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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Determining the Electronic Performance Limitations in Top-Down-Fabricated Si Nanowires with Mean Widths Down to 4 nm.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Silicon nanowires have been patterned with mean widths down to 4 nm using top-down lithography and dry etching. Performance-limiting scattering processes have been measured directly which provide new insight into the electronic conduction mechanisms within the nanowires. Results demonstrate a transition from 3-dimensional (3D) to 2D and then 1D as the nanowire mean widths are reduced from 12 to 4 nm. The importance of high quality surface passivation is demonstrated by a lack of significant donor deactivation, resulting in neutral impurity scattering ultimately limiting the electronic performance. The results indicate the important parameters requiring optimization when fabricating nanowires with atomic dimensions.
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Comparative proteomic analysis of the function and network mechanisms of MASPIN in human lung cells.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2011
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MASPIN, which is also known as Serpin B5, is a novel tumor suppressor. Emerging evidence suggests that MASPIN acts as a multifaceted protein in various types of cancer, including prostate, breast and pancreatic cancer. It interacts with diverse groups of intercellular and extracellular proteins, regulating cell adhesion, motility, apoptosis and angiogenesis, and is involved in mammary gland development. As MASPIN is a multifunctional factor in cancer pathways, its function remains poorly illuminated. In this study, we compared the protein profiles of LC5 cell lines with MASPIN overexpression and knockdown using comparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The differences in protein expression, visualized as differences in spots, were identified by time-of-flight (TOF)/TOF mass spectometry. Significant differences were observed between overexpressing and knocked down cells, including eight spots that were unique and sixteen spots that were up- or down-regulated by more than 4-fold. Six genes, including Sdccag8, Ldoc1, SCAI, SDCCAG3, CT62 and NEDD9 were unique in MASPIN-expressing cell lines, but absent in knock-out cell lines, in which most of them play a significant role in the invasion of cancer cells. Moreover, the Brms1 and CAGE1 genes were identified as being uniquely expressed in knocked down cell lines, which were associated with the development and progression of tumors. The data from this study shed some light on the function, as well as the general network mechanisms of MASPIN in lung cancer.
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Nucleic acids determination using the complex of eriochrome black T and silver nanoparticles in a resonance light scattering technique.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2010
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A novel method for the determination of nucleic acids by using silver nanoparticle (AgNPs)-eriochrome black T (EBT) as a resonance light scattering (RLS) probe has been developed. Under optimum conditions, there are linear relationships between the quenching extent of RLS intensity and the concentration of nucleic acids in the range of 4.0×10(-9)-4.0×10(-7), 4.0×10(-7)-1.6×10(-6) g mL(-1) for fish sperm DNA (fsDNA) and 4.0×10(-8)-2.0×10(-6) g mL(-1) for yeast RNA (yRNA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 2.0 ng mL(-1) and 21 ng mL(-1), respectively. The results indicate that AgNPs can form wirelike aggregates and nanoslices in the presence of the EBT. Whereas, when nucleic acids are added into the AgNPs-EBT system, the dynamic balance of AgNPs-EBT system is destroyed and the nanoparticles undergo dispersion again, leading to the RLS intensity of AgNPs-EBT system quenching. Meanwhile, the conformation of fsDNA is changed by the synergistic effect of AgNPs and EBT.
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Temporally and spatially controllable gene expression and knockout in mouse urothelium.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2010
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Urothelium that lines almost the entire urinary tract performs important functions and is prone to assaults by urinary microbials, metabolites, and carcinogens. To improve our understanding of urothelial physiology and disease pathogenesis, we sought to develop two novel transgenic systems, one that would allow inducible and urothelium-specific gene expression, and another that would allow inducible and urothelium-specific knockout. Toward this end, we combined the ability of the mouse uroplakin II promoter (mUPII) to drive urothelium-specific gene expression with a versatile tetracycline-mediated inducible system. We found that, when constructed under the control of mUPII, only a modified, reverse tetracycline trans-activator (rtTA-M2), but not its original version (rtTA), could efficiently trans-activate reporter gene expression in mouse urothelium on doxycycline (Dox) induction. The mUPII/rtTA-M2-inducible system retained its strict urothelial specificity, had no background activity in the absence of Dox, and responded rapidly to Dox administration. Using a reporter gene whose expression was secondarily controlled by histone remodeling, we were able to identify, colocalize with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation, and semiquantify newly divided urothelial cells. Finally, we established that, when combined with a Cre recombinase under the control of the tetracycline operon, the mUPII-driven rtTA-M2 could inducibly inactivate any gene of interest in mouse urothelium. The establishment of these two new transgenic mouse systems enables the manipulation of gene expression and/or inactivation in adult mouse urothelium at any given time, thus minimizing potential compensatory effects due to gene overexpression or loss and allowing more accurate modeling of urothelial diseases than previously reported constitutive systems.
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Fluorescence enhancement of the silver nanoparticales--curcumin-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-nucleic acids system and its analytical application.
J Fluoresc
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
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It is found that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can further enhance the fluorescence intensity of curcumin (CU)-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-nucleic acids and improve its anti-photobleaching activity. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced fluorescence intensity is proportion to the concentration of nucleic acids in the range of 2.0 x 10(-8)-1.0 x 10(-6) g mL(-1) for fish sperm DNA (fsDNA), 2.0 x 10(-8)-1.0 x 10(-6) g mL(-1) for calf thymus DNA (ctDNA), 1.0 x 10(-8)-1.0 x 10(-6) g mL(-1) for yeast RNA (yRNA), and their detection limits (S/N = 3) are 8.0 ng mL(-1), 10.5 ng mL(-1) and 5.8 ng mL(-1), respectively. This method is used for determining the concentration of DNA in actual sample with satisfactory results. The interaction mechanism is also studied.
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Pregnancy and infant outcomes in the clinical trials of a human papillomavirus type 6/11/16/18 vaccine: a combined analysis of five randomized controlled trials.
Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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To present a combined analysis of the pregnancy outcomes for women aged up to 45 years enrolled in five phase III clinical studies of the prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus 6/11/16/18 vaccine.
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The fluorescence enhancement of quercetin-nucleic acid system and the analytical application.
Luminescence
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2009
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Nucleic acid can greatly enhance the fluorescence intensity of quercetin in HMTA-HCl (pH 5.5) buffer. The enhanced intensity is in proportion to the concentration of nucleic acids in the range 5.0 x 10(-9) to 1.0 x 10(-6) g/mL for fsDNA, 5.0 x 10(-9) to 7.0 x 10(-7) g/mL for ctDNA and 5.0 x 10(-9) to 1.0 x 10(-6) g/mL for yRNA, and their detection limits (S/N = 3) are 3.5 x 10(-9), 7.8 x 10(-10) and 2.6 x 10(-9) g/mL, respectively. In comparison with most reported fluorescent probes for the determination of nucleic acids, the proposed probe has higher sensitivity and lower toxicity. The interaction investigation indicates that quercetin binds with double-strand DNA in groove binding mode, resulting in fluorescence enhancement of this system.
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Study on the interaction of nucleic acids with silver nanoparticles--Al(III) by resonance light scattering technique and its analytical application.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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It is found that Al(III) can further enhance the intensity of resonance light scattering (RLS) of the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and nucleic acids system. Based on this, a novel method of determination of nucleic acids is proposed in this paper. Under optimum conditions, there are linear relationships between the enhancing extent of RLS and the concentration of nucleic acids in the range of 1.0 x 10(-9)-1.0 x 10(-7) g mL(-1), 1.0 x 10(-7)-2.0 x 10(-6)g mL(-1) for fish sperm DNA (fsDNA), 1.0 x 10(-9)-7.0 x 10(-8)g mL(-1) for calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) and 1.0 x 10(-9)-1.0 x 10(-7)g mL(-1) for yeast RNA (yRNA). The detection limits (S/N=3) of fsDNA, ctDNA and yRNA are 4.1 x 10(-10)g mL(-1), 4.0 x 10(-10)gmL(-1) and 4.5 x 10(-10)g mL(-1), respectively. The studies indicate that the RLS enhancement effect should be ascribed to the formation of AgNPs-Al(III)-DNA aggregations through electrostatic attraction and adsorption bridging action of Al(III). And the sensitivity and stability of the AgNPs-fsDNA system could be enhanced by Al(III).
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Urothelial tumor initiation requires deregulation of multiple signaling pathways: implications in target-based therapies.
Carcinogenesis
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Although formation of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) requires multiple steps and proceeds along divergent pathways, the underlying genetic and molecular determinants for each step and pathway remain undefined. By developing transgenic mice expressing single or combinatorial genetic alterations in urothelium, we demonstrated here that overcoming oncogene-induced compensatory tumor barriers was critical for urothelial tumor initiation. Constitutively active Ha-ras (Ras*) elicited urothelial hyperplasia that was persistent and did not progress to tumors over a 10 months period. This resistance to tumorigenesis coincided with increased expression of p53 and all pRb family proteins. Expression of a Simian virus 40 T antigen (SV40T), which disables p53 and pRb family proteins, in urothelial cells expressing Ras* triggered early-onset, rapidly-growing and high-grade papillary UCB that strongly resembled the human counterpart (pTaG3). Urothelial cells expressing both Ras* and SV40T had defective G(1)/S checkpoint, elevated Ras-GTPase and hyperactivated AKT-mTOR signaling. Inhibition of the AKT-mTOR pathway with rapamycin significantly reduced the size of high-grade papillary UCB but hyperactivated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Inhibition of AKT-mTOR, MAPK and STAT3 altogether resulted in much greater tumor reduction and longer survival than did inhibition of AKT-mTOR pathway alone. Our studies provide the first experimental evidence delineating the combinatorial genetic events required for initiating high-grade papillary UCB, a poorly defined and highly challenging clinical entity. Furthermore, they suggest that targeted therapy using a single agent such as rapamycin may not be highly effective in controlling high-grade UCB and that combination therapy employing inhibitors against multiple targets are more likely to achieve desirable therapeutic outcomes.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.