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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Space-bound optical source for satellite-ground decoy-state quantum key distribution.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Satellite-ground quantum key distribution has embarked on the stage of engineering implementation, and a global quantum-secured network is imminent in the foreseeable future. As one payload of the quantum-science satellite which will be ready before the end of 2015, we report our recent work of the space-bound decoy-state optical source. Specialized 850 nm laser diodes have been manufactured and the integrated optical source has gotten accomplished based on these LDs. The weak coherent pulses produced by our optical source feature a high clock rate of 100 MHz, intensity stability of 99.5%, high polarization fidelity of 99.7% and phase randomization. A series of space environment tests have been conducted to verify the optical source's performance and the results are satisfactory. The emulated final secure keys are about 120 kbits during one usable pass of the low Earth orbit satellite. This work takes a significant step forward towards satellite-ground QKD and the global quantum-secured network.
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Bispyrene-Fluorescein Hybrid Based FRET Cassette: A Convenient Platform toward Ratiometric Time-Resolved Probe for Bioanalytical Applications.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Pyrene excimer possesses a large Stokes shift and long fluorescence lifetime and has been widely applied in developing time-resolved biosensing systems to solve the autofluorescence interference problems in biological samples. However, only a few of pyrene excimer-based small molecular probes have been reported so far. Ratiometric probes, on the other hand, can eliminate interferences from environmental factors such as instrumental efficiency and environmental conditions by a built-in correction of the dual emission bands but are ineffective for endogenous autofluorescence in biosystems. In this work, by combining the advantages of time-resolved fluorescence technique with ratiometric probe, we reported a bispyrene-fluorescein hybrid FRET cassette (PF) as a novel ratiometric time-resolved sensing platform for bioanalytical applications, with pH chosen as a biorelated target. The probe PF showed a fast, highly selective, and reversible ratiometric fluorescence response to pH in a wide range from 3.0 to 10.0 in buffered solution. By employing time-resolved fluorescence technique, the pH-induced fluorescence signal of probe PF can be well-discriminated from biological autofluorescence background, which enables us to detect pH in a range of 4.0-8.0 in cell media within a few seconds. It has also been preliminarily applied for ratiometric quantitative monitoring of pH changes in living cells with satisfying results. Since many fluorescein-based fluorescence probes have been developed, our strategy might find wide applications in design ratiometric time-resolved probes for detection of various biorelated targets.
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Magnetic-graphitic-nanocapsule templated diacetylene assembly and photopolymerization for sensing and multicoded anti-counterfeiting.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Molecular self-assembly, a process to design molecular entities to aggregate into desired structures, represents a promising bottom-up route towards precise construction of functional systems. Here we report a multifunctional, self-assembled system based on magnetic-graphitic-nanocapsule (MGN) templated diacetylene assembly and photopolymerization. The as-prepared assembly system maintains the unique color and fluorescence change properties of the polydiacetylene (PDA) polymers, while also pursues the superior Raman, NIR, magnetic and superconducting properties from the MGN template. Based on both fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 relaxivity, the MGN@PDA system could efficiently monitor the pH variations which could be used as a pH sensor. The MGN@PDA system further demonstrates potential as unique ink for anti-counterfeiting applications. Reversible color change, strong and unique Raman scattering and fluorescence emission, sensitive NIR thermal response, and distinctive magnetic properties afford this assembly system with multicoded anti-counterfeiting capabilities.
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Risk factors for complications of pancreatic extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.
Endoscopy
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Background and study aims: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is recommended as treatment for stones in chronic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for complications of pancreatic extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (P-ESWL). Patients and methods: Patients with painful chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic stones (>?5?mm diameter) who were treated with P-ESWL between March 2011 and June 2013 were prospectively included. Adverse events after P-ESWL were classified as complications and transient adverse events, depending on severity. The major complications of P-ESWL included post-ESWL pancreatitis, bleeding, infection, steinstrasse, and perforation. Multivariate analyses based on univariate analysis were performed to detect risk factors of overall and moderate-to-severe complications. Results: A total of 634 patients underwent 1470 P-ESWL procedures. The overall complication rate was 6.7?% of all procedures. Complications occurred in 62 patients (9.8?%) after the first ESWL procedure. The risk factors for complications were pancreas divisum (odds ratio [OR] 1.28) and the interval between diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and P-ESWL (OR 1.28). Protective factors were male sex (OR 0.50), diabetes (OR 0.45), and steatorrhea (OR 0.43). Male sex, the only identified predictor for moderate-to-severe complications, was a protective factor (OR 0.19). For the second P-ESWL procedure, complications occurred in 22/409 patients (5.4?%). Complication and asymptomatic hyperamylasemia after the first ESWL session were significantly associated with higher risk for complications after the second ESWL session (P?
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Alkyne-functionalized superstable graphitic silver nanoparticles for Raman imaging.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Noble metals, especially gold, have been widely used in plasmon resonance applications. Although silver has a larger optical cross section and lower cost than gold, it has attracted much less attention because of its easy corrosion, thereby degrading plasmonic signals and limiting its applications. To circumvent this problem, we report the facile synthesis of superstable AgCu@graphene (ACG) nanoparticles (NPs). The growth of several layers of graphene onto the surface of AgCu alloy NPs effectively protects the Ag surface from contamination, even in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen sulfide, and nitric acid. The ACG NPs have been utilized to enhance the unique Raman signals from the graphitic shell, making ACG an ideal candidate for cell labeling, rapid Raman imaging, and SERS detection. ACG is further functionalized with alkyne-polyethylene glycol, which has strong Raman vibrations in the Raman-silent region of the cell, leading to more accurate colocalization inside cells. In sum, this work provides a simple approach to fabricate corrosion-resistant, water-soluble, and graphene-protected AgCu NPs having a strong surface plasmon resonance effect suitable for sensing and imaging.
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Rock2 promotes the invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by modifying MMP2 ubiquitination and degradation.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 2 (Rock2) is a downstream effector of Rho that plays an important role in the tumorigenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is a master regulator of tumor metastasis. In this study, we investigated the collections of Rock2 and MMP2 in HCCs and determined the potential role and molecular mechanism of Rock2 in MMP2-mediated invasiveness and metastasis. We found that Rock2 and MMP2 were markedly overexpressed in HCCs compared with the corresponding adjacent tissues, where a positive correlation in their expression was found. The knockdown of Rock2 significantly decreased MMP2 expression and inhibited the invasion and metastasis of HCC in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, the upregulation of MMP2 rescued the decreased migration and invasion induced by the knockdown of Rock2, whereas the knockdown of MMP2 decreased Rock2-enhanced HCC migration and invasion. Mechanistically, Rock2 stabilized MMP2 by preventing its ubiquitination and degradation. Together, our results link two drivers of invasion and metastasis in HCC and identify a novel pathway for MMP2 control.
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Fabrication of graphene-isolated-Au-nanocrystal nanostructures for multimodal cell imaging and photothermal-enhanced chemotherapy.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Using nanomaterials to develop multimodal systems has generated cutting-edge biomedical functions. Herein, we develop a simple chemical-vapor-deposition method to fabricate graphene-isolated-Au-nanocrystal (GIAN) nanostructures. A thin layer of graphene is precisely deposited on the surfaces of gold nanocrystals to enable unique capabilities. First, as surface-enhanced-Raman-scattering substrates, GIANs quench background fluorescence and reduce photocarbonization or photobleaching of analytes. Second, GIANs can be used for multimodal cell imaging by both Raman scattering and near-infrared (NIR) two-photon luminescence. Third, GIANs provide a platform for loading anticancer drugs such as doxorubicin (DOX) for therapy. Finally, their NIR absorption properties give GIANs photothermal therapeutic capability in combination with chemotherapy. Controlled release of DOX molecules from GIANs is achieved through NIR heating, significantly reducing the possibility of side effects in chemotherapy. The GIANs have high surface areas and stable thin shells, as well as unique optical and photothermal properties, making them promising nanostructures for biomedical applications.
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Pharmacologic blockade of vascular adhesion protein-1 lessens neurologic dysfunction in rats subjected to subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a potentially devastating clinical problem. Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of SAH, outcome remains unfavorable. An increased inflammatory state, one that is characterized by enhanced leukocyte trafficking has been reported to contribute to neuronal injury in association with multiple brain insults, including hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. This study was designed to investigate, in rats, the neuropathologic consequences of heightened leukocyte trafficking following SAH, induced via endovascular perforation of the anterior cerebral artery. Experiments focused on the initial 48h post-SAH and sought to establish whether blockade of vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1), with LJP-1586, was able to provide dose-dependent neuroprotection. Treatment with LJP-1586 was initiated at 6h post-SAH. An intravital microscopy and closed cranial window system, that permitted examination of temporal patterns of rhodamine-6G-labeled leukocyte adhesion/extravasation, was used. Effects of LJP-1586 on neurologic outcomes and leukocyte trafficking at 24h and 48h post-SAH were examined. In VAP-1-inhibited vs control rats, results revealed a significant attenuation in leukocyte trafficking at both 24h and 48h after SAH, along with an improvement in neurologic outcome. In conclusion, our findings support the involvement of an amplified inflammatory state, characterized by enhanced leukocyte trafficking, during the first 48h after SAH. VAP-1 blockade yielded neuroprotection that was associated with an attenuation of leukocyte trafficking and improved neurologic outcome.
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Diagnostic utility of N-terminal-proBNP in differentiating acute pulmonary embolism from heart failure in patients with acute dyspnea.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level is frequently elevated in dyspnoeic patients and increasingly used in emergency departments to assess the cause of acute dyspnea. In this study we prospectively tested NT-proBNP levels in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and/or acute pulmonary embolism (APE) and determined the utility of NT-proBNP for discriminating APE from CHF.
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Preparation of organogel with tea polyphenols complex for enhancing the antioxidation properties of edible oil.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Food-grade organogels are semisolid systems with immobilized liquid edible oil in a three-dimensional network of self-assembled gelators, and they are supposed to have a broad range of potential applications in food industries. In this work, an edible organogel with tea polyphenols was developed, which possesses a highly effective antioxidative function. To enhance the dispersibility of the tea polyphenols in the oil phase, a solid lipid-surfactant-tea polyphenols complex (organogel complex) was first prepared according to a novel method. Then, a food-grade organogel was prepared by mixing this organogel complex with fresh peanut oil. Compared with adding free tea polyphenols, the organogel complex could be more homogeneously distributed in the prepared organogel system, especially under heating condition. Furthermore, the organogel loading of tea polyphenols performed a 2.5-fold higher antioxidation compared with other chemically synthesized antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene and propyl gallate) by evaluating the peroxide value of the fresh peanut oil based organogel in accelerated oxidation conditions.
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Activatable fluorescence/MRI bimodal platform for tumor cell imaging via MnO2 nanosheet-aptamer nanoprobe.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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A novel dual-activatable fluorescence/MRI bimodal platform is designed for tumor cell imaging by using a redoxable manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanosheet-aptamer nanoprobe. The redoxable MnO2 nanosheet acts as a DNA nanocarrier, fluorescence quencher, and intracellular glutathione (GSH)-activated MRI contrast agent. In the absence of target cells, neither fluorescence signaling nor MRI contrast of the nanoprobe is activated. In the presence of target cells, the binding of aptamers to their targets weakens the adsorption of aptamers on the MnO2 nanosheets, causing partial fluorescence recovery, illuminating the target cells, and also facilitating the endocytosis of nanoprobes into target cells. After endocytosis, the reduction of MnO2 nanosheets by GSH further activates the fluorescence signals and generates large amounts of Mn(2+) ions suitable for MRI. This platform should facilitate the development of various dual-activatable fluorescence/MRI bimodalities for use in cells or in vivo.
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Clinical Features and Endoscopic Treatment of Chinese Patients With Hereditary Pancreatitis.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) has been rarely investigated in China. We aimed to describe clinical features and mutation frequency of Chinese patients with HP and to evaluate outcomes of endoscopic treatments.
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Risk factors associated with sphincter-preserving resection in patients with low rectal cancer.
Int Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Abstract Abdominoperineal resection (APR) and sphincter-preserving resection (SPR) are the two primary surgical options for rectal cancer. Retrospectively we collected rectal cancer patients for SPR and APR observation between 2005 and 2007. The patient-related, tumor-related, and surgery-related variables of the SPR and APR groups were analyzed by using logistic regression techniques. The mean distance from the anal verge (DAV) of cancer is significantly higher in SPR than that in APR (P < 0.001). In cancers with DAV <40 mm (SPR, 40 versus APR, 110), multivariate analysis shows that surgeon procedure volume (odds ratio [OR] = 0.244; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.077-0.772; P = 0.016) and neoadjuvant radiotherapy (OR = 0.031; 95% CI: 0.002-0.396; P = 0.008) are factors influencing SPR. In cancers with DAV ranging from 40 mm to 59 mm (SPR 190 versus APR 50), analysis shows that patient age (OR = 2.139; 95% CI: 1.124-4.069; P = 0.021), diabetes (OR = 2.657; 95% CI: 0.872-8.095; P = 0.086), and colorectal surgeon (OR = 0.122, 95% CI: 0.020-0.758; P = 0.024), are influencing factors for SPR. The local recurrence and disease-free survival reveal no significant difference. A significant difference exists in DAV, surgeon specialization, procedure volume, age, diabetes, and neoadjuvant radiotherapy between SPR and APR.
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Genotyping the GALNT14 gene by joint analysis of two linked single nucleotide polymorphisms using liver tissues for clinical and geographical comparisons.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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A GALNT14 single nucleotide polymorphism, rs9679162, has recently been found to be capable of predicting chemotherapy responses in patients with far-advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, a novel assay was designed and genotyping was performed on 244 surgically removed liver tissues. This assay employed two polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated restriction enzyme sites to simultaneously determine the genotypes of two adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs9679162 and rs6752303, on the GALNT14 gene. Genotypes determined by this assay reached 100% concordance with those detected by the direct sequencing method. Clinical analysis showed that the TT genotype of rs9679162 was lower in percentage among patients with virus-originated HCC compared with those with non-viral HCC (22.57 vs. 47.06%, respectively; P=0.023). The proportion of the TT genotype in the 244 HCC patients (24.18%) did not deviate significantly from those of two public-domain (HapMap) Chinese cohorts from Denver, Colorado, USA (28.44%) and Beijing, China (30.15%) (P>0.05). The proportion of the TT genotype was significantly higher in Japanese and African populations (42.11-54.55%; P<0.0001) but significantly lower in an Italian cohort (7.84%; P=0.0004). In conclusion, the novel PCR-generated double restriction enzyme sites method could correctly determine the genotypes of two target SNPs in GALNT14 in liver tissues. The TT genotype was associated with the non-viral etiology of HCC. A marked variation in ethnicity was found for the distribution of this genotype.
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Epigenetic changes of TIMP-3, GSTP-1 and 14-3-3 sigma genes as indication of status of chronic inflammation and cancer.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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This study aimed to compare the epigenetic changes via hypermethylation status of TIMP-3, GSTP-1 and 14-3-3? genes, between healthy subjects and patients with reversible chronic inflammatory disease, and between healthy subjects and patients with irreversible malignant disease, to highlight the genetic changes that occur in the progression from an inflammatory condition to irreversible genetic changes commonly observed in cancer patients.
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Activation of PPAR? by 12/15?lipoxygenase during cerebral ischemia?reperfusion injury.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Peroxisome proliferator?activated receptor ? (PPAR?) expression and activity are increased in brain ischemic injury and its agonists have shown potential for brain injury protection. The influence of 12/15?lipoxygenase (12/15?LOX) on the activity of PPAR? in oxygen?glucose deprivation (OGD) and ischemia?reperfusion (I/R) was investigated. A middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion model with Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was established. For I/R intervention, the rats were treated with the 12/15?LOX?derived product 12?hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12?HETE) for 30 min before cerebral artery occlusion. Primary cortical neurons from SD rats were used to establish an OGD cell model. 12?HETE or a 12/15?LOX antisense oligonucleotide (asON?12/15?LOX) was added to OGD?treated neurons. Western blots, immunofluorescence and enzyme?linked immunosorbent assays detected protein. Reverse transcription?polymerase chain reaction analyzed the expression of the PPAR? target genes. PPAR??DNA binding activity was determined by peroxisome proliferator responsive element luciferase reporter vectors. 12/15?LOX total protein increased significantly with I/R, and expression of 12?HETE was also upregulated. 12?HETE treatment increased PPAR? protein expression and inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression, which was upregulated with I/R. PPAR? nuclear protein and 12/15?LOX total protein expression in OGD?treated neurons increased significantly. 12?HETE treatment increased the expression of PPAR? nuclear protein, upregulated the mRNA levels of PPAR? target genes (lipoprotein lipase and acyl?CoA oxidase) and enhanced PPAR??DNA binding activity. asON?12/15?LOX treatment inhibited 12/15?LOX and PPAR? protein expression and lipoprotein lipase mRNA. Cerebral I/R injury in rats and OGD treatment in neurons promoted 12/15?LOX expression, and 12?HETE activated PPAR?. Therefore, PPAR? can be activated by the 12/15?LOX pathway during cerebral I/R injury.
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Preparation and stabilization of D-limonene Pickering emulsions by cellulose nanocrystals.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate D-limonene Pickering emulsion stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and factors that may affect its properties. CNCs were prepared by ammonium persulfate hydrolysis of corncob cellulose, and D-limonene Pickering emulsions were generated by ultrasonic homogenizing method. The morphology and size of the prepared emulsions with different CNCs concentrations were studied by optical microscopy and laser light diffraction. In addition, factors that may affect the stability of emulsions such as ionic concentration, pH and temperature were also studied. As indicated by the experiment data, when temperature rose, the stability to of emulsions would be increased, and the stability of emulsions was reduced with low pH or high salt concentration due to electrostatic screening of the negatively charged CNC particles. In conclusion, high stability of D-limonene Pickering emulsions could be obtained by CNCs.
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[Effects of 12/15-lipoxygenase antisense oligonucleotide on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? translocation in primarily cultured cortical neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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To explore the effects of 12/15-lipoxygenase antisense oligonucleotide (asON-12/15-LOX) on OGD (oxygen-glucose deprivation)-induced PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?) expression and nuclear translocation in primarily cultured cortical neurons.
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[Familial adenomatous polyposis:a report of 10 cases in 3 generations of a family and literature review].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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To investigate the clinical characteristic, diagnosis and treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).
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DNA dendrimer: an efficient nanocarrier of functional nucleic acids for intracellular molecular sensing.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Functional nucleic acid (FNA)-based sensing systems have been developed for efficient detection of a wide range of biorelated analytes by employing DNAzymes or aptamers as recognition units. However, their intracellular delivery has always been a concern, mainly in delivery efficiency, kinetics, and the amount of delivered FNAs. Here we report a DNA dendrimer scaffold as an efficient nanocarrier to deliver FNAs and to conduct in situ monitoring of biological molecules in living cells. A histidine-dependent DNAzyme and an anti-ATP aptamer were chosen separately as the model FNAs to make the FNA dendrimer. The FNA-embedded DNA dendrimers maintained the catalytic activity of the DNAzyme or the aptamer recognition function toward ATP in the cellular environment, with no change in sensitivity or specificity. Moreover, these DNA dendrimeric nanocarriers show excellent biocompatibility, high intracellular delivery efficiency, and sufficient stability in a cellular environment. This FNA dendrimeric nanocarrier may find a broad spectrum of applications in biomedical diagnosis and therapy.
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[Effectiveness and safety of endoscopic ultrasound-guided transgastric or transpapillary drainage in treating pancreatic pseudocyst].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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To explore the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic transgastric or transpapillary drainage in treating pancreatic pseudocysts.
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Effects of antimicrobial peptide L-K6, a temporin-1CEb analog on oral pathogen growth, Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation, and anti-inflammatory activity.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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Dental caries and periodontitis are common bacterial mouth infections. As a potentially attractive substitute for conventional antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides have been widely tested and used for controlling bacterial infections. In this study, we tested the efficacy of the peptides from the skin secretions of Rana chensinensis for killing several major cariogenic and periodontic pathogens as well as Candida albicans. L-K6, a temporin-1CEb analog, exhibited high antimicrobial activity against the tested oral pathogens and was able to inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and reduce 1-day-old S. mutans biofilms with a minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration and reducing concentration of 3.13 and 6.25 ?M, respectively. The results of confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the peptide significantly reduced cell viability within oral biofilms. Furthermore, as little as 5 ?M L-K6 significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interleukin-1?-induced productions of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-? from THP-1 monocytic cells. This anti-inflammatory activity is associated with the binding of L-K6 to LPS and neutralizing LPS-induced proinflammatory responses in THP-1 cells, as well as dissociating LPS aggregates. Our results suggest that L-K6 may have potential clinical applications in treating dental caries by killing S. mutans within dental plaque and acting as anti-inflammatory agents in infected tissues.
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Functional DNA-containing nanomaterials: cellular applications in biosensing, imaging, and targeted therapy.
Acc. Chem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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CONSPECTUS: DNA performs a vital function as a carrier of genetic code, but in the field of nanotechnology, DNA molecules can catalyze chemical reactions in the cell, that is, DNAzymes, or bind with target-specific ligands, that is, aptamers. These functional DNAs with different modifications have been developed for sensing, imaging, and therapeutic systems. Thus, functional DNAs hold great promise for future applications in nanotechnology and bioanalysis. However, these functional DNAs face challenges, especially in the field of biomedicine. For example, functional DNAs typically require the use of cationic transfection reagents to realize cellular uptake. Such reagents enter the cells, increasing the difficulty of performing bioassays in vivo and potentially damaging the cell's nucleus. To address this obstacle, nanomaterials, such as metallic, carbon, silica, or magnetic materials, have been utilized as DNA carriers or assistants. In this Account, we describe selected examples of functional DNA-containing nanomaterials and their applications from our recent research and those of others. As models, we have chosen to highlight DNA/nanomaterial complexes consisting of gold nanoparticles, graphene oxides, and aptamer-micelles, and we illustrate the potential of such complexes in biosensing, imaging, and medical diagnostics. Under proper conditions, multiple ligand-receptor interactions, decreased steric hindrance, and increased surface roughness can be achieved from a high density of DNA that is bound to the surface of nanomaterials, resulting in a higher affinity for complementary DNA and other targets. In addition, this high density of DNA causes a high local salt concentration and negative charge density, which can prevent DNA degradation. For example, DNAzymes assembled on gold nanoparticles can effectively catalyze chemical reactions even in living cells. And it has been confirmed that DNA-nanomaterial complexes can enter cells more easily than free single-stranded DNA. Nanomaterials can be designed and synthesized in needed sizes and shapes, and they possess unique chemical and physical properties, which make them useful as DNA carriers or assistants, excellent signal reporters, transducers, and amplifiers. When nanomaterials are combined with functional DNAs to create novel assay platforms, highly sensitive biosensing and high-resolution imaging result. For example, gold nanoparticles and graphene oxides can quench fluorescence efficiently to achieve low background and effectively increase the signal-to-background ratio. Meanwhile, gold nanoparticles themselves can be colorimetric reporters because of their different optical absorptions between monodispersion and aggregation. DNA self-assembled nanomaterials contain several properties of both DNA and nanomaterials. Compared with DNA-nanomaterial complexes, DNA self-assembled nanomaterials more closely resemble living beings, and therefore they have lower cytotoxicity at high concentrations. Functional DNA self-assemblies also have high density of DNA for multivalent reaction and three-dimensional nanostructures for cell uptake. Now and in the future, we envision the use of DNA bases in making designer molecules for many challenging applications confronting chemists. With the further development of artificial DNA bases using smart organic synthesis, DNA macromolecules based on elegant molecular assembly approaches are expected to achieve great diversity, additional versatility, and advanced functions.
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Endoscopic management of early-stage chronic pancreatitis based on M-ANNHEIM classification system: a prospective study.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the M-ANNHEIM classification system to categorize patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP).
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Incidence and mortality of anastomotic dehiscence requiring reoperation after rectal carcinoma resection.
Int Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Abstract Anastomotic dehiscence (AD) requiring reoperation is the most severe complication following anterior rectal resection. We performed a systematic review on studies that describe AD requiring reoperation and its subsequent mortality after anterior resection for rectal carcinoma. A systematic search was performed on published literature. Data on the definition and rate of AD, the number of ADs requiring reoperation, the mortality caused by AD, and the overall postoperative mortality were pooled and analyzed. A total of 39 studies with 24,232 patients were analyzed. The studies varied in incidence and definition of AD. Systematic review of the data showed that the overall rate of AD was 8.6%, and the rate of AD requiring reoperation was 5.4%. The postoperative mortality caused by AD was 0.4%, and the overall postoperative mortality was 1.3%. We found considerable risk and mortality for AD requiring reoperation, which largely contributed to the overall postoperative mortality.
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Discovery of novel aromatase inhibitors using a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Aromatase is an important target for drugs to treat hormone-dependent diseases, including breast cancer. The aim of this study was to develop a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) aromatase assay suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS).
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Dynamic analysis of oral Candida carriage, distribution, and antifungal susceptibility in HIV-infected patients during the first year of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Guangxi, China.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) as an effective therapy for immune reconstruction among patients with HIV/AIDS might have influence on oral Candida status. We investigated oral Candida carriage, distribution, and antifungal susceptibility dynamically during the first year of HAART among adult HIV-infected patients in Guangxi, China.
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Scientific publications in respiratory journals from Chinese authors in various parts of North Asia: a 10-year survey of literature.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Respiratory disease remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in China. However, little is known about the research status of respirology in three major regions of China-Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK) and Taiwan (TW). A 10-year survey of literature was conducted to compare the three regions' outputs in the research of respirology.
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Angiotensin II induces mitochondrial dysfunction and promotes apoptosis via JNK signalling pathway in primary mouse calvaria osteoblast.
Arch. Oral Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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This present study was designed to investigate the effects of Angiotensin II on mitochondrial functions, ROS generation and c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) signalling pathway-mediated cell apoptosis in mouse calvaria osteoblasts.
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GALNT14 genotype, ?-fetoprotein and therapeutic side effects predict post-chemotherapy survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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In addition to targeted agents, chemotherapy is currently considered to be a treatment option for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, it is associated with severe side effects that may limit its clinical use. UDP-N-acetyl-?-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferase 14 (GALNT14) genotype was previously identified as a prognostic marker for HCC patients receiving 5-fluorouracil, mitoxantrone and cisplatin (FMP) combination chemotherapy. The present study aimed to assess clinical parameters and on-treatment side effects as effective predictors for favorable prognosis. A total of 118 patients with HCC receiving split-dose FMP were retrospectively enrolled. The clinical parameters, side effects and GALNT14 genotype were analyzed. The independent predictors for time-to-progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Following categorization, the Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare survival outcomes. Pretreatment ?-fetoprotein (AFP) ?2,800 ng/ml (median level), GALNT14 'TT' genotype, on-treatment leukopenia and absence of vomiting were identified as independent predictors of a favorable TTP (P=0.001, 0.035, 0.008 and 0.009, respectively) and OS (P=0.028, 0.006, 0.027 and 0.013, respectively). A total of 59 patients with AFP ?2,800 ng/ml exhibited longer median TTP and OS (3.11 vs. 1.75 months, P<0.001; and 8.14 vs. 3.79 months, P<0.001, respectively). A total of 30 patients with the GALNT14 'TT' genotype exhibited longer median TTP and OS (3.11 vs. 2.11 months, P=0.014; and 5.75 vs. 3.93 months, P=0.001, respectively). Finally, 9 patients (9/118; 7.6%) with all four favorable factors exhibited the longest median TTP and OS (10.64 vs. 2.07 months, P=0.002; and 25.50 vs. 4.50 months, P<0.001, respectively). In conclusion, the AFP level and the GALNT genotype may be considered as pre-therapeutic predictors of a favorable response. When combined with on-treatment leukopenia and absence of vomiting, a subgroup of patients with excellent outcome may be identified.
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An aggregated perylene-based broad-spectrum, efficient and label-free quencher for multiplexed fluorescent bioassays.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Fluorescent sensing systems based on the quenching of fluorophores have found wide applications in bioassays. An efficient quencher will endow the sensing system a high sensitivity. The frequently used quenchers are based on organic molecules or nanomaterials, which usually need tedious synthesizing and modifying steps, and exhibit different quenching efficiencies to different fluorophores. In this work, we for the first time report that aggregated perylene derivative can serve as a broad-spectrum and label-free quencher that is able to efficiently quench a variety of fluorophores, such as green, red and far red dyes labeled on DNA. By choosing nucleases as model biomolecules, such a broad-spectrum quencher was then employed to construct a multiplexed bioassay platform through a label-free manner. Due to the high quenching efficiency of the aggregated perylene, the proposed platform could detect nuclease with high sensitivity, with a detection limit of 0.03U/mL for EcoRV, and 0.05U/mL for EcoRI. The perylene quencher does not affect the activity of nuclease, which makes it possible to design post-addition type bioassay platform. Moreover, the proposed platform allows simultaneous and multicolor analysis of nucleases in homogeneous solution, demonstrating its value of potential application in rapid screening of multiple bio-targets.
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OPN sesame.
Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Osteopontin (OPN) is a growth regulatory protein for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and a potent chemoattractant for macrophages. Zhu and colleagues recently reported significant clinical associations between poor postoperative prognosis and the concurrent detection of tumoral OPN expression and peritumoral macrophage (PTM) infiltration. An in-depth understanding on the complex interaction between tumoral OPN and macrophage-infiltrated microenvironment opens new doors to novel anticancer treatments.
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The effect of Arbas Cashmere goat bone marrow stromal cells on production of transgenic cloned embryos.
Theriogenology
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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The aim of this study was to develop a method for the in vitro separation and culture of Arbas Cashmere goat bone marrow stromal cells (gBMSCs). Arbas Cashmere gBMSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro, and cell surface markers were identified immunohistochemically. The gBMSCs were differentiated into neurocytes and osteoblasts, and the expression of neuron-specific enolase and osteocalcin was identified by immunohistochemistry. The gBMSCs and goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs) were compared for transient transfection efficiency and fluorescent colony-forming efficiency with Arbas Cashmere gFFCs as a control. pDsRed2-1 encodes DsRed2, a variant of the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed). In addition, the coding sequence for DsRed2 contains a series of silent base-pair changes for higher expression in mammalian cells. Of the gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1, one fraction was tested for pluripotency, whereas the other fraction was manipulated using somatic cell nuclear transfer, and the in vitro growth status of transgenic embryos derived from gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 and gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 was compared. The findings showed that gBMSCs were isolated and amplified to express CD29, CD44, and CD90 through adherent culture, with no marked signs of aging after multiple passages. Expression of neuron-specific enolase and osteocalcin by gBMSCs and gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 was strongly induced by neuronal and osteogenic differentiation, whereas the integrated exogenous genes did not influence pluripotency (P > 0.05). The transient transfection efficiencies of gBMSCs and gFFCs after 48 hours were not significantly different; however, the fluorescent colony-forming efficiency of gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 after G418 screening was approximately 13% higher than that of gFFCs-pDsRed2-1. The convergence and cleavage rates of cloned embryos derived from gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 were higher than those derived from gFFCs-pDsRed2-1, whereas their eight-cell and blastocyst rates were similar. The red fluorescent protein expression levels were higher in transgenic embryos derived from gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 compared with those derived from gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 (48.8% vs. 31.1%, respectively) (P < 0.01). Real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis showed that DsRed2-1 messenger RNA expression of cloned embryos derived from gBMSCs was 2.24 greater than that of embryos derived from gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 (P < 0.01). Similarly, Western blot analysis showed that DsRed2 protein expression of cloned embryos derived from gBMSCs-pDsRed2-1 was 1.29 greater than that of embryos derived from gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 (P < 0.01). In this study, gBMSCs were also used for somatic cell nuclear transfer and shown to provide effective nuclear donor cells for breeding new genetically modified varieties of livestock.
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In vitro interactions of calcineurin inhibitors with conventional antifungal agents against the yeast form of Penicillium marneffei.
Mycopathologia
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Penicillium marneffei can cause a life-threatening disseminated mycosis in immunocompromised hosts. However, therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this infectious disease are limited. Reports of other fungi suggest that calcineurin inhibitors interact with antifungal agents to improve the treatment outcomes. Here, we evaluated the in vitro interaction of the calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine A and tacrolimus (FK506) combined with conventional antifungal agents against the pathogenic yeast form of P. marneffei. We demonstrate that the combination of cyclosporine A with amphotericin B, itraconazole, or fluconazole was synergistic for 85, 65, and 30 % of P. marneffei strains, respectively. In contrast, no synergism was observed in all the combinations containing tacrolimus. Furthermore, antagonism was not observed for any combination. In conclusion, the therapeutic potential of a combinatory approach using the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A with conventional antifungal drugs may lead to improved treatment regimens for P. marneffei infections. We propose that mechanism of action studies with cyclosporine A and antifungal agents is needed.
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Effects of fullerene C?? nanoparticles on A549 cells.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Fullerene C60 nanoparticles (C60 NPs) have been widely applied in many fields due to their excellent physical and chemical properties. As production and applications of C60 NPs expand, public concern about the potential risk to human health has also risen. The toxicity of C60 NPs was evaluated by the CCK-8 assay using the cultured human epithelial cell line A549. Cellular uptake of the C60 NPs was observed by TEM imaging. In our findings, C60 NPs could readily enter A549 cells and showed no significant toxicity. Exposure of cultured A549 cells to C60 NPs led to an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) while glutathione reductase activity was probably activated to generate more GSH to maintain a cellular oxidation-reduction equilibrium. The A549 cells responded to the ROS increases through the inauguration of autophagic responses, aimed at restoring cellular health and equilibrium.
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Development of a surface plasmon resonance biosensing approach for the rapid detection of porcine circovirus type2 in sample solutions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A sensitive and label-free analytical approach for the detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) instead of PCV2 antibody in serum sample was systematically investigated in this research based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) with an establishment of special molecular identification membrane. The experimental device for constructing the biosensing analyzer is composed of an integrated biosensor, a home-made microfluidic module, and an electrical control circuit incorporated with a photoelectric converter. In order to detect the PCV2 using the surface plasmon resonance immunoassay, the mercaptopropionic acid has been used to bind the Au film in advance through the known form of the strong S-Au covalent bonds formed by the chemical radical of the mercaptopropionic acid and the Au film. PCV2 antibodies were bonded with the mercaptopropionic acid by covalent -CO-NH- amide bonding. For the purpose of evaluating the performance of this approach, the known concentrations of PCV2 Cap protein of 10 µg/mL, 7.5 µg/mL, 5 µg/mL, 2.5 µg/mL, 1 µg/mL, and 0.5 µg/mL were prepared by diluting with PBS successively and then the delta response units (?RUs) were measured individually. Using the data collected from the linear CCD array, the ?RUs gave a linear response over a wide concentration range of standard known concentrations of PCV2 Cap protein with the R-Squared value of 0.99625. The theoretical limit of detection was calculated to be 0.04 µg/mL for the surface plasmon resonance biosensing approach. Correspondingly, the recovery rate ranged from 81.0% to 89.3% was obtained. In contrast to the PCV2 detection kits, this surface plasmon resonance biosensing system was validated through linearity, precision and recovery, which demonstrated that the surface plasmon resonance immunoassay is reliable and robust. It was concluded that the detection method which is associated with biomembrane properties is expected to contribute much to determine the PCV2 in sample solutions instead of PCV2 antibody in serum samples quantitatively.
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Exploring the complex mechanical properties of xanthan scaffolds by AFM-based force spectroscopy.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The polysaccharide xanthan has been extensively studied owing to its potential application in tissue engineering. In this paper, xanthan scaffold structures were investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM) in liquid, and the mechanical properties of the complex xanthan structures were investigated by using AFM-based force spectroscopy (FS). In this work, three types of structures in the xanthan scaffold were identified based on three types of FS stretching events. The fact that the complex force responses are the combinations of different types of stretching events suggests complicated intermolecular interactions among xanthan fibrils. The results provide crucial information to understand the structures and mechanical properties of the xanthan scaffold.
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Silencing DACH1 promotes esophageal cancer growth by inhibiting TGF-? signaling.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Human Dachshund homologue 1 (DACH1) is a major component of the Retinal Determination Gene Network. Loss of DACH1 expression was found in breast, prostate, lung, endometrial, colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma. To explore the expression, regulation and function of DACH1 in human esophageal cancer, 11 esophageal cancer cell lines, 10 cases of normal esophageal mucosa, 51 cases of different grades of dysplasia and 104 cases of primary esophageal squamous cancer were employed. Methylation specific PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot, flow cytometry, small interfering RNAs, colony formation techniques and xenograft mice model were used. We found that DACH1 expression was regulated by promoter region hypermethylation in esophageal cancer cell lines. 18.8% (6 of 32) of grade 1, 42.1% (8 of 19) of grade 2 and grade 3 dysplasia (ED2,3), and 61.5% (64 of 104) of esophageal cancer were methylated, but no methylation was found in 10 cases of normal esophageal mucosa. The methylation was increased in progression tendency during esophageal carcinogenesis (P<0.01). DACH1 methylation was associated with poor differentiation (P<0.05) and late tumor stage (P<0.05). Restoration of DACH1 expression inhibited cell growth and activated TGF-? signaling in KYSE150 and KYSE510 cells. DACH1 suppressed human esophageal cancer cell tumor growth in xenograft mice. In conclusion, DACH1 is frequently methylated in human esophageal cancer and methylation of DACH1 is involved in the early stage of esophageal carcinogenesis. DACH1 expression is regulated by promoter region hypermethylation. DACH1 suppresses esophageal cancer growth by activating TGF-? signaling.
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Potential of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer mediated transgenesis in Arbas Cashmere goats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Somatic cell nuclear transfer is used to generate genetic models for research and new, genetically modified livestock varieties. Goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs) are the predominant nuclear donors in Cashmere goat transgenic cloning, but have disadvantages. We evaluated the potential of goat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (gADSCs) and goat skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (gMDSCs) for somatic cell nuclear transfer, evaluating their proliferation, pluripotency, transfection efficiency and capacity to support full term development of embryos after additive gene transfer or homologous recombination. gADSCs and gMDSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion and differentiated into neurocytes, myotube cells and insulin-producing cells. Neuron-specific enolase, fast muscle myosin and insulin expression were determined by immunohistochemistry. Following somatic cell nuclear transfer with donor cells derived from gADSCs, gMDSCs and gFFCs, transfection and cloning efficiencies were compared. Red fluorescent protein levels were determined by quantitative PCR and western blotting. 5-Methylcytosine, H4K5, H4K12 and H3K18 were determined immunohistochemically. gADSCs and gMDSCs were maintained in culture for up to 65 passages, whereas gFFCs could be passaged barely more than 15 times. gADSCs and gMDSCs had higher fluorescent colony forming efficiency and greater convergence (20%) and cleavage (10%) rates than gFFCs, and exhibited differing H4K5 histone modification patterns after somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro cultivation. After transfection with a pDsRed2-1 expression plasmid, the integrated exogenous genes did not influence the pluripotency of gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1. DsRed2 mRNA expression by cloned embryos derived from gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1 was more than twice that of gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 embryos (P<0.01). Pregnancy rates of gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 and gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1 recipients were higher than those of gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 recipients (P<0.01). With their high proliferative capacity and transfection efficiency, gADSCs and gMDSCs are a valuable cell source for breeding new, genetically modified varieties of livestock by somatic cell nuclear transfer.
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Decrease of serum Angiotensin converting enzyme levels upon telbivudine treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus infection and negative correlations between the enzyme levels and estimated glumerular filtration rates.
Hepat Mon
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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During antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B, renal function impairment could be a critical concern when oral nucleot(s)ide analogues were used. Paradoxically, long-term telbivudine treatment was associated with an increase of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) through unknown mechanisms.
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Effect of layer thickness in selective laser melting on microstructure of Al/5?wt.%Fe2O3 powder consolidated parts.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In situ reaction was activated in the powder mixture of Al/5?wt.%Fe2O3 by using selective laser melting (SLM) to directly fabricate aluminium metal matrix composite parts. The microstructural characteristics of these in situ consolidated parts through SLM were investigated under the influence of thick powder bed, 75? ?m layer thickness, and 50? ?m layer thickness in various laser powers and scanning speeds. It was found that the layer thickness has a strong influence on microstructural outcome, mainly attributed to its impact on oxygen content of the matrix. Various microstructural features (such as granular, coralline-like, and particulate appearance) were observed depending on the layer thickness, laser power, and scanning speed. This was associated with various material combinations such as pure Al, Al-Fe intermetallics, and Al(-Fe) oxide phases formed after in situ reaction and laser rapid solidification. Uniformly distributed very fine particles could be consolidated in net-shape Al composite parts by using lower layer thickness, higher laser power, and lower scanning speed. The findings contribute to the new development of advanced net-shape manufacture of Al composites by combining SLM and in situ reaction process.
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Pre-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in high risk populations: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nearly ten randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have been completed or are ongoing worldwide to evaluate the effectiveness of PrEP in HIV transmission among HIV-uninfected high risk populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of PrEP to prevent HIV transmission through a Mata-analysis.
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HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis interest among female sex workers in Guangxi, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and willingness to participate in a clinical trial for both safety and efficacy of PrEP were investigated among female sex workers (FSWs) in Guangxi, China.
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Maize yield response to water supply and fertilizer input in a semi-arid environment of Northeast China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Maize grain yield varies highly with water availability as well as with fertilization and relevant agricultural management practices. With a 311-A optimized saturation design, field experiments were conducted between 2006 and 2009 to examine the yield response of spring maize (Zhengdan 958, Zea mays L) to irrigation (I), nitrogen fertilization (total nitrogen, urea-46% nitrogen,) and phosphorus fertilization (P2O5, calcium superphosphate-13% P2O5) in a semi-arid area environment of Northeast China. According to our estimated yield function, the results showed that N is the dominant factor in determining maize grain yield followed by I, while P plays a relatively minor role. The strength of interaction effects among I, N and P on maize grain yield follows the sequence N+I >P+I>N+P. Individually, the interaction effects of N+I and N+P on maize grain yield are positive, whereas that of P+I is negative. To achieve maximum grain yield (10506.0 kg · ha(-1)) for spring maize in the study area, the optimum application rates of I, N and P are 930.4 m(3) · ha(-1), 304.9 kg · ha(-1) and 133.2 kg · ha(-1) respectively that leads to a possible economic profit (EP) of 10548.4 CNY · ha(-1) (CNY, Chinese Yuan). Alternately, to obtain the best EP (10827.3 CNY · ha(-1)), the optimum application rates of I, N and P are 682.4 m(3) · ha(-1), 241.0 kg · ha(-1) and 111.7 kg · ha(-1) respectively that produces a potential grain yield of 10289.5 kg · ha(-1).
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Analysis of the stem cell characteristics of adult stem cells from Arbas white Cashmere goat.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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Studies have shown that multipotent adult stem cells possess differentiation characteristics similar to embryonic stem cells and pluripotent stem cells. We aimed to explore these similarities further by examining the expression of the pluripotency and stemness biomarkers, AKP, IL-6, Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1, Sox-2 and TERT, as well as the triploblastic biomarkers, Sox-1, Myod1 and Gata-6 in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs). These were isolated from adult Arbas white Cashmere goats and cultured in vitro. Immunocytochemistry, reverse transcription quantitative PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze the protein and mRNA expression of the markers. To investigate the ability of ADSCs, BMSCs and MDSCs to differentiate and cause tumors in vivo they were injected into immunodeficient mice (NOD-SCID). All results were compared to those for mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Immunocytochemistry showed that AKP, IL-6, Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1 and TERT were expressed in ADSCs, BMSCs and MDSCs, whereas Sox-2 was not. In ADSCs, the expression of IL-6 mRNA was relatively high, followed by Nanog and Oct-4, while Rex-1 and TERT expression were the lowest (P<0.01). In BMSCs, the expression of Rex-1 was relatively high, followed by IL-6, while Oct-4, Nanog and TERT were comparatively low (P<0.01). In MDSCs, the expression of IL-6, Nanog and Oct-4 were relatively high, while TERT was comparatively low (P<0.01). However, no expression of Sox-2 mRNA was detected in any of the three cell lines. The expression of Sox-1, Myod1 and Gata-6 was observed to different degrees in all three cell lines (P<0.01); the expression pattern in MDSCs was different from that in ADSCs and BMSCs. Western blotting indicated that no expression of Sox-2 and Rex-1 protein occurred in ADSCs, BMSCs and MDSCs, while the other five proteins were all expressed to different degrees (P<0.01); the expression pattern was consistent with the mRNA results. In contrast to the mESCs, no teratoma tissue or triploblastic differentiation appendages were formed in the immunodeficient mice after injection of ADSCs, BMSCs and MDSCs. Our results suggest that the three adult goat stem cell types are non-oncogenic and have stemness characteristics similar to embryonic stem cells. Of these, MDSCs were found to exhibit the most ESC-like properties and would make the best candidates for clinical application.
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Entanglement-based quantum key distribution with biased basis choice via free space.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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We report a free-space entanglement-based quantum key distribution experiment, implementing the biased basis protocol between two sites which are 15.3 km apart. Photon pairs from a polarization-entangled source are distributed through two 7.8-km free-space optical links. An optimal bias 20:80 between the X and Z basis is used. A post-processing scheme with finite-key analysis is applied to extract the final secure key. After three-hour continuous operation at night, a 4293-bit secure key is obtained, with a final key rate of 0.124 bit per raw key bit which increases the final key rate by 14.8% comparing to the standard BB84 case. Our results experimentally demonstrate that the efficient BB84 protocol, which increases key generation efficiency by biasing Alice and Bobs basis choices, is potentially useful for the ground-satellite quantum communication.
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[Optimization the formulation of Eisemia foetida protein burn spray by response surface methodology].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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To optimize the formulation of Eisemia foetida protein (EFP) burn spray.
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Segregation of signaling proteins as prognostic predictors for local recurrence and distant metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Postoperative recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is presented as local recurrence (LR) or extrahepatic metastasis (EHM). Recent studies indicated that EHM requires additional cellular alterations. This study aimed to examine the clinical and molecular prognostic predictors of these two events. HCC patients (289) [training cohort (n=160) and verification cohort (n=129)] receiving surgical resection of hepatomas were included. The expression levels of six signaling molecules were quantitatively assessed for prognostic analysis. Clustering analysis revealed similar expression profiles between cancer (T) and non-cancer (N) liver tissues in the same individuals. Univariate analysis showed that phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-T was associated with LR-free survival (P=0.002), whereas extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK2)-T (P=0.005), AKT-T (P=0.001) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-T/N ratio (P=0.008) were associated with EHM-free survival. When clinical predictors were added for multivariate analysis, only prolonged prothrombin time (P=0.003) and tumor number (P=0.031) was independently associated with LR-free survival, whereas age (P=0.019), creatinine levels (P=0.001) and AKT-T (P=0.004) were associated with EHM-free survival. These factors were further examined in the verification cohort. In conclusion, postoperative LR and EHM in HCC were associated with separable sets of clinical and molecular predictors.
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[The difference in diagnosis rate of different diagnostic criteria of autoimmune pancreatitis and its major influential factors].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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To discuss the difference in diagnostic criteria of autoimmune pancreatitis(AIP) and its major influential factors, so as to provide guidance for AIP diagnosis and treatment.
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Comprehensive screening for PRSS1, SPINK1, CFTR, CTRC and CLDN2 gene mutations in Chinese paediatric patients with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis: a cohort study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Genetic alterations may contribute to chronic pancreatitis (CP) in Chinese young patients. This study was designed to investigate mutations of cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1), pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor or serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), chymotrypsin C (CTRC) and CLDN2 genes and the copy number variations (CNVs) of PRSS1 and asses associations with the development of idiopathic CP (ICP) in Chinese children.
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Acceptance of Male Circumcision Among Male Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Western China.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Abstract To describe the acceptability of male circumcision (MC) and explore potential factors associated with MC acceptability among male rural-to-urban migrants in western China, a cross-sectional survey of MC acceptability was conducted with 1,904 subjects in three western provinces with high HIV prevalence (Guangxi, Chongqing, and Xinjiang) in China between June 2009 and November 2009. Through face-to-face interviews, the participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about demographics, MC knowledge, willingness and reasons to accept or refuse MC, sexual behaviors, and other psychosocial variables. Factors associated with acceptability of MC were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Of the participants (n=1,904), 710 men were willing to accept MC (37.3%); the reasons included promotion of the partners genital hygiene (54.9%), redundant prepuce or phimosis (43.1%), enhancement of sexual pleasure (40.6%), prevention of penile inflammation or cancer (35.5%), and protection against HIV and sexual transmitted diseases (STDs)(31.1%). A multivariable logistic regression showed that four factors were associated with acceptability of MC, including education level (OR=1.286, 95% CI=1.025?1.614), redundant prepuce or phimosis (OR=13.751, 95% CI=10.087?18.745), having one or more circumcised friends (OR=2.468, 95% CI=1.953?3.119), and having sexual intercourse with a temporary partner in the past year (OR=1.543, 95% CI=1.101?2.162). Compared with previously published data among the general population in China or worldwide, the acceptability of MC (37.3%) was low among the male rural-to-urban migrants in western China. Nevertheless, appropriate education could greatly improve the acceptability of MC. More public campaigns and health education on MC are needed to increase the rate of MC in China.
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Cytotoxicity of silica nanoparticles on HaCaT cells.
J Appl Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Despite the widespread use of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) in biological and medical fields, their adverse effects have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, spherical SiO2 NPs with a 50 nm diameter were used to study their interaction with HaCaT cells. SiO2 NPs were found to be readily internalized into HaCaT cells and localized in the cytoplasm, lysosomes and autophagosomes. Decreased cell viability and damaged cell membrane integrity showed the cytotoxicity of SiO2 NPs. Significant glutathione depletion and reactive oxygen species generation, which reduced the cellular antioxidant level, could be the major factor of cytotoxicity induced by SiO2 NPs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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[Breast cancer subtypes based on ER/PR and Her2 expression: comparison of mr imaging features].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of breast cancer subtypes based on the profiles of ER/PR and Her2.
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Methamphetamine inhibits Toll-like receptor 9-mediated anti-HIV activity in macrophages.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is one of the key sensors that recognize viral infection/replication in the host cells. Studies have demonstrated that methamphetamine (METH) dysregulated host cell innate immunity and facilitated HIV infection of macrophages. In this study, we present new evidence that METH suppressed TLR9-mediated anti-HIV activity in macrophages. Activation of TLR9 by its agonist CpG-ODN 2216 inhibits HIV replication, which was demonstrated by increased expression of TLR9, interferon (IFN)-?, IFN regulatory factor-7 (IRF-7), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and myxovirus resistance gene A (MxA) in macrophages. However, METH treatment of macrophages greatly compromised the TLR9 signaling-mediated anti-HIV effect and inhibited the expression of TLR9 downstream signaling factors. Dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) antagonists (SCH23390) could block METH-mediated inhibition of anti-HIV activity of TLR9 signaling. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the METH action showed that METH treatment selectively down-regulated the expression of TLR9 on macrophages, whereas it had little effect on the expression of other TLRs. Collectively, our results provide further evidence that METH suppresses host cell innate immunity against HIV infection by down-regulating TLR9 expression and its signaling-mediated antiviral effect in macrophages.
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A single nucleotide polymorphism on the GALNT14 gene as an effective predictor of response to chemotherapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Previously, a pilot genome-wide association study has identified candidate single nucleotide polymorphism predictors for the therapeutic response of 5-fluorouracil, mitoxantrone and cisplatin (FMP) combination chemotherapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we conducted a prospective confirmatory study to examine the predictive value of rs9679162 (located on GALNT14 gene) for the therapeutic responses using a split-dose FMP protocol. One hundred and seven advanced HCC patients receiving split-dose FMP therapy were enrolled. All patients were in Barcelona Clinical Liver Cancer Stage C with either main portal vein thrombosis and/or distant metastasis. Of them, 105 (98.1%) were Child-Pugh classification B. GALNT14 genotype was determined before therapy. Of the patients included, 28 were rs9679162 "TT" and 79 were "non-TT" ("GG" + "GT") genotype. The median overall survival, time-to-progression, response rate and disease control rate were ("TT" versus "non-TT") 6.8 versus 3.9 months (p < 0.001), 3.9 versus 2.1 months (p < 0.001), 28.6% versus 10.1% (p = 0.029) and 35.7% versus 15.2% (p = 0.030), respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that rs9679162 genotype was an independent predictor for overall survival (p = 0.002). Categorical analysis showed that 17 patients with "TT" genotype, tumor size < 10 cm and neutrophils < 74% had a median overall survival of 25.5 months and a therapeutic response rate of 47.1%. In conclusion, this prospective study confirmed that GALN14 genotype (rs9679162) was an effective predictor for therapeutic outcome in advanced HCC patients treated by FMP chemotherapy. Combining GALNT14 genotype and clinical parameters, a subgroup of patients with excellent outcome was identified.
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Water permeation through a charged channel.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Transport properties of water molecules through hydrophobic channels have been explored extensively in recent years; however, our knowledge about the transport properties of hydrophilic channels is still rather poor. Herein, we use molecular dynamics simulations to study the permeation of water molecules through a charged channel. For comparison, we first consider the pristine hydrophobic channel without charge, and we find an analytic expression that can predict the water flow through it. For uniformly charged channels, with the increase of charge density, the water flow decreases, due to the increase of roughness in the free energy profile experienced by a water molecule along the channel; while the ion flow exhibits a maximum, because of the competition between the increasing ion number and ion-channel attraction. Surprisingly, the water occupancy for positive and negative channels varies in the opposite direction, which is strongly related to the excluded volume effect of ions. Additionally, we also discuss the effect of surface charge patterns and channel sizes. These results not only enrich our understanding of the transport properties of hydrophilic channels, but also have deep implications for the design of nanometer water gates.
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ERCP service in China: results from a national survey.
Gastrointest. Endosc.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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ERCP had been performed throughout China for decades.
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[Relationship between pre-exposure prophylaxis and HIV infection: a meta-analysis].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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To evaluate the effect on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV infection in high risk populations.
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Experimental simulation of quantum tunneling in small systems.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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It is well known that quantum computers are superior to classical computers in efficiently simulating quantum systems. Here we report the first experimental simulation of quantum tunneling through potential barriers, a widespread phenomenon of a unique quantum nature, via NMR techniques. Our experiment is based on a digital particle simulation algorithm and requires very few spin-1/2 nuclei without the need of ancillary qubits. The occurrence of quantum tunneling through a barrier, together with the oscillation of the state in potential wells, are clearly observed through the experimental results. This experiment has clearly demonstrated the possibility to observe and study profound physical phenomena within even the reach of small quantum computers.
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[Isolation and purification of enhanced green fluorescent protein using chromatography].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is a common biological marker. In this research, on the foundation of successful clone and expression of EGFP, a two-step chromatographic method was established to separate and purify EGFP, which includes the use of HisTrap HP immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and Sephadex G-10 HR size exclusion chromatography in sequence. Sephacryl S-300 HR size exclusion chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were used to check out the purity of EGFP. At last, it was found that EGFP still had fluorescent activity using fluorescence spectrophotometric detection and Native-PAGE detection. This method can effectively separate the active EGFP. The purity of the obtained EGFP was more than 98%.
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Development of a non-invasive fibrosis test for chronic hepatitis B patients and comparison with other unpatented scores.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Despite the availability of patented non-invasive methods, evaluation of the degrees of liver fibrosis remains difficult when conducting a retrospective study. Such inadequacy is largely caused by requirement of biochemical parameters rarely performed in routine clinical tests. We developed a novel fibrosis HB-F score using commonly performed tests for HBV infected patients.
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Instability and Structural Change of 4-Methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl Isothiocyanate in the Hydrolytic Process.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Sulforaphene (4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl isothiocyanate), which has significant chemopreventive activities, is an important phytochemical ingredient produced by myrosinase hydrolysis of glucoraphenin (4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl glucosinolate) found in radish seeds. In this research, we found that sulforaphene was unstable and converted rapidly to a water-soluble degradation product in the hydrolytic process. The degradation product was successfully purified by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 column using 10% methanol in water as the mobile phase. On the basis of MS and NMR spectroscopy data, the degradation product was identified to be 6-[(methylsulfinyl)methyl]-1,3-thiazinan-2-thione. The degradation pathway of sulforaphene was proposed in our study. Furthermore, low pH and metal ions were also found to have an effective inhibition to the degradation reaction of sulforaphene. Through adjusting the pH value of the system or adding metal ions after the content of sulforaphene has reached its maximum, the yield of sulforaphene increased significantly compared with that of the control.
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RNA interference-mediated silencing of Atp6i prevents both periapical bone erosion and inflammation in the mouse model of endodontic disease.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the United States, affecting approximately 80% of children and the majority of adults. Dental caries may lead to endodontic disease, where the bacterial infection progresses to the root canal system of the tooth, leading to periapical inflammation, bone erosion, severe pain, and tooth loss. Periapical inflammation may also exacerbate inflammation in other parts of the body. Although conventional clinical therapies for this disease are successful in approximately 80% of cases, there is still an urgent need for increased efficacy of treatment. In this study, we applied a novel gene-therapeutic approach using recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Atp6i RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of Atp6i/TIRC7 gene expression to simultaneously target periapical bone resorption and periapical inflammation. We found that Atp6i inhibition impaired osteoclast function in vitro and in vivo and decreased the number of T cells in the periapical lesion. Notably, AAV-mediated Atp6i/TIRC7 knockdown gene therapy reduced bacterial infection-stimulated bone resorption by 80% in the mouse model of endodontic disease. Importantly, Atp6i(+/-) mice with haploinsufficiency of Atp6i exhibited protection similar to that in mice with bacterial infection-stimulated bone erosion and periapical inflammation, which confirms the potential therapeutic effect of AAV-small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-Atp6i/TIRC7. Our results demonstrate that AAV-mediated Atp6i/TIRC7 knockdown in periapical tissues can inhibit endodontic disease development, bone resorption, and inflammation, indicating for the first time that this potential gene therapy may significantly improve the health of those who suffer from endodontic disease.
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Hydroxysafflor yellow A improves learning and memory in a rat model of vascular dementia by increasing VEGF and NR1 in the hippocampus.
Neurosci Bull
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) has angiogenesis-regulating and neuro-protective effects, but its effects on vascular dementia (VaD) are unknown. In this study, 30 adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to five groups: normal, sham-operation, VaD alone (bilateral carotid artery occlusion), VaD plus saline (control), and VaD plus HSYA. One week after operation, the HSYA group received one daily tail-vein injection of 0.6 mg/100 g HSYA for two weeks. Five weeks after operation, the spatial memory of all five groups was evaluated by the water maze task, and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus was assessed by the long-term potentiation (LTP) method. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and N-methyl-Daspartic acid receptor 1 (NR1) expression in the hippocampus was detected via Western blot. We found that, compared with the group with VaD alone, the group with HSYA had a reduced escape latency in the water maze (P <0.05), and the LTP at CA3-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus was enhanced (P <0.05). Western blot in the late-phase VaD group showed slight up-regulation of VEGF and down-regulation of NR1 in the hippocampus, while HSYA significantly up-regulated both VEGF and NR1. These results suggested that HSYA promotes angiogenesis and increases synaptic plasticity, thus improving spatial learning and memory in the rat model of VaD.
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Copper-catalyzed direct synthesis of iodoenamides from ketoximes.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Iodide in coppers pathway: A new, efficient, and practical copper-catalyzed synthesis of Z-iodoenamides from readily available ketoximes has been developed (see scheme). The reaction was believed to proceed through a single-electron-transfer pathway. The corresponding Z-iodoenamides have been applied to the synthesis of substituted oxazoles, dienes, ?-phenoxyl enamides, eneynes, ?-acylenamides, and pyrroles (DCE = 1,2-dichloroethane).
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A gene expression restriction network mediated by sense and antisense Alu sequences located on protein-coding messenger RNAs.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Alus are primate-specific retrotransposons which account for 10.6% of the human genome. A large number of protein-coding mRNAs are encoded with sense or antisense Alus in the un-translated regions.
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Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
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Quantum key distribution is proven to offer unconditional security in communication between two remote users with ideal source and detection. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we faithfully demonstrate the measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defend attacks on a nonideal source. By assuming a trusted source scenario, our practical system, which generates more than a 25 kbit secure key over a 50 km fiber link, serves as a stepping stone in the quest for unconditionally secure communications with realistic devices.
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Crosstalk between dopamine receptors and the Na?/K?-ATPase (review).
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Dopamine (DA) receptors, which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor family, are the target of ~50% of all modern medicinal drugs and constitute a large and diverse class of proteins whose primary function is to transduce extracellular stimuli into intracellular signals. Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) is ubiquitous and crucial for the maintenance of intracellular ion homeostasis and excitability. Furthermore, it plays a critical role in diverse effects, including clinical cardiotonic and cardioprotective effects, ischemic preconditioning in the brain, natriuresis, lung edema clearance and other processes. NKA regulation is of physiological and pharmacological importance and has species- and tissue-specific variations. The activation of DA receptors regulates NKA expression/activity and trafficking in various tissues and cells, for example in the kidney, lung, intestine, brain, non-pigmented ciliary epithelium and the vascular bed. DA receptor-mediated regulation of NKA mediates a diverse range of cellular responses and includes endocytosis/exocytosis, phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the ? subunit of NKA and multiple signaling pathways, including phosphatidylinositol (PI)-phospholipase C/protein kinase (PK) C, cAMP/PKA, PI3K, adaptor protein 2, tyrosine phosphatase and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase. Furthermore, in brain and HEK293T cells, D1 and D2 receptors exist in a complex with NKA. Among D1 and D2 receptors and NKA, regulations are reciprocal, which leads to crosstalk between DA receptors and NKA. In the present study, the current understanding of signaling mechanisms responsible for the crosstalk between DA receptors and NKA, as well as with specific consequent functions, is reviewed.
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Application of interleukin-1 genes and proteins to monitor the status of chronic periodontitis.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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It has been widely reported that periodontitis may lead to bone tissue and teeth loss and result in failure of prosthodontics or implants. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that plays an essential role during the pathogenesis of periodontitis. However, the gene polymorphisms of IL-1?, IL-1? and IL-1RN and the relationship between these protein expressions in healthy people and patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) in China have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the gene polymorphisms and protein expression of IL-1?, IL-1? and IL-1RN in healthy subjects and CP patients, and our data suggest that these gene polymorphisms are associated with CP. The frequency of the C/C genotype of IL-1? was 55% in CP patients, while in the control group it was 20% (p<0.0001). The C/C genotype of IL-1? was also higher in CP patients (51%) than in controls (21%) (p<0.0001). For the 2/2 genotype of IL-1RN, CP patients showed a 30% frequency, while in controls this was 15% (p<0.0001). Protein levels evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated a significant difference in secretion between patients and controls for IL-1? and IL-1?. These results indicate that genotype and protein production of IL-1?, IL-1? and IL-1RN are associated with CP in a Chinese population, and might be putative risk indicators for chronic periodontitis.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.