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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Synergistic effect of gestational hypertension and postpartum incident hypertension on cardiovascular health: a nationwide population study.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Gestational hypertension (GH) is a common complication of pregnancy and is associated with increased risk of incident hypertension in later life (IH) and cardiovascular events. However, the interactive effect of GH and IH on postpartum cardiovascular health remains unclear.
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All Inorganic Semiconductor Nanowire Mesh for Direct Solar Water Splitting.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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The generation of chemical fuels via direct solar-to-fuel conversion from a fully integrated artificial photosynthetic system is an attractive approach for clean and sustainable energy, but so far there has yet to be a system that would have the acceptable efficiency, durability and can be manufactured at a reasonable cost. Here, we show that a semiconductor mesh made from all inorganic nanowires can achieve unassisted solar-driven, overall water-splitting without using any electron mediators. Free-standing nanowire mesh networks could be made in large scales using solution synthesis and vacuum filtration, making this approach attractive for low cost implementation.
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Interfacial water. The structure of interfacial water on gold electrodes studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy.
Science
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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The molecular structure of the electrical double layer determines the chemistry in all electrochemical processes. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), we probed the structure of water near gold electrodes and its bias dependence. Electron yield XAS detected at the gold electrode revealed that the interfacial water molecules have a different structure from those in the bulk. First principles calculations revealed that ~50% of the molecules lie flat on the surface with saturated hydrogen bonds and another substantial fraction with broken hydrogen bonds that do not contribute to the XAS spectrum because their core-excited states are delocalized by coupling with the gold substrate. At negative bias, the population of flat-lying molecules with broken hydrogen bonds increases, producing a spectrum similar to that of bulk water.
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Low Overpotential in Vacancy-Rich Ultrathin CoSe2 Nanosheets for Water Oxidation.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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According to Yang Shao-Horn's principle, CoSe2 is a promising candidate as an efficient, affordable, and sustainable alternative electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction, owing to its well-suited electronic configuration of Co ions. However, the catalytic efficiency of pure CoSe2 is still far below what is expected, because of its poor active site exposure yield. Herein, we successfully overcome the disadvantage of insufficient active sites in bulk CoSe2 by reducing its thickness into the atomic scale rather than any additional modification (such as doping or hybridizing with graphene or noble metals). The positron annihilation spectrometry and XAFS spectra provide clear evidence that a large number of VCo? vacancies formed in the ultrathin nanosheets. The first-principles calculations reveal that these VCo? vacancies can serve as active sites to efficiently catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction, manifesting an OER overpotential as low as 0.32 V at 10 mA cm(-2) in pH 13 medium, which is superior to the values for its bulk counterparts as well as those for the most reported Co-based electrocatalysts. Considering the outstanding performance of the simple, unmodified ultrathin CoSe2 nanosheets as the only catalyst, further improvement of the catalytic activity is expected when various strategies of doping or hybridizing are used. These results not only demonstrate the potential of a notable, affordable, and earth-abundant water oxidation electrocatalyst based on ultrathin CoSe2 nanosheets but also open up a promising avenue into the exploration of excellent active and durable catalysts toward replacing noble metals for oxygen electrocatalysis.
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[(99m)Tc]cFLFLF for Early Diagnosis and Therapeutic Evaluation in a Rat Model of Acute Osteomyelitis.
Mol Imaging Biol
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Early diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of acute osteomyelitis (AO) is challenging. Here, we use a polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated chemotactic peptide cinnamoyl-F-(D)L-F-(D)L-F (cFLFLF) conjugated with hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) and labeled with Tc-99m ([(99m)Tc]cFLFLF) to image AO in a rat model and to validate its efficacy in early diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation of AO.
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A CMOS Micromachined Capacitive Tactile Sensor With Integrated Readout Circuits and Compensation of Process Variations.
IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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This paper presents a capacitive tactile sensor fabricated in a standard CMOS process. Both of the sensor and readout circuits are integrated on a single chip by a TSMC 0.35 ?m CMOS MEMS technology. In order to improve the sensitivity, a T-shaped protrusion is proposed and implemented. This sensor comprises the metal layer and the dielectric layer without extra thin film deposition, and can be completed with few post-processing steps. By a nano-indenter, the measured spring constant of the T-shaped structure is 2.19 kNewton/m. Fully differential correlated double sampling capacitor-to-voltage converter (CDS-CVC) and reference capacitor correction are utilized to compensate process variations and improve the accuracy of the readout circuits. The measured displacement-to-voltage transductance is 7.15 mV/nm, and the sensitivity is 3.26 mV/?Newton. The overall power dissipation is 132.8 ?W.
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Grommets for Otitis Media With Effusion in Children With Cleft Palate: A Systematic Review.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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No consensus has yet been reached with regard to the link between otitis media with effusion (OME), hearing loss, and language development in children with cleft palate. The objective of this study was to address the effectiveness of ventilation tube insertion (VTI) for OME in children with cleft palate.
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Inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C9 expression and activity in vitro by allyl isothiocyanate.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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The growing interest in the use of natural herbal products and dietary supplements to treat and prevent diseases raises the question of medicinal drug safety. Allyl isothiocyanate, a hydrolysis product of a glucosinolate, sinigrin, has multiple beneficial properties, and based on this fact, allyl isothiocyanate-containing dietary supplements have been developed. To date, no studies of the effects of this compound on the cytochrome P450 2C9 have been reported. In this study, we found that allyl isothiocyanate reduced catalytic activity, messenger ribonucleic acid, and protein expression of cytochrome P450 2C9 in HepaRG cells. An investigation of the transcriptional activity of the pregnane X receptor and the constitutive androstane receptor revealed that allyl isothiocyanate disrupted the transcriptional coregulation effects of the pregnane X receptor/constitutive androstane receptor with several important coregulators and interfered with the assembly of transcriptional complexes of the cytochrome P450 2C9 pregnane X receptor/constitutive androstane receptor-response element. The decrease of cytochrome P450 2C9 expression and activity mediated by allyl isothiocyanate suggested that this agent could alter the metabolism of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 2C9. This may cause food/dietary supplement-drug interactions or alter the therapeutic effects, and even the toxicity of drugs coadministered with allyl isothiocyanate. Since the consumption of allyl isothiocyanate-containing food/dietary supplements continues to increase, it is important to predict and ultimately avoid interactions with concomitant drugs. It is required that these possible pharmacokinetic interactions be characterized and the recommendations available to patients and healthcare professionals be improved.
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Wave reflections, arterial stiffness, heart rate variability and orthostatic hypotension.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Increased arterial stiffness and wave reflections are independently associated with orthostatic hypotension (OH). This study investigated whether heart rate variability (HRV) is also involved in the modulation of orthostatic blood pressure (BP) change. A total of 429 subjects (65.1±16.4 years, 77.4% men) were enrolled in this study. OH was defined as a ?20?mm?Hg decrease in brachial systolic blood pressure (SBP) or a ?10?mm?Hg diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decrease upon standing. Measurements of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and the amplitude of the reflected pressure wave from a decomposed carotid pressure wave (Pb) were obtained by carotid tonometry in the supine position. The power spectrum from a 5-min recording of an electrocardiogram at rest was analyzed to provide components in the high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) ranges. Subjects with OH (n=59, 13.8%) had significantly higher cf-PWV and Pb and significantly lower LogHF and LogLF than those without OH (n=370). The cf-PWV, Pb, LogHF and LogLF were significantly associated with postural SBP and DBP changes. Furthermore, cf-PWV but not Pb was significantly associated with LogHF and LogLF. Multivariate analysis showed that Pb (odds ratio (OR) per 1 s.d. 1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.282-2.137; P=0.003) and LogHF (OR 0.628, 95% CI 0.459-0.860, P=0.004), but not cf-PWV (OR 1.279, 95% CI 0.932-1.755, P=0.128), were significant independent determinants of OH. Increased wave reflections may predispose OH independently of arterial stiffness and HRV. In contrast, increased arterial stiffness may cause OH through the modulation of HRV.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 21 August 2014; doi:10.1038/hr.2014.127.
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Antroquinonol blocks Ras and Rho signaling via the inhibition of protein isoprenyltransferase activity in cancer cells.
Biomed. Pharmacother.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Antroquinonol is the smallest anticancer molecule isolated from Antrodia camphorata thus far. The ubiquinone-like structure of Antroquinonol exhibits a broad spectrum of activity against malignancies in vivo and in vitro. However, the mechanism of action of Antroquinonol remains unclear. Here, we provide evidence that Antroquinonol plays a role in the inhibition of Ras and Ras-related small GTP-binding protein functions through the inhibition of protein isoprenyl transferase activity in cancer cells. Using cell line-based assays, we found that the inactive forms of Ras and Rho proteins were significantly elevated after treatment with Antroquinonol. We also demonstrated that Antroquinonol binds directly to farnesyltransferase and geranylgeranyltransferase-I, which are key enzymes involved in activation of Ras-related proteins, and inhibits enzymes activities in vitro. Furthermore, a molecular docking analysis illustrated that the isoprenoid moiety of Antroquinonol binds along the hydrophobic cavity of farnesyltransferase similar to its natural substrate, farnesyl pyrophosphate. In contrast, the ring structure of Antroquinonol lies adjacent to the Ras-CAAX motif-binding site on farnesyltransferase. The molecular docking study also showed a reasonable correlation with the IC50 values of Antroquinonol analogues. We also found that the levels of LC3B-II and the autophagosome-associated LC3 form were also significantly increased in H838 after Antroquinonol administration. In conclusion, Antroquinonol inhibited Ras and Ras-related GTP-binding protein activation through inhibition of protein isoprenyl transferase activity, leading to activation of autophagy and associated mode of cell death in cancer cells.
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Riboflavin Accumulation and Molecular Characterization of cDNAs Encoding Bifunctional GTP Cyclohydrolase II/3,4-Dihydroxy-2-Butanone 4-Phosphate Synthase, Lumazine Synthase, and Riboflavin Synthase in Different Organs of Lycium chinense Plant.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the precursor of flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide-essential cofactors for a wide variety of enzymes involving in numerous metabolic processes. In this study, a partial-length cDNA encoding bifunctional GTP cyclohydrolase II/3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase (LcRIBA), 2 full-length cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase (LcLS1 and LcLS2), and a full-length cDNA encoding riboflavin synthase (LcRS) were isolated from Lycium chinense, an important traditional medicinal plant. Sequence analyses showed that these genes exhibited high identities with their orthologous genes as well as having the same common features related to plant riboflavin biosynthetic genes. LcRIBA, like other plant RIBAs, contained a DHBPS region in its N terminus and a GCHII region in its C-terminal part. LcLSs and LcRS carried an N-terminal extension found in plant riboflavin biosynthetic genes unlike the orthologous microbial genes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 4 riboflavin biosynthetic genes were constitutively expressed in all organs examined of L. chinense plants with the highest expression levels found in the leaves or red fruits. LcRIBA, which catalyzes 2 initial reactions in riboflavin biosynthetic pathway, was the highest transcript in the leaves, and hence, the richest content of riboflavin was detected in this organ. Our study might provide the basis for investigating the contribution of riboflavin in diverse biological activities of L. chinense and may facilitate the metabolic engineering of vitamin B2 in crop plants.
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A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GII in a university located in Xiamen City, China.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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We investigated a diarrhea outbreak that occurred at a university in China to identify the etiological agent of the outbreak, source of infection, mode of transmission, and risk factors.
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Metal (Pb, Zn and Cu) uptake and tolerance by mangroves in relation to root anatomy and lignification/suberization.
Tree Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Metal pollution has been widely reported in mangrove wetlands; however, the mechanisms involved in metal detoxification by mangroves are still poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the possible function of root anatomy and lignification/suberization on metal uptake and tolerance in seedlings of six species of mangroves. The results revealed that the three rhizophoraceous species (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Poir, Kandelia obovata Sheue, Liu & Yong and Rhizophora stylosa Griff) consistently exhibited higher metal tolerances than the three pioneer species (Aegiceras corniculatum (Linn.) Blanco, Acanthus ilicifolius L. and Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Viern.). Moreover, metal-tolerant species often exhibited a thick exodermis with high lignification and suberization. The tolerance indices of the mangroves were found to be positively correlated with the amounts of lignin and suberin deposition within the exodermal cell walls. The observed metal uptake by the excised roots further illustrated that a lignified/suberized exodermis directly delayed the entry of metals into the roots, and thereby contributed to a higher tolerance to heavy metals. In summary, the present study proposes a barrier property of the lignified/suberized exodermis in dealing with the stresses of heavy metals, such that the mangroves which possessed more extensive lignification/suberization within the exodermis appeared to exhibit higher metal tolerance.
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Evolutionary study of the isoflavonoid pathway based on multiple copies analysis in soybean.
BMC Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Previous studies suggest that the metabolic pathway structure influences the selection and evolution rates of involved genes. However, most of these studies have exclusively considered a single gene copy encoding each enzyme in the metabolic pathway. Considering multiple-copy encoding enzymes could provide direct evidence of gene evolution and duplication patterns in metabolic pathways. We conducted a detailed analysis of the phylogeny, synteny, evolutionary rate and selection pressure of the genes in the isoflavonoid metabolic pathway of soybeans.
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[Expression of Chemokine receptor CXCR6 and its significance in breast cancer cell lines].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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To detect the expression of Chemokine receptor CXCR6 in invasive breast cancer cell lines and normal mammary epithelial cell line, and assess the relationship between CXCR6 expression and malignant behavior of breast cancer cells.
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Mechanistic insights from DGT and soil solution measurements on the uptake of Ni and Cd by radish.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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This work tests the previously proposed hypothesis that plant uptake of metals is determined dominantly by diffusional controlled or plant limiting uptake mechanisms at, respectively, low and high metal concentrations. Radish (Raphanus sativus) was grown in 13 soils spiked with Ni (10 and 100 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (0.5 and 4 mg kg(-1)) for 4 weeks to investigate the mechanisms affecting plant uptake. Soil solution concentrations, Css, of Ni and Cd were measured, along with the DGT interfacial concentration, CDGT, and the derived effective concentration in soil solution, CE. Free ion activities, aNi(2+) and aCd(2+), were obtained using WHAM 6. Although there was a poor relationship between Ni in radish roots and either Css or aNi(2+) in unamended soils, the distribution of data could be rationalized in terms of the extent of release of Ni from the soil solid phase, as identified by DGT and soil solution measurements. By contrast Ni in radish was linearly related to CE, demonstrating diffusion limited uptake. For soils amended with high concentrations of Ni, linear relationships were obtained for Ni in radish plotted against, Css, aNi(2+), and CE, consistent with the plant controlling uptake. For Ni the hypothesis concerning dominant diffusional and plant limiting uptake mechanisms was demonstrated. Poor relationships between Cd in radish and Css, aCd(2+), and CE, irrespective of amendment by Cd, showed the importance of factors other than diffusional supply, such as rhizosphere and inhibitory processes, and that fulfilment of this hypothesis is plant and metal specific.
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[Expression and polyclonal antibody preparation of HPV-11E7 protein].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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To express human papillomavirus type 11, E7 protein (HPV11E7) via a prokaryotic expression vector and produce anti-HPV11E7 polyclonal antibody.
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Wave reflections, arterial stiffness, and orthostatic hypotension.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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The effect of wave reflections on blood pressure change associated with posture remains unclear. We therefore applied a wave separation technique to investigate the relations of the backward pressure wave amplitude with orthostatic pressure changes and orthostatic hypotension (OH).
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Knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha reduces proliferation, induces apoptosis and attenuates the aggressive phenotype of retinoblastoma WERI-Rb-1 cells under hypoxic conditions.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) plays a critical role in tumor cell adaption to hypoxia by inducing the transcription of numerous genes. The role of HIF-1? in malignant retinoblastoma remains unclear. We analyzed the role of HIF-1? in WERI-Rb-1 retinoblastoma cells under hypoxic conditions.
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Molecular characterization of carotenoid biosynthetic genes and carotenoid accumulation in Lycium chinense.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Lycium chinense is a shrub that has health benefits and is used as a source of medicines in Asia. In this study, a full-length cDNA clone encoding ?-ring carotene hydroxylase (LcCHXB) and partial-length cDNA clones encoding phytoene synthase (LcPSY), phytoene desaturase (LcPDS), ?-carotene desaturase (LcZDS), lycopene ?-cyclase (LcLCYB), lycopene ?-cyclase (LcLCYE), ?-ring carotene hydroxylase (LcCHXE), zeaxanthin epoxidase (LcZEP), carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (LcCCD1), and 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (LcNCED) were identified in L. chinense. The transcripts were constitutively expressed at high levels in leaves, flowers and red fruits, where the carotenoids are mostly distributed. In contrast, most of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were weakly expressed in the roots and stems, which contained only small amounts of carotenoids. The level of LcLCYE transcripts was very high in leaves and correlated with the abundance of lutein in this plant tissue. During maturation, the levels of lutein and zeaxanthin in L. chinense fruits dramatically increased, concomitant with a rise in the level of ?-cryptoxanthin. LcPSY, LcPDS, LcZDS, LcLCYB, and LcCHXE were highly expressed in red fruits, leading to their substantially higher total carotenoid content compared to that in green fruits. Total carotenoid content was high in both the leaves and red fruits of L. chinense. Our findings on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in L. chinense provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and may facilitate the optimization of carotenoid production in L. chinense.
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Nonlinear filter based decision feedback equalizer for optical communication systems.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Nonlinear impairments in optical communication system have become a major concern of optical engineers. In this paper, we demonstrate that utilizing a nonlinear filter based Decision Feedback Equalizer (DFE) with error detection capability can deliver a better performance compared with the conventional linear filter based DFE. The proposed algorithms are tested in simulation using a coherent 100 Gb/sec 16-QAM optical communication system in a legacy optical network setting.
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Aligned Fe2TiO5-containing nanotube arrays with low onset potential for visible-light water oxidation.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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There remains a pressing challenge in the efficient utilization of visible light in the photoelectrochemical applications of water splitting. Here, we design and fabricate pseudobrookite Fe2TiO5 ultrathin layers grown on vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays that can enhance the conduction and utilization of photogenerated charge carriers. Our photoanodes are characterized by low onset potentials of ~0.2?V, high photon-to-current efficiencies of 40-50% under 400-600?nm irradiation and total energy conversion efficiencies of ~2.7%. The high performance of Fe2TiO5 nanotube arrays can be attributed to the anisotropic charge carrier transportation and elongated charge carrier diffusion length (compared with those of conventional TiO2 or Fe2O3 photoanodes) based on electrochemical impedance analysis and first-principles calculations. The Fe2TiO5 nanotube arrays may open up more opportunities in the design of efficient and low-cost photoanodes working in visible light for photoelectrochemical applications.
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Use of single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes to identify genomic regions associated with protein content and water-soluble protein content in soybean.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Four major SPC-specific loci were identified, and these accounted for 8.5-15.1 % of the phenotypic variation, thus explaining why certain soybean varieties have a high PC but a low SPC. Water-soluble protein content (SPC) is a critical factor in both food quality and the production of isolated soybean proteins. However, few data are available regarding the genetic control and the mechanisms contributing to elevated SPC. In this study, a soybean collection of 192 accessions from a wide geographic range was used to identify genomic regions associated with soybean protein content (PC) and SPC using an association mapping approach employing 1,536 SNP makers and 232 haplotypes. The diverse panel revealed a large genetic variation in PC and SPC. Association mapping was performed using three methods to minimize false-positive associations. This resulted in 4/8 SNPs and 3/6 haplotypes that were significantly associated with soybean PC/SPC in two or more environments based on the mixed model. An SNP that was highly significantly associated with PC, BARC-021267-04016, was localized 0.28 cM away from a published glycinin gene, G7, and was detected across all four environments. Four major SPC-specific loci, BARC-029149-06088, BARC-018023-02499, BARC-041663-08059 and haplotype 15 (hp15), were stably identified on chromosomes five and eight and explained 8.5-15.1 % of the phenotypic variation. Moreover, a glutelin type-B 2-like gene was identified on chromosome eight and may be related to soybean protein solubility. These markers, which are located in previously reported QTL, reconfirmed previous findings and may be important targets for the identification of protein-related genes. These novel SNPs and haplotypes are important for further understanding the genetic basis of PC and SPC. In addition, by comparing the correlation and genetic loci between PC and SPC, we provide new insights into why certain soybean varieties have a high protein content but a low SPC.
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Enhancement of n-butanol production by in situ butanol removal using permeating-heating-gas stripping in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fed-batch fermentation using permeating-heating-gas was determined in this study. Fermentation was performed with Clostridium acetobutylicum B3 in a fibrous bed bioreactor and permeating-heating-gas stripping was used to eliminate substrate and product inhibition, which normally restrict ABE production and sugar utilization to below 20 g/L and 60 g/L, respectively. In batch fermentation (without permeating-heating-gas stripping), C. acetobutylicum B3 utilized 60 g/L glucose and produced 19.9 g/L ABE and 12 g/L butanol, while in the integrated process 290 g/L glucose was utilized and 106.27 g/L ABE and 66.09 g/L butanol were produced. The intermittent gas stripping process generated a highly concentrated condensate containing approximately 15% (w/v) butanol, 4% (w/v) acetone, a small amount of ethanol (<1%), and almost no acids, resulting in a highly concentrated butanol solution [? 70% (w/v)] after phase separation. Butanol removal by permeating-heating-gas stripping has potential for commercial ABE production.
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Radial shock wave therapy in the treatment of chronic constriction injury model in rats: a preliminary study.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Pain physicians pay close attention to neuropathic pain (NP), since there is currently no ideal treatment. Radial shock wave therapy (RSWT) is a noninvasive treatment to chronic pain of soft tissue disorders. So far, there is no information on the use of RSWT for the treatment of NP. Therefore we observe the effects of RSWT on a NP model induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats.
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Improved diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) measurement of total dissolved inorganic arsenic in waters and soils using a hydrous zirconium oxide binding layer.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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A high-capacity diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique has been developed for measurement of total dissolved inorganic arsenic (As) using a long shelf life binding gel layer containing hydrous zirconium oxide (Zr-oxide). Both As(III) and As(V) were rapidly accumulated in the Zr-oxide gel and could be quantitatively recovered by elution using 1.0 M NaOH for freshwater or a mixture of 1.0 M NaOH and 1.0 M H2O2 for seawater. DGT uptake of As(III) and As(V) increased linearly with deployment time and was independent of pH (2.0-9.1), ionic strength (0.01-750 mM), the coexistence of phosphate (0.25-10 mg P L(-1)), and the aging of the Zr-oxide gel up to 24 months after production. The capacities of the Zr-oxide DGT were 159 ?g As(III) and 434 ?g As(V) per device for freshwater and 94 ?g As(III) and 152 ?g As(V) per device for seawater. These values were 5-29 times and 3-19 times more than those reported for the commonly used ferrihydrite and Metsorb DGTs, respectively. Deployments of the Zr-oxide DGT in As-spiked synthetic seawater provided accurate measurements of total dissolved inorganic As over the 96 h deployment, whereas ferrihydrite and Metsorb DGTs only measured the concentrations accurately up to 24 and 48 h, respectively. Deployments in soils showed that the Zr-oxide DGT was a reliable and robust tool, even for soil samples heavily polluted with As. In contrast, As in these soils was underestimated by ferrihydrite and Metsorb DGTs due to insufficient effective capacities, which were likely suppressed by the competing effects of phosphate.
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Goal-directed fluid therapy based on stroke volume variations improves fluid management and gastrointestinal perfusion in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery.
Med Princ Pract
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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To evaluate the influence of stroke volume variation (SVV)-based goal-directed therapy (GDT) on splanchnic organ functions and postoperative complications in orthopedic patients.
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Diagnostic performance of a stand-alone central blood pressure monitor: application of central blood pressure in the diagnosis of high blood pressure.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Oscillometric central blood pressure (CBP) monitors have emerged as a new technology for blood pressure (BP) measurements. With a newly proposed diagnostic threshold for CBP, we investigated the diagnostic performance of a novel CBP monitor.
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Magnetocaloric effects in a freestanding and flexible graphene-based superlattice synthesized with a spatially confined reaction.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Superlattices have attracted great interest because of their tailorable electronic properties at the interface. However, the lack of an efficient and low-cost synthetic method represents a huge challenge to implement superlattices into practical applications. Herein, we report a space-confined nanoreactor strategy to synthesize flexible freestanding graphene-based superlattice nanosheets, which consist of alternately intercalated monolayered metal-oxide frameworks and graphene. Taking vanadium oxide as an example, clear-cut evidences in extended X-ray absorption fine structure, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectra have confirmed that the vanadium oxide frameworks in the superlattice nanosheets show high symmetry derived from the space-confinement and electron-donor effect of graphene layers, which enable the superlattice nanosheets to show emerging magnetocaloric effect. Undoubtedly, this freestanding and flexible superlattice synthesized from a low-cost and scalable method avoids complex transferring processes from growth substrates for final applications and thus should be beneficial to a wide variety of functionalized devices.
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Application of the N-point moving average method for brachial pressure waveform-derived estimation of central aortic systolic pressure.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The N-point moving average (NPMA) is a mathematical low-pass filter that can smooth peaked noninvasively acquired radial pressure waveforms to estimate central aortic systolic pressure using a common denominator of N/4 (where N=the acquisition sampling frequency). The present study investigated whether the NPMA method can be applied to brachial pressure waveforms. In the derivation group, simultaneously recorded invasive high-fidelity brachial and central aortic pressure waveforms from 40 subjects were analyzed to identify the best common denominator. In the validation group, the NPMA method with the obtained common denominator was applied on noninvasive brachial pressure waveforms of 100 subjects. Validity was tested by comparing the noninvasive with the simultaneously recorded invasive central aortic systolic pressure. Noninvasive brachial pressure waveforms were calibrated to the cuff systolic and diastolic blood pressures. In the derivation study, an optimal denominator of N/6 was identified for NPMA to derive central aortic systolic pressure. The mean difference between the invasively/noninvasively estimated (N/6) and invasively measured central aortic systolic pressure was 0.1±3.5 and -0.6±7.6 mm Hg in the derivation and validation study, respectively. It satisfied the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation standard of 5±8 mm Hg. In conclusion, this method for estimating central aortic systolic pressure using either invasive or noninvasive brachial pressure waves requires a common denominator of N/6. By integrating the NPMA method into the ordinary oscillometric blood pressure determining process, convenient noninvasive central aortic systolic pressure values could be obtained with acceptable accuracy.
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Mutation of human connexin43 amino acids s279/s282 increases protein stability upon treatment with epidermal growth factor.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Connexins are the structural units of gap junctions, structures allowing interchanging of information between the adjacent cells. Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most abundant gap junction protein. Cx43 can be degraded by lysosome- and proteasome-mediated processes upon internalisation of the entire structure. Only little is known about the role of phosphorylation during the gap junction degradation. In Cx43, a protein containing 14 amino acids susceptible to be phosphorylated, amino acids S279 and S282 are phosphorylated upon epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment by erk1/2 MAP kinases. Here, we show that the wild-type Cx43 protein, as well as HeLa cells expressing the mutated Cx43 proteins S279A, S282A, and S279A/S282A, is mainly located at the plasma membrane. However, the protein stability is not altered in the isolated single mutants, whereas the double mutant S279A/S282A is strongly degradation impaired upon EGF treatment. This effect is not due to the decreased Cx43 internalisation, but seems to be related to a reduced ubiquitination.
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Association of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Val66Met Polymorphism with Primary Dysmenorrhea.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), the most prevalent menstrual cycle-related problem in women of reproductive age, is associated with negative moods. Whether the menstrual pain and negative moods have a genetic basis remains unknown. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the production of central sensitization and contributes to chronic pain conditions. BDNF has also been implicated in stress-related mood disorders. We screened and genotyped the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) in 99 Taiwanese (Asian) PDMs (20-30 years old) and 101 age-matched healthy female controls. We found that there was a significantly higher frequency of the Met allele of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in the PDM group. Furthermore, BDNF Met/Met homozygosity had a significantly stronger association with PDM compared with Val carrier status. Subsequent behavioral/hormonal assessments of sub-groups (PDMs?=?78, controls?=?81; eligible for longitudinal multimodal neuroimaging battery studies) revealed that the BDNF Met/Met homozygous PDMs exhibited a higher menstrual pain score (sensory dimension) and a more anxious mood than the Val carrier PDMs during the menstrual phase. Although preliminary, our study suggests that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with PDM in Taiwanese (Asian) people, and BDNF Met/Met homozygosity may be associated with an increased risk of PDM. Our data also suggest the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism as a possible regulator of menstrual pain and pain-related emotions in PDM. Absence of thermal hypersensitivity may connote an ethnic attribution. The presentation of our findings calls for further genetic and neuroscientific investigations of PDM.
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Genetic diversity of bacterial communities and gene transfer agents in northern South china sea.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) amplicons was performed to investigate the unique distribution of bacterial communities in northern South China Sea (nSCS) and evaluate community structure and spatial differences of bacterial diversity. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes constitute the majority of bacteria. The taxonomic description of bacterial communities revealed that more Chroococcales, SAR11 clade, Acidimicrobiales, Rhodobacterales, and Flavobacteriales are present in the nSCS waters than other bacterial groups. Rhodobacterales were less abundant in tropical water (nSCS) than in temperate and cold waters. Furthermore, the diversity of Rhodobacterales based on the gene transfer agent (GTA) major capsid gene (g5) was investigated. Four g5 gene clone libraries were constructed from samples representing different regions and yielded diverse sequences. Fourteen g5 clusters could be identified among 197 nSCS clones. These clusters were also related to known g5 sequences derived from genome-sequenced Rhodobacterales. The composition of g5 sequences in surface water varied with the g5 sequences in the sampling sites; this result indicated that the Rhodobacterales population could be highly diverse in nSCS. Phylogenetic tree analysis result indicated distinguishable diversity patterns among tropical (nSCS), temperate, and cold waters, thereby supporting the niche adaptation of specific Rhodobacterales members in unique environments.
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Transcriptome analysis of indole-3-butyric acid-induced adventitious root formation in nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a popular world beverage, and propagation of tea plants chiefly depends on the formation of adventitious roots in cuttings. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in adventitious root formation, we performed transcriptome analysis of single nodal cuttings of C. sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 42.5 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and these were assembled into 59,931 unigenes, with an average length of 732 bp and an N50 of 1292 bp. In addition, 1091 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the tea cuttings treated with IBA compared to controls, including 656 up- and 435 down-regulated genes. Further real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq data. Functional annotation analysis showed that many genes were involved in plant hormone signal transduction, secondary metabolism, cell wall organization and glutathione metabolism, indicating potential contributions to adventitious rooting. Our study presents a global view of transcriptome profiles of tea cuttings in response to IBA treatment and provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms associated with auxin-induced adventitious rooting. Our data will be a valuable resource for genomic research about adventitious root formation in tea cuttings, which can be used to improve rooting for difficult-to-root varieties.
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Feasibility and accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in clinically node-positive breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has replaced conventional axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in axillary node-negative breast cancer patients. However, the use of SLNB remains controversial in patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). The aim of this review is to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of SLNB after NAC in clinically node-positive patients. Systematic searches were performed in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases from 1993 to December 2013 for studies on node-positive breast cancer patients who underwent SLNB after NAC followed by ALND. Of 436 identified studies, 15 were included in this review, with a total of 2,471 patients. The pooled identification rate (IR) of SLNB was 89% [95% confidence interval (CI) 85-93%], and the false negative rate (FNR) of SLNB was 14% (95% CI 10-17%). The heterogeneity of FNR was analyzed by meta-regression, and the results revealed that immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining may represent an independent factor (P?=?0.04). FNR was lower in the IHC combined with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining subgroup than in the H&E staining alone subgroup, with values of 8.7% versus 16.0%, respectively (P?=?0.001). Thus, SLNB was feasible after NAC in node-positive breast cancer patients. In addition, the IR of SLNB was respectable, although the FNR of SLNB was poor and requires further improvement. These findings indicate that IHC may improve the accuracy of SLNB.
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Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) inhibits pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation and protects against acetaminophen- and amiodarone-induced cytotoxicity.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Antagonizing the action of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) may have important clinical implications for preventing inducer-drug interactions and improving therapeutic efficacy. We identified a widely distributed isothiocyanate, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which acts as an effective antagonist of the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3). HepG2 cells were used to assay reporter function, mRNA levels, and protein expression. Catalytic activities of the PXR and CAR target genes, CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, respectively, were also assessed in differentiated HepaRG cells. Protective effects of AITC on rifampin-induced cytotoxicity were observed, and transient transfection assays showed that AITC was able to effectively attenuate the agonist effects of rifampin and CITCO on human PXR and CAR activity, respectively. AITC-mediated reduction in the transcriptional activity of PXR and CAR correlated well with the suppression of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 expression in HepG2 cells, which reflected the reduced catalytic activities of both of these genes following AITC treatment in differentiated HepaRG cells. Furthermore, AITC disrupts the co-regulations of PXR with several important co-regulators. Furthermore, the antagonist effect of AITC against PXR was found in HepaRG cells upon addition of acetaminophen (APAP) and amiodarone, indicating that AITC protects cells from drug-induced cytotoxicity. Taken together, our results show that AITC inhibits the transactivation effects of PXR and CAR and reduces the expression and function of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. Additionally, AITC reversed the cytotoxic effects of APAP and amiodarone induced by PXR ligand. Results from this study suggest that AITC could be a powerful agent for reducing potentially dangerous interactions between transcriptional inducers of CYP enzymes and therapeutic drugs.
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The acid phosphatase-encoding gene GmACP1 contributes to soybean tolerance to low-phosphorus stress.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Phosphorus (P) is essential for all living cells and organisms, and low-P stress is a major factor constraining plant growth and yield worldwide. In plants, P efficiency is a complex quantitative trait involving multiple genes, and the mechanisms underlying P efficiency are largely unknown. Combining linkage analysis, genome-wide and candidate-gene association analyses, and plant transformation, we identified a soybean gene related to P efficiency, determined its favorable haplotypes and developed valuable functional markers. First, six major genomic regions associated with P efficiency were detected by performing genome-wide associations (GWAs) in various environments. A highly significant region located on chromosome 8, qPE8, was identified by both GWAs and linkage mapping and explained 41% of the phenotypic variation. Then, a regional mapping study was performed with 40 surrounding markers in 192 diverse soybean accessions. A strongly associated haplotype (P = 10(-7)) consisting of the markers Sat_233 and BARC-039899-07603 was identified, and qPE8 was located in a region of approximately 250 kb, which contained a candidate gene GmACP1 that encoded an acid phosphatase. GmACP1 overexpression in soybean hairy roots increased P efficiency by 11-20% relative to the control. A candidate-gene association analysis indicated that six natural GmACP1 polymorphisms explained 33% of the phenotypic variation. The favorable alleles and haplotypes of GmACP1 associated with increased transcript expression correlated with higher enzyme activity. The discovery of the optimal haplotype of GmACP1 will now enable the accurate selection of soybeans with higher P efficiencies and improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying P efficiency in plants.
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Genetic factors, viral infection, other factors and liver cancer: an update on current progress.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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Primary liver cancer is one of the most common cancers at the global level, accounting for half of all cancers in some undeveloped countries. This disease tends to occur in livers damaged through alcohol abuse, or chronic infection with hepatitis B and C, on a background of cirrhosis. Various cancer-causing substances are associated with primary liver cancer, including certain pesticides and such chemicals as vinyl chloride and arsenic. The strong association between HBV infection and liver cancer is well documented in epidemiological studies. It is generally acknowledged that the virus is involved through long term chronic infection, frequently associated with cirrhosis, suggesting a nonspecific mechanism triggered by the immune response. Chronic inflammation of liver, continuous cell death, abnormal cell growth, would increase the occurrence rate of genetic alterations and risk of disease. However, the statistics indicated that only about one fifth of HBV carries would develop HCC in lifetime, suggesting that individual variation in genome would also influence the susceptibility of HCC. The goal of this review is to highlight present level of knowledge on the role of viral infection and genetic variation in the development of liver cancer.
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Adsorption kinetic process of thiol ligands on gold nanocrystals.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Understanding the kinetic mechanism during ligand adsorption on gold nanocrystals is important for designing and fine-tuning their properties and implications. Here, we report a kinetic study on the adsorption process of dodecanethiol ligands on Au nanocrystals of 3.3 nm by an in situ time-resolved X-ray absorption fine structure technique. A two-step process of dodecanethiol adsorption on Au NC surfaces is proposed based on the obtained ligand coverage, which shows a quick increase from 0 to 0.40 within the first 20 min, followed by a much slower increase to the limiting value of 0.94. In-depth analysis suggests that the first stage involves the quick adsorption of dodecanethiol to the corner and edge sites of Au NCs surfaces, leading to remarkable surface Au-Au bond length relaxation (from 2.79 to 2.81 Å) and pronounced gold-to-ligand charge transfer. The second step that corresponds to the much slower adsorption process to the surface facets could be described by the Langmuir kinetics equation with an adsorption rate constant of 0.0132 min(-1) and an initial coverage of 0.41, in good agreement with the initially preferable adsorption of thiols to the most favorable sites.
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The barriers to clinical application of non-invasively obtained central blood pressure.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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With the demonstration of superior prognostic value of central blood pressure (CBP) beyond traditionally used brachial BP, there have been increasing interest in the development of novel devices reporting parameters of CBP. The emerging devices for non-invasive estimation of CBP, based on either tonometry-based or cuff-based techniques, were evaluated with various validation studies. Therefore, the research community and clinicians have been faced with challenges regarding the conduction and interpretation of the validation studies for the non-invasively obtained CBP. We summarize here the barriers to the clinical application of the CBP concept, which provide research opportunities to further the subsequent translation.
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A quantitative analysis of F-actin features and distribution in fluorescence microscopy images to distinguish cells with different modes of motility.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Actin is one of the most abundant proteins in eukaryote cells, playing a key role in cell dynamic morphological alterations and tumor metastatic spread. To investigate the relationship between the distribution patterns of actin and the aggressiveness of cancer cells, we developed an image analysis framework for quantifying cell F-actin distributions examined with fluorescence microscopy. The images are first segmented with multichannel information of both F-actin and nuclear staining. Using the watershed method and Voronoi tessellation, the cells can be well segmented based on both F-actin and nuclear information. Altogether, sixteen F-actin distribution features are calculated for each individual cell. A linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) is then applied in the feature space to separate cells with different modes of motility. Our results show that cells with different modes of motility can be distinguished by F-actin distributions. To our knowledge, this is the first study managing to distinguish cancer cells with different aggressiveness based on quantitative analysis of F-actin distribution patterns.
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Near infrared Ag/Au alloy nanoclusters: Tunable photoluminescence and cellular imaging.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2013
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The fluorescent nanomaterials play an important role in cellular imaging. Although the synthesis of fluorescent metal nanoclusters (NCs) have been developing rapidly, there are many technical issues in preparing metal alloy NCs. Herein, we used a facile galvanic replacement reaction to prepare Ag/Au alloy NCs. The characterizations of UV, PL, HRTEM, EDX and XPS confirm one fact the Ag/Au alloy NCs are carried out. As-prepared Ag/Au alloy NCs display near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence centered at 716nm and show tunable luminescence from visible red (614nm) to NIR (716nm) by controlling the experimental Ag/Au ratios. Moreover, as-prepared Ag/Au alloy NCs are protected by glutathione (GSH) whose some functional groups including thiol, carboxyl and amino groups make the as-prepared alloy NCs exhibit good dispersion in aqueous solution, high physiological stability and favorable biocompatibility. Together with NIR fluorescence, these advantages make alloy NCs be promising candidate in biological labeling.
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Geographical tracing of Xihu Longjing tea using high performance liquid chromatography.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Xihu Longjing tea (XHLJ) is one of the most famous green tea in China. Due to its high price, some inauthentic XHLJ from other tea producing areas appear on the market and hurt the interests of customers and producers. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with the principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) methods were applied to the geographical tracing of XHLJ from two other types of Longjing teas and a non-Longjing flatten-shaped tea (non-LJ). The chromatograms of the tea samples from four different regions were highly similar. It was difficult to classify 4 types of teas directly by PCA. However, high total accuracy rates of 94.8% and 87.6% for the training and test set were achieved for distinguishing XHLJ from the other three types of tea by stepwise discriminant analysis. The identification accuracy of XHLJ from non-LJ was the highest, suggesting geographical distance might play an important role in this process. In summary, a combination of chromatographic chemical fingerprints with LDA provides a simple and rapid approach for the identification of XHLJ from other teas.
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Identification of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and phenylpropanoid accumulation by transcriptome analysis of Lycium chinense.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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Lycium chinense is well known in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for its medicinal value and composition, which have been widely studied for decades. However, further research on Lycium chinense is limited due to the lack of transcriptome and genomic information.
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Long-lasting in vivo and in vitro antibacterial ability of nanostructured titania coating incorporated with silver nanoparticles.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Although titanium (Ti) implants are widely used clinically, implant-associated bacterial infection is still one of the most serious complications in orthopedic surgery. Long-term antibacterial properties and the ability to inhibit biofilm formation are highly desirable to prevent implant associated infection. In this study, a controllable amount of silver (Ag) nanoparticles was incorporated into titanium oxide; or titanium, nanotubes (TiO2 -NTs). The reliable release and long-term antibacterial function of Ag, in vivo and in vitro, and influence normal bone-implant integration from the Ag released from Ag-incorporated NTs in vivo have been studied to make them useable in clinical practice. In the current study, TiO2 -NTs loaded with Ag (NT-Ag) exhibited strong antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, ATCC43300) in vitro for 30 days, and the ability to penetrate the protein layer well. In addition, X-ray examination and 2-[(18) F]-fiuoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography indicates that NT-Ag show extremely long antibacterial activity in vivo in a rat model. Furthermore, histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that satisfactory bio-integration can be expected. Our results indicate that NT-Ag has both simultaneous antimicrobial and excellent bio-integration properties, make it a promising therapeutic material for orthopedic application. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.
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Glucose-responsive microgels integrated with enzyme nanocapsules for closed-loop insulin delivery.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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A glucose-responsive closed-loop insulin delivery system represents the ideal treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we develop uniform injectable microgels for controlled glucose-responsive release of insulin. Monodisperse microgels (256 ± 18 ?m), consisting of a pH-responsive chitosan matrix, enzyme nanocapsules, and recombinant human insulin, were fabricated through a one-step electrospray procedure. Glucose-specific enzymes were covalently encapsulated into the nanocapsules to improve enzymatic stability by protecting from denaturation and immunogenicity as well as to minimize loss due to diffusion from the matrix. The microgel system swelled when subjected to hyperglycemic conditions, as a result of the enzymatic conversion of glucose into gluconic acid and protonation of the chitosan network. Acting as a self-regulating valve system, microgels were adjusted to release insulin at basal release rates under normoglycemic conditions and at higher rates under hyperglycemic conditions. Finally, we demonstrated that these microgels with enzyme nanocapsules facilitate insulin release and result in a reduction of blood glucose levels in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes.
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Exploration of whole brain networks modulated by acupuncture at analgesia acupoint ST36 using scale-specific wavelet correlation analysis.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Previous studies have demonstrated that acupuncture could modulate various brain systems in the resting brain networks. Graph theoretical analysis offers a novel way to investigate the functional organization of the large-scale cortical networks modulated by acupuncture at whole brain level. In this study, we used wavelets correlation analysis to estimate the pairwise correlations between 90 cortical and subcortical human brain regions in normal human volunteers scanned during the post-stimulus resting state.
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Enhanced osseointegration and antibacterial action of zinc-loaded titania-nanotube-coated titanium substrates: In vitro and in vivo studies.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Poor osseointegration and infection resulting from implants are serious medical issues, and it is not straightforward to manufacture implants that can simultaneously address both of these problems. In this study, we produced coatings containing titania nanotubes (TiO2 -NTs) incorporated with zinc (NT-Zn) on Ti substrates by anodization and hydrothermal treatment. The zinc content was controlled by varying the duration of the hydrothermal treatment. The NT-Zn implants not only exhibited improved bone formation (shown by both in vitro and in vivo studies), which enhances osseointegration between bone and implant, but also inhibited growth of bacteria. The cytotoxicity of locally high concentrations of zinc in the NT-Zn3h specimens observed during in vitro studies was mitigated by the effects of dilution in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.
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Pits confined in ultrathin cerium(IV) oxide for studying catalytic centers in carbon monoxide oxidation.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Finding ideal material models for studying the role of catalytic active sites remains a great challenge. Here we propose pits confined in an atomically thin sheet as a platform to evaluate carbon monoxide catalytic oxidation at various sites. The artificial three-atomic-layer thin cerium(IV) oxide sheet with approximately 20% pits occupancy possesses abundant pit-surrounding cerium sites having average coordination numbers of 4.6 as revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Density-functional calculations disclose that the four- and five-fold coordinated pit-surrounding cerium sites assume their respective role in carbon monoxide adsorption and oxygen activation, which lowers the activation barrier and avoids catalytic poisoning. Moreover, the presence of coordination-unsaturated cerium sites increases the carrier density and facilitates carbon monoxide diffusion along the two-dimensional conducting channels of surface pits. The atomically thin sheet with surface-confined pits exhibits lower apparent activation energy than the bulk material (61.7 versus 122.9?kJ?mol(-1)), leading to reduced conversion temperature and enhanced carbon monoxide catalytic ability.
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[Expression and role of vascular endothelial growth inhibitor in sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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To evaluate the expression of vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) in sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) and explore its relationships between VEGI expression, pathologic grade and tumor staging.
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Clinical characteristics and prognosis of young patients with colorectal cancer in Eastern China.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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To explore the clinical characteristics and prognosis of young patients with colorectal cancer patients in Eastern China.
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Prognostic value of combined serum biomarkers in predicting outcomes in cervical cancer patients.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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We evaluated the prognostic value of pretreatment serum biomarkers in predicting outcomes in cervical cancer patients subjected to treatment.
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Injectable nano-network for glucose-mediated insulin delivery.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Diabetes mellitus, a disorder of glucose regulation, is a global burden affecting 366 million people across the world. An artificial "closed-loop" system able to mimic pancreas activity and release insulin in response to glucose level changes has the potential to improve patient compliance and health. Herein we develop a glucose-mediated release strategy for the self-regulated delivery of insulin using an injectable and acid-degradable polymeric network. Formed by electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged dextran nanoparticles loaded with insulin and glucose-specific enzymes, the nanocomposite-based porous architecture can be dissociated and subsequently release insulin in a hyperglycemic state through the catalytic conversion of glucose into gluconic acid. In vitro insulin release can be modulated in a pulsatile profile in response to glucose concentrations. In vivo studies validated that these formulations provided improved glucose control in type 1 diabetic mice subcutaneously administered with a degradable nano-network. A single injection of the developed nano-network facilitated stabilization of the blood glucose levels in the normoglycemic state (<200 mg/dL) for up to 10 days.
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Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus secondary to syphilis infection.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by partial or complete renal resistance to the effects of antidiuretic hormone. Acquired NDI can be caused by electrolyte imbalances (eg, hypercalcemia), renal/extrarenal diseases (eg, chronic pyelonephritis), and drugs (eg, lithium toxicity). Syphilis has never been reported to cause NDI.
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White coat hypertension is more risky than prehypertension: important role of arterial wave reflections.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Arterial aging may link cardiovascular risk to white coat hypertension (WCH). The aims of the present study were to investigate the role of arterial aging in the white coat effect, defined as the difference between office and 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressures, and to compare WCH with prehypertension (PH) with respect to target organ damage and long-term cardiovascular mortality. A total of 1257 never-been-treated volunteer subjects from a community-based survey were studied. WCH and PH were defined by office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressures. Left ventricular mass index, carotid intima-media thickness, estimated glomerular filtration rate, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, carotid augmentation index, amplitude of the reflection pressure wave, and 15-year cardiovascular mortality were determined. Subjects with WCH were significantly older and had greater body mass index, blood pressure values, intima-media thickness, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, amplitude of the backward pressure wave, and a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate than PH. Amplitude of the backward pressure wave was the most important independent correlate of the white coat effect in multivariate analysis (model r(2)=0.451; partial r(2)/model r(2)=90.5%). WCH had significantly greater cardiovascular mortality than PH (hazard ratio, 2.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-7.91), after accounting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, fasting plasma glucose, and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio. Further adjustment of the model for amplitude of the backward pressure wave eliminated the statistical significance of the WCH effect. In conclusion, the white coat effect is mainly caused by arterial aging. WCH carries higher risk for cardiovascular mortality than PH, probably via enhanced wave reflections that accompany arterial aging.
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Characterization and expression analysis of three CBF/DREB1 transcriptional factor genes from mangrove Avicennia marina.
Aquat. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Three CBF/DREB1 (C-repeat binding factor/dehydration responsive element-binding factor 1) homologues were isolated from mangrove Avicennia marina and designated AmCBF1, 2 and 3. Multiple sequence analysis showed that the three deduced proteins all contain an AP2 DNA-binding domain and two CBF signature sequences. According to the phylogenetic analysis, these proteins belong to the A-1 subgroup of the DREB subfamily. Expression analyses based on quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the AmCBF2 displayed relatively high expression under normal conditions, with the highest level in stems, while both AmCBF1 and 3 were weakly expressed without stress. The three genes also showed different responses to various environmental stimuli. The AmCBF2 was inducible by cold, drought, high salinity, heavy metals, as well as abscisic acid (ABA), and exhibited much stronger induction by cold, drought, Pb(2+) or Zn(2+) than by NaCl, ABA or Cd(2+). In contrast, both AmCBF1 and AmCBF3 displayed insignificant changes under these stimuli. These results indicate that the three AmCBF genes play different roles in A. marina and the AmCBF2 might be involved in the signaling pathway of cold, drought and heavy metal stress response.
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One-step preparation of graphene-supported anatase TiO2 with exposed {001} facets and mechanism of enhanced photocatalytic properties.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Anatase TiO2 nanosheets supported on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were synthesized via a one-step, solvothermal method. During the solvothermal step, graphene oxide (GO) was reduced to RGO, and, subsequently, anatase TiO2 with 73.7% exposed {001} facets was grown in situ on the surfaces of the RGO nanosheets. Compared with pure TiO2, the RGO/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite had improved photoactivity as a result of effective photoinduced electron transfer from TiO2 to the RGO acceptor through interfacial interactions. Trapping tests showed that the oxidation of dye molecules proceeded for about 22% through the reaction with (•)OH radicals, and the remaining 78% occurred via direct interactions with holes. The holes left in TiO2 crystals were the main reason for the enhanced photocatalytic properties of the RGO/TiO2 composite. This paper not only reports the fabrication of highly active photocatalysts but also gives deeper insight into the photocatalytic mechanism of carbon/TiO2 composites.
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Assessment of private economic benefits and positive environmental externalities of tea plantation in China.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Tea plantations are rapidly expanding in China and other countries in the tropical and subtropical zones, driven by relatively high private economic benefit. However, the impact of tea plantations on the regional environment, including ecosystem services and disservices are unclear. In this study, we developed an assessment framework for determining the private economic benefits and environmental externalities (the algebraic sum of the regulating services and disservices) of tea plantations in China. Our results showed that tea plantations provided private economic benefits of 5,652 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) (7.6 yuan?=?1 USD in 2007) for tea farmers, plus positive environmental externalities of 6,054 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) for the society. The environmental externalities were calculated as the sum of the value of four regulating services, including carbon sequestration (392 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil retention (72 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil fertility protection (3,189 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and water conservation (2,685 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), and three disservices, including CO2 emission (-39 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), N2O emission (-137 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and nonpoint source pollution (-108 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)). Before the private optimal level, the positive environmental externalities can be maintained by private economic benefits; if a social optimal level is required, subsidies from government are necessary.
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Menstrual pain is associated with rapid structural alterations in the brain.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Dysmenorrhea is the most prevalent gynecological disorder in women of child-bearing age. Dysmenorrhea is associated with central sensitization and functional and structural changes in the brain. Our recent brain morphometry study disclosed that dysmenorrhea is associated with trait-related abnormal gray matter (GM) changes, even in the absence of menstrual pain, indicating that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to menstrual pain. Here we report rapid state-related brain morphological changes, ie, between pain and pain-free states, in dysmenorrhea. We used T1-weighted anatomic magnetic resonance imaging to investigate regional GM volume changes between menstruation and periovulatory phases in 32 dysmenorrhea subjects and 32 age- and menstrual cycle-matched asymptomatic controls. An optimized voxel-based morphometry analysis was conducted to disclose the possible state-related regional GM volume changes across different menstrual phases. A correlation analysis was also conducted between GM differences and the current menstrual pain experience in the dysmenorrhea group. Compared with the periovulatory phase, the dysmenorrhea subjects revealed greater hypertrophic GM changes than controls during the menstruation phase in regions involved in pain modulation, generation of the affective experience, and regulation of endocrine function, whereas atrophic GM changes were found in regions associated with pain transmission. Volume changes in regions involved in the regulation of endocrine function and pain transmission correlated with the menstrual pain experience scores. Our results demonstrated that short-lasting cyclic menstrual pain is associated not only with trait-related but also rapid state-related structural alterations in the brain. Considering the high prevalence rate of menstrual pain, these findings mandate a great demand to revisit dysmenorrhea with regard to its impact on the brain and other clinical pain conditions.
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A Clinical Evaluation of the ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway With a Coopdech Bronchial Blocker for One-lung Ventilation in Adults.
J. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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To compare the effects of one-lung ventilation (OLV) offered by ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) or endotracheal tube (ETT) with Coopdech bronchial blocker (BB) in adult patients undergoing thoracoscopic procedures, and also to evaluate the feasibility and security of application of PLMA with Coopdech BB for OLV.
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Toll-like receptors in human papillomavirus infection.
Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. (Warsz.)
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) often causes cutaneous benign lesions, cervical cancer, and a number of other tumors. The mechanisms of host immune system to prevent and control HPV infection still remain poorly understood. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are specific pattern recognition molecules that bind to microbial components to trigger innate immunity and direct adaptive immunity in the face of immunological danger. TLRs have been established to play an essential role in sensing and initiating antiviral immune responses. Recent accumulating evidence demonstrated that HPVs modulate TLR expression and interfere with TLR signaling pathways, leading to persistent viral infection and carcinogenesis. This review summarizes current knowledge on the roles of TLR during HPV infection, focusing on TLR recognition, modulation of TLR expression and signaling, regulatory receptors involved in TLR signaling, and cross-talk of TLRs with antimicrobial peptides. Immunotherapeutic strategies based on TLR agonists have emerged to be one of the novel promising avenues in treatment of HPV-associated diseases in the future.
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Derivation and validation of diagnostic thresholds for central blood pressure measurements based on long-term cardiovascular risks.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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This study sought to derive and validate outcome-driven thresholds of central blood pressure (CBP) for diagnosing hypertension.
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Structural basis for the differential classification of HLA-A*6802 and HLA-A*6801 into the A2 and A3 supertypes.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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High polymorphism is one of the most important features of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, which were initially classified by serotyping but have recently been re-grouped into supertypes according to their peptide presentation properties. Two relatively prevalent HLA alleles HLA-A*6801 and HLA-A*6802, are classified into the same serotype HLA-A68. However, based on their distinct peptide-binding characteristics, HLA-A*6801 is grouped into A3 supertype, whereas HLA-A*6802 belongs to A2 supertype, similar to HLA-A*0201. Thusfar, the structural basis of the different supertype definitions of these serotyping-identical HLA alleles remains largely unknown. Herein, we determined the structures of HLA-A*6801 and HLA-A*6802 presenting three typical A3 and A2 supertype-restricted peptides, respectively. The binding capabilities of these peptides to HLA-A*6801, HLA-A*6802, and HLA-A*0201 were analyzed. These data indicate that the similar conformations of the residues within the F pocket contribute to close-related peptide binding features of HLA-A*6802 and HLA-A*0201. However, the overall structure and the peptide conformation of HLA-A*6802 are more similar to HLA-A*6801 rather than HLA-A*0201 which illuminates the similar serotype grouping of HLA-A*6802 and HLA-A*6801. Our findings are helpful for understanding the divergent peptide presentation and virus-specific CTL responses impacted by MHC micropolymorphisms and also elucidate the molecular basis of HLA supertype definitions.
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Measurement accuracy of a stand-alone oscillometric central blood pressure monitor: a validation report for Microlife WatchBP Office Central.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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The superiority of prognostic value of blood pressure (BP) measured at central aorta (CBP) over conventional brachial BP measured by cuff-based BP monitors has reignited the development of new noninvasive techniques for estimating CBP. The present study validated the accuracy of CBP measured by a newly developed stand-alone CBP monitor.
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Enhanced function of immuno-isolated islets in diabetes therapy by co-encapsulation with an anti-inflammatory drug.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Immuno-isolation of islets has the potential to enable the replacement of pancreatic function in diabetic patients. However, host response to the encapsulated islets frequently leads to fibrotic overgrowth with subsequent impairment of the transplanted grafts. Here, we identified and incorporated anti-inflammatory agents into islet-containing microcapsules to address this challenge. In vivo subcutaneous screening of 16 small molecule anti-inflammatory drugs was performed to identify promising compounds that could minimize the formation of fibrotic cell layers. Using parallel non-invasive fluorescent and bioluminescent imaging, we identified dexamethasone and curcumin as the most effective drugs in inhibiting the activities of inflammatory proteases and reactive oxygen species in the host response to subcutaneously injected biomaterials. Next, we demonstrated that co-encapsulating curcumin with pancreatic rat islets in alginate microcapsules reduced fibrotic overgrowth and improved glycemic control in a mouse model of chemically-induced type I diabetes. These results showed that localized administration of anti-inflammatory drug can improve the longevity of encapsulated islets and may facilitate the translation of this technology toward a long-term cure for type I diabetes.
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Detection and evolutionary analysis of soybean miRNAs responsive to soybean mosaic virus.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of non-coding RNAs that have important gene regulatory roles in various organisms. However, the miRNAs involved in soybeans response to soybean mosaic virus (SMV) are unknown. To identify novel miRNAs and biotic-stress regulated small RNAs that are involved in soybeans response to SMV, two small RNA libraries were constructed from mock-inoculated and SMV-infected soybean leaves and sequenced. This led to the discovery of 179 miRNAs, representing 52 families, among which five miRNAs belonging to three families were novel miRNAs in soybean. A large proportion (71.5 %) of miRNAs arose from segmental duplication, similar to the process that drives the evolution of protein-coding genes. In addition, we predicted 346 potential targets of these identified miRNAs, and verified 12 targets by modified 5-RACE analysis. Finally, three miRNAs (miR160, miR393 and miR1510) that are involved in plant resistance were observed to respond to SMV infection. The interaction between miRNAs and resistance-related genes provides a novel mechanism for pathogens to evade host recognition.
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Diversifying selection on flavanone 3-hydroxylase and isoflavone synthase genes in cultivated soybean and its wild progenitors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Soybean isoflavone synthase (IFS) and flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) are two key enzymes catalyzing the biosynthesis of isoflavonoids and flavonoids, both of which play diverse roles in stress responses. However, little is known about the evolutionary pattern of these genes in cultivated soybean and its wild progenitors. Herein, we investigated the nucleotide polymorphisms in Isoflavone synthase (IFS1, IFS2) and Flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H2) genes from 33 soybean accessions, including 17 cultivars (Glycine max) and 16 their wild progenitors (Glycine soja). Our data showed that the target genes shared the levels of nucleotide polymorphism with three reference genes involved in plant-microbe interactions, but possessed a much higher nucleotide polymorphism than other reference genes. Moreover, no significant genetic differentiation was found between cultivated soybean and its wild relatives in three target genes, despite of considering bottleneck and founder effect during domestication. These results indicate that IFS and F3H genes could have experienced gene introgressions or diversifying selection events during domestication process. Especially, F3H2 gene appears to evolve under positive selection and enjoy a faster evolutionary rate than IFS1 and IFS2 genes.
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Associations of serum uric acid levels with arterial wave reflections and central systolic blood pressure.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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Uric acid may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We investigated the roles of four major hemodynamic parameters of blood pressure, including arterial stiffness, wave reflections, cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR), in the association between uric acid and central systolic blood pressure (SBP-c).
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Subepidermal bullous dermatosis associated with IgA multiple myeloma: a case report.
Am J Dermatopathol
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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We describe a case of a 76-year-old man who initially presented with pruritic vesiculobullous eruptions on his trunk and shoulders and was subsequently found to have an immunoglobulin (Ig) A kappa multiple myeloma. Chemotherapy and plasmapheresis led to a dramatic resolution of the skin lesions, which paralleled the fall in serum IgA paraprotein level. However, the myeloma later relapsed, and the resulting paraprotein increase was accompanied by recurrence of vesiculobullous eruptions. The histopathological examinations of both primary and recurrent bullous eruptions demonstrated subepidermal bullae with negative direct immunofluorescence assays. Indirect immunofluorescence test detected neither antibasement membrane nor anti-intercellular circulating antibodies. This is a very rare report of bullous dermatosis with elevated IgA kappa paraprotein that appears before the diagnosis of myeloma, and it is a unique case showing an eosinophil-predominant infiltrate within subepidermal bullae and negative direct and indirect immunofluorescence. As the clinical features and laboratory findings of the bullous eruptions in our patient and the other 2 similar cases were not consistent with the diagnosis of any known bullous disorders, the subepidermal bullous dermatoses might be considered as a novel paraneoplastic entity occurring in association with the underlying IgA multiple myeloma.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.