatrist. DBT included 36 sessions (18 individual, 18 family skills training) over 1 year. TAU was an eclectic psychotherapy approach consisting of psychoeducational, supportive, and cognitive behavioral techniques. An independent evaluator, blind to treatment condition, assessed outcomes including affective symptoms, suicidal ideation and behavior, nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, and emotional dysregulation, quarterly over 1 year. Results: Adolescents receiving DBT attended significantly more therapy sessions over 1 year than did adolescents receiving TAU, possibly reflecting greater engagement and retention; both treatments were rated as highly acceptable by adolescents and parents. As compared with adolescents receiving TAU, adolescents receiving DBT demonstrated significantly less severe depressive symptoms over follow-up, and were nearly three times more likely to demonstrate improvement in suicidal ideation. Models indicate a large effect size, for more weeks being euthymic, over follow-up among adolescents receiving DBT. Although there were no between-group differences in manic symptoms or emotional dysregulation with treatment, adolescents receiving DBT, but not those receiving TAU, evidenced improvement from pre- to posttreatment in both manic symptoms and emotional dysregulation. Conclusions: DBT may offer promise as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in the treatment of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation for adolescents with BP. The DBT focus on commitment to treatment may be important for the treatment of early-onset BP. Larger controlled trials are needed to establish the efficacy of this approach, examine impact on suicidal behavior, and demonstrate cost effectiveness.
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Evidence of topological two-dimensional metallic surface states in thin bismuth nanoribbons.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Understanding the exotic quantum phenomena in bulk bismuth beyond its ultraquantum limit remains controversial and gives rise to renewed interest. The focus of the issues is whether these quantum properties have a conventional bulk nature or just the surface effect due to the significant spin-orbital interaction and in relation to the Bi-based topological insulators. Here, we present angular-dependent magnetoresistance (AMR) measurements on single-crystal bismuth nanoribbons of different thicknesses with magnetic fields up to 31 T. In thin nanoribbons with thickness of ?40 nm, a two-fold rational symmetry of the low field AMR spectra and two sets of 1/2-shifted (i.e., ? = 1/2) Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) quantum oscillations with exact two- dimensional (2D) character were obtained. However, when the thickness of the ribbon increases, a 3D bulk-like SdH oscillations with ? = 0 and a four-fold rotational symmetry of the AMR spectra appear. These results provided unambiguous transport evidence of the topological 2D metallic surface states in thinner nanoribbons with an insulating bulk. Our observations provide a promising pathway to understand the quantum phenomena in Bi arising from the surface states.
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Robust surface state transport in thin bismuth nanoribbons.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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While a two-dimensional (2D) metallic surface state in bismuth has been proposed, experimental 2D evidence of quantum transport, e.g., angular dependent Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations is still lacking. Here, we report the angular-dependent magnetoresistance measurements in single-crystal Bi nanoribbons, and found that both the low-field weak antilocalization behavior and the high-field angle-dependent SdH oscillations follow exactly the 2D character, indicative of the 2D metallic surface states which dominate the transport properties of thin Bi nanoribbons. Moreover, by controllable exposing the ribbons to ambient environment (1 atm and room temperature), the metallic surface states were found to be robust to the oxidation although the carrier density in the surface states are modified after the exposures. These results suggest that the metallic surface states in Bi nanoribbons should be topologically protected which can provide key information in understanding the surface properties of Bi in nanometer scale.
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Improve GRAPPA with cross-sampled ACS lines and nonlinear kernel model.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Among the methods of parallel magnetic resonance imaging (PMRI), Generalized Auto-calibrating Partially Parallel Acquisitions (GRAPPA) technique reconstructs the missing k-space data by a set of weights, which are derived from auto-calibration signal (ACS) lines acquired in parallel to the reduced lines. In this paper, a novel hybrid method is proposed to reconstruct by cross sampling the ACS lines orthogonal to the reduced lines and estimating weights with a second-order nonlinear model. The proposed method can mix the benefits of cross sampling and the nonlinear kernel model. The in vivo experiments demonstrate this method, named as cross-sampled nonlinear (CSNL) GRAPPA, can effectively reduce the aliasing artifacts and noises when high acceleration is desired.
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Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.
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Spontaneous cervical intradural disc herniation associated with ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament.
Case Rep Orthop
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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Intradural herniation of a cervical disc is rare; less than 35 cases have been reported to date. A 52-year-old man with preexisting ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament developed severe neck pain with Lt hemiparesis while asleep. Neurological exam was consistent with Brown-Séquard syndrome. Magnetic resonance images showed a C5-6 herniated disc that was adjacent to the ossified ligament and indenting the cord. The mass was surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid signal intensity margin, and caudally the ventral dura line appears divided into two, consistent with the "Y-sign" described by Sasaji et al. Cord edema were noted. Because of preexisting canal stenosis and spinal cord at risk, a laminoplasty was performed, followed by an anterior C6 corpectomy. Spot-weld type adhesions of the posterior longitudinal ligament to the dura was noted, along with a longitudinal tear in the dura. An intradural extra-arachnoid fragment of herniated disc was removed. Clinical exam at 6 months after surgery revealed normal muscle strength but persistent mild paresthesias. It is difficult to make a definite diagnosis of intradural herniation preoperatively; however, the clinical findings and radiographic signs mentioned above are suggestive and should alert the surgeon to look for an intradural fragment.
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Super-resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with photonic nanojets.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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We demonstrate far-field super-resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy by exciting the sample with photonic nanojets. The sub-diffraction photonic nanojets were formed on the surface of the sample by microspheres illuminated by laser beams, and images were acquired by a standard laser-scanning CARS microscope. When the laser beams were focused on the microspheres, the photonic nanojets determined the excitation volume instead of the diffraction-limited laser foci, leading to super-resolution. We imaged the sub-diffraction features of a Blu-ray disc using glass spheres with a refractive index of 1.46 and diameters in the 1-6 µm range. The microspheres provided a lateral magnification factor up to 5.0X and a lateral resolution of at least 200 nm at 796 nm laser wavelength, allowing us to resolve the features on the disc which were invisible under normal CARS imaging. The magnification factor depended on both the microsphere size and the focal plane position of the incident beams. To explain the magnification factor we performed theoretical simulations which showed excellent agreement with experimental results. This super-resolution technique could be very useful for the vibrational imaging of nano-scale objects on films and surfaces.
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Four-dimensional computed tomography angiography is valuable in intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula diagnosis and fistula evaluation.
Acta Neurol Belg
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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This study was to evaluate the value of four-dimensional computed tomography angiography (4D-CTA) in the diagnosis of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). This study included 16 patients who were diagnosed to have intracranial DAVF by digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The 4D-CTA was performed by Aquilion ONE multi-detector CT scanner (Toshiba Medical Systems, Japan) equipped with 320 × 0.5 mm detector rows. Standard biplane fluoroscopy equipments (Infinix, Toshiba Medical Systems, Japan and ADVANTX LC/LP, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI, USA) were applied in the diagnosis of intra-arterial DSA. Examinations were performed to evaluate the findings of DSA and 4D-CTA in each patient. The examination results were read by two independent readers in a blind manner. All results were documented on standardized scoring sheets. In all 16 cases, the same diagnosis results of intracranial DAVF were obtained from DSA and 4D-CTA. The results of subtype (Borden and Cognard classification), venous reflux and fistula sites were also accurately exhibited in 4D-CTA. In addition, there was a little discrepancy in identifying smaller and specific arterial branches and in distinguishing fistula type (focal or diffuse) using 4D-CTA. Good-to-excellent agreements were made between 4D-CTA and DSA. Therefore, 4D-CTA could be a feasible tool for the characterization of intracranial DAVF, with respect to determining fistula site and venous drainage.
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Photoresponsive liquid crystals based on halogen bonding of azopyridines.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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A series of photoresponsive halogen-bonded liquid crystals (LCs) were successfully constructed using molecular halogen and azopyridine compounds, which show interesting properties of photoinduced phase transition upon UV irradiation. In addition, bromine-bonded LCs were first obtained with high mesophase stability.
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Longitudinal trajectories and associated baseline predictors in youths with bipolar spectrum disorders.
Am J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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The authors sought to identify and evaluate longitudinal mood trajectories and associated baseline predictors in youths with bipolar disorder.
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Chiral Brønsted acid catalyzed enantioselective intermolecular allylic aminations.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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This paper describes an enantioselective intermolecular allylic amination catalyzed by a chiral Brønsted acid via a possible chiral contact ion pair intermediate. A variety of symmetrical or unsymmetrical allylic alcohols can be smoothly aminated to afford the desired products in moderate to high yields with good enantioselectivities and/or regioselectivities.
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Chirped time-resolved CARS microscopy with square-pulse excitation.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (T-CARS) microscopy is a technique known for suppressing non-resonant background by utilizing the different temporal responses of virtual electronic transitions and Raman transitions. However, the previous use of femtosecond excitations in T-CARS microscopy has led to low spectral resolution and difficulty in selectively exciting a single Raman band. Here, we report an improved T-CARS imaging technique with chirped pump and Stokes excitations, and the Stokes pulses were shaped into square pulses. Using a femtosecond probe, we acquired T-CARS images with a high spectral resolution, suppressed non-resonant background, and high resonant signal level. We experimentally demonstrated the selective excitation of two close Raman bands of polystyrene at 1005 cm(-1) and 1035 cm(-1) using our technique; conventional T-CARS would inevitably excite them both with little selectivity. Our novel technique could become an ideal method for high-sensitivity, background-free imaging of single Raman bands for a wide variety of samples.
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A {0001} faceted single crystal NiS nanosheet electrocatalyst for dye-sensitised solar cells: sulfur-vacancy induced electrocatalytic activity.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Hydrothermally synthesised single crystal NiS nanosheets with an exposed (0001) surface exhibited a light conversion efficiency of 8.62% as an electrocatalyst for dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSCs), significantly higher than that of Pt-based DSSCs (7.36%). The theoretical calculations revealed the exposed (0001) surface with superior catalytic activity owing to the existence of sulfur vacancies.
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RNA-seq analyses of multiple meristems of soybean: novel and alternative transcripts, evolutionary and functional implications.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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Soybean is one of the most important crops, providing large amounts of dietary proteins and edible oil, and is also an excellent model for studying evolution of duplicated genes. However, relative to the model plants Arabidopsis and rice, the present knowledge about soybean transcriptome is quite limited.
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Investigation of the effect of pore size on gas uptake in two metal-organic frameworks.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Two porous metal–organic frameworks (1 and 2) with a fsc topology based on mixed ligands have been assembled and characterized. The different pillared ligands (pyrazine for 1 and 4,4?-bipyridine for 2) significantly influence the pore size of the frameworks. Gas uptake measurements reveal that complex 1 possesses higher H2, CO2, and CH4 uptake capacities than 2, although the surface area of 1 is lower than that of complex 2. These results further experimentally prove that the pore size plays an important role in gas uptake in porous MOFs, and the slit pore with a size of ~6 Å exhibits stronger interactions with gas molecules.
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Copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of internal olefinic C-H bonds: efficient routes to trifluoromethylated tetrasubstituted olefins and N-heterocycles.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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The functionalization of internal olefins has been a challenging task in organic synthesis. Efficient CuII-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of internal olefins, that is, ?-oxoketene dithioacetals, has been achieved by using Cu(OH)2 as a catalyst and TMSCF3 as a trifluoromethylating reagent. The push-pull effect from the polarized olefin substrates facilitates the internal olefinic C-H trifluoromethylation. Cyclic and acyclic dithioalkyl ?-oxoketene acetals were used as the substrates and various substituents were tolerated. The internal olefinic C-H bond cleavage was not involved in the rate-determining step, and a mechanism that involves radicals is proposed based on a TEMPO-quenching experiment of the trifluoromethylation reaction. Further derivatization of the resultant CF3 olefins led to multifunctionalized tetrasubstituted CF3 olefins and trifluoromethylated N-heterocycles.
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Ubiquitylation of autophagy receptor Optineurin by HACE1 activates selective autophagy for tumor suppression.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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In selective autophagy, receptors are central for cargo selection and delivery. However, it remains yet unclear whether and how multiple autophagy receptors might form complex and function concertedly to control autophagy. Optineurin (OPTN), implicated genetically in glaucoma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, was a recently identified autophagy receptor. Here we report that tumor-suppressor HACE1, a ubiquitin ligase, ubiquitylates OPTN and promotes its interaction with p62/SQSTM1 to form the autophagy receptor complex, thus accelerating autophagic flux. Interestingly, the Lys48-linked polyubiquitin chains that HACE1 conjugates onto OPTN might predominantly target OPTN for autophagic degradation. By demonstrating that the HACE1-OPTN axis synergistically suppresses growth and tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells, our findings may open an avenue for developing autophagy-targeted therapeutic intervention into cancer.
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Highly stable skyrmion state in helimagnetic MnSi nanowires.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Topologically stable magnetic skyrmions realized in B20 metal silicide or germanide compounds with helimagnetic order are very promising for magnetic memory and logic devices. However, these applications are hindered because the skyrmions only survive in a small temperature-field (T-H) pocket near the critical temperature Tc in bulk materials. Here we demonstrate that the skyrmion state in helimagnetic MnSi nanowires with varied sizes from 400 to 250 nm can exist in a substantially extended T-H region. Magnetoresistance measurements under a moderate external magnetic field along the long axis of the nanowires (H?) show transitions corresponding to the skyrmion state from Tc ?32 K down to at least 3 K, the lowest temperature in our measurement. When the field is applied perpendicular to the wire axis (H?), the skyrmion state was not resolvable using the magnetoresistance measurements. Our analysis suggests that the shape-induced uniaxial anisotropy might be responsible for the stabilization of skyrmion state observed in nanowires.
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Erasable thin-film optical diode based on a photoresponsive liquid crystal polymer.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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We report a thin-film optical diode written into thin films of a liquid-crystalline polymer (LCP), which is based on the photoinduced LC-to-isotropic phase transition of LCPs. The interference pattern between a collimated and a focused UV laser beam is imprinted as chirped volume-phase gratings in photoresponsive LCP films and no further processing steps like development or liftoff are required for the fabrication. The resultant thin-film device not only possesses the fundamental functions of an optical lens for laser beam focusing, but also shows diode effects with the focusing/defocusing function dependent on the direction of light incidence and orientation of the device. Furthermore, this photonic thin-film lens exhibits a spatially tunable spectroscopic response, revealing a unique physics of secondary excitations of resonance modes of the single-layer LCP waveguide grating structures. This reveals the mechanisms for the focusing/defocusing of laser beams by chirped grating structures. Erasability and reconstructibility of the photoresponsive LCPs guarantee rewritability of the thin-film diode lens.
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Solifenacin is able to improve the irritative symptoms after transurethral resection of bladder tumors.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of solifenacin in the management of irritative symptoms after transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBTs) with subsequent intravesical chemotherapy.
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A metabolic profiling analysis of the acute toxicological effects of the realgar (As?S?) combined with other herbs in Niuhuang Jiedu Tablet using ¹H NMR spectroscopy.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Niuhuang Jiedu Tablet (NJT), composed of Realgar (As?S?), Bovis Calculus Artificialis, Borneolum Synthcticum, Gypsum Fibrosum, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (RR), Scutellariae Radix (SR), Platycodonis Radix (PR) and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (GR), is an effective formula of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used in treating acute tonsillitis, pharyngitis, periodontitis and mouth ulcer. In the formula, significant level of realgar (As?S?) as a potentially toxic element is contained. In our pervious experiments, NJT was significantly less toxic than realgar (As?S?), and the material bases of toxicity alleviation effect to realgar (As?S?) were RR, SR, PR and GR. However, the toxicity alleviation effect of each above mentioned four herbs to realgar (As?S?) and their synergistic detoxification effects to realgar (As?S?) were still obscure.
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Transthoracic esophagectomy using endobronchial blocker after previous pneumonectomy.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Esophagectomy after pneumonectomy is very rare. We present a case of esophagectomy for esophageal cancer after left pneumonectomy. By application of an endobronchial blocker, satisfactory results were achieved and the disadvantages of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, cardiopulmonary bypass, and other ventilation methods were avoided.
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Photoinduced hyper-reflective laminated liquid crystal film with simultaneous multicolor reflection.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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A phototunable laminated liquid crystal film with simultaneous multicolor reflection is successfully fabricated by doping a light-driven chiral molecular switch into the laminated cholesteric liquid crystal structure. Upon UV-light irradiation, the reflection notches and their hyper-reflectivity properties can be precisely tuned, and their original state can be properly returned by visible-light irradiation.
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Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and chronic irritability in youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a new diagnosis in the DSM-5. Youth with a family history of bipolar disorder (BD) are at increased risk for BD and non-bipolar psychopathology. No studies to date have examined rates of DMDD among offspring of parents with BD. This study examines the risk for DMDD in offspring of parents with BD compared to community controls and considers rates of chronic irritability (independent of a DMDD diagnosis) across diagnoses in youth with parents with BD.
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Probiotics and virulent human rotavirus modulate the transplanted human gut microbiota in gnotobiotic pigs.
Gut Pathog
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We generated a neonatal pig model with human infant gut microbiota (HGM) to study the effect of a probiotic on the composition of the transplanted microbiota following rotavirus vaccination and challenge. All the HGM-transplanted pigs received two doses of an oral attenuated rotavirus vaccine. The gut microbiota of vaccinated pigs were investigated for effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) supplement and homotypic virulent human rotavirus (HRV) challenge. High-throughput sequencing of V4 region of 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that HGM-transplanted pigs carried microbiota similar to that of the C-section delivered baby. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria represented over 98% of total bacteria in the human donor and the recipient pigs. HRV challenge caused a phylum-level shift from Firmicutes to Proteobacteria. LGG supplement prevented the changes in microbial communities caused by HRV challenge. In particular, members of Enterococcus in LGG-supplemented pigs were kept at the baseline level, while they were enriched in HRV challenged pigs. Taken together, our results suggested that HGM pigs are valuable for testing the microbiota's response to probiotic interventions for treating infantile HRV infection.
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Superselective transcatheter renal artery embolization for the treatment of hemorrhage from non-iatrogenic blunt renal trauma: report of 16 clinical cases.
Ther Clin Risk Manag
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To explore the therapeutic efficacy and outcome of superselective transcatheter renal artery embolization for the treatment of hemorrhage from non-iatrogenic blunt renal trauma (BRT).
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Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG enhanced Th1 cellular immunity but did not affect antibody responses in a human gut microbiota transplanted neonatal gnotobiotic pig model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aims to establish a human gut microbiota (HGM) transplanted gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model of human rotavirus (HRV) infection and diarrhea, and to verify the dose-effects of probiotics on HRV vaccine-induced immune responses. Our previous studies using the Gn pig model found that probiotics dose-dependently regulated both T cell and B cell immune responses induced by rotavirus vaccines. We generated the HGM transplanted neonatal Gn pigs through daily feeding of neonatal human fecal suspension to germ-free pigs for 3 days starting at 12 hours after birth. We found that attenuated HRV (AttHRV) vaccination conferred similar overall protection against rotavirus diarrhea and virus shedding in Gn pigs and HGM transplanted Gn pigs. HGM promoted the development of the neonatal immune system, as evidenced by the significantly enhanced IFN-? producing T cell responses and reduction of regulatory T cells and their cytokine production in the AttHRV-vaccinated pigs. The higher dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) feeding (14 doses, up to 109 colony-forming-unit [CFU]/dose) effectively increased the LGG counts in the HGM Gn pig intestinal contents and significantly enhanced HRV-specific IFN-? producing T cell responses to the AttHRV vaccine. Lower dose LGG (9 doses, up to 106 CFU/dose) was ineffective. Neither doses of LGG significantly improved the protection rate, HRV-specific IgA and IgG antibody titers in serum, or IgA antibody titers in intestinal contents compared to the AttHRV vaccine alone, suggesting that an even higher dose of LGG is needed to overcome the influence of the microbiota to achieve the immunostimulatory effect in the HGM pigs. This study demonstrated that HGM Gn pig is an applicable animal model for studying immune responses to rotavirus vaccines and can be used for studying interventions (i.e., probiotics and prebiotics) that may enhance the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of vaccines through improving the gut microbiota.
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A new tool for distinguishing muscle invasive and non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: the initial application of flexible ultrasound bronchoscope in bladder tumor staging.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To validate the flexible ultrasound bronchoscope (FUB) as a tool in distinguishing muscle invasive and non-muscle invasive bladder tumors.
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Epidemiological and etiological characteristics of fever, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome in Henan Province, China, 2011-2012.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The Fever, Thrombocytopenia and Leukopenia Syndrome (FTLS) is caused by a bunyavirus known as the FTLS virus (FTLSV), which was recently discovered in China. We examined the epidemiological and etiological features of 637 laboratory-confirmed cases of FTLS with onset from January 2011 to December 2012 in Henan Province, China. The highest incidence of FTLS occurred between May and August: 76.5% of all laboratory-confirmed cases occurred during those four months. Of the laboratory-confirmed cases, 60.9% were in the 46-69 years old age groups; 96.1% (612/637) occurred in farmers; 98.1% (625/637) were reported from Xinyang Prefecture. During the same time period, 2047 cases were reported in China. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of FTLSV strains identified during 2011-2012 in Henan Province were ? 96% identical. This findings provides insight for developing public-health interventions for the control and prevention of FTLS in epidemic area.
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Alternative splicing during Arabidopsis flower development results in constitutive and stage-regulated isoforms.
Front Genet
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Alternative splicing (AS) is a process in eukaryotic gene expression, in which the primary transcript of a multi-exon gene is spliced into two or more different mature transcripts, thereby increasing proteome diversity. AS is often regulated differentially between different tissues or developmental stages. Recent studies suggested that up to 60% of intron-containing genes in Arabidopsis thaliana undergo AS. Yet little is known about this complicated and important process during floral development. To investigate the preferential expression of different isoforms of individual alternatively spliced genes, we used high throughput RNA-Seq technology to explore the transcriptomes of three floral development stages of Arabidopsis thaliana and obtained information of various AS events. We identified approximately 24,000 genes that were expressed at one or more of these stages, and found that nearly 25% of multi-exon genes had two or more spliced variants. This is less frequent than the previously reported 40-60% for multiple organs and stages of A. thaliana, indicating that many genes expressed in floral development function with a single predominant isoform. On the other hand, 1716 isoforms were differentially expressed between the three stages, suggesting that AS might still play important roles in stage transition during floral development. Moreover, 337 novel transcribed regions were identified and most of them have a single exon. Taken together, our analyses provide a comprehensive survey of AS in floral development and facilitate further genomic and genetic studies.
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Interplay of mevalonate and Hippo pathways regulates RHAMM transcription via YAP to modulate breast cancer cell motility.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Expression of receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM), a breast cancer susceptibility gene, is tightly controlled in normal tissues but elevated in many tumors, contributing to tumorigenesis and metastases. However, how the expression of RHAMM is regulated remains elusive. Statins, inhibitors of mevalonate metabolic pathway widely used for hypercholesterolemia, have been found to also have antitumor effects, but little is known of the specific targets and mechanisms. Moreover, Hippo signaling pathway plays crucial roles in organ size control and cancer development, yet its downstream transcriptional targets remain obscure. Here we show that RHAMM expression is regulated by mevalonate and Hippo pathways converging onto Yes-associated protein (YAP)/TEAD, which binds RHAMM promoter at specific sites and controls its transcription and consequently breast cancer cell migration and invasion (BCCMI); and that simvastatin inhibits BCCMI via targeting YAP-mediated RHAMM transcription. Required for ERK phosphorylation and BCCMI, YAP-activated RHAMM transcription is dependent on mevalonate and sensitive to simvastatin, which modulate RHAMM transcription by modulating YAP phosphorylation and nuclear-cytoplasmic localization. Further, modulation by mevalonate/simvastatin of YAP-activated RHAMM transcription requires geranylgeranylation, Rho GTPase activation, and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, but is largely independent of MST and LATS kinase activity. These findings from in vitro and in vivo investigations link mevalonate and Hippo pathways with RHAMM as a downstream effector, a YAP-transcription and simvastatin-inhibition target, and a cancer metastasis mediator; uncover a mechanism regulating RHAMM expression and cancer metastases; and reveal a mode whereby simvastatin exerts anticancer effects; providing potential targets for cancer therapeutic agents.
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Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the renal pelvis: a 78-month follow-up case report.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the renal pelvis is extremely rare. This article reports a pathologically confirmed case. Surgery is the main treatment for this disease. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been reported to be ineffective. It is difficult to differentiate it from urothelial tumor of the renal pelvis and renal cell carcinoma by preoperative laboratory and radiological evaluation. Immunohistochemical study is helpful in confirming the diagnosis of the disease. This report discusses the clinical manifestations, pathohistological characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of the case reported.
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Patronin mediates a switch from kinesin-13-dependent poleward flux to anaphase B spindle elongation.
J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Anaphase B spindle elongation contributes to chromosome segregation during Drosophila melanogaster embryo mitosis. We propose that this process is driven by a kinesin-5-generated interpolar microtubule (MT; ipMT) sliding filament mechanism that engages when poleward flux is turned off. In this paper, we present evidence that anaphase B is induced by the minus end-stabilizing protein patronin, which antagonizes the kinesin-13 depolymerase KLP10A at spindle poles, thereby switching off the depolymerization of the minus ends of outwardly sliding ipMTs to suppress flux. Although intact cortices, kinetochore MTs, and midzone augmentation are dispensable, this patronin-based change in ipMT minus-end dynamics is sufficient to induce the elongation of spindles capable of separating chromosomes.
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Surgical algorithm for heterogeneous bilateral quadruple pulmonary nodules.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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A 65-year old female with no history of smoking reported experiencing 6 months of tightness in the chest. Chest computed tomography showed two pulmonary nodules in the left upper lobe (one in S3 segment, the other in S4 segment), one nodule in the left lower lobe and a ground-glass opacity (GGO) in the right upper lobe. Synchronous bilateral thoracoscopic wedge resections of the lung were performed to investigate the nodules. Intraoperative frozen section pathology revealed that the two nodules in the left upper lobe were malignant, the nodule in the left lower lobe was a benign lesion and the GGO in the right upper lobe was an atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. As a result, a left upper lobectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. The final pathological diagnosis of the nodule in the left S3 segment was well differentiated adenocarcinoma (pT1bN0M0, IA), the nodule in the left S4 segment was moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (pT1aN0M0, IA), the nodule in the left lower lobe was cryptococcal granuloma and the GGO in the right upper lobe was adenocarcinoma in situ. The patient is currently following a favourable course in her recovery. Here, we would like to share the surgical algorithm used for the treatment of heterogeneous bilateral quadruple pulmonary nodules.
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Metal-free borane-catalyzed highly stereoselective hydrogenation of pyridines.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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A metal-free direct hydrogenation of pyridines was successfully realized by using homogeneous borane catalysts generated from alkenes and HB(C6F5)2 via in situ hydroboration. The reaction affords a broad range of piperidines in high yields with excellent cis stereoselectivities.
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Intradiaphragmatic bronchogenic cyst.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Bronchogenic cyst (BC) is a rare congenital developmental abnormality. BCs are usually encountered in the mediastinum, but ectopic BCs are rare. We present a case of BC located within the diaphragm in an adult female patient. The lesion was successfully resected via thoracotomy. Diagnosis was confirmed by pathology.
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Pyrolysis characteristics of the mixture of printed circuit board scraps and coal powder.
Waste Manag
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and infrared spectroscopy were used to analyze the pyrolysis characteristics of printed circuit board scraps (PCBs), coal powder and their mixtures under nitrogen atmosphere. The experimental results show that there is a large difference between waste PCBs and coal powder in pyrolysis processing. The pyrolysis properties of the mixing samples are the result of interaction of the PCBs and coal powder, which is influenced by the content of mixture. The degree of pyrolysis and pyrolysis properties of the mixture are much better than that of the single component. The TG and the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of the PCBs mixed with coal powder move towards the high-temperature zone with increasing amount of coal powder and subsequently the DTG peak also becomes wider. The Coats-Redfern integral method was used to determine the kinetic parameters of pyrolysis reaction mechanism with the different proportion of mixture. The gas of pyrolysis mainly composes of CO2, CO, H2O and some hydrocarbon. The bromide characteristic absorption peak has been detected obviously in the pyrolysis gas of PCBs. On the contrary, the absorption peak of the bromide is not obvious in pyrolysis gas of the PCBs samples adding 40% coal powder.
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Anisotropic nanoparticles with controllable morphologies from non-cross-linked seeded emulsion polymerization.
Macromol Rapid Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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A simple and elegant approach to fabricate anisotropic P(VC-co-AAEM)/PS nanoparticles with controllable morphologies via emulsifier-free seeded emulsion polymerization is presented. Non-cross-linked P(VC-co-AAEM) seeds with hydrophilic surface are first synthesized through copolymerization of vinyl chloride (VC) and acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate (AAEM), which are used to prepare P(VC-co-AAEM)/PS NPs with multiple bulges by SEP of styrene. Electron microscopy observation indicates that the content of AAEM in seeds is crucial to control the phase separation and morphology of the composite NPs. Moreover, the thermodynamic immiscibility between PVC and PS is the driving force for the formation of PS bulges onto the P(VC-co-AAEM) seeds. The resultant anisotropic NPs with non-cross-linked feature may promisingly serve as compatibilizers for further polymer processing.
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Adhesive ability means inhibition activities for lactobacillus against pathogens and S-layer protein plays an important role in adhesion.
Anaerobe
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Eighty-five strains of lactobacillus were isolated from the pig intestine and identified by sequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA gene, from which five lactobacillus strains with high adhesive ability were selected. The inhibition ability of the five lactobacillus strains with or without S-layer proteins against adherence of Escherichia coli K88 and Salmonella enteritidis 50335 to Caco-2 was evaluated in vitro with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain (LGG) as a positive control. In addition, tolerance of lactobacilli to heat, acid, bile, Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) were assessed. All five selected strains, Lactobacillus salivarius ZJ614 (JN981856), Lactobacillus reuteri ZJ616 (JN981858), L. reuteri ZJ617 (JN981859), L. reuteri ZJ621 (JN981863) and L. reuteri ZJ623 (JN981865), showed inhibition against the two pathogens, E. coli K88 and S. enteritidis 50335. L. reuteri ZJ621 showed higher inhibition ability than the others to S. enteritidis 50335 (P < 0.05). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis indicated that all five strains had abundant bands with molecular weight ranging from 34 to 130 KDa as well as had a common band of approximately 42 KDa. After treatment with 5 M LiCl to remove S-layer protein, the inhibition activities of the lactobacilli against pathogens decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The results showed that higher adhesive ability means higher inhibition activity for lactobacillus against pathogen, in which S-layer proteins plays an important role.
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Regiospecific 6-endo-annulation of in situ generated 3,4-dienamides/acids: synthesis of ?-lactams and ?-lactones.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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A novel and efficient method for the construction of ?-(1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidene) ?-lactam and ?-lactone rings has been developed. It involves the regiospecific 6-endo-annulation of in situ generated 2-(1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidene)-3,4-dienamides/acids from the dehydrative coupling of ?-oxo ketene dithioacetals with tertiary propargyl alcohols promoted by BF3·Et2O. A range of ?-(1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidene) ?-lactams and ?-lactones are obtained in good to high yields. In addition, indenes are prepared by using ?-acetyl ketene dithioacetal as the precursor.
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The Arabidopsis RAD51 paralogs RAD51B, RAD51D and XRCC2 play partially redundant roles in somatic DNA repair and gene regulation.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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The eukaryotic RAD51 gene family has seven ancient paralogs conserved between plants and animals. Among these, RAD51, DMC1, RAD51C and XRCC3 are important for homologous recombination and/or DNA repair, whereas single mutants in RAD51B, RAD51D or XRCC2 show normal meiosis, and the lineages they represent diverged from each other evolutionarily later than the other four paralogs, suggesting possible functional redundancy. The function of Arabidopsis RAD51B, RAD51D and XRCC2 genes in mitotic DNA repair and meiosis was analyzed using molecular genetic, cytological and transcriptomic approaches. The relevant double and triple mutants displayed normal vegetative and reproductive growth. However, the triple mutant showed greater sensitivity than single or double mutants to DNA damage by bleomycin. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis supported the idea that the triple mutant showed DNA damage similar to that caused by bleomycin. On bleomycin treatment, many genes were altered in the wild-type but not in the triple mutant, suggesting that the RAD51 paralogs have roles in the regulation of gene transcription, providing an explanation for the hypersensitive phenotype of the triple mutant to bleomycin. Our results provide strong evidence that Arabidopsis XRCC2, RAD51B and RAD51D have complex functions in somatic DNA repair and gene regulation, arguing for further studies of these ancient genes that have been maintained in both plants and animals during their long evolutionary history.
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Selective Deposition of Ag3 PO4 on Monoclinic BiVO4 (040) for Highly Efficient Photocatalysis.
Small
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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An efficient homotype Ag3 PO4 /BiVO4 heterojunction photocatalyst is described. Ag3 PO4 nanoparticles preferentially deposit on the highly active BiVO4 (040) facets by means of heterojunction construction together with morphology engineering. The Ag3 PO4 /BiVO4 photocatalyst shows high charge separation efficiency as well as enhanced visible-light response ability and thus possesses superior visible light photocatalytic activity.
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Detection of a novel bunyavirus associated with fever, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome in Henan Province, China, using real-time reverse transcription PCR.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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A novel bunyavirus associated with fever, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia syndrome (FTLS) was discovered in Henan Province, China. Here, we report the development of an assay for this novel bunyavirus based on real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The assay exhibited high sensitivity and specificity without cross-reactivity towards 13 other viruses that cause similar symptoms. To evaluate the performance of this assay in detecting clinical samples, we analysed 261 serum samples from patients in Henan Province between 2007 and 2010. Of these samples, 91.95?% were bunyavirus positive. Compared with serological assays, the real-time PCR assay was much more sensitive in identifying infected patients 1 to 7 days after the onset of symptoms.
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Chiral dienes as "ligands" for borane-catalyzed metal-free asymmetric hydrogenation of imines.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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This paper describes a highly enantioselective metal-free hydrogenation of imines using chiral dienes as "ligands" for the generation of catalysts with HB(C6F5)2 by hydroboration in situ to furnish a variety of chiral amines with up to 89% ee, which provides a practical strategy for the development of novel chiral frustrated Lewis pairs for asymmetric hydrogenation.
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Circularly polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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We demonstrate circularly polarized coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CP-CARS) microscopy that significantly suppresses the nonresonant background for high-contrast vibrational imaging. Circularly polarized pump and Stokes fields with opposite handedness are used to excite CARS signal. In this case, theoretically the nonresonant CARS signal and resonant CARS signal from isotropic media will completely vanish, while the resonant CARS signal from anisotropic structures can still exist. This allows CARS imaging of anisotropic samples with enhanced resonant contrast. Furthermore, we performed CP-CARS imaging on fibroin fibers from silkworm silk, and the results confirmed its effectiveness in background suppression.
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M-ds-P21 induces cell apoptosis in bladder cancer T24 cells through P53 independent pathway.
J Cancer Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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To investigate the effect of M-ds-P21 on the apoptosis of bladder cancer T24 cells and its potential mechanism.
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The diagnosis of arteriovenous malformations by 4D-CTA: A clinical study.
J Neuroradiol
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the current imaging gold standard for diagnosis of arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The latest technique, four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT), offers a new diagnostic method for assessing AVM in real time. This study used a 320-detector-row CT scanner to compare the value of 4D-CT angiography (4D-CTA) with DSA in the diagnosis of untreated AVM patients. METHODS: Seventeen patients diagnosed with AVM by DSA were included in this study. Two independent readers blind to the results of all examinations evaluated the findings of DSA and 4D-CTA in each patient. All results were then documented using a standardized scoring sheet. RESULTS: The results of 4D-CTA in all 17 cases were fully consistent with DSA for AVM location, size and vascular structures. 4D-CTA had the same ability as DSA to distinguish the main feeding arteries in all cases, although in the identification of smaller and specific arterial branches, there were discrepancies in one patient between the two methods. In the diagnosis of draining veins, however, 4D-CTA successfully displayed all of the vessels found by DSA. CONCLUSION: 4D-CTA was able to detect all AVM lesions, including their size, location, feeding arteries and draining veins. Thus, 4D-CTA has a value similar to that of DSA in the diagnosis and assessment of AVM.
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(1)H NMR-based metabonomics study on the toxicity alleviation effect of other traditional Chinese medicines in Niuhuang Jiedu tablet to realgar (As2S2).
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
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Niuhuang Jiedu Tablet (NJT) is an effective prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used in treating acute tonsillitis, pharyngitis, periodontitis and mouth ulcer. NJT is prepared from Xionghuang (Realgar, As2S2), Rengong Niuhuang (Bovis Calculus Artificialis), Bingpian (Borneolum Synthcticum), Shigao (Gypsum Fibrosum), Dahuang (Rhei Radix et Rhizoma), Huangqin (Scutellariae Radix), Jiegeng (Platycodonis Radix) and Gancao (Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma). In the prescription, significant level of realgar (As2S2) as a potentially toxic element is contained.
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Prospective longitudinal course of aggression among adults with bipolar disorder.
Bipolar Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Bipolar disorder (BP) has been associated with increased aggressive behaviors. However, all existing studies are cross-sectional and include forensic or inpatient populations and many do not take into account the effects of comorbid conditions. The goal of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal course of aggression among adult outpatients with BP compared with non-BP patients and healthy controls.
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Temporary ileostomy versus colostomy for colorectal anastomosis: evidence from 12 studies.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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To assess the safety and efficacy of temporary ileostomy and temporary colostomy after a low anterior resection for rectal cancer by comparing the postoperative complications, then investigate which type of stoma is better.
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One-dimensional weak antilocalization in single-crystal Bi2Te3 nanowires.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Angle-dependent magnetoconductance was measured on an individual surface-curved Bi2Te3 single-crystal nanowire fabricated by electrochemical deposition, where the evolution of surface conduction with wire diameters was investigated. It was found that the magnetoconductance of these nanowires in low field regime can be well described by one-dimensional (1D) weak antilocalization (WAL) model, where the dephasing length of the electrons follows T(-1/3) dependence but insensitive to the wire diameter. Meanwhile, such a 1D surface WAL was found to be enhanced significantly with the decrease of the wire diameter.
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Targeted disinfection of E. coli via bioconjugation to photoreactive TiO2.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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The selective control of pathogenic bacteria is an ongoing challenge. A strategy is proposed that combines targeted binding of the bacterium, using antibodies, with their photoactivated oxidative destruction. Photoactive colloidal TiO2 was first derivatized with E. coli antibodies (EA-TiO2). When mixtures of the organisms E. coli and Pseudomonas putida ( P. putida ) were exposed to modified EA-TiO2, the particles preferentially selected E. coli for surface binding. Two consequences arose from surface bioconjugation: bacteria were found to flocculate upon mixing at appropriate ratios of EA-TiO2/ E. coli , and EA-TiO2-bound E. coli underwent cell death after exposure to UV light. In the former case, flocculation of the bacteria was optimal at ~50 EA-TiO2 particles per E. coli . Selective flocculation provides an alternative strategy for pathogen removal. With respect to UV disinfection, as few as 26 EA-TiO2 particles per E. coli gave a 10 000-fold decrease in viable bacteria. Thus, it is possible to selectively target and kill one type of bacteria in a mixture of pathogens. The results give support to the proposal that photocatalytic TiO2 most effectively delivers an oxidizing agent when the titania is bound to the bacterial surface.
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Clinical value of a whole blood interferon-? release assay for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection during antitubercular treatment.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a whole blood interferon-? release assay, the QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test, in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection, and to assess its monitoring role during antitubercular treatment. In total, 20 patients received the QFT test, along with other commonly-used tests, prior to, and following, 2- and 6-month courses of antitubercular treatment; the results were compared and statistically analyzed. The rate of positive results for tuberculosis (TB) was 95% for the QFT test, which was significantly higher compared with those for the purified protein derivative (PPD; 55%) and the antitubercular antibody tests (15%), as well as the acid-fast bacilli smear (20%) and cultures for TB (20%; P<0.05 for all). The sensitivity and specificity of the QFT test were 96 and 93.8%, respectively. The positive result rate obtained with the QFT test was significantly higher in the TB group compared with that in the non-TB group (6.3%; P<0.05). Moreover, the positive result rate obtained with the QFT test was significantly lower in the 6-month-treated group compared with that in the 2-month group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the QFT test is a sensitive and specific method for rapidly diagnosing MTB infection, and has an improved practical clinical value in evaluating antitubercular therapies compared with that of the PPD test.
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Effect of CD40 and sCD40L on renal function and survival in patients with renal artery stenosis.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Activation of the CD40 receptor on the proximal tubular epithelium of the kidney results in fibrosis and inflammation in experimental models of kidney injury. Soluble CD40 ligand is released by activated platelets. The role of CD40-soluble CD40 ligand in patients with ischemic renal disease is unknown. Plasma levels of CD40 and soluble CD40 ligand were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a single center cohort of 60 patients with renal artery stenosis recruited from Salford Royal Hospital, Manchester, United Kingdom. A natural log transformation of CD40 and soluble CD40 ligand was performed to normalize the data. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was used as the primary indicator of renal function. By univariate analysis, low baseline levels of circulating CD40 (R(2)=0.06; P<0.05) and baseline creatinine (R(2)=0.08; P=0.022) were associated with loss of kidney function at 1-year follow-up, whereas soluble CD40 ligand was not (R(2)=0.02; P=ns). In a multiple linear regression model, CD40 (P<0.02) and baseline creatinine (P<0.01) continued to be significantly associated with a decline in renal function (model R(2)=0.17; P<0.005). Baseline CD40 levels were somewhat lower in patients who died during follow-up (survivors, 7.3±0.9 pg/mL, n=48 versus nonsurvivors, 6.7±1.0 pg/mL, n=12; P=0.06). The CD40/soluble CD40 ligand signaling cascade may be a novel mechanism contributing to the development and progression of renal injury in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.
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DAT-230, a Novel Microtubule Inhibitor, Induced Aberrant Mitosis and Apoptosis in SGC-7901 Cells.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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2-Methoxy-5-(2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)thiophen-3-yl) aniline (DAT-230) is a novel synthesized compound of combretastatin-A-4 derivative with more stability. The present study is to investigate its anti-tumor activity and molecular mechanisms in human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells. DAT-230 inhibited SGC-7901 cells growth. The treatment of DAT-230 resulted in microtubule de-polymerization and G2/M phase arrest. Besides the accumulation and translocation of Cyclin B1, reduction of p-14/15-cdc2 and mitosis delay denoted the Cyclin B1-cdc2 complex active and M phase arrest in SGC-7901 cells treated with DAT-230. Mitochondria pathway participated in apoptosis after G2/M arrest in SGC-7901 cells treated with DAT-230, which was characterized by DNA fragmentation, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, changes of Bcl-2 and Bax expression, decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. In vivo, DAT-230 delayed tumor growth in BALB/c nude mice with human gastric adenocarcinoma xenografts. Besides apoptosis was detected with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay in tumor tissue. In conclusion, DAT-230 is a promising microtubule inhibitor with great anti-tumor activity to SGC-7901, in vitro and in vivo. Its potential to be a candidate of anti-cancer agent is worth of being further investigated.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.