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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Impact of Toxoplasma gondii infection on pregnancy outcomes in early pregnant women].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To explore the impact of Toxoplasma gondii infection on pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy women.
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Disc positions and condylar changes induced by different stretching forces in the model for anterior disc displacement of temporomandibular joint.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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The aim of this study was to compare the disc positions and condylar changes induced by different stretching forces in the modified animal model for anterior disc displacement (ADD) of the temporomandibular joint.
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[Effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) on bone metastasis of lung cancer cells in mice].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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To investigate the effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) (PTH) on tumor growth in a mouse model of lung cancer with bone metastasis.
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Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction parameters of chlorophyll from Chlorella vulgaris residue after lipid separation using response surface methodology.
J Food Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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An investigation into ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was conducted for the extraction of chlorophyll from Chlorella vulgaris residue after lipid separation. The best possible combination of extraction parameters was obtained with the response surface methodology (RSM), at a three-variable, three-level experiment Box-Behnken design (BBD). The optimum extraction parameters were as follows: extraction temperature, 61.4 °C, extraction time, 78.7 min, ethanol volume, 79.4 %, at a fixed ultrasonic power of 200 W. Under the modified optimal conditions, the model predicted a total chlorophyll content of 30.1 mg/g. Verification of the optimization showed that chlorophyll extraction of 31.1?±?1.56 mg/g was observed under the optimal conditions, which well matches with the predicted value. Under these conditions, two stage extraction could sufficiently reach the maximal chlorophyll yield (35.2 mg/g), and the extraction rate reached up to 88.9 %. The present paper provides a feasible technology route for comprehensive utilization of bioactive substances from Chlorella and microalgal biomass biorefinery.
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Relationships between the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Achievement Test (COMAT) subject examinations and the COMLEX-USA Level 2-Cognitive Evaluation.
J Am Osteopath Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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The relationship between the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Achievement Test (COMAT) series of subject examinations and the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA Level 2-Cognitive Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-CE) has not been thoroughly examined.
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Rare earths exposure and male infertility: the injury mechanism study of rare earths on male mice and human sperm.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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The weight; testis/body coefficient; levels of LDH, SDH, SODH, G-6PD, and testosterone; cell cycle; and cell apoptosis of the male mice were influenced after being treated with 200 mg/[kg/day] of rare earths suspension for 3 weeks. The "Raman fingerprints" of the human sperm DNA exposed to 0.040 mg/ml CeCl3 were very different from those of the untreated; the Raman bands at 789 cm(-1) (backbone phosphodiester), PO4 backbone at 1,094 cm(-1), methylene deformation mode at 1,221 cm(-1), methylene deformation mode at 1,485 cm(-1), and amide II at 1,612 cm(-1), of which intensities and shifts were changed, might be the diagnostic biomarkers or potential therapeutic targets. The injury mechanism might be that the rare earths influence the oxidative stress and blood testosterone barrier, tangle the big biomolecule concurrently, which might cause the testicular cells and vascular system disorder and/or dysfunction, and at the same time change the physical and chemical properties of the sperm directly.
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Microparticles: new light shed on the understanding of venous thromboembolism.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Microparticles are small membrane fragments shed primarily from blood and endothelial cells during either activation or apoptosis. There is mounting evidence suggesting that microparticles perform a large array of biological functions and contribute to various diseases. Of these disease processes, a significant link has been established between microparticles and venous thromboembolism. Advances in research on the role of microparticles in thrombosis have yielded crucial insights into possible mechanisms, diagnoses and therapeutic targets of venous thromboembolism. In this review, we discuss the definition and properties of microparticles and venous thromboembolism, provide a synopsis of the evidence detailing the contributions of microparticles to venous thromboembolism, and propose potential mechanisms, by which venous thromboembolism occurs. Moreover, we illustrate a possible role of microparticles in cancer-related venous thromboembolism.
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[Investigation on pregnancy outcomes and risk factors in pregnant women infected with Toxoplasma gondii].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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To understand the pregnancy outcomes and risk factors in pregnant women infected with Toxoplasma gondii.
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Synthetic microbial consortia: from systematic analysis to construction and applications.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Synthetic biology is an emerging research field that focuses on using rational engineering strategies to program biological systems, conferring on them new functions and behaviours. By developing genetic parts and devices based on transcriptional, translational, post-translational modules, many genetic circuits and metabolic pathways had been programmed in single cells. Extending engineering capabilities from single-cell behaviours to multicellular microbial consortia represents a new frontier of synthetic biology. Herein, we first reviewed binary interaction modes of microorganisms in microbial consortia and their underlying molecular mechanisms, which lay the foundation of programming cell-cell interactions in synthetic microbial consortia. Systems biology studies on cellular systems enable systematic understanding of diverse physiological processes of cells and their interactions, which in turn offer insights into the optimal design of synthetic consortia. Based on such fundamental understanding, a comprehensive array of synthetic microbial consortia constructed in the last decade were reviewed, including isogenic microbial communities programmed by quorum sensing-based cell-cell communications, sender-receiver microbial communities with one-way communications, and microbial ecosystems wired by two-way (bi-directional) communications. Furthermore, many applications including using synthetic microbial consortia for distributed bio-computations, chemicals and bioenergy production, medicine and human health, and environments were reviewed. Synergistic development of systems and synthetic biology will provide both a thorough understanding of naturally occurring microbial consortia and rational engineering of these complicated consortia for novel applications.
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Reconstruction of network structures from repeating spike patterns in simulated bursting dynamics.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Repeating patterns of spike sequences from a neuronal network have been proposed to be useful in the reconstruction of the network topology. Reverberations in a physiologically realistic model with various physical connection topologies (from random to scale free) have been simulated to study the effectiveness of the pattern-matching method in the reconstruction of network topology from network dynamics. Simulation results show that functional networks reconstructed from repeating spike patterns can be quite different from the original physical networks; even global properties, such as the degree distribution, cannot always be recovered. However, the pattern-matching method can be effective in identifying hubs in the network. Since the form of reverberations is quite different for networks with and without hubs, the form of reverberations together with the reconstruction by repeating spike patterns might provide a reliable method to detect hubs in neuronal cultures.
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[Advances in reverse genetics-based vaccines of foot and mouth disease].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Reverse-genetic engineering of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) can improve the productivity, antigen matching, antigen stability, immune response ability, and biological safety of vaccines, so vaccine candidates with anticipated biological characteristics can be promptly achieved. Negative influence in taming of virulent strains can also be decreased or avoided. Reverse genetics not only make up for deficiencies like limitation of viral nature, low success rate, and time and energy consuming, but also realize more active designing of vaccines. Therefore, reverse genetics is significant in improving integral quality and efficiency of vaccines. In this review, we use FMDV vaccines as an example to summarize improvement in biological characteristics of virulent strains and provide a reference for related researches.
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Reversal of multidrug resistance in vitro and in vivo by 5-N-formylardeemin, a new ardeemin derivative.
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Because multidrug resistance (MDR) is a serious impediment to the use of chemotherapy in treating cancer patients, great efforts have been made to search for effective MDR-reversing agents. We have developed a brand new synthetic ardeemin derivative, 5-N-formylardeemin, and investigated the activity of which in reversing MDR in MDR cancer cell lines derived from human breast cancer (MCF-7-R) or lung cancer (A549-R). 5-N-formylardeemin strongly enhanced the anti-cancer efficacy of doxorubicin, vincristine through potentiation of apoptosis in both MCF-7-R and A549-R at relatively noncytotoxic concentrations in vitro. Mechanistic studies showed that 5-N-formylardeemin inhibited the expression of MDR-1 (P-gp) and increased the intracellular accumulation of cytotoxic drugs in the MDR cells, suggesting that 5-N-formylardeemin reverses MDR activities through inhibiting MDR-1 expression. Interestingly, 5-N-formylardeemin also sensitized the parent wild-type cancer cells toward these chemotherapeutic agents to various extents. Importantly, in vivo studies demonstrated that 5-N-formylardeemin significantly improved the therapeutic effects of doxorubicin in nude mice bearing A549-R xenografts, which was associated with reduced expression of MDR-1 protein level and increased apoptosis in tumor tissues. These results underscore 5-N-formylardeemin as a potential sensitizer for chemotherapy against multidrug resistant cancers.
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Effect of Ren meridian acupoints moxibustion on light propagation along the pericardium meridian at human wrist.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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To explore the relationship between acupoints and meridians.
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Light propagation along the pericardium meridian at human wrist as evidenced by the optical experiment and Monte Carlo method.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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To explore the characteristics of light propagation along the Pericardium Meridian and its surrounding areas at human wrist by using optical experiment and Monte Carlo method.
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[Bone metastasis of lung cancer in a mouse model with normal immune function].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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To establish a model bearing human lung cancer xenograft with bone metastasis in mice with normal immune function.
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Prognostic value of residual node involvement after induction chemotherapy in operable oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of residual node involvement after induction chemotherapy (ICT) for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and to investigate post-ICT node status associated with tumor characteristics.
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[Efficiency of three methods for detecting Toxoplasma IgG antibody].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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To discuss the test efficiency of three methods for detecting Toxoplasma IgG antibody.
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Marinopyrrole derivatives with sulfide spacers as selective disruptors of Mcl-1 binding to pro-apoptotic protein Bim.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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A series of novel marinopyrroles with sulfide and sulphone spacers were designed and synthesized. Their activity to disrupt the binding of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bim, to the pro-survival proteins, Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, was evaluated using ELISA assays. Fluorescence-quenching (FQ) assays confirmed the direct binding of marinopyrroles to Mcl-1. Benzyl- and benzyl methoxy-containing sulfide derivatives 4 and 5 were highly potent dual Mcl-1/Bim and Bcl-xL/Bim disruptors (IC50 values of 600 and 700 nM), whereas carboxylate-containing sulfide derivative 9 exhibited 16.4-fold more selectivity for disrupting Mcl-1/Bim over Bcl-xL/Bim binding. In addition, a nonsymmetrical marinopyrrole 12 is as equally potent as the parent marinopyrrole A (1) for disrupting both Mcl-1/Bim and Bcl-xL/Bim binding. Some of the derivatives were also active in intact human breast cancer cells where they reduced the levels of Mcl-1, induced programd cell death (apoptosis) and inhibited cell proliferation.
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Effects of PbCl? on selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH? over vanadia-based catalysts.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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The effects of PbCl2 on the selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 over vanadia-based catalysts were studied with BET, XRD, SEM, XPS, NH3-TPD, NH3 chemisorption, FT-IR and catalytic activity measurements. The results showed that PbCl2 deactivated the catalysts to a very high extent. The doping of PbCl2 could decrease the surface acidity, especially that of Brønsted acid sites. XPS characterization reveals that the presence of PbCl2 resulted in the transformation of V(5+) into V(4+), which decreased the reducibility of vanadia species. Based on the analysis of physical and chemical properties of the catalysts, the PbCl2-poisoning mechanism model of the vanadia-based SCR catalysts was proposed.
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Relationship between COMLEX-USA scores and performance on the American Osteopathic Board of Emergency Medicine Part I certifying examination.
J Am Osteopath Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Few studies have investigated how well scores from the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA (COMLEX-USA) series predict resident outcomes, such as performance on board certification examinations.
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Characterisation of water-soluble proanthocyanidins of Pyracantha fortuneana fruit and their improvement in cell bioavailable antioxidant activity of quercetin.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Proanthocyanidins (PCs) with poor bioavailability were argued for their health benefits. In this study, water-soluble polymeric polyphenolic PCs fractions from Pyracanthafortuneana fruit were used to investigate whether the presence of PCs is correlated with the increased cell antioxidant activities (CAA) of quercetin (Q). The results indicated that the most decrement in the values of EC50, which Q inhibited peroxyl radical-induced DCFH oxidation effective in the HepG2 cells, was observed to be 2.91 (vs. control 5.97) in the present of the fraction with 15.8 of the average degree of polymerisation of PCs (ADP). Also, the order of efficacy was the same with the ADP of PCs. Further, this effect is associated with the improvement of the solubility and stability of Q after the addition of the PCs. Our current study suggests that the additive effects of PCs on small molecular polyphenols may be responsible for their antioxidant benefits in vivo.
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Protective effects of bajijiasu in a rat model of A??????-induced neurotoxicity.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) caused by neurons and/or myelin loss lead to devastating effects on patients? lives. Although the causes of such complex diseases have not yet been fully elucidated, oxidative stress, mitochondrial and energy metabolism dysfunction, excitotoxicity, inflammation, and apoptosis have been recognized as influential factors. Current therapies that were designed to address only a single target are unable to mitigate or prevent disease progression, and disease-modifying drugs are desperately needed, and Chinese herbs will be a good choice for screening the potential drugs. Previous studies have shown that bajijiasu, a dimeric fructose isolated from Morinda officinalis radix which was used frequently as a tonifying and replenishing natural herb medicine in traditional Chinese medicine clinic practice, can prevent ischemia-induced neuronal damage or death.
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[Risk stratification of diabetic chronic kidney disease using eGFR equations].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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To compare different eGFR equations for risk stratification of diabetic chronic kidney disease.
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Cyclic marinopyrrole derivatives as disruptors of Mcl-1 and Bcl-x(L) binding to Bim.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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A series of novel cyclic marinopyrroles were designed and synthesized. Their activity to disrupt the binding of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bim, to the pro-survival proteins, Mcl-1 and Bcl-x(L), was evaluated using ELISA assays. Both atropisomers of marinopyrrole A (1) show similar potency. A tetrabromo congener 9 is two-fold more potent than 1. Two novel cyclic marinopyrroles (3 and 4) are two- to seven-fold more potent than 1.
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Castleman disease of the neck: CT and MR imaging findings.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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To characterize the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of Castleman disease of the neck.
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Programmed Allee effect in bacteria causes a tradeoff between population spread and survival.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Dispersal is necessary for spread into new habitats, but it has also been shown to inhibit spread. Theoretical studies have suggested that the presence of a strong Allee effect may account for these counterintuitive observations. Experimental demonstration of this notion is lacking due to the difficulty in quantitative analysis of such phenomena in a natural setting. We engineered Escherichia coli to exhibit a strong Allee effect and examined how the Allee effect would affect the spread of the engineered bacteria. We showed that the Allee effect led to a biphasic dependence of bacterial spread on the dispersal rate: spread is promoted for intermediate dispersal rates but inhibited at low or high dispersal rates. The shape of this dependence is contingent upon the initial density of the source population. Moreover, the Allee effect led to a tradeoff between effectiveness of population spread and survival: increasing the number of target patches during dispersal allows more effective spread, but it simultaneously increases the risk of failing to invade or of going extinct. We also observed that total population growth is transiently maximized at an intermediate number of target patches. Finally, we demonstrate that fluctuations in cell growth may contribute to the paradoxical relationship between dispersal and spread. Our results provide direct experimental evidence that the Allee effect can explain the apparently paradoxical effects of dispersal on spread and have implications for guiding the spread of cooperative organisms.
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Neck dissection for oral mucosal melanoma: caution of nodular lesion.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Oral mucosal melanoma (OMM) often metastasizes to cervical nodes. A great number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of neck dissection in the treatment of OMM, but considerable controversy remains in this field.
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Confocal mirco-Raman spectroscopic analysis of the antioxidant protection mechanism of the oligosaccharides extracted from Morinda officinalis on human sperm DNA.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Male infertility is a stressful and frustrating problem for the society, but a number of male infertility treatments are available as traditional Chinese medicine strategies which have been tried with variable success, while evidence is still limited on whether-or how much-herbs or supplements might help increase fertility, so the aim of this study was to investigate if the oligosaccharides extracted from Morinda officialis, a Chinese herb, is the active constituents to the fertility.
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Highly active bidirectional electron transfer by a self-assembled electroactive reduced-graphene-oxide-hybridized biofilm.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Low extracellular electron transfer performance is often a bottleneck in developing high-performance bioelectrochemical systems. Herein, we show that the self-assembly of graphene oxide and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 formed an electroactive, reduced-graphene-oxide-hybridized, three-dimensional macroporous biofilm, which enabled highly efficient bidirectional electron transfers between Shewanella and electrodes owing to high biomass incorporation and enhanced direct contact-based extracellular electron transfer. This 3D electroactive biofilm delivered a 25-fold increase in the outward current (oxidation current, electron flux from bacteria to electrodes) and 74-fold increase in the inward current (reduction current, electron flux from electrodes to bacteria) over that of the naturally occurring biofilms.
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MicroRNA124 regulate cell growth of prostate cancer cells by targeting iASPP.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 13 like PPP1R13L, also coined iASPP, was found high expression in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines. In previous research, in vitro and in vivo RNAi mediated by artificial lentiviral shRNAs which proved that suppression of iASPP decrease the proliferation of cancer cells. Endogenous interference RNAs, microRNAs play key roles in cell proliferation by post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Natural base pair matched microRNA for iASPP is mir124, which was found high expression in growth factorloss prostate cancer cell lines. In this study we examined effect of mir124 upon iASPP and proliferation of prostate cells in vitro with lentiviral infection and use artificial shRNA as control. In vitro reporter assay confirmed that mir124 binding the 3'UTR of iASPP and suppress mRNA expression. Lentivirus mediated mir124 expression decreased the proliferation and viability of PC3 while endogenous iASPP were knocked down.
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Mutational spectrum of the NKX2-5 gene in patients with lone atrial fibrillation.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common form of sustained cardiac arrhythmia in humans and is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Emerging evidence indicates that abnormal cardiovascular development is involved in the pathogenesis of AF. In this study, the coding exons and splice sites of the NKX2-5 gene, which encodes a homeodomain-containing transcription factor essential for cardiovascular genesis, were sequenced in 146 unrelated patients with lone AF as well as the available relatives of the mutation carriers. A total of 700 unrelated ethnically matched healthy individuals used as controls were genotyped. The disease-causing potential of the identified NKX2-5 variations was predicted by MutationTaster and PolyPhen-2. The functional characteristics of the mutant NKX2-5 proteins were analyzed using a dual-luciferase reporter assay system. As a result, two heterozygous NKX2-5 mutations, including a previously reported p.E21Q and a novel p.T180A mutation, were identified in two families with AF transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern. The mutations co-segregated with AF in the families with complete penetrance. The detected substitutions, which altered the amino acids highly conserved evolutionarily across species, were absent in 700 control individuals and were both predicted to be causative. Functional analyses demonstrated that the NKX2-5 mutants were associated with significantly decreased transcriptional activity compared with their wild-type counterpart. The findings expand the spectrum of NKX2-5 mutations linked to AF and provide additional evidence that dysfunctional NKX2-5 may confer vulnerability to AF, suggesting the potential benefit for the early prophylaxis and personalized treatment of AF.
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Metabolomic analysis of cooperative adaptation between co-cultured Bacillus cereus and Ketogulonicigenium vulgare.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The cooperative adaptation of subcultivated Bacillus cereus and Ketogulonicigenium vulgare significantly increased the productivity of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid, the precursor of vitamin C. The mechanism of cooperative adaptation of the serial subcultivated B. cereus and K. vulgare was investigated in this study by culturing the two strains orthogonally on agar plates. It was found that the swarming distance of B. cereus along the trace of K. vulgare on the plate decreased after 150 days' subcultivation. Metabolomic analysis on these co-cultured B. cereus and K. vulgare strains showed that their cooperative adaptation was accomplished by three key events: (i) the ability of nutrients (e.g., amino acids and purines) searching and intaking, and proteins biosynthesis is increased in the evolved B. cereus; (ii) the capability of protein degradation and amino acids transportation is enhanced in evolved K. vulgare; (iii) the evolved B. cereus was found to provide more nutrients (mostly amino acids and purines) to K. vulgare, thus strengthening the oxidation and energy generation of K. vulgare. Our results provided novel insights into the systems-level understanding of the cooperative adaptation between strains in synergistic consortium.
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Comparative proteomic analysis of experimental evolution of the Bacillus cereus-Ketogulonicigenium vulgare co-culture.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The microbial co-culture system composing of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare and Bacillus cereus was widely adopted in industry for the production of 2-keto-gulonic acid (2-KGA), the precursor of vitamin C. We found serial subcultivation of the co-culture could enhance the yield of 2-KGA by 16% in comparison to that of the ancestral co-culture. To elucidate the evolutionary dynamics and interaction mechanisms of the two microbes, we performed iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analyses of the pure cultures of K. vulgare, B. cereus and their co-culture during serial subcultivation. Hierarchy cluster analyses of the proteomic data showed that the expression level of a number of crucial proteins associated with sorbose conversion and oligopeptide transport was significantly enhanced by the experimental evolution. In particular, the expression level of sorbose/sorbosone dehydrogenase was enhanced in the evolved K. vulgare, while the expression level of InhA and the transport efficiency of oligopeptides were increased in the evolved B. cereus. The decreased sporulating protein expression and increased peptide transporter expression observed in evolved B. cereus, together with the increased amino acids synthesis in evolved K. vulgare suggested that serial subcultivation result in enhanced synergistic cooperation between K. vulgare and B. cereus, enabling an increased production of 2-KGA.
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A 3D mesoporous polysulfone-carbon nanotube anode for enhanced bioelectricity output in microbial fuel cells.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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A facile fabrication method was developed to construct a three-dimensional (3D) mesoporous anode by coating single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on a mesoporous polysulfone matrix (MPPS) for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Owing to highly active surface areas and efficient extracellular electron transfer between Shewanella cells and the anode, the MFC achieved an electricity output of 1410 mW m(-2), being one of the highest among the reported Shewanella-based MFCs.
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Antibody-Targeted Immunoliposomes for Cancer Treatment.
Mini Rev Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or their derivatives are often used as the targeted ligands in the ligand targeted liposomes (LTLs). LTLs modified with mAbs or their derivatives are defined as immunoliposomes. Immunoliposomes can be designed to improve the pharmacological properties of conventional drugs. The development of immunoliposomes, which perfectly combines antibody engineering and liposomes, is becoming a possible state-of-the-art in liposome research. This review discusses the recent characterization and therapeutic effects of immunoliposomes in cancer therapy. The recent advances in the field of immunoliposomes for the treatment of cancer are summarized as follows: antibody engineering, current antibody conjugation strategies, characterization and therapeutic effects of immunoliposomes and the future perspective of immunoliposomes. Although antibody targeted immunoliposomes are being developed rapidly, there has been still a number of hot spots in research that require sustained effort for success. It is reasonable to predict that immunoliposomes will be approved for clinic use, and patients will benefit much from this cancer targeted therapy.
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[Quantization determination study of micro-Raman spectroscopy of methemoglobin induced by sodium nitrite].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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In the present study, Raman spectral characteristics of methemoglobin (MetHb) induced by sodium nitrite (NaNO2) were investigated. Hemoglobin (Hb) was oxidated to MetHb with NaNO2, the Raman spectral specific changes of MetHb was studied by determining the Raman spectral changes of methemoglobin/total hemoglobin of different ratios, and the Raman intensities of methemoglobin/total hemoglobin of different ratios at 1 586, 1 605 and 1 637 cm(-1) were linearly fitted to realize its quantitative detection. The results show that the completely oxidized MetHb can be obtained when the molar ratio of NaNO2 to Hb is 3.5 : 1 whose Raman characteristic peaks are at around 499, 1 340, 1 562 and 1 622 cm(-1), and that the linear fitting correlation coefficients R2 of the Raman intensities of methemoglobin/total hemoglobin of different ratios at 1 586, 1 605 and 1 637 cm(-1) are 0.972 84, 0.997 97 and 0.991 26 respectively, which shows a good linear relationship. This study indicates that the Raman spectrums of MetHb induced by NaNO2 have characteristic differences when compared with normal Hb, that the locations and intensities of Raman characteristic peaks change correspondingly with the alterations of the ratios of methemoglobin/total hemoglobin, and that there are linear correlations between the ratios and their corresponding Raman intensities, which would provide theoretical bases for the clinical Raman spectral detection and quantitative study of methemoglobinemia.
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[Effluent carbon source improvement and sludge reduction by hydrolysis reactor with enhanced sludge utilization].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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In order to strengthen the sludge hydrolysis and improve effluent carbon source, the structure of currently existing hydrolysis reactor was reformed. The new process combined separation of suspended solids in influent and hydrolysis of settled sludge. Experimental results show that the removal rate of SS was 81.4%, the average SS/BOD5 ratio of effluent was dropped to 0.4, far less than that of the influent ratios; SCOD/COD and COD(0.45-5)/COD ratio of the effluent increased by 35.4% and 17.7%, but the COD(> 100)/COD ratio reduced by 53.2%; BOD5/TN ratio increased from 3.7 to 4.7 and the BOD5/TP ratio from 23.8 to 36.4. The improvement of effluent carbon source was helpful for nitrogen and phosphorus removal in follow-up process. Meanwhile, the hydrolytic rate of sludge was up to 51.9%, realizing the reduction and resource-regeneration.
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[Prevalence of IgG antibodies specific to Toxoplasma gondii among college student blood donors in Shijiazhuang City].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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To understand the epidemiological status of Toxoplasma gondii infection among blood donors in college students in Shijiazhuang City, China.
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Structures and receptor binding of hemagglutinins from human-infecting H7N9 influenza viruses.
Science
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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An avian-origin human-infecting influenza (H7N9) virus was recently identified in China. We have evaluated the viral hemagglutinin (HA) receptor-binding properties of two human H7N9 isolates, A/Shanghai/1/2013 (SH-H7N9) (containing the avian-signature residue Gln(226)) and A/Anhui/1/2013 (AH-H7N9) (containing the mammalian-signature residue Leu(226)). We found that SH-H7N9 HA preferentially binds the avian receptor analog, whereas AH-H7N9 HA binds both avian and human receptor analogs. Furthermore, an AH-H7N9 mutant HA (Leu(226) ? Gln) was found to exhibit dual receptor-binding property, indicating that other amino acid substitutions contribute to the receptor-binding switch. The structures of SH-H7N9 HA, AH-H7N9 HA, and its mutant in complex with either avian or human receptor analogs show how AH-H7N9 can bind human receptors while still retaining the avian receptor-binding property.
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Method to detect the variants of the erythrocyte in a rat model of A?25-35-induced neurotoxicity based on micro-Raman spectroscopy.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Alzheimers disease irreversibly and progressively damages the brain, but the treatments in clinical trials are too slow. So, we hypothesized that the presence of erythrocyte variants with AD could be used as a noninvasive means to predict or trigger for administration of the preventive therapeutics, and the aim of this study is to develop a method using Raman spectroscopy in a rat model of A?25-35-induced neurotoxicity, and then evaluate the protective effect of bajijiasu by this method. Results showed that the Raman spectra fingerprints of the erythrocyte of model group were obvious different from those of the normal control, as peaks around the region 650 cm(-1) belonged to the s-s makers, 1605 cm(-1) corresponded to the high spin (deoxygenated-Hb) marker, 1374 cm(-1) arises from ?4 as a sign of concentration of O2, and 1123 and 1033 cm(-1) are associated with the trans stretching vibrations of CAC skeleton. Results also showed that bajijiasu can make these changes recover. Our study also suggested that erythrocyte variants detected using Raman spectroscopy should be tested in a specific longitudinal study for the association with AD diagnosis, and if positive, can be used as a prognostic marker.
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[Protective effect of oligosaccharides from Morinda officinalis on beta-amyloid-induced dementia rats].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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To observe the effect of oligosaccharides of Morinda officinalis (OMO) on beta-amyloid-induced dementia rats, and study its pharmacological mechanism in treatment of dementia.
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The fabrication of porous N-doped carbon from widely available urea formaldehyde resin for carbon dioxide adsorption.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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N-doped carbon material constitutes abundant of micropores and basic nitrogen species that have potential implementation for CO2 capture. In this paper, porous carbon material with high nitrogen content was simply fabricated by carbonizing low cost and widely available urea formaldehyde resin, and then followed by KOH activation. CO2 capture experiment showed high adsorption capacity of 3.21mmolg(-1) at 25°C under 1atm for UFCA-2-600. XRD, SEM, XPS and FT-IR analysis confirmed that a graphitic-like structure was retained even after high temperature carbonization and strong base activation. Textural property analysis revealed that narrow micropores, especially below 0.8nm, were effective for CO2 adsorption by physical adsorption mechanism. Chemical evolved investigation revealed that graphitic-like embedded basic nitrogen groups are generated from bridged and terminal amines of urea formaldehyde resin from thermal carbonization and KOH activation treatment, which is responsible for the enrichment of CO2 capacity by chemical adsorption mechanism. The relationship between CO2 adsorption capacity and pore size or basic N species was also studied, which turned out that both of them played crucial role by physical and chemical adsorption mechanism, respectively.
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[Raman spectroscopy study of the effect of H+ on the oxygen affinity capacity of hemoglobin].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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The hemoglobin was extracted from the blood which was provided by the healthy volunteers and the impact of the pH on hemoglobin oxygen binding capacity was studied with microscopic Raman spectroscopy. The results indicated that: under the excitation light of 514.5 nm, with the reducing of the oxygen partial pressure (PO2), the Raman peak intensity at 1 375, 1 562, 1 585 and 1 638 cm(-1) of the control hemoglobin (pH 7.4) reduced gradually, among which, the change of the 1 375 and 1 638 cm(-1) were the most significant and had a good relevance with the PO2. The curves were plotted by regarding the PO2 as the x-axis and the Raman absolute intensity as the y-axis, and the relationship between hemoglobin Raman absolute intensity of the 1 375 and 1 638 cm(-1) and their related PO2 levels when the pH was 5.7, 7.4 and 8.0 respectively were analyzed. The data was well linear fitted and the fitting equation was obtained. The relationship of the slope (Raman intensity/PO2 level) among them were K8.0 > K7.4 > K5.7, indicating that the lower the pH, the easier the release of the oxygen molecules. It was showed that the Raman spectroscopy technique could be used to detect the oxygen binding rate of hemoglobin quantitatively, and the effect of the PH on oxygen binding state of hemoglobin could be observed, which could provide a new method and make a foundation for the monitoring of the PO2 levels in the blood, as well as the research on the regulatory factors of the blood oxygen affinity, such as H+ and CO2.
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[Establishment of HEK293 cell lines stably expressing human parathyroid hormone receptors].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To establish HEK293 cell lines with stable expression of human parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors.
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Changes of plasma fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) in oral glucose tolerance test and effects of metformin on FGF-21 levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Endokrynol Pol
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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The objectives of our study were to investigate whether fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) is involved in short-term regulation of glucose and the change of FGF-21 after metformin use in diabetic subjects.
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Inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma growth using immunoliposomes for co-delivery of adriamycin and ribonucleotide reductase M2 siRNA.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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The chemotherapy combined with gene therapy has received great attention. We developed targeted LPD (liposome-polycation-DNA complex) conjugated with anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) Fab co-delivering adriamycin (ADR) and ribonucleotide reductase M2 (RRM2) siRNA (ADR-RRM2-TLPD), to achieve combined therapeutic effects in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) overexpressing EGFR. The antitumor activity and mechanisms of ADR-RRM2-TLPD were investigated. The results showed that RRM2 expression was higher in HCC than in non-HCC tissue, and RRM2 siRNA inhibited HCC cell proliferation, suggesting that RRM2 is a candidate target for HCC therapy. ADR-RRM2-TLPD delivered ADR and RRM2 siRNA to EGFR overexpressing HCC cells specifically and efficiently both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in enhanced therapeutic effects (cytotoxicity, apoptosis and senescence-inducing activity) compared with single-drug loaded or non-targeted controls, including ADR-NC-TLPD (targeted LPD co-delivering ADR and negative control siRNA), RRM2-TLPD (targeted LPD delivering RRM2 siRNA) and ADR-RRM2-NTLPD (non-targeted LPD co-delivering ADR and RRM2 siRNA). Mechanism studies showed that p21 is involved in the combined therapeutic effect of ADR-RRM2-TLPD. The average weight of the orthotopic HCC in mice treated with ADR-RRM2-TLPD was significantly lighter than that of mice treated with other controls. Thus, ADR-RRM2-TLPD represents a potential strategy for combined therapy of HCC overexpressing EGFR.
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Marinopyrrole derivatives as potential antibiotic agents against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (II).
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be a major problem, causing severe and intractable infections worldwide. MRSA is resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics, and alternative treatments are limited. A very limited number of new antibiotics have been discovered over the last half-century, novel agents for the treatment of MRSA infections are urgently needed. Marinopyrrole A was reported to show antibiotic activity against MRSA in 2008. After we reported the first total synthesis of (±)-marinopyrrole A, we designed and synthesized a series of marinopyrrole derivatives. Our structure activity relationship (SAR) studies of these novel derivatives against a panel of Gram-positive pathogens in antibacterial assays have revealed that a para-trifluoromethyl analog (33) of marinopyrrole A is ? 63-, 8-, and 4-fold more potent than vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA, respectively. The results provide valuable information in the search for new-generation antibiotics.
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Crystal structures of the two membrane-proximal Ig-like domains (D3D4) of LILRB1/B2: alternative models for their involvement in peptide-HLA binding.
Protein Cell
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILRs), also called CD85s, ILTs, or LIRs, are important mediators of immune activation and tolerance that contain tandem immunoglobulin (Ig)-like folds. There are 11 (in addition to two pseudogenes) LILRs in total, two with two Ig-like domains (D1D2) and the remaining nine with four Ig-like domains (D1D2D3D4). Thus far, the structural features of the D1D2 domains of LILR proteins are well defined, but no structures for the D3D4 domains have been reported. This is a very important field to be studied as it relates to the unknown functions of the D3D4 domains, as well as their relative orientation to the D1D2 domains on the cell surface. Here, we report the crystal structures of the D3D4 domains of both LILRB1 and LILRB2. The two Ig-like domains of both LILRB1-D3D4 and LILRB2-D3D4 are arranged at an acute angle (?60°) to form a bent structure, resembling the structures of natural killer inhibitory receptors. Based on these two D3D4 domain structures and previously reported D1D2/HLA I complex structures, two alternative models of full-length (four Ig-like domains) LILR molecules bound to HLA I are proposed.
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Microarray analysis of microRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of critically ill patients with influenza A (H1N1).
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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With concerns about the disastrous health and economic consequences caused by the influenza pandemic, comprehensively understanding the global host response to influenza virus infection is urgent. The role of microRNA (miRNA) has recently been highlighted in pathogen-host interactions. However, the precise role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of influenza virus infection in humans, especially in critically ill patients is still unclear.
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Combinational expression of sorbose/sorbosone dehydrogenases and cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone increases 2-keto-L-gulonic acid production in Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus cereus consortium.
Metab. Eng.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2013
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The expression levels of sorbose/sorbosone dehydrogenase genes (sdh and sndh) and the synthesis genes (pqqABCDEN) of the adjoint cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) were genetically manipulated in Ketogulonigenium vulgare to increase the production of 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2-KLG), the precursor of vitamin C, in the consortium of K. vulgare and Bacillus cereus. We found that overexpression of sdh-sndh alone in K. vulgare could not significantly enhance the production of 2-KLG, revealing the cofactor PQQ was required for the biosynthesis of 2-KLG. Various expression levels of PQQ were achieved by differential expression of pqqA, pqqABCDE and pqqABCDEN, respectively. The combinatorial expression of sdh/sndh and pqqABCDEN in K. vulgare enabled a 20% increase in the production of 2-KLG (79.1±0.6gl(-1)) than that of the parental K. vulgare (65.9±0.4gl(-1)) in shaking flasks. Our results demonstrated the balanced co-expression of both the key enzymes and the related cofactors was an efficient strategy to increase chemicals biosynthesis.
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Enhancing E. coli isobutanol tolerance through engineering its global transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP).
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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The limited isobutanol tolerance of Escherichia coli is a major drawback during fermentative isobutanol production. Different from classical strain engineering approaches, this work was initiated to improve E. coli isobutanol tolerance from its transcriptional level by engineering its global transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP). Random mutagenesis libraries were generated by error-prone PCR of crp, and the libraries were subjected to isobutanol stress for selection. Variant IB2 (S179P, H199R) was isolated and exhibited much better growth (0.18?h(-1) ) than the control (0.05?h(-1) ) in 1.2% (v/v) isobutanol (9.6?g/L). Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis revealed that 58 and 308 genes in IB2 had differential expression (>2-fold, p?
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Enhanced expression of genes involved in initial xylose metabolism and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in the improved xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae through evolutionary engineering.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
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Fermentation of xylose in lignocellulosic hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been achieved through heterologous expression of the xylose reductase (XR)-xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) pathway. However, the fermentation efficiency is far from the requirement for industrial application due to high yield of the byproduct xylitol, low ethanol yield, and low xylose consumption rate. Through evolutionary engineering, an improved xylose-utilizing strain SyBE005 was obtained with 78.3 % lower xylitol production and a 2.6-fold higher specific ethanol production rate than those of the parent strain SyBE004, which expressed an engineered NADP(+)-preferring XDH. The transcriptional differences between SyBE005 and SyBE004 were investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. Genes including XYL1, XYL2, and XKS1 in the initial xylose metabolic pathway showed the highest up-regulation in SyBE005. The increased expression of XYL1 and XYL2 correlated with enhanced enzymatic activities of XR and XDH. In addition, the expression level of ZWF1 in the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway increased significantly in SyBE005, indicating an elevated demand for NADPH from XR. Genes involved in the TCA cycle (LAT1, CIT1, CIT2, KGD1, KGD, SDH2) and gluconeogenesis (ICL1, PYC1) were also up-regulated in SyBE005. Genomic analysis revealed that point mutations in transcriptional regulators CYC8 and PHD1 might be responsible for the altered expression. In addition, a mutation (Y89S) in ZWF1 was identified which might improve NADPH production in SyBE005. Our results suggest that increasing the expression of XYL1, XYL2, XKS1, and enhancing NADPH supply are promising strategies to improve xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae.
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An in silico erythropoiesis model rationalizing synergism between stem cell factor and erythropoietin.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Stem cell factor (SCF) and erythropoietin (EPO) are two most recognized growth factors that play in concert to control in vitro erythropoiesis. However, exact mechanisms underlying the interplay of these growth factors in vitro remain unclear. We developed a mathematical model to study co-signaling effects of SCF and EPO utilizing the ERK1/2 and GATA-1 pathways (activated by SCF and EPO) that drive the proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitors. The model was simplified and formulated based on three key features: synergistic contribution of SCF and EPO on ERK1/2 activation, positive feedback effects on proliferation and differentiation, and cross-inhibition effects of activated ERK1/2 and GATA-1. The model characteristics were developed to correspond with biological observations made known thus far. Our simulation suggested that activated GATA-1 has a more dominant cross-inhibition effect and stronger positive feedback response on differentiation than the proliferation pathway, while SCF contributed more to the activation of ERK1/2 than EPO. A sensitivity analysis performed to gauge the dynamics of the system was able to identify the most sensitive model parameters and illustrated a contribution of transient activity in EPO ligand to growth factor synergism. Based on theoretical arguments, we have successfully developed a model that can simulate growth factor synergism observed in vitro for erythropoiesis. This hypothesized model can be applied to further computational studies in biological systems where synergistic effects of two ligands are seen.
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Protective effect of Bajijiasu against ?-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in pc12 cells.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Beta-amyloid peptide (A?), a major protein component of senile plaques associated with Alzheimers disease (AD), is also directly neurotoxic. Mitigation of A?-induced neurotoxicity is thus a possible therapeutic approach to delay or prevent onset and progression of AD. This study evaluated the protective effect of Bajijiasu (?- D-fructofuranosyl (2-2) ?- D-fructofuranosyl), a dimeric fructose isolated from the Chinese herb Radix Morinda officinalis, on A?-induced neurotoxicity in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Bajijiasu alone had no endogenous neurotoxicity up to 200 ?M. Brief pretreatment with 10-40 ?M Bajijiasu (2 h) significantly reversed the reduction in cell viability induced by subsequent 24 h exposure to A?25-35 (21 ?M) as measured by MTT and LDH assays, and reduced A?25-35-induced apoptosis as indicated by reduced annexin V-EGFP staining. Bajijiasu also decreased the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in PC12 cells, upregulated expression of glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase, prevented depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (?m), and blocked A?25-35-induced increases in [Ca(2+)] i . Furthermore, Bajijiasu reversed A?25-35-induced changes in the expression levels of p21, CDK4, E2F1, Bax, NF-?B p65, and caspase-3. Bajijiasu is neuroprotective against A?25-35-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells, likely by protecting against oxidative stress and ensuing apoptosis.
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[Effects of daunorubicin on KG1a cell proliferation and Eps8 expression].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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The aim of this study was to observe the inhibitory effect of daunorubicin on KG1a cells and the expression of Eps8 which is a novel tumor-associated antigen with its full name epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8), and to explore the effect of daunorubicin on Eps8 expression in KG1a cells at mRNA and protein levels. The KG1a cells were treated with different concentration of daunorubicin for 24, 48, 72 h, then trypan blue staining was used to detect the inhibitory rate of KGla cells, RQ-PCR and Western blot were used to detect Eps8 mRNA and Eps8 protein expression. The results showed that daunorubicin inhibited the proliferation of KG1a cells in a dose and time dependent manner (r = 0.983, P < 0.01). Daunorubicin could reduce the mRNA and protein levels of Eps8 expression in dose and time dependent manners in KG1a cells (r = 0.979, P < 0.05). It is concluded that with the increasing of concentration and time of daunorubicin acting on KG1a cells, the cell proliferative inhibitory effect increased and the expression of Eps8 decreased, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of daunorubicin on KG1a cell proliferation is realized through downregulation of Eps8 expression.
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Total syntheses of ainsliadimer B and gochnatiolides a and B.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Oh my goch: The total syntheses of ainsliadimer B and gochnatiolides A and B from ?-santonin have been accomplished in 25 steps with approximately 1 % overall yield. A Diels-Alder reaction of natural dehydrozaluzanin C with a monomeric guaianolide derivative allows stereoselective assembly of a dimeric gochnatiolide-type skeleton with the required stereochemistry and preinstalled functionalities for the synthesis of dimeric ainsliadimer B and gochnatiolides A and B (see scheme).
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Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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The ability of combining serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with support vector machine (SVM) for improving classification esophageal cancer patients from normal volunteers is investigated. Two groups of serum SERS spectra based on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are obtained: one group from patients with pathologically confirmed esophageal cancer (n=30) and the other group from healthy volunteers (n=31). Principal components analysis (PCA), conventional SVM (C-SVM) and conventional SVM combination with PCA (PCA-SVM) methods are implemented to classify the same spectral dataset. Results show that a diagnostic accuracy of 77.0% is acquired for PCA technique, while diagnostic accuracies of 83.6% and 85.2% are obtained for C-SVM and PCA-SVM methods based on radial basis functions (RBF) models. The results prove that RBF SVM models are superior to PCA algorithm in classification serum SERS spectra. The study demonstrates that serum SERS in combination with SVM technique has great potential to provide an effective and accurate diagnostic schema for noninvasive detection of esophageal cancer.
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Characterization of porcine P58IPK gene and its up-regulation after H1N1 or H3N2 influenza virus infection.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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The 58-kDa inhibitor of the interferon-induced double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (P58IPK) is a cellular protein that is activated during influenza virus infection. Although the function of human P58IPK has been studied for a long time, porcine P58IPK (pP58IPK) has little been studied except for its cloning.
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Influence of outer membrane c-type cytochromes on particle size and activity of extracellular nanoparticles produced by Shewanella oneidensis.
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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The metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis is capable of reducing various metal(loid)s and produces nanoparticles (NPs) extracellularly, in which outer membrane c-type cytochromes (OMCs) have been suggested to play important roles. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the OMCs, that is, MtrC and OmcA, on the size and activity of the extracellular silver NPs (AgNPs) and silver sulfide NPs (Ag(2)S NPs) produced by S. oneidensis MR-1. We found that (i) the lack of OMCs on S. oneidensis cell surface decreased the particle size of the extracellular biogenic AgNPs and Ag(2)S NPs; (ii) the biogenic AgNPs from the mutant lacking OMCs showed higher antibacterial activity; and (iii) the biogenic Ag(2)S NPs from the mutant lacking OMCs exhibited higher catalytic activity in methylviologen reduction. The results suggest that it may be possible to control particle size and activity of the extracellular biogenic NPs via controlled expression of the genes encoding surface proteins. In addition, we also reveal that in extracellular biosynthesis of NPs the usually neglected non-cell-associated NPs could have high catalytic activity, highlighting the need of novel methods that can efficiently retain extracellular NPs in the biosynthesis processes.
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Improving ethanol tolerance of Escherichia coli by rewiring its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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A major challenge in bioethanol fermentation is the low tolerance of the microbial host towards the end product bioethanol. Here we report to improve the ethanol tolerance of E. coli from the transcriptional level by engineering its global transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP), which is known to regulate over 400 genes in E. coli. Three ethanol tolerant CRP mutants (E1- E3) were identified from error-prone PCR libraries. The best ethanol-tolerant strain E2 (M59T) had the growth rate of 0.08 h(-1) in 62 g/L ethanol, higher than that of the control at 0.06 h(-1). The M59T mutation was then integrated into the genome to create variant iE2. When exposed to 150 g/l ethanol, the survival of iE2 after 15 min was about 12%, while that of BW25113 was <0.01%. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis (RT-PCR) on 444 CRP-regulated genes using OpenArray® technology revealed that 203 genes were differentially expressed in iE2 in the absence of ethanol, whereas 92 displayed differential expression when facing ethanol stress. These genes belong to various functional groups, including central intermediary metabolism (aceE, acnA, sdhD, sucA), iron ion transport (entH, entD, fecA, fecB), and general stress response (osmY, rpoS). Six up-regulated and twelve down-regulated common genes were found in both iE2 and E2 under ethanol stress, whereas over one hundred common genes showed differential expression in the absence of ethanol. Based on the RT-PCR results, entA, marA or bhsA was knocked out in iE2 and the resulting strains became more sensitive towards ethanol.
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Functional analysis of BRCA1 missense variants of uncertain significance in Japanese breast cancer families.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for a large proportion of familial breast cancer cases, and therefore, BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing has become increasingly common in clinical practice. However, variants of uncertain significance (VUS) have been detected in 16.3% of Japanese patients suspected of having hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. The clinical importance of VUS is unknown, and their incidence has led to issues in risk counseling, assessment and treatment of cancer patients. In the present study, we performed functional analyses of two VUS in BRCA1, A1752G and Y1853C that were detected in two independent breast cancer patients who were suspected of having hereditary breast cancer. Segregation analysis revealed that Y1853C, but not A1752G, was cosegregated in affected family members. Conservation, transcription and structure analyses also supported the pathogenic potential of Y1853C. Detailed segregation and in silico and in vitro analyses will enhance our understanding of VUS and improve the management of cancer patients and their families.
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Procalcitonin levels predict acute kidney injury and prognosis in acute pancreatitis: a prospective study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been proposed as a leading cause of mortality for acute pancreatitis (AP) patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). This study investigated the predictive value of procalcitonin (PCT) for AKI development and relevant prognosis in patients with AP, and compared PCTs predictive power with that of other inflammation-related variables.
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Improving acetate tolerance of Escherichia coli by rewiring its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The presence of acetate exceeding 5 g/L is a major concern during E. coli fermentation due to its inhibitory effect on cell growth, thereby limiting high-density cell culture and recombinant protein production. Hence, engineered E. coli strains with enhanced acetate tolerance would be valuable for these bioprocesses. In this work, the acetate tolerance of E. coli was much improved by rewiring its global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP), which is reported to regulate 444 genes. Error-prone PCR method was employed to modify crp and the mutagenesis libraries (~3×10(6)) were subjected to M9 minimal medium supplemented with 5-10 g/L sodium acetate for selection. Mutant A2 (D138Y) was isolated and its growth rate in 15 g/L sodium acetate was found to be 0.083 h(-1), much higher than that of the control (0.016 h(-1)). Real-time PCR analysis via OpenArray(®) system revealed that over 400 CRP-regulated genes were differentially expressed in A2 with or without acetate stress, including those involved in the TCA cycle, phosphotransferase system, etc. Eight genes were chosen for overexpression and the overexpression of uxaB was found to lead to E. coli acetate sensitivity.
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Optimization of CDT-1 and XYL1 expression for balanced co-production of ethanol and xylitol from cellobiose and xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Production of ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic hydrolysates is an alternative to the traditional production of ethanol in utilizing biomass. However, the conversion efficiency of xylose to xylitol is restricted by glucose repression, causing a low xylitol titer. To this end, we cloned genes CDT-1 (encoding a cellodextrin transporter) and gh1-1 (encoding an intracellular ?-glucosidase) from Neurospora crassa and XYL1 (encoding a xylose reductase that converts xylose into xylitol) from Scheffersomyces stipitis into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enabling simultaneous production of ethanol and xylitol from a mixture of cellobiose and xylose (main components of lignocellulosic hydrolysates). We further optimized the expression levels of CDT-1 and XYL1 by manipulating their promoters and copy-numbers, and constructed an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (carrying one copy of PGK1p-CDT1 and two copies of TDH3p-XYL1), which showed an 85.7% increase in xylitol production from the mixture of cellobiose and xylose than that from the mixture of glucose and xylose. Thus, we achieved a balanced co-fermentation of cellobiose (0.165 g/L/h) and xylose (0.162 g/L/h) at similar rates to co-produce ethanol (0.36 g/g) and xylitol (1.00 g/g).
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Engineering PQS biosynthesis pathway for enhancement of bioelectricity production in pseudomonas aeruginosa microbial fuel cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The biosynthesis of the redox shuttle, phenazines, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an ubiquitous microorganism in wastewater microflora, is regulated by the 2-heptyl-3,4-dihydroxyquinoline (PQS) quorum-sensing system. However, PQS inhibits anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa. We constructed a P. aeruginosa strain that produces higher concentrations of phenazines under anaerobic conditions by over-expressing the PqsE effector in a PQS negative ?pqsC mutant. The engineered strain exhibited an improved electrical performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and potentiostat-controlled electrochemical cells with an approximate five-fold increase of maximum current density relative to the parent strain. Electrochemical analysis showed that the current increase correlates with an over-synthesis of phenazines. These results therefore demonstrate that targeting microbial cell-to-cell communication by genetic engineering is a suitable technique to improve power output of bioelectrochemical systems.
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[The effects of aerobic exercise on cardiac output during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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To observe the effects of aerobic exercise on cardiac output during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).
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[Influence of brightness value of supranasal point and apex nasi on dominant wavelength and excitation purity in complexion inspection of healthy adults].
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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In this study, to analyze the influence of the brightness value of the supranasal point and the apex nasi on their dominant wavelength and excitation purity according to the spectrocolorimetry data of the supranasal point and the apex nasi in healthy adults that were collected based on optical spectrum colorimetry.
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Conductive artificial biofilm dramatically enhances bioelectricity production in Shewanella-inoculated microbial fuel cells.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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A new strategy of electrogen immobilization was developed to construct a conductive artificial biofilm (CAB) on an anode of a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The MFCs equipped with an optimized CAB exhibited an eleven fold increase in power output compared with natural biofilms.
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Relationship of left heart size and left ventricular mass with exercise capacity in chronic heart failure.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Impaired exercise capacity is one of the most common clinical manifestations in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). The severity of reduced exercise capacity is an indicator of disease prognosis. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between left heart size and mass with exercise capacity.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.