Rhinitis symptoms and asthma among parents of preschool children in relation to the home environment in Chongqing, China.
Risk factors for rhinitis and asthma in the home environment were studied by a questionnaire survey. Parents of 4530 1-8 year old children (one parent per child) from randomly selected kindergartens in Chongqing, China participated. 70.4% were females; 47.1% had rhinitis symptoms in the last three months (current rhinitis, CR); 1.6% reported a history of allergic asthma (AA); 2.7% reported a history of allergic rhinitis (AR); 16.4% were current smokers; 50.8% males and 2.4% females were current smokers. Stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, tobacco smoke odor and dry air were associated with CR (adjustment for gender, current smoking and other perceptions of odor or humidity). Associations between home environment and CR, AR, and AA were studied by multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusting for gender, current smoking and other significant home factors. Living near a main road or highway was a risk factor for both CR (OR(95%CI): 1.31(1.13,1.52)) and AR (OR(95%CI): 2.44(1.48,4.03)). Other risk factors for CR included living in rural areas (OR(95%CI): 1.43(1.10,1.85)), new furniture (OR(95%CI): 1.28(1.11,1.49)), water damage (OR(95%CI): 1.68(1.29,2.18)), cockroaches (OR(95%CI): 1.46(1.23,1.73)), and keeping pets (OR(95%CI): 1.24(1.04,1.49)). Other risk factors for AR included redecoration (OR(95%CI): 2.14(1.34,3.41)), mold spots (OR(95%CI): 2.23(1.06,4.68)), window pane condensation (OR(95%CI): 2.04(1.28,3.26)). Water damage was the only home factor associated with AA (2.56(1.34,4.86)). Frequently put bedding to sunshine was protective for CR (OR(95%CI): 0.79(0.68,0.92); cleaning every day was protective for AR (OR(95%CI): 0.40(0.22,0.71)). In conclusion, parents' CR and AR were related to a number of factors of the home environment.