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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Dynamic characterization of intracavity losses in broadband quasi-three-level lasers.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We present a simple, fast and accurate technique to characterize intracavity losses in broadband quasi-three-level lasers based on spectroscopic gain analysis. The technique is based on spectral gain measurement and potentially can be used at any laser output power levels, thus allowing a dynamic optimization of laser performance. Successful experimental demonstration was carried out with a diode-pumped Yb:KGW continuous wave oscillator. A comparison with traditional Findlay-Clay analysis and numerical modeling was also made.
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A retrospective and comparative study of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the liver.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the liver (IMTL) is a very rare benign disease with a good prognosis.
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Dr.VIS v2.0: an updated database of human disease-related viral integration sites in the era of high-throughput deep sequencing.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Dr.VIS is a database of human disease-related viral integration sites (VIS). The number of VIS has grown rapidly since Dr.VIS was first released in 2011, and there is growing recognition of the important role that viral integration plays in the development of malignancies. The updated database version, Dr.VIS v2.0 (http://www.bioinfo.org/drvis or bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/drvis_v2), represents 25 diseases, covers 3340 integration sites of eight oncogenic viruses in human chromosomes and provides more accurate information about VIS from high-throughput deep sequencing results obtained mainly after 2012. Data of VISes for three newly identified oncogenic viruses for 14 related diseases have been added to this 2015 update, which has a 5-fold increase of VISes compared to Dr.VIS v1.0. Dr.VIS v2.0 has 2244 precise integration sites, 867 integration regions and 551 junction sequences. A total of 2295 integration sites are located near 1730 involved genes. Of the VISes, 1153 are detected in the exons or introns of genes, with 294 located up to 5 kb and a further 112 located up to 10 kb away. As viral integration may alter chromosome stability and gene expression levels, characterizing VISes will contribute toward the discovery of novel oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and tumor-associated pathways.
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Benchmark study on methanol C-H and O-H bond activation by bare [Fe(IV)O](2+).
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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We present a high-level computational study on methanol C-H and O-H bond cleavages by bare [Fe(IV)O](2+), as well as benchmarks of various density functional theory (DFT) methods. We considered direct and concerted hydrogen transfer (DHT and CHT) pathways, respectively. The potential energy surfaces were constructed at the CCSD(T)/def2-TZVPP//B3LYP/def2-TZVP level of theory. Mechanistically, (1) the C-H bond cleavage is dominant and the O-H activation only plays minor role on the PESs; (2) the DHT from methyl should be the most practical channel; and (3) electronic structure analysis demonstrates the proton and electron transfer coupling behavior along the reaction coordinates. The solvent effect is evident and plays distinct roles in regulating the two bond activations in different mechanisms during the catalysis. The effect of optimizing the geometries using different density functionals was also studied, showing that it is not meaningful to discuss which DFT method could give the accurate prediction of the geometries, especially for transition structures. Furthermore, the gold-standard CCSD(T) method was used to benchmark 19 different density functionals with different Hartree-Fock exchange fractions. The results revealed that (i) the structural factor plays a minor role in the single point energy (SPE) calculations; (ii) reaction energy prediction is quite challenging for DFT methods; (iii) the mean absolute deviations (MADs) reflect the problematic description of the DFs when dealing with metal oxidation state change, giving a strong correlation on the HF exchange in the DFs. Knowledge from this study should be of great value for computational chemistry, especially for the de novo design of transition metal catalysts.
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Soil and foliar nutrient and nitrogen isotope composition (?(15)N) at 5 years after poultry litter and green waste biochar amendment in a macadamia orchard.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the improvement in soil fertility and plant nutrient use in a macadamia orchard following biochar application. The main objectives of this study were to assess the effects of poultry litter and green waste biochar applications on nitrogen (N) cycling using N isotope composition (?(15)N) and nutrient availability in a soil-plant system at a macadamia orchard, 5 years following application. Biochar was applied at 10 t ha(-1) dry weight but concentrated within a 3-m diameter zone when trees were planted in 2007. Soil and leaf samples were collected in 2012, and both soil and foliar N isotope composition (?(15)N) and nutrient concentrations were assessed. Both soil and foliar ?(15)N increased significantly in the poultry litter biochar plots compared to the green waste biochar and control plots. A significant relationship was observed between soil and plant ?(15)N. There was no influence of either biochars on foliar total N concentrations or soil NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N, which suggested that biochar application did not pose any restriction for plant N uptake. Plant bioavailable phosphorus (P) was significantly higher in the poultry litter biochar treatment compared to the green waste biochar treatment and control. We hypothesised that the bioavailability of N and P content of poultry litter biochar may play an important role in increasing soil and plant ?(15)N and P concentrations. Biochar application affected soil-plant N cycling and there is potential to use soil and plant ?(15)N to investigate N cycling in a soil-biochar-tree crop system. The poultry litter biochar significantly increased soil fertility compared to the green waste biochar at 5 years following biochar application which makes the poultry litter a better feedstock to produce biochar compared to green waste for the tree crops.
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Using Dynamic (99m)T c-GSA SPECT/CT Fusion Images for Hepatectomy Planning and Postoperative Liver Failure Prediction.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Available tools in liver surgery planning rely on the future remnant liver (FRL) volume. Inappropriate decision might be made since the same FRL volume might represent different liver functions depending on the severity of underlying liver damage. This study developed an alternative system to estimate FRL function and to predict the risk of postoperative liver failure.
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A phylogenetic analysis of the ubiquitin superfamily based on sequence and structural information.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Ubiquitin belongs to an important class of protein modifier and gene expression regulator proteins that participates in various cellular processes. A large number of ubiquitin-related proteins have been identified during the last two decades. However, the evolutionary history of this ancient gene family remains largely unknown. We analyzed the members of the superfamily using both sequence- and structure-based methodology to better understand the evolution of ubiquitin-related proteins. As a part of these analyses we used the MEME algorithm to extract common sequence motifs across the superfamily, and we inferred the phylogeny and distribution of the superfamily members across multiple species. A total of 23 families were identified in the gene family. Several common sequence motifs were revealed and evaluated. We also found that the number of genes for ubiquitin-related proteins encoded within a specific genome correlates with the biological complexity of that particular species. This analysis should provide valuable insight into the sequence/function relationships and evolutionary history of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-related proteins.
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Sequencing and characterization of the transcriptome of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is a valuable fish for aquaculture in China. This fish exhibits sexual dimorphism, particularly different growth rates and body sizes between two genders. Thus, C. semilaevis is a good model that can be used to investigate mechanisms responsible for such dimorphism, this model can also be utilized to answer fundamental questions in evolution and applied fields of aquaculture. Hence, advances in second-generation sequencing technology, such as 454 pyrosequencing, could provide a robust tool to study the genome characteristics of non-model species.
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Identification of prognostic biomarkers in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma and stratification by integrative multi-omics analysis.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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The differentiation of distinct multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): multicentric disease vs. intrahepatic metastases, in which the management and prognosis varies substantively, remains problematic. We aim to stratify multifocal HCC and identify novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers by performing whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, as part of a multi-omics strategy.
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Evolution of the mir-181 microRNA family.
Comput. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Mir-181 is an ancient microRNA (miRNA) gene family that originated in urochordata. Although their functions were subjected to extensive studies in recent years, their evolutionary process remains largely unknown. Here we systematically investigated the homologous genes of the mir-181 family by a sequence similarity search. Representative sequences of the mir-181 gene family were used to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Our results indicated that this family could have derived from multiple duplications, which include two rounds of whole genome duplications and one round of segmental replication. Functional annotation of the target genes of the mir-181 family suggested that this family could participate in some important biological processes including transcriptional and translational regulation, signaling transduction etc. This analysis presented a complex evolutionary dynamics for the origination of a miRNA gene family.
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The impact of exogenous DNA on the structure of sperm of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).
Anim. Reprod. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is a promising transgenic technology that relies on the capability of sperm to internalize exogenous DNA. In marine fish, however, the interaction between sperm and exogenous DNA appears to be deficient. Here, we demonstrated significant DNase activity in the seminal plasma of the olive flounder. When incubated with naked-DNA, the spermatozoa lost their structural integrity, including the head, mitochondria and flagellum, in an incubation time-dependent manner. However, internalization of a liposome-DNA complex resulted in the structural integrity of the spermatozoa being maintained, even when using incubation times of up to 50min. We concluded that in the olive flounder, SMGT is possible by integrating liposome-DNA complexes, rather than naked-DNA alone, into the sperm. In brief, removal of the seminal plasma and packaging the exogenous DNA were necessary for successful SMGT in the olive flounder.
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Long noncoding RNA plays a key role in metastasis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been attracting immense research interests. However, only a handful of lncRNAs had been thoroughly characterized. They were involved in fundamental cellular processes including regulation of gene expression at epigenetics as well as tumorogenesis. In this paper, we give a systematic and comprehensive review of existing literature about lncRNA involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma. This review exhibited that lncRNAs played important roles in tumorigenesis and subsequent prognosis and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma and elucidated the role of some specific lncRNAs such as MALAT1 and HOTAIR in the pathophysiology of hepatocellular carcinoma and their potential of being therapeutic targets.
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Magnetic resonance characteristics of adult-onset Lhermitte-Duclos disease: An indicator for active cancer surveillance?
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD) is a rare, non-cancerous entity characterized by enlarged, abnormally developed cerebellar folia containing dysplastic cells. Symptomatic LDD is commonly observed in adults (adult-onset LDD, aLDD) as an isolated condition or associated with Cowden's disease (CD). The present study aimed to investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and the underlying pathological findings in 7 cases of aLDD, with emphasis on the association with CD and the need for active cancer surveillance once the diagnosis of LDD is confirmed. The MRI findings along with the clinical and histopathological data collected from 7 patients with aLDD were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnosis of CD was based on a range of clinical characteristics, according to the International Cowden Consortium Criteria. A thorough review of the published data was conducted and our results indicated that all 7 cases shared similar MRI characteristics, whether the aLDD was sporadic (2 cases) or associated with CD (5 cases), including a highly typical non-enhancing striated MRI appearance of thickened folia, consisting of alternating bands on T1- and T2-weighted images. On gross examination, the involved cerebellar folia were distorted and enlarged, whereas the histopathological examination revealed that the molecular layer was widened and occupied by abnormal ganglion cells. Moreover, a reduction in the number or absence of the Purkinje cells and hypertrophy of the granular cell layer were observed. Our findings were consistent with the diagnosis of LDD. Variable levels of vacuolization of the white matter and the molecular layer were observed in all the cases. Notably, CD34 immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of angiogenesis within the lesions. aLDD associated with CD exhibited no pathological or immunohistochemical characteristics that were distinct from those of isolated aLDD. Of the 7 cases of aLDD, 5 presented with symptoms suggestive of CD, which is a syndrome associated with a high risk of multiple benign and malignant neoplasms. In conclusion, aLDD exhibits characteristic MRI and histopathological findings and displays a strong association with CD. Therefore, we recommend that the MRI diagnosis of aLDD triggers active cancer surveillance and preventive care.
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Influence of pore structure on compressive strength of cement mortar.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This paper describes an experimental investigation into the pore structure of cement mortar using mercury porosimeter. Ordinary Portland cement, manufactured sand, and natural sand were used. The porosity of the manufactured sand mortar is higher than that of natural sand at the same mix proportion; on the contrary, the probable pore size and threshold radius of manufactured sand mortar are finer. Besides, the probable pore size and threshold radius increased with increasing water to cement ratio and sand to cement ratio. In addition, the existing models of pore size distribution of cement-based materials have been reviewed and compared with test results in this paper. Finally, the extended Bhattacharjee model was built to examine the relationship between compressive strength and pore structure.
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A newly-found pattern of social relationships among adults within one-male units of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxenalla) in the Qinling Mountains, China.
Integr Zool
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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Group living provides various advantages to individuals in regards to protection avoidance, intergroup competition, productive success and social information. Stable one-male units (OMUs) consist of relationships between the adult females and the resident male as well as the relationships among adult females. Based on continuous observation of a reproductive group of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains, we analyzed the relationships among adult individual dyads within 4 OMUs. The results indicated that in golden snub-nosed monkey societies, females not only had no strong tendency to build a relationship with the resident male in the OMU but also had no strong tendency to build relationships with other females in the OMU. In comparison with hamadryas (Papio hamadryas) and gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada), the relationships within golden snub-nosed monkeys OMUs showed neither the star-shaped pattern observed in hamadryas baboons nor the net-shaped pattern observed in gelada baboons. We concluded that the relationships within golden snub-nosed monkey OMUs indicated a third pattern in nonhuman primate societies. Future research is required to determine the potential mechanisms for such a pattern.
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Phase II trial of temozolomide plus concurrent whole-brain radiation followed by TNV regimen as adjuvant therapy for patients with newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma.
Neurol India
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an aggressive extranodal non-Hodgkins lymphoma limited to the CNS. Treatment of PCNSL with high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based chemotherapy and whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is associated with high rates of relapse and severe treatment-related neurotoxicity.
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Clinical diagnosis and treatment of alpha-fetoprotein-negative small hepatic lesions.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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We examined 103 cases over the last five years and discussed diagnosis and treatment of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-negative small hepatic lesions.
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A novel PTEN gene promoter mutation and untypical Cowden syndrome.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Cowden syndrome (CS), an autosomal dominant disorder, is one of a spectrum of clinical disorders that have been linked to germline mutations in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene. Although 70-80% of patients with CS have an identifiable germline PTEN mutation, the clinical diagnosis presents many challenges because of the phenotypic and genotypic variations. In the present study, we sequenced the exons and the promoter of PTEN gene, mutations and variations in the promoter and exons were identified, and a PTEN protein expression negative region was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). In conclusion, a novel promoter mutation we found in PTEN gene may turn off PTEN protein expression occasionally, leading to the disorder of PTEN and untypical CS manifestations.
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Electrospinning-thermal treatment synthesis: a general strategy to decorate highly porous nanotubes on both internal and external side-walls with metal oxide/noble metal nanoparticles.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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The hybrid structure of nanoparticle-decorated highly porous nanotubes combines the advantages of large specific surface areas of nanoparticles and anisotropic properties of highly porous nanotubes, which is desirable for many applications, including batteries, photoelectrochemical water splitting, and catalysis. Here, we report a novel emulsion electrospinning-thermal treatment method to synthesize the nanoparticles deposited on both side walls of nanotubes with two unique characteristics: (1) large loading amount of nanoparticles per highly porous nanotubes (with the morphology of nanoparticles); (2) intimate contact between nanoparticles and highly porous nanotubes. Both features are advantageous for the above applications that involve both surface reactions and charge transportation processes. Moreover, the emulsion electrospinning-thermal treatment method is simple and straightforward, with which we have successfully decorated various highly porous metal oxide nanotubes with metal oxide or noble metal nanoparticles. The new method will have an impact on diverse technologies such as lithium ion batteries, catalysts, and photoelectrochemical devices.
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Identification of Recurrence Related microRNAs in Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Surgical Resection.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive human cancers with a high frequency of post-surgical recurrence. It is very critical to diagnose HCC recurrence at an early stage for a better therapeutic treatment. In this study, we examined the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling in tumor tissues obtained from early and late recurrent HCC patients post-resection, using a microarray assay. A total of 32 miRNAs were identified to be differentially expressed during the progression of recurrence. Among these, 16 miRNAs were upregulated and 16 were downregulated. In addition, this miRNA expression signature was further validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. Moreover, functional annotation of predicted target genes of these recurrent HCC-related miRNAs indicates that multiple biological pathways (i.e., focal adhesion pathway, cancer-related pathways and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling) that are all critical for cancer development and progression, may participate in the recurrence of HCC. Our data suggest potential molecular mechanisms underpinning miRNA-controlled HCC recurrence, and support the notion that miRNA expression signature and miRNA-based therapy can be useful tools for a better diagnosis and treatment stratification of this disease.
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NONCODE v3.0: integrative annotation of long noncoding RNAs.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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Facilitated by the rapid progress of high-throughput sequencing technology, a large number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in mammalian transcriptomes over the past few years. LncRNAs have been shown to play key roles in various biological processes such as imprinting control, circuitry controlling pluripotency and differentiation, immune responses and chromosome dynamics. Notably, a growing number of lncRNAs have been implicated in disease etiology. With the increasing number of published lncRNA studies, the experimental data on lncRNAs (e.g. expression profiles, molecular features and biological functions) have accumulated rapidly. In order to enable a systematic compilation and integration of this information, we have updated the NONCODE database (http://www.noncode.org) to version 3.0 to include the first integrated collection of expression and functional lncRNA data obtained from re-annotated microarray studies in a single database. NONCODE has a user-friendly interface with a variety of search or browse options, a local Genome Browser for visualization and a BLAST server for sequence-alignment search. In addition, NONCODE provides a platform for the ongoing collation of ncRNAs reported in the literature. All data in NONCODE are open to users, and can be downloaded through the website or obtained through the SOAP API and DAS services.
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Intrahepatic biliary cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma: an experience of 30 cases.
Dig Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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Intrahepatic biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma are extremely rare neoplasms of the liver. They share similar radiological characteristics, and the clinicopathological features are poorly defined. We aim to provide an algorithm for preoperative differentiation of the two diseases.
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ncFANs: a web server for functional annotation of long non-coding RNAs.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Recent interest in the non-coding transcriptome has resulted in the identification of large numbers of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in mammalian genomes, most of which have not been functionally characterized. Computational exploration of the potential functions of these lncRNAs will therefore facilitate further work in this field of research. We have developed a practical and user-friendly web interface called ncFANs (non-coding RNA Function ANnotation server), which is the first web service for functional annotation of human and mouse lncRNAs. On the basis of the re-annotated Affymetrix microarray data, ncFANs provides two alternative strategies for lncRNA functional annotation: one utilizing three aspects of a coding-non-coding gene co-expression (CNC) network, the other identifying condition-related differentially expressed lncRNAs. ncFANs introduces a highly efficient way of re-using the abundant pre-existing microarray data. The present version of ncFANs includes re-annotated CDF files for 10 human and mouse Affymetrix microarrays, and the server will be continuously updated with more re-annotated microarray platforms and lncRNA data. ncFANs is freely accessible at http://www.ebiomed.org/ncFANs/ or http://www.noncode.org/ncFANs/.
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The effects of urinary trypsin inhibitor on liver function and inflammatory factors in patients undergoing hepatectomy: a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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The inhibition of inflammation exerts benefits following massive hepatectomy in animals but not in the clinic. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and mechanism of ulinastatin on liver function and outcomes following hepatectomy.
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Primary liver cancer presenting as pyogenic liver abscess: characteristics, diagnosis, and management.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2011
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Primary liver cancer (PLC) presenting as pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is potentially life-threatening, but has been occasionally reported, especially for cholangiocarcinoma.
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Prognostic factors after liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma: a single-center experience from China.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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This study aimed to clarify the risk factors for survival and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a cohort of Chinese HCC patients after hepatectomy and to compare 6 developed staging systems.
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Increased Golgi protein 73 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma tissue correlates with tumor aggression but not survival.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Serum Golgi protein 73 (sGP73) is a novel and promising biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there are few reports on the pattern of GP73 expression in HCC and the relationship of this expression to clinicopathologic features of patients. This study aimed to investigate the expression of GP73 and it correlation with clinical parameters.
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Giant cell tumor of the pes anserine bursa (extra-articular pigmented villonodular bursitis): a case report and review of the literature.
Case Rep Med
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare, benign, proliferating disease affecting the synovium of joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths. Involvement of bursa (PVNB, pigmented villonodular bursitis) is the least common, and only few cases of exclusively extra-articular PVNB of the pes anserinus bursa have been reported so far. We report a case of extra-articular pes anserine PVNB along with a review of the literature. The lesion presented as a painful soft tissue mass in the medial part of the proximal leg. A magnetic resonance imaging showed areas of low to intermediate signals in all sequences and the lesion enhanced heterogeneously with contrast. Diagnosis was confirmed by an incisional biopsy, and an intralesional resection was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient is free of disease with no functional deficit at 2 years followup. As with other rare lesions, clinical and radiographic findings in addition to histological examination are essential for correct diagnosis.
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Large-scale prediction of long non-coding RNA functions in a coding-non-coding gene co-expression network.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Although accumulating evidence has provided insight into the various functions of long-non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), the exact functions of the majority of such transcripts are still unknown. Here, we report the first computational annotation of lncRNA functions based on public microarray expression profiles. A coding-non-coding gene co-expression (CNC) network was constructed from re-annotated Affymetrix Mouse Genome Array data. Probable functions for altogether 340 lncRNAs were predicted based on topological or other network characteristics, such as module sharing, association with network hubs and combinations of co-expression and genomic adjacency. The functions annotated to the lncRNAs mainly involve organ or tissue development (e.g. neuron, eye and muscle development), cellular transport (e.g. neuronal transport and sodium ion, acid or lipid transport) or metabolic processes (e.g. involving macromolecules, phosphocreatine and tyrosine).
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A recyclable Au(I) catalyst for selective homocoupling of arylboronic acids: significant enhancement of nano-surface binding for stability and catalytic activity.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2010
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Au nanoparticles stabilized by polystyrene-co-polymethacrylic acid microspheres (PS-co-PMAA) were prepared and characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The Au nanoparticles supported on the microspheres showed highly selective catalytic activity for homo-coupling reactions of arylboronic acids in a system of aryl-halides and arylboronic acids. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of the catalyst shows large amounts of Au(I) complexes band to the surface of the Au nanoparticles, which contributes to the selective homocoupling of the arylboronic acids. More importantly, this supported Au complex is a highly recyclable catalyst. The supported Au catalyst can be recycled and reused at least 6 times for a phenylboronic acid reactant, whereas the parent complex shows very low catalytic activity for this compound. The high catalytic activity of this material is attributed to: (1) the high surface to volume ratio which leads to more active sites being exposed to reactants; (2) the strong surface binding of the Au nanoparticle to the Au(I) complexes, which enhances both the stability and the catalytic activity of these complexes.
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dbDEMC: a database of differentially expressed miRNAs in human cancers.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2010
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs about 22 nt long that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Their key effects on various biological processes, e.g., embryonic development, cell division, differentiation and apoptosis, are widely recognized. Evidence suggests that aberrant expression of miRNAs may contribute to many types of human diseases, including cancer. Here we present a database of differentially expressed miRNAs in human cancers (dbDEMC), to explore aberrantly expressed miRNAs among different cancers.
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Golgi protein 73 (GOLPH2) is a valuable serum marker for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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Golgi protein 73 (GP73) as a potential serum marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been validated in large cohort studies. Furthermore, its significance in the assessment of tumour recurrence after HCC resection remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the value of serum GP73 in the diagnosis of HCC.
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Safety and feasibility of percutaneous vertebroplasty with radioactive (153)Sm PMMA in an animal model.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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We investigated the safety and feasibility of the combination of samarium-153-ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonate ((153)Sm-EDTMP)-incorporated bone cement (BC) with percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in dogs.
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Cine-MRI and (31)P-MRS for evaluation of myocardial energy metabolism and function following coronary artery bypass graft.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
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Previous studies investigated the effect of successful coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) upon left ventricular function. The relationship between myocardial metabolism and heart function after CABG remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between high-energy phosphate (HEP) and cardiac function following CABG using cine magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI) and phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS). A retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. MRI and (31)P-MRS examinations were reviewed of 37 patients with multivessel disease who underwent CABG. 13 of these patients selected for the retrospective analysis had >or=70% stenosis in the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40%. LVEF was evaluated using cine-MRI. HEP such as phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (beta-ATP) was measured using (31)P-MRS to calculate PCr/beta-ATP ratio. Cine-MRI and (31)P-MRS measurements were performed before and after CABG, respectively. Ten normal healthy volunteers served as controls. (31)P-MRS in 13 patients showed that post-CABG PCr/beta-ATP ratio was significantly higher than that of pre-CABG (pre-CABG vs. post-CABG, 1.43+/-0.24 vs. 1.71+/-0.29, P<.05), but both ratios were significantly lower than control group (2.13+/-0.21, P<.05). With the change of the ratio, the left ventricle function was significantly improved (LVEF: pre-CABG vs. post-CABG: 35.7+/-12.9 vs. 45.6+/-17.2, P<.05). The ability of (31)P-MRS and cine-MRI to non-invasively assess changes of metabolism and function in myocardium may prove important for patient-specific optimization of treatment strategies.
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A prospective clinical study on early recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
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To determine more precisely time interval from resection to recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to identify the risk factors associated with postoperative recurrence.
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The subpleural pulmonary microvasculature in newborn yak (Bos grunniens).
Vet. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
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Yak is a unique domestic animal of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Its unique adaptability to the high altitude environment has been hypothesized due to special pulmonary microvasculature. However, the anatomical evidence is still less. The present study characterized the subpleural pulmonary microvascular architecture of newborn yak by vascular corrosion cast and the scanning electron microscopy. The results showed the dense vascular network occurred in subpleural area in newborn yak. Subpleural vascular network was found in most of observed areas, while the sparse vascular network crept onto the subpleural network in some fields of view. The subpleural microvessels and their branches made up of the subpleural microvascular network. According to the branching sequence of vessels, the subpleural arterioles could be divided into four grades: the arteriole, terminal arteriole, precapillary arteriole and capillary. The subpleural capillary network in the local area could be classified into three different forms, including sheetlike vascular network, wrinkled vascular network and weblike vascular network. It was the specific characteristics on the cast surface of the microvessels that was the adaptable peculiarities. Anastomoses were found between the pleural microvessels and the interlobular capillaries, or between the pleural microvessels and the subpleural capillaries, or between the interlobular capillaries and the subpleural capillaries. Therefore, there was significant difference on the subpleural pulmonary microvasculature between newborn yak and other adult mammals.
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Prediction and identification of tumor-specific noncoding RNAs from human UniGene.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been proven to actively participate in many diverse biologic processes. Some ncRNAs are strongly associated with tumorigenesis and could thus be regarded as tumor markers, or even as candidate therapeutic targets. In this study, we computationally analyzed the human UniGene dataset to predict potential tumor-specific ncRNAs, and then verified our predictions experimentally. We demonstrated that two of our predicted ncRNAs showed tumor-specific expression in non-small cell lung cancer and endometrial carcinoma, respectively. Genomic analysis of these two ncRNAs suggests that they might play significant roles in tumorigenesis and are therefore worthy of further investigation.
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Geological events play a larger role than Pleistocene climatic fluctuations in driving the genetic structure of Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura: Dicroglossidae).
Mol. Ecol.
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Paleoclimatic and paleogeological events have been identified as being the two main drivers of genetic structuring in extant organisms. We used a montane stream-dwelling frog, Quasipaa boulengeri, to explore the relative roles played by these drivers on species in southern China, a region needing thorough studies. We detected four major matrilines, and no broadly distributed haplotypes occurred. The complex orogenesis of south-western China drove matrilineal divergence in Q. boulengeri into highly structured geographical units. These matrilines subsequently persisted in situ with stable populations rather than undergoing expansions during glacial cycling. The unification of the upper and middle Yangtze River in the Three Gorges mountain region mediated downstream colonization of this frog. Analyses identified geological events as playing a larger role than climatic fluctuations in driving the population history of Q. boulengeri. Nuclear allele analyses indicated gene flow; this maintained genetic cohesion of the species. South-eastern Sichuan Basin was identified as the area of secondary contact for several matrilines, and this area deserves further study and special protection.
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[Enhanced cellulase production of Penicillium decumbens by knocking out CreB encoding a deubiquitination enzyme].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
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Penicillium decumbens T. is an important filamentous fungus for the production of cellulases to effectively degrade lignocellulose for second generation biofuel production. In order to enhance the capability of Penicillium decumbens to produce cellulases, we constructed a creB (a deubiquitinating enzyme encoding gene) deletion cassette, and generated a creB knockout strain with homologous double crossover recombination. This mutation resulted in a detectable decrease of carbon catabolite repression (CCR) effect. The filter paper activity, endoglucanase activity, xylanase activity and exoglucanase activity of the deltacreB strain increased by 1.8, 1.71, 2.06 and 2.04 fold, respectively, when comparing with the parent strain Ku-39. A 2.68 fold increase of extracellular protein concentration was also observed. These results suggest that the deletion of creB results in CCR derepression. These data also suggest that CREB influences cellulase production of Penicillium decumbens. In generation, this study provides information that can be helpful for constructing cellulase hyper-producing strain.
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The role and clinical implications of microRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Sci China Life Sci
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is common and one of the most aggressive of all human cancers. Recent studies have indicated that miRNAs, a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, directly contribute to HCC by targeting many critical regulatory genes. Several miRNAs are involved in hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus replication and virus-induced changes, whereas others participate in multiple intracellular signaling pathways that modulate apoptosis, cell cycle checkpoints, and growth-factor-stimulated responses. When disturbed, these pathways appear to result in malignant transformation and ultimately HCC development. Recently, miRNAs circulating in the blood have acted as possible early diagnostic markers for HCC. These miRNA also could serve as indicators with respect to drug efficacy and be prognostic in HCC patients. Such biomarkers would assist stratification of HCC patients and help direct personalized therapy. Here, we summarize recent advances regarding the role of miRNAs in HCC development and progression. Our expectation is that these and ongoing studies will contribute to the understanding of the multiple roles of these small noncoding RNAs in liver tumorigenesis.
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Theoretical study on cyclopropanation of endo-dicyclopentadiene with zinc carbenoids: effects of solvent and (ICH2)2Zn.
J. Org. Chem.
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A computational study using a hybrid DFT method (M06) on the cyclopropanation of endo-dicyclopentadiene with Simmons-Smith zinc carbenoids is reported. Each channel proceeds via the methylene-transfer mechanism with a reactant complex (RC) and subsquently a asynchronous transition state (TS). The channels with monomeric IZnCH(2)I attacking the double bonds from the exo-face have a much lower barrier (about 16.17-18.43 kcal/mol) in the gas phase, compared with the channels from the endo-face (21.80-31.13 kcal/mol). Thus, P1 and P3 are the primary cyclopropanated compounds, and P5 is the sole final product, representing remarkable stereospecificity. When considering the bulk solvent effect of diethyl ether, the barriers are decreased about 0.50-7.77 kcal/mol due to more "destabilization" of RC than TS. The solvated (ICH(2))(2)Zn can further reduce the barriers about 0.18-2.30 kcal/mol. In addition, the solvated IZnCH(2)I and (ICH(2))(2)Zn do not change the reaction pathways and retain the stereospecificity. Our computational results agree with the experimental observations quite well and suggest that both IZnCH(2)I and (ICH(2))(2)Zn might be the active species in the real reaction system. Regarding the solvent effect, the polar continuum model is more realistic than the direct involvement of diethyl ether molecules.
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Graphene-based composite materials beneficial to wound healing.
Nanoscale
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We use electrospinning to prepare chitosan-PVA nanofibers containing graphene. The nanofibers can be directly used in wound healing: graphene, as an antibacterial material, can be beneficial for this. A possible antibacterial mechanism for graphene is presented.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.