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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Assessment of chlorophyll content using a new vegetation index based on multi-angular hyperspectral image data].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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The fast estimation of chlorophyll content is significant for understanding the crops growth, monitoring the disease and insect, and assessing the yield of crops. This study gets the hyperspectral imagery data by using a self-developed multi-angular acquisition system during the different maize growth period, the reflectance of maize canopy was extracted accurately from the hyperspectral images under different view angles in the principal plane. The hot-dark-spot index (HDS) of red waveband was calculated through the analysis of simulated values by ACRM model and measured values, then this index was used to modify the vegetation index (TCARI), thus a new vegetation index (HD-TCARI) based on the multi-angular observation was proposed. Finally, the multi-angular hyperspectral imagery data was used to validate the vegetation indexes. The result showed that HD-TCARI could effectively reduce the LAI effects on the assessment of chlorophyll content. When the chlorophyll content was greater than 30 ?g x cm(-2), the correlation (R2) between HD-TCARI and LAI was only 26.88%-28.72%. In addition, the HD-TCARI could resist the saturation of vegetation index during the assessment of high chlorophyll content. When the LAI varled from 1 to 6, the linear relation between HD-TCARI and chlorophyll content could be improved by 9% compared with TCARI. The ground validation of HD-TCARI by multi-angular hyperspectral image showed that the linear relation between HD-TCARI and chlorophyll content (R2 = 66.74%) was better than the TCARI (R2 = 39.92%), which indicated that HD-TCARI has good potentials for estimating the chlorophyll content.
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Efficient Conversion of Spermatogonial Stem Cells to Phenotypic and Functional Dopaminergic Neurons via the PI3K/Akt and P21/Smurf2/Nolz1 Pathway.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by loss of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Generation of functional dopaminergic (DA) neurons is of unusual significance for treating Parkinson's disease (PD). However, direct conversion of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) to functional DA neurons without being reprogrammed to a pluripotent status has not been achieved. Here, we report an efficient approach to obtain morphological, phenotypic, and functional DA neurons from SSCs using a specific combination of olfactory ensheathing cell-conditioned medium (OECCM) and several defined growth factors (DGF). By following the current protocol, direct conversion of SSCs (both SSC line and primary SSCs) to neural cells and DA neurons was demonstrated by expression of numerous phenotypic genes and proteins for neural cells, as well as cell morphological features. More significantly, SSCs-derived DA neurons acquired neuronal functional properties such as synapse formation, electrophysiology activity, and dopamine secretion. Furthermore, PI3K/Akt pathway and p21/Nolz1 cascades were activated whereas Smurf2 was inactivated, leading to cell cycle exit during the conversion of SSCs into DA neurons. Collectively, this study could provide sufficient neural cells from SSCs for applications in the treatment of PD and offers novel insights into mechanisms underlying neural system development from the line of germ cells.
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[Vertical distribution and relationship between 210Pb(ex) activities and nutrients in sediment cores of two different eutrophication level lakes].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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The 210Pb(ex) activities and nutrient (TOC, TN and TP) contents in sediment cores of Fuxian Lake and Dianchi Lake were measured by traditional methods, as well as their vertical distribution and relationship were also comparatively analyzed in this paper. The study results indicated that the vertical distributions of 210Pb(ex) and nutrients were significantly different between Fuxian Lake and Dianchi Lake. The variation amplitude of 210Pb(ex) activities in Dianchi Lake was higher than that in Fuxian Lake. The disordered distribution characteristics of 210Pb(ex) in Dianchi Lake surface sediments were closely related to physicochemical migration of lead caused by human activities. The variation trends of nutrients in sediment cores were corresponded to local natural evolution and human activities in different historical periods. Relationship between 210Pb(ex) activities and nutrients were mainly affected by the nutrition level of lakes. The greater the lake eutrophication level was, the stronger the correlation was found. To the individual nutrient indicators, similar characteristics were shown in the two lakes, and the order was TOC > TP > TN.
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Oroxylin A inhibits ATRA-induced IL-6 expression involved in retinoic acid syndrome by down-regulating CHOP.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Production of IL-6 constituted the major cause of death in the ATRA trial called retinoic acid syndrome (RAS). LAP and LIP are active and inactive isoforms of C/EBP?, respectively. Inactive LIP dimerized with LAP to eliminate its activity. Following treatment with ATRA, CHOP expression was increased and dimerized with LIP more preferentially than LAP to rescue function of LAP. Oroxylin A has been reported to activate CHOP, a key mediator of unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, and resulted in apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that low concentration of oroxylin A (? 40 ?M) showed no apoptosis effect on NB4 and HL-60 cells and decreased the CHOP protein level via promoting its degradation. MG132 was utilized to conform the effect of oroxylin A on degrading CHOP. Our results showed that oroxylin A decreased the level of IL-6 secretion of NB4 cells with or without ATRA treatment while the effect was eliminated by C/EBP? siRNA. We conclude that oroxylin A possessed abilities of inhibiting the ATRA-induced IL-6 production via modulation of LAP/LIP/CHOP in leukemia cell lines, which could providing a therapeutic strategy for RAS.
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Investigation of MicroRNA Expression in Human Serum During the Aging Process.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Although serum microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in the diagnosis of various diseases, little is known about circulating miRNAs in the aging process.
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Circulating level of miR-378 predicts left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with aortic stenosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Excessively high left ventricle mass is an independent predictor of adverse prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRs) play crucial roles in the regulation of left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH). However, few circulating miRs have been established as predictors of LVH in aortic stenosis (AS) patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether circulating levels of miR-1, miR-133, and miR-378 predict LVH in patients with AS.
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Wogonin induces cell cycle arrest and erythroid differentiation in imatinib-resistant K562 cells and primary CML cells.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Wogonin, a flavonoid derived from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been demonstrated to be highly effective in treating hematologic malignancies. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of wogonin on K562 cells, K562 imatinib-resistant cells, and primary patient-derived CML cells. Wogonin up-regulated transcription factor GATA-1 and enhanced binding between GATA-1 and FOG-1, thereby increasing expression of erythroid-differentiation genes. Wogonin also up-regulated the expression of p21 and induced cell cycle arrest. Studies employing benzidine staining and analyses of cell surface markers glycophorin A (GPA) and CD71 indicated that wogonin promoted differentiation of K562, imatinib-resistant K562, and primary patient-derived CML cells. Wogonin also enhanced binding between GATA-1 and MEK, resulting in inhibition of the growth of CML cells. Additionally, in vivo studies showed that wogonin decreased the number of CML cells and prolonged survival of NOD/SCID mice injected with K562 and imatinib-resistant K562 cells. These data suggested that wogonin induces cycle arrest and erythroid differentiation in vitro and inhibits proliferation in vivo.
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Biomarker and stable carbon isotopic signatures for 100-200year sediment record in the Chaihe catchment in southwest China.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Natural inputs and anthropogenic influences on lakes and their catchments are reflected in the sediment record. In the present study, the extractable organic compounds from sediments in the Chaihe catchment of the Dianchi watershed were analyzed to characterize source inputs. Results show that the sediments are dominated by odd numbered n-alkanes (n-C16-n-C33), maximizing at n-C17, n-C29 and n-C31. Aliphatic hydrocarbon may be composed of terrestrial plants and bacteria. The values of ?(13)C27, ?(13)C29 and ?(13)C31 of n-alkanes exhibit a range from -33.27‰ to -25.46‰, from -35.76‰ to -28.47‰ and from -33.67‰ to -27.42‰, respectively and three records strongly covary with depth, falling within the range of C3 plants in the study area. An isotopic model revealed C3 plant contribution to sedimentary organic matter (OM) ranging from 40.75% to 97.22%. The values of ACL27-33, CPI27-33, OEP, Paq, Pr/Ph, (C27+C29)/2C31, (C21+C23+C25)/3C17 and nC26(-)/nC27(+) are consistent with the C3 plant predominance. A constant CRS model gave the accumulation rates ranging from 2.69 to 8.46mma(-1) spanning 1885-2010. It was concluded that OM transport in the Chaihe catchment was influenced strongly by human activities resulting in enhanced eutrophication.
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Truncated abrin A chain expressed in Escherichia coli: A promising vaccine candidate.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Abrin toxin (AT) is a highly potent toxin, and is classified as one of the most important biological warfare and bioterrorism agents. There is currently no approved vaccine for AT. Therefore, the development of an effective vaccine is important in the prevention of intoxication by abrin. In this study, five vectors containing different gene of truncated abrin toxin A chain (tATA) fragments were constructed, and two of them (tATA 1 (1-126), tATA 4 (1-188)) were successfully expressed as a soluble form in E.coli strain. Both of the two tATA retained most of their immunogenicity with either low or no toxic effects as determined by both in vitro and in vivo assays. They were used to immunize BALB/c mice three times at an interval of three weeks apart. As a result, the tATA 1 can elicite 80% protective efficacy against i.p. challenge of 5 × LD 50 of abrin, and the tATA 4 provides a better protection, which can elicite 100% protective efficacy against intraperitoneal challenge of 40 × LD 50 of abrin. The superior fragment (tATA 4 (1-188)) should be considered as a promising vaccine candidate for further investigations.
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Biotoxins for cancer therapy.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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In recent times, a number of studies have provided evidence that biotoxins present great potential as antitumor agents, such as snake venom, bee venom, some bacteria toxins and plant toxins, and thus could be used as chemotherapeutic agents against tumors. The biodiversity of venoms and toxins make them a unique source from which novel anticancer agent may be developed. Biotoxins, also known as natural toxins, include toxic substances produced by plants, animals and microorganisms. Here, we systematically list representative biological toxins that have antitumor properties, involving animal toxins, plant toxins, mycotoxins as well as bacterial toxins. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge involving biotoxins and the active compounds that have anti-cancer activity to induce cytotoxic, antitumor, immunomodulatory, and apoptotic effects in different tumor cells in vivo or in vitro. We also show insights into the molecular and functional evolution of biotoxins.
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Hepatic differentiated embryo-chondrocyte-expressed gene 1 (Dec1) inhibits sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (Srebp-1c) expression and alleviates fatty liver phenotype.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Hepatic steatosis, characterized by ectopic hepatic triglyceride accumulation, is considered as the early manifestation of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Increased SREBP-1c level and activity contribute to excessive hepatic triglyceride accumulation in NAFLD patients; however, negative regulators of Srebp-1c are not well defined. In this study, we show that Dec1, a critical regulator of circadian rhythm, negatively regulates hepatic Srebp-1c expression. Hepatic Dec1 expression levels are markedly decreased in NAFLD mouse models. Restored Dec1 gene expression levels in NAFLD mouse livers decreased the expression of Srebp-1c and lipogenic genes, subsequently ameliorating the fatty liver phenotype. Conversely, knockdown of Dec1 expression by an adenovirus expressing Dec1-specific shRNA led to an increase in hepatic TG content in normal mouse livers. Correspondingly, expression levels of lipogenic genes, including Srebp-1c, Fas, and Acc, were increased in livers of mice with Dec1 knockdown. Moreover, a functional lipogenesis assay suggested that Dec1 overexpression repressed lipid synthesis in primary hepatocytes. Finally, a luciferase reporter gene assay indicates that DEC1 inhibits Srebp-1c gene transcription via the E-box mapped to the promoter region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that DEC1 proteins bound to the identified E-box element. Our studies indicate that DEC1 is an important regulator of Srebp-1c expression and links circadian rhythm to hepatic lipogenesis. Activation of Dec1 can alleviate the nonalcoholic fatty liver phenotype.
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Use of 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance to screen a set of biomarkers for monitoring metabolic disturbances in severe burn patients.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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To establish a plasma metabolomics fingerprint spectrum for severe burn patients and to use it to identify a set of biomarkers that could be used for clinical monitoring.
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Generation of haploid spermatids with fertilization and development capacity from human spermatogonial stem cells of cryptorchid patients.
Stem Cell Reports
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Generation of functional spermatids from azoospermia patients is of unusual significance in the treatment of male infertility. Here, we report an efficient approach to obtain human functional spermatids from cryptorchid patients. Spermatogonia remained whereas meiotic germ cells were rare in cryptorchid patients. Expression of numerous markers for meiotic and postmeiotic male germ cells was enhanced in human spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) of cryptorchidism patients by retinoic acid (RA) and stem cell factor (SCF) treatment. Meiotic spreads and DNA content assays revealed that RA and SCF induced a remarkable increase of SCP3-, MLH1-, and CREST-positive cells and haploid cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis reflected distinct global gene profiles in embryos derived from round spermatids and nuclei of somatic cells. Significantly, haploid spermatids generated from human SSCs of cryptorchid patients possessed fertilization and development capacity. This study thus provides an invaluable source of autologous male gametes for treating male infertility in azoospermia patients.
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Precisely tunable magnetic phase transition temperature, TC, through the formation of a molecular alloy in [NixPt1-x(mnt)2](-)-based spin systems (mnt(2-) = maleonitriledithiolate, x = 0.09-0.91).
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Nine molecular substitutional alloys with formula [Cl-BzPy][NixPt1-x(mnt)2] (x = 0.09-0.91) were prepared by mixing the isostructural [Cl-BzPy][Ni(mnt)2] and [Cl-BzPy][Pt(mnt)2] in acetonitrile according to the molar ratio of x/(1 - x), where mnt(2-) = maleonitriledithiolate, Cl-BzPy(+) = 1-(4'-chloro-benzyl)pyridinium. Each alloy compound is isostructural with the parent compounds and shows a magnetic transition; the TC decreases linearly with the molar fraction x, indicating that TC is precisely tunable in this alloy system.
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The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT): linguistic validity of the Chinese version.
J Sex Med
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) was developed to standardize the diagnosis of PE and has been applied in many countries. However, a linguistic validation of the Chinese version of PEDT does not exist.
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Association of innate immune IFIH1 gene polymorphisms with dilated cardiomyopathy in a Chinese population.
Immunol. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The interferon-induced helicase C domain-containing protein 1 (IFIH1) is a cytosolic RNA sensor belonging to the pattern-recognition receptor (PPR) family. Activation of PPRs on innate immune cells is widely believed to control the development of virus-induced autoimmunity in myocarditis and subsequent dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We conducted a pilot study to test whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IFIH1 were associated with the risk and prognosis of DCM. The TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay was used to genotype rs1990760 and rs3747517 in 351 DCM patients and 359 controls. The frequency of T allele and CT/TT genotypes at rs1990760 were significantly increased in DCM patients compared to control subjects (p?=?0.046 and p?=?0.027, respectively). The CC homozygosity was associated with worse prognosis expressed by the endpoint of cardiac death compared with allele T carriers of rs3747517 in both univariable (p?=?0.04) and multivariable survival analysis after adjusting for age, sex, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and ejection fraction (p?=?0.01). The results revealed that rs1990760 was associated with susceptibility to DCM and rs3747517 played a role in the prognostic assessment of DCM, reflecting the distinct genetic contributions of innate IFIH1 polymorphisms in controlling the onset and outcome of DCM.
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Preparation of egg yolk antibodies against BoNT/B and their passive protection in mouse models.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Botulism in human is a devastating intoxication caused mainly by type A, B, and E botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). The most effective treatment of botulism is injection of BoNT antiserum in the first 24 h. In this study, a recombinant C-terminal heavy chain of BoNT/B (BHc) was successfully expressed in E. coli. The soluble BHc was used as an antigen to immunize laying hens for yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) production. The purified IgY against BHc subunit, preincubated with the BoNT/B, was predominantly involved in the neutralization of BoNT/B toxicity. Furthermore, both intraperitoneal and intragastric administration of the IgY could protect mice from death caused by injection of toxin at a lethal dose. Our results therefore suggest that anti-BHc IgY directed to the Hc domain is effectively involved in the neutralization of BoNT/B toxin and may be considered as preventive and therapeutic intervention in the case of botulism.
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Expression and Role of Leptin under Hypoxic Conditions in Human Testis: Organotypic in Vitro Culture Experiment and Clinical Study on Patients with Varicocele.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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We investigated the expression and the exact role of leptin under hypoxic conditions in the human testis.
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LIM mineralization protein-1 suppresses TNF-? induced intervertebral disc degeneration by maintaining nucleus pulposus extracellular matrix production and inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases expression.
J. Orthop. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Imbalanced metabolism of Nucleus pulposus (NP) extracellular matrix (ECM) is closely correlated to Intervertebral Disc Degenerative Disease. LIM mineralization protein-1 (LMP-1) has been proven to induce sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) production in NP and have an anti-inflammatory effect in pre-osteoclast. However, whether it has any effect on the NP ECM production and degradation under inflammatory stimulation has not been studied. In the current study, a TNF-? induced cell model was established in vitro. Lentivirus encoding LMP-1 (LV-LMP-1) and short heparin LMP-1 (LV-shLMP-1) were constructed to overexpress and knockdown LMP-1 expression in NP cells. LMP-1 mRNA level was regulated in a dose-dependent manner after transfection. LV-LMP-1 increased whereas LV-shLMP-1 decreased collagen II, aggrecan, versican expression, and sGAG production. LV-LMP-1 abolished while LV-shLMP-1 aggravated TNF-? mediated down-regulation of the above matrix genes via ERK1/2 activation. Moreover, LV-LMP-1 abrogated TNF-? induced MMP-3 and MMP-13 expression via inhibiting p65 translocation and MMP-3 and MMP-13 promoter activity. These results indicated that LMP-1 had an ECM production maintenance effect under inflammatory stimulation. This effect was via up-regulation of matrix genes expression at least partially through ERK1/2 activation, and down-regulation of MMPs expression through NF-?B inhibition. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.
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[Association of programmed cell death 1 gene polymorphisms with dilated cardiomyopathy in Chinese Han population].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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To investigate the association between programmed death 1 (PDCD1) gene polymorphism and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
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Inborn errors of cytoplasmic triglyceride metabolism.
J. Inherit. Metab. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Triglyceride (TG) synthesis, storage, and degradation together constitute cytoplasmic TG metabolism (CTGM). CTGM is mostly studied in adipocytes, where starting from glycerol-3-phosphate and fatty acyl (FA)-coenzyme A (CoA), TGs are synthesized then stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. TG hydrolysis proceeds sequentially, producing FAs and glycerol. Several reactions of CTGM can be catalyzed by more than one enzyme, creating great potential for complex tissue-specific physiology. In adipose tissue, CTGM provides FA as a systemic energy source during fasting and is related to obesity. Inborn errors and mouse models have demonstrated the importance of CTGM for non-adipose tissues, including skeletal muscle, myocardium and liver, because steatosis and dysfunction can occur. We discuss known inborn errors of CTGM, including deficiencies of: AGPAT2 (a form of generalized lipodystrophy), LPIN1 (childhood rhabdomyolysis), LPIN2 (an inflammatory condition, Majeed syndrome, described elsewhere in this issue), DGAT1 (protein loosing enteropathy), perilipin 1 (partial lipodystrophy), CGI-58 (gene ABHD5, neutral lipid storage disease (NLSD) with ichthyosis and "Jordan's anomaly" of vacuolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, gene PNPLA2, NLSD with myopathy, cardiomyopathy and Jordan's anomaly), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, gene LIPE, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance). Two inborn errors of glycerol metabolism are known: glycerol kinase (GK, causing pseudohypertriglyceridemia) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1, childhood hepatic steatosis). Mouse models often resemble human phenotypes but may diverge markedly. Inborn errors have been described for less than one-third of CTGM enzymes, and new phenotypes may yet be identified.
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Spectroscopic and mechanistic studies of heterodimetallic forms of metallo-?-lactamase NDM-1.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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In an effort to characterize the roles of each metal ion in metallo-?-lactamase NDM-1, heterodimetallic analogues (CoCo-, ZnCo-, and CoCd-) of the enzyme were generated and characterized. UV-vis, (1)H NMR, EPR, and EXAFS spectroscopies were used to confirm the fidelity of the metal substitutions, including the presence of a homogeneous, heterodimetallic cluster, with a single-atom bridge. This marks the first preparation of a metallo-?-lactamase selectively substituted with a paramagnetic metal ion, Co(II), either in the Zn1 (CoCd-NDM-1) or in the Zn2 site (ZnCo-NDM-1), as well as both (CoCo-NDM-1). We then used these metal-substituted forms of the enzyme to probe the reaction mechanism, using steady-state and stopped-flow kinetics, stopped-flow fluorescence, and rapid-freeze-quench EPR. Both metal sites show significant effects on the kinetic constants, and both paramagnetic variants (CoCd- and ZnCo-NDM-1) showed significant structural changes on reaction with substrate. These changes are discussed in terms of a minimal kinetic mechanism that incorporates all of the data.
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MicroRNA-331-3p promotes proliferation and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting PH domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly invasive tumor with frequent intrahepatic or pulmonary metastasis, which is the main reason for high recurrence and poor survival of HCC after liver resection. However, the mechanisms for metastasis remain incompletely clear. Given that microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in HCC progression, we explored a potential role of miRNAs in metastasis by performing miRNA expression profiling in three subtypes of HCC with different metastatic potentials. We discovered miR-331-3p as one of most significantly overexpressed miRNAs and highly associated with metastasis of HCC. Increased expression of miR-331-3p was correlated with poor long-term survival of HCC. We provided both in vivo and in vitro evidence demonstrating that miR-331-3p promoted proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells. Using an integrated approach, we uncovered that PH domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP) was a novel target of miR-331-3p. Indeed, the miR-331-3p-mediated effects were antagonized by reexpression of PHLPP or mimicked by silencing of PHLPP. We further showed that miR-331-3p-mediated inhibition of PHLPP resulted in stimulation of protein kinase B (AKT) and subsequent epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Finally, inhibition of miR-331-3p through a jetPEI-mediated delivery of anti-miR-331-3p vector resulted in marked inhibition of proliferation and metastasis of HCC in xenograft mice.
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BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI) inhibits the adipogenesis of porcine preadipocytes through Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway.
Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The process of differentiation from preadipocytes to adipocytes contributes to adipose tissue expansion in obesity. Blocking adipogenesis may be conducive to the etiology of obesity-related diseases. BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI) is a transmembrane protein, which was identified as a target of ?-catenin in colorectal and hepatocellular tumor cells. However, whether BAMBI affects adipogenesis by Wnt/?-catenin signaling remains to be explored. In this study, we distinguish BAMBI as an inhibitor of preadipocytes differentiation. We found that BAMBI was downregulated during preadipocytes differentiation. Knockdown of BAMBI increased adipogenesis and blocked Wnt/?-catenin signaling by repressing ?-catenin accumulation. In BAMBI overexpression cells, lipid accumulation was reduced by promoting nuclear translocation of ?-catenin. Lithium chloride (LiCl) is an activator of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, which is an inhibitor of glycogen synthetase kinase-3 (GSK-3), maintaining the stability of ?-catenin in cytosolic. We showed BAMBI strengthened the anti-adipogenic effects of LiCl. In addition, the results indicated that BAMBI was upregulated by ?-catenin. These observations illuminated that BAMBI inhibits adipogenesis by a feedback loop (BAMBI??-catenin nuclear translocation?BAMBI), which forms with Wnt/?-catenin signaling.
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Clinical outcomes of bridging therapy with fondaparinux versus low-molecular-weight heparin in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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To compare the efficacy and safety of bridging therapy with fondaparinux versus low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF).
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Tumor necrosis factor-?- and interleukin-1?-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in nucleus pulposus cells requires cooperative signaling via syndecan 4 and mitogen-activated protein kinase-NF-?B axis: implications in inflammatory disc disease.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) plays an important role in intervertebral disc degeneration, a ubiquitous condition closely linked to low back pain and disability. Elevated expression of syndecan 4, a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan, actively controls disc matrix catabolism. However, the relationship between MMP-3 expression and syndecan 4 in the context of inflammatory disc disease has not been clearly defined. We investigated the mechanisms by which cytokines control MMP-3 expression in rat and human nucleus pulposus cells. Cytokine treatment increased MMP-3 expression and promoter activity. Stable silencing of syndecan 4 blocked cytokine-mediated MMP-3 expression; more important, syndecan 4 did not mediate its effects through NF-?B or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. However, treatment with MAPK and NF-?B inhibitors resulted in partial blocking of the inductive effect of cytokines on MMP-3 expression. Loss-of-function studies confirmed that NF-?B, p38?/?2/?/?, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 2, but not ERK1, contributed to cytokine-dependent induction of MMP3 promoter activity. Similarly, inhibitor treatments, lentiviral short hairpin-p65, and short hairpin-I?B kinase ? significantly decreased cytokine-dependent up-regulation in MMP-3 expression. Finally, we show that transforming growth factor-? can block the up-regulation of MMP-3 induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? by counteracting the NF-?B pathway and syndecan 4 expression. Taken together, our results suggest that cooperative signaling through syndecan 4 and the TNF receptor 1-MAPK-NF-?B axis is required for TNF-?-dependent expression of MMP-3 in nucleus pulposus cells. Controlling these pathways may slow the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration and matrix catabolism.
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Size-tunable fabrication of multifunctional Bi2O3 porous nanospheres for photocatalysis, bacteria inactivation and template-synthesis.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Multifunctional Bi2O3 porous nanospheres (PNs) with tunable size have been successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method. The obtained Bi2O3 porous nanospheres demonstrate outstanding performance in visible-light-driven photocatalysis for Cr(VI) and organic dye removal, inactivation of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as template-synthesis for fabrication of bismuth-related hollow nanostructures.
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Efficacy of medication directed by home-monitoring cardiac resynchronization therapy in chronic heart failure patients.
Chin. Med. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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PATIENTS with chronic heart failure (CHF) have a high incidence of atrial/ventricular arrhythmias which seriously affect life span and quality of life. Cardiac re-synchronization therapy (CRT) can improve cardiac function and reverse myocardial remodeling, therefore improving the quality of life and reducing mortality. CRT with Home-Monitoring (HM) can be used to monitor cardiac arrhythmias and other heart physiological indexes such as intrathoracic impedance and hemodynamics. Through wireless satellites, the data from the patients are sent to a monitor center for analysis. Doctors can identify emergent information and make a rapid diagnosis based on the information stored in the monitor center. CRT with HM has been verified as a valid method to optimize drug treatment according to individual parameters.
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Vertical-interface-manipulated conduction behavior in nanocomposite oxide thin films.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Vertically aligned nanocomposites with vertical interfaces are a novel concept that show powerful advantages over conventional nanocomposites with lateral interfaces. However, significant obstacles to a systematic understanding of vertical interfaces still remain. Here, heteroepitaxial (BaTiO3)0.5:(Sm2O3)0.5 nanocomposite thin films have been fabricated and the conduction behaviors have been investigated. A spontaneous phase ordering with clear vertical interfaces has been found in the composite films. Because of the structural discontinuity as well as a large strain generated at the interfaces, the vertical interfaces are revealed to become the sinks to attract oxygen vacancies. The accumulated oxygen vacancies contributed to a largely reduced leakage current and a different leakage mechanism in the composite films compared to that of the pure BaTiO3 film. The present work represents a methodology to manipulate functionalities by designing configuration of the interfaces in oxide thin films.
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Long-term atmospheric wet deposition of dissolved organic nitrogen in a typical red-soil agro-ecosystem, Southeastern China.
Environ Sci Process Impacts
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) from atmospheric deposition has been a growing concern in the world and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is increasing quickly in China especially Southeastern China. In our study, DON wet deposition was estimated by collecting and analyzing rainwater samples continuously over eight years (2005-2012) in a typical red-soil farmland ecosystem, Southeast China. Results showed that the volume-weighted-average DON concentration varied from 0.2 to 3.3 mg N L(-1) with an average of 1.2 mg N L(-1). DON flux ranged from 5.7 to 71.6 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and averaged 19.7 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) which accounted for 34.6% of the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) in wet deposition during the eight-year period. Analysis of DON concentration and flux, contribution of DON to TDN, rainfall, rain frequency, air temperature and wind frequency and the application of pig manure revealed possible pollution sources. Significant positive linear relation of annual DON flux and usage of pig manure (P<0.0001) suggested that agricultural activities, especially application of pig manure, were the main source of DON in the study area. In conclusion, DON wet deposition was an important part of TDN and would have a possible effect on N cycle in the red-soil agro-ecosystem in the future.
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Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from biomass derivatives and water.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Hydrogen, a clean energy carrier with high energy capacity, is a very promising candidate as a primary energy source for the future. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production from renewable biomass derivatives and water is one of the most promising approaches to producing green chemical fuel. Compared to water splitting, hydrogen production from renewable biomass derivatives and water through a PEC process is more efficient from the viewpoint of thermodynamics. Additionally, the carbon dioxide formed can be re-transformed into carbohydrates via photosynthesis in plants. In this review, we focus on the development of photoanodes and systems for PEC hydrogen production from water and renewable biomass derivatives, such as methanol, ethanol, glycerol and sugars. We also discuss the future challenges and opportunities for the design of the state-of-the-art photoanodes and PEC systems for hydrogen production from biomass derivatives and water.
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Observation of hysteretic magnetic phase transitions coupled with orientation motion of ions and dielectric relaxation in a one-dimensional nickel-bis-dithiolene molecule solid.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The second polymorph, the ?-crystal, of the nickel-bis-dithiolene compound [4'-CF3bzPy][Ni(mnt)2], where 4'-CF3bzPy = 1-(4'-trifluoromethylbenzyl)pyridinium and mnt(2-) = maleonitriledithiolate, was obtained. The variable-temperature single crystal structures, magnetic behavior in 1.8-300 K and dielectric nature in 123-373 K have been investigated for the ?-crystal. This polymorph experiences two hysteretic magnetic phase transitions in a narrow temperature region (190-217 K) with the thermal hysteresis loops ca. 6 K and ca. 11 K. The two hysteretic magnetic phase transitions are coupled with two isostructural phase transitions (IPTs), respectively, which are driven by the novel step-wise dynamic orientation motion of the anion and cation in the ?-crystal. There is an absence of a dielectric anomaly in the structural transformation temperature interval. However, a dielectric relaxation, related to the dipole motion of polar CF3 groups in the cations under an ac electrical field, emerges in the high-temperature phase.
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Is omega-3 fatty acids enriched nutrition support safe for critical ill patients? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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To systematically review the effects of omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (FA) enriched nutrition support on the mortality of critically illness patients.
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The roles and regulation of Sertoli cells in fate determinations of spermatogonial stem cells and spermatogenesis.
Semin. Cell Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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Spermatogenesis is a complex process by which spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) self-renew and differentiate into spermatozoa under the elaborate coordination of testicular microenvironment, namely, niche. Sertoli cells, which locate around male germ cells, are the most critical component of the niche. Significant progress has recently been made by peers and us on uncovering the effects of Sertoli cells on regulating fate determinations of SSCs. Here we addressed the roles and regulation of Sertoli cells in normal and abnormal spermatogenesis. Specifically, we summarized the biological characteristics of Sertoli cells, and we emphasized the roles of Sertoli cells in mediating the self-renewal, differentiation, apoptosis, de-differentiation, and trans-differentiation of SSCs. The association between abnormal function of Sertoli cells and impaired spermatogenesis was discussed. Finally, we highlighted several issues to be addressed for further investigation on the effects and mechanisms of Sertoli cells in spermatogenesis. Since Sertoli cells are the key supportive cells for SSCs and they are very receptive to modification, a better understanding of the roles and regulation of Sertoli cells in SSC biology and spermatogenesis would make it feasible to identify novel targets for gene therapy of male infertility as well as seek more efficient and safer strategies for male contraception.
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Satellite data regarding the eutrophication response to human activities in the plateau lake Dianchi in China from 1974 to 2009.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Human activities contribute highly to water eutrophication. In this study, the relationship between human activities and water eutrophication in Dianchi Lake in China was characterized using a combination of satellite imaging, sedimentary physicochemical and meteorological data analyses. The heavy eutrophic status and algal bloom in Dianchi Lake were first observed by satellite in 1977 and 1989, respectively. The C/N ratio, an indicator of organic sources in sediments, also showed that the planktonic organic source in the sediment significantly increased beginning in 1989. The land use cover in the Dianchi basin showed that both farm lands and forests, but particularly farmlands, were reduced during the period from 1974 to 2009. The urbanized land area increased from 1974 to 2009, particularly after 2000. The effects of human activities on water eutrophication were expressed by land use cover, population, gross domestic product (GDP; separated into primary, secondary and tertiary industries) and wastewater discharge. For land use cover, farm and urbanized lands were the main sources of water nutrients; forest contributed slightly to these nutrients. For GDP, primary (correlation coefficient=0.94, P<0.001) and tertiary (correlation coefficient=0.95, P<0.001) industries were highly correlated with total nitrogen. Secondary (correlation coefficient=0.95, P<0.001) and tertiary (correlation coefficient=0.96, P<0.001) industries were highly correlated with total phosphorus. The algal bloom area was significantly correlated with wastewater discharge (correlation coefficient=0.78, P<0.005) (except industrial wastewater), which was primarily led by the non-agricultural population, from 2000 to 2009. This study suggests that the protection of water environments requires a comprehensive protection policy in addition to a unilateral protection policy.
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CTSB promotes porcine preadipocytes differentiation by degrading fibronectin and attenuating the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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The process of preadipocytes differentiation plays a vital role in adipose tissue expansion and many factors are involved in this event. Cathepsin B (CTSB), secreted from lysosome, has been reported in regulating a variety of physiological processes. In this study, we demonstrated CTSB promotes lipid accumulation and adipogenic genes expression in porcine primary preadipocytes by degrading fibronectin (Fn), a key component of extracellular matrix. Lithium chloride (LiCl) is an activator of Wnt/?-catenin signaling through stabilizing ?-catenin. We found that CTSB can relieve the anti-adipogenic effects of LiCl, indicating that CTSB could impact Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. Interestingly, Fn is an important target gene of Wnt/?-catenin. So we considered that CTSB promote preadipocytes differentiation by suppressing these two pathways.
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Capillary-driven surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based microfluidic chip for abrin detection.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Herein, we firstly demonstrate the design and the proof-of-concept use of a capillary-driven surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based microfluidic chip for abrin detection. The micropillar array substrate was etched and coated with a gold film by microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) process to integrate into a lateral flow test strip. The detection of abrin solutions of various concentrations was performed by the as-prepared microfluidic chip. It was shown that the correlation between the abrin concentration and SERS signal was found to be linear within the range of 0.1 ng/mL to 1 ?g/mL with a limit of detection of 0.1 ng/mL. Our microfluidic chip design enhanced the operability of SERS-based immunodiagnostic techniques, significantly reducing the complication and cost of preparation as compared to previous SERS-based works. Meanwhile, this design proved the superiority to conventional lateral flow test strips in respect of both sensitivity and quantitation and showed great potential in the diagnosis and treatment for abrin poisoning as well as on-site screening of abrin-spiked materials.
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Nodal promotes the self-renewal of human colon cancer stem cells via an autocrine manner through Smad2/3 signaling pathway.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Colorectal cancer is one of the most common and fatal tumors. However, molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer remain largely undefined. Here, we explored the expression and function of Nodal in colon cancer stem cells (CCSCs). Nodal and its receptors were present in numerous human colorectal cancer cell lines. NODAL and ALK-4 were coexpressed in human colon cancerous tissues, and NODAL, CD24, and CD44, markers for CCSCs, were expressed at higher levels in human colon cancerous tissues than adjacent noncancerous colon tissues. Human CCSCs were isolated by magnetic activated cell sorting using anti-CD24 and anti-CD44. Nodal transcript and protein were hardly detectable in CD44- or CD24-negative human colorectal cancer cell lines, whereas Nodal and its receptors were present in CCSCs. Notably, Nodal facilitated spheroid formation of human CCSCs, and phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 was activated by Nodal in cells of spheres derived from human CCSCs. Collectively, these results suggest that Nodal promotes the self-renewal of human CCSCs and mediate carcinogenesis of human colorectal cancer via an autocrine manner through Smad2/3 pathway. This study provides a novel insight into molecular mechanisms controlling fate of human CCSCs and offers new targets for gene therapy of human colorectal cancer.
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Generation of male differentiated germ cells from various types of stem cells.
Reproduction
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Infertility is a major and largely incurable disease caused by disruption and loss of germ cells. It affects 10-15% of couples, and male factor accounts for half of the cases. To obtain human male germ cells 'especially functional spermatids' is essential for treating male infertility. Currently, much progress has been made on generating male germ cells, including spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids, from various types of stem cells. These germ cells can also be used in investigation of the pathology of male infertility. In this review, we focused on advances on obtaining male differentiated germ cells from different kinds of stem cells, with an emphasis on the embryonic stem (ES) cells, the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). We illustrated the generation of male differentiated germ cells from ES cells, iPS cells and SSCs, and we summarized the phenotype for these stem cells, spermatocytes and spermatids. Moreover, we address the differentiation potentials of ES cells, iPS cells and SSCs. We also highlight the advantages, disadvantages and concerns on derivation of the differentiated male germ cells from several types of stem cells. The ability of generating mature and functional male gametes from stem cells could enable us to understand the precise etiology of male infertility and offer an invaluable source of autologous male gametes for treating male infertility of azoospermia patients.
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Sympathetic nerve innervation in cervical posterior longitudinal ligament as a potential causative factor in cervical spondylosis with sympathetic symptoms and preliminary evidence.
Med. Hypotheses
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Sympathetic symptoms associated with cervical disorders, such as vertigo, headache, dizziness, etc., are common clinical disorders bewildering both clinicians and patients. In our clinical practice we observed that sympathetic symptoms associated with cervical disorders were apparently relieved in some patients after undergoing routine anterior cervical decompression and fusion plus posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) resection. This study was designed to investigate the sympathetic nerve innervations in the cervical PLL and its potential correlation with cervical sympathetic symptoms such as vertigo.
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Intercalated supramolecular compounds of kaolinite with ethanolamine and ethylene glycol: structures and dielectric properties.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Kaolinite (K), a polar and layered aluminosilicate mineral, was used as the host; ethanolamine (EOA) and ethylene glycol (EG) were inserted into the kaolinite interlayer to give the intercalated supramolecular compounds kaolinite-ethanolamine (K-EOA) and kaolinite-ethylene glycol (K-EG), respectively. The intercalation of EOA and EG resulted in an increase in the d(001)-value by 3.4 and 3.68 Å, which corresponds to expansion of the interlayer space by 156.7 Å(3) in K-EOA and 169.6 Å(3) in K-EG, respectively. The characteristic infrared-active ?(O-H) modes ?1, ?2 and ?3 besides ?5, which were quite sensitive to the host-guest interaction, were not significantly affected by intercalation in K-EOA and K-EG, and two intercalated compounds showed lower deintercalation temperature (115 and 109 °C for K-EOA and K-EG, respectively). These are due to weakly intermolecular interactions between the intercalant molecules and the kaolinite framework, which is in agreement with the theoretical analysis of crystal structures of the intercalated compounds. K-EOA and K-EG showed novel dielectric relaxation behavior, which originates from the dynamic orientation motion of intercalant molecules.
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Sperm Protamine mRNA Ratio and DNA Fragmentation Index Represent Reliable Clinical Biomarkers for Men with Varicocele after Microsurgical Varicocele Ligation.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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We investigated whether the sperm protamine-1/2 mRNA ratio and DNA fragmentation index are reliable biomarkers in patients with clinical varicocele.
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Characterization of n-alkanes and their carbon isotopic composition in sediments from a small catchment of the Dianchi watershed.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The biomarker composition and stable carbon isotope values of organic matter (OM) in sediment cores from Shuanglong catchment of the Dianchi watershed show an unimodal n-alkane distribution ranging from C15-C33 with a strong predominance of odd-numbered n-alkanes, maximizing at n-C27, n-C29 and n-C31. Organic carbon to nitrogen (OC/N) ratio indicates a strong terrestrial influence on the OM. The values of ?(13)C27, ?(13)C29 and ?(13)C31 of n-alkanes range from -36.1‰ to -26.1‰, -34.1‰ to -30.1‰ and -33.8‰ to -28.7‰, respectively, suggesting a mainly C3 land plants origin. The carbon preference index (CPI25-31), odd-even preference (OEP27-31), average chain length (ACL25-33), pristine/phytane (pr/ph), Paq, (C27+C29)/2C31, nC16-23/nC24-33 and 3C17/(C21+C23+C25) values are also consistent with the predominance of C3 land plant-derived OM. Different sources of OM are reflected by the peak of n-C15, ascribed to a contribution by aquatic algae and photosynthetic bacteria. Eutrophication seems to be enhanced by both autochthonous (weak) and allochthonous (strong) contributions of OM. A major factor affecting the OM accumulation in the catchment and OM transportation to the Dianchi Lake may be increased by human activities from 1871 to 2011.
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An auxin-responsive endogenous peptide regulates root development in Arabidopsis.
J Integr Plant Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Auxin plays critical roles in root formation and development. The components involved in this process, however, are not well understood. Here, we newly identified a peptide encoding gene, auxin-responsive endogenous polypeptide 1 (AREP1), which is induced by auxin, and mediates root development in Arabidopsis. Expression of AREP1 was specific to the cotyledon and to root and shoot meristem tissues. Amounts of AREP1 transcripts and AREP1-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins were elevated in response to indoleacetic acid treatment. Suppression of AREP1 through RNAi silencing resulted in reduction of primary root length, increase of lateral root number, and expansion of adventitious roots, compared to the observations in wild-type plants in the presence of auxin. By contrast, transgenic plants overexpressing AREP1 showed enhanced growth of the primary root under auxin treatment. Additionally, root morphology, including lateral root number and adventitious roots, differed greatly between transgenic and wild-type plants. Further analysis indicated that the expression of auxin-responsive genes, such as IAA3, IAA7, IAA17, GH3.2, GH3.3, and SAUR-AC1, was significantly higher in AREP1 RNAi plants, and was slightly lower in AREP1 overexpressing plants than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that the novel endogenous peptide AREP1 plays an important role in the process of auxin-mediated root development.
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Biological Roles of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells in Facilitating Neural Regeneration: A Systematic Review.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Continuous renewal of neurons throughout life in the olfactory system is often thought to be partially attributable to specialized glial cells called olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs). Hitherto, several studies have demonstrated that transplantation of OECs is one of the most promising strategies available to augment axonal regeneration and functional recovery following damage to the nervous system, including spinal cord injury (SCI). Based on these studies, a number of pre-clinical studies worldwide have been initiated using autologous transplantation of OECs into damaged central and peripheral nervous systems. Although OECs play a major role in promotion of neuron regeneration of the injured central nervous system (CNS), especially to SCI, limited valuable information is available regarding the beneficial characteristics of OECs in facilitating neural regeneration. Moreover, an increasing number of controversial issues related to the biology of OECs and their transplantation must be addressed. This step is important to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms modulated by transplanted OECs. To start shedding light into these controversial issues, this paper provides a systematic review regarding OECs' beneficial roles in neural regeneration, and the unique properties of these cells that may exert a potential advantage over other cellular transplants.
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Pre-seizure state identified by diffuse optical tomography.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Here we demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking such brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns, along with intracranial electroencephalogram gamma power changes, several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a "pre-seizure" state. We also observed the decoupling between local hemodynamic and neural activities. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.
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Fibroblast Growth Factor 4 Is Required but not Sufficient for the Astrocyte Dedifferentiation.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Our recent studies demonstrated that mature astrocytes from spinal cord can be reprogrammed in vitro and in vivo to generate neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) following treatment with conditioned medium collected from mechanically injured astrocytes. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the reprogramming of astrocytes. Here, we show that fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) exerts a critical role in synergistically converting astrocytes into NSPCs that can express multiple neural stem cell markers (nestin and CD133) and are capable of both self-renewal and differentiation into neurons and glia. Lack of FGF4 signals fails to elicit the dedifferentiation of astrocytes towards NSPCs, displaying a substantially lower efficiency in the reprogramming of astrocytes and a slower transition through fate-determined state. These astrocyte-derived NSPCs displayed relatively poor self-renewal and multipotency. More importantly, further investigation suggested that FGF4 is a key molecule necessary for activating PI3K/Akt/p21 signaling cascades, as well as their downstream effectors responsible for directing cell reprogramming towards NSPCs. Collectively, these findings provide a molecular basis for astrocyte dedifferentiation into NSPCs after central nervous system (CNS) injury and imply that FGF4 may be a clinically applicable molecule for in situ neural repair in the CNS disorders.
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Transparent p-type epitaxial thin films of nickel oxide.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Transparent p-type nickel oxide (NiO) thin films have been epitaxially grown on (0001) Al2O3 substrates by a chemical solution method of polymer-assisted deposition for the first time. The films have a high optical transparency of above 95% in the wavelength range of 350-900 nm.
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Biological evaluation of 131I- and CF750-labeled Dmab(scFv)-Fc antibodies for xenograft imaging of CD25-positive tumors.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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A Dmab(scFv)-Fc antibody containing the single chain variable fragment of a humanized daclizumab antibody and the Fc fragment of a human IgG1 antibody was produced via recombinant expression in Pichia pastoris. The Dmab(scFv)-Fc antibody forms a dimer in solution, and it specifically binds CD25-positive tumor cells and tumor tissues. For tumor imaging, the Dmab(scFv)-Fc antibody was labeled with the 131I isotope and CF750 fluorescent dye, respectively. After intravenous injection of mice bearing CD25-positive tumor xenografts, tumor uptake of the (131)I-Dmab(scFv)-Fc antibody was visible at 1 h, and clear images were obtained at 5 h using SPECT/CT. After systemic administration of the CF750-Dmab(scFv)-Fc antibody, tumor uptake was present as early as 1 h, and tumor xenografts could be kinetically imaged within 9?h after injection. These results indicate that the Dmab(scFv)-Fc antibody rapidly and specifically targets CD25-positive tumor cells, suggesting the potential of this antibody as an imaging agent for the diagnosis of lymphomatous-type ATLL.
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Monodispersed silica nanoparticles as carrier for co-immobilization of bi-enzyme and its application for glucose biosensing.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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A novel glucose sensing strategy by using bi-enzyme coated monodispered silica nanoparticles (SiO2) was proposed. The monodispered SiO2 was synthesized according to our previously reported seed-growth methods. Glucose oxidase (GOD) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were simultaneously covalent immobilized on the surface of SiO2 nanoparticles through the cross-linker of glutaraldehyde. The immobilized bi-enzyme remained their bioactivities well for the substrate reaction. Thus, the resultant SiO2-GOD/HRP nanocomposites could be used as catalyst for enzymatic substrate reactions in the presence of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as chromogenic reagent and glucose as substrate. The factors of affecting the catalytic activities of enzymes were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the absorbance at 450 nm in UV-visible spectra increased with the glucose concentration, which could be used for glucose detection with a linear range from 0.5 ?M to 250 ?M and a detection limit of 0.22 ?M at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3?. Considering the potential of making pills using this SiO2-GOD/HRP, the present strategy has good prospect in the clinic science and other fields in future.
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A water-soluble inclusion complex of pedunculoside with the polymer ?-cyclodextrin: a novel anti-inflammation agent with low toxicity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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More than 50% of new drug candidates in drug discovery are lipophilic and exhibit poor aqueous solubility, which results in poor bioavailability and a lack of dose proportionality. Here, we improved the solubility of pedunculoside (PE) by generating a water-soluble inclusion complex composed of PE and the polymer ?-cyclodextrin (CDP). We characterized this novel complex by 1H NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffractometry and thermogravimetric analysis. The ratio of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) units in CDP to PE was determined to be 2?1. The KD value of the inclusion complex was determined to be 4.29×10(-3) mol•L(-1). In contrast to the low solubility of PE, the water-solubility of the PE-CDP complex was greatly enhanced. A preclinical toxicological study indicated that PE-CDP was well tolerated for a single administration. Importantly, the anti-inflammation potency of the PE-CDP complex was higher than that of PE. As a result, the formation of inclusion complexes by water-soluble CDP opens up possible aqueous applications of insoluble drug candidates in drug delivery.
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Investigation of avian influenza infections in wild birds, poultry and humans in Eastern Dongting Lake, China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We investigated avian influenza infections in wild birds, poultry, and humans at Eastern Dongting Lake, China. We analyzed 6,621 environmental samples, including fresh fecal and water samples, from wild birds and domestic ducks that were collected from the Eastern Dongting Lake area from November 2011 to April 2012. We also conducted two cross-sectional serological studies in November 2011 and April 2012, with 1,050 serum samples collected from people exposed to wild birds and/or domestic ducks. Environmental samples were tested for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) using quantitative PCR assays and virus isolation techniques. Hemagglutination inhibition assays were used to detect antibodies against AIV H5N1, and microneutralization assays were used to confirm these results. Among the environmental samples from wild birds and domestic ducks, AIV prevalence was 5.19 and 5.32%, respectively. We isolated 39 and 5 AIVs from the fecal samples of wild birds and domestic ducks, respectively. Our analysis indicated 12 subtypes of AIV were present, suggesting that wild birds in the Eastern Dongting Lake area carried a diverse array of AIVs with low pathogenicity. We were unable to detect any antibodies against AIV H5N1 in humans, suggesting that human infection with H5N1 was rare in this region.
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Establishment of quantitative severity evaluation model for spinal cord injury by metabolomic fingerprinting.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event with a limited hope for recovery and represents an enormous public health issue. It is crucial to understand the disturbances in the metabolic network after SCI to identify injury mechanisms and opportunities for treatment intervention. Through plasma 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) screening, we identified 15 metabolites that made up an "Eigen-metabolome" capable of distinguishing rats with severe SCI from healthy control rats. Forty enzymes regulated these 15 metabolites in the metabolic network. We also found that 16 metabolites regulated by 130 enzymes in the metabolic network impacted neurobehavioral recovery. Using the Eigen-metabolome, we established a linear discrimination model to cluster rats with severe and mild SCI and control rats into separate groups and identify the interactive relationships between metabolic biomarkers in the global metabolic network. We identified 10 clusters in the global metabolic network and defined them as distinct metabolic disturbance domains of SCI. Metabolic paths such as retinal, glycerophospholipid, arachidonic acid metabolism; NAD-NADPH conversion process, tyrosine metabolism, and cadaverine and putrescine metabolism were included. In summary, we presented a novel interdisciplinary method that integrates metabolomics and global metabolic network analysis to visualize metabolic network disturbances after SCI. Our study demonstrated the systems biological study paradigm that integration of 1H-NMR, metabolomics, and global metabolic network analysis is useful to visualize complex metabolic disturbances after severe SCI. Furthermore, our findings may provide a new quantitative injury severity evaluation model for clinical use.
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The origin of novel avian influenza A (H7N9) and mutation dynamics for its human-to-human transmissible capacity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In February 2013, H7N9 (A/H7N9/2013_China), a novel avian influenza virus, broke out in eastern China and caused human death. It is a global priority to discover its origin and the point in time at which it will become transmittable between humans. We present here an interdisciplinary method to track the origin of H7N9 virus in China and to establish an evolutionary dynamics model for its human-to-human transmission via mutations. After comparing influenza viruses from China since 1983, we established an A/H7N9/2013_China virus evolutionary phylogenetic tree and found that the human instances of virus infection were of avian origin and clustered into an independent line. Comparing hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences of A/H7N9/2013_China viruses with all human-to-human, avian, and swine influenza viruses in China in the past 30 years, we found that A/H7N9/2013_China viruses originated from Baer's Pochard H7N1 virus of Hu Nan Province 2010 (HA gene, EPI: 370846, similarity with H7N9 is 95.5%) and duck influenza viruses of Nanchang city 2000 (NA gene, EPI: 387555, similarity with H7N9 is 97%) through genetic re-assortment. HA and NA gene sequence comparison indicated that A/H7N9/2013_China virus was not similar to human-to-human transmittable influenza viruses. To simulate the evolution dynamics required for human-to-human transmission mutations of H7N9 virus, we employed the Markov model. The result of this calculation indicated that the virus would acquire properties for human-to-human transmission in 11.3 years (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.2-11.3, HA gene).
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Asexuality development among middle aged and older men.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To assess erectile function in middle-aged and older men with asexuality status and further analyze their specific reasons for this condition.
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[Evaluation of the heterogeneity of systematic reviews on nutrition support for burn patients with Meta-regression algorithm].
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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To evaluate the heterogeneity of systematic reviews (SRs) on nutrition support for burn patients with Meta-regression algorithm quantitatively.
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[Dissolved organic matter release of Zizania caduciflora and Phragmites australis from Lake Dianchi].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Ground dry leaves of two emerged macrophytes Zinania Caduciflora and Phragmites australis from Lake Dianchi were soaked in distilled water in laboratory to track their DOM release process. The results showed that: (1) during soaking, concentration of DOM which was released to the overlying water by the two species increased at first, then decreased and increased again at last. Concentrations of DOC, DON, and DOP released by both species reached their peaks at the 8th, 8th, and 24th hour, respectively; (2) the two species showed the same DOM release trend, i.e., release rates and intensities of DOC, DON, and DOP by both species reached the peaks at the 8th hour, and for both of them, the release rates and intensities of DOC, DON, and DOP at the 8th hour followed the order of DOC > DON > DOP; (3) the SUVA254 value obtained by the UV-visible spectroscopy increased at first and then decreased; (4) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy showed that the characteristic peak -OH disappeared during the decomposition process; (5) intensity of the humic-acid fluorescence peak as showed by the 3D-EEM fluorescence intensity (F/DOC) increased along with degradation.
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Complete Genome Sequence of an H12N8 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Wild Bird Feces in Hunan East Dongting Lake National Nature Reserve.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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An H12N8 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from a wild bird in China in 2011. It is the first report of isolation of the H12N8 subtype AIV in Asia. Phylogenetic analysis results suggested it is a reassortant, and all eight gene segments belong to the Eurasian gene pool.
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The potential for Bayesian compressive sensing to significantly reduce electron dose in high-resolution STEM images.
Microscopy (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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The use of high-resolution imaging methods in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example, in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high-resolution STEM images. These computational algorithms have been applied to a set of images with a reduced number of sampled pixels in the image. For a reduction in the number of pixels down to 5% of the original image, the algorithms can recover the original image from the reduced data set. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic-resolution images and nanometer-resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these postacquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or the alignment of the microscope itself.
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A General Method for Artificial Metalloenzyme Formation through Strain-Promoted Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition.
Chembiochem
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) can be used to generate artificial metalloenzymes (ArMs) from scaffold proteins containing a p-azido-L-phenylalanine (Az) residue and catalytically active bicyclononyne-substituted metal complexes. The high efficiency of this reaction allows rapid ArM formation when using Az residues within the scaffold protein in the presence of cysteine residues or various reactive components of cellular lysate. In general, cofactor-based ArM formation allows the use of any desired metal complex to build unique inorganic protein materials. SPAAC covalent linkage further decouples the native function of the scaffold from the installation process because it is not affected by native amino acid residues; as long as an Az residue can be incorporated, an ArM can be generated. We have demonstrated the scope of this method with respect to both the scaffold and cofactor components and established that the dirhodium ArMs generated can catalyze the decomposition of diazo compounds and both Si?H and olefin insertion reactions involving these carbene precursors.
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Phagocytic Removal of Neuronal Debris by Olfactory Ensheathing Cells Enhances Neuronal Survival and Neurite Outgrowth via p38MAPK Activity.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Compelling evidence from animal models and clinical studies suggest that transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), specialized glia in the olfactory system, combined with specific training may be therapeutically useful in the central nervous system (CNS) injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. The unique function of OECs could mainly attribute to both production of cell adhesion molecules and secretion of growth factors in OECs, which support neuron survival and neurite outgrowth. However, little is known about whether engulfment of neuronal degenerative debris by OECs also equally contributes to neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms responsible for neuronal degenerative corpses removal remain elusive. Here, we used an in vitro model of primary culture of spinal cord neurons to investigate the effect of engulfment of degenerative neuron debris by OECs on neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth and the possible molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that OECs can engulf an amount of degenerated neuron debris, and this phagocytosis can make a substantial contribution to neuron growth, as demonstrated by increased number of neurons with longer neurite length and richer neurite branches when compared with the combination of neuron debris and OEC conditioned medium (OECCM). Moreover, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signaling pathway may mediate the OEC engulfment of debris because the p38MAPK-specific inhibitor, SB203580, can abrogate all the positive effects of OECs, including clearance of degenerated neuron debris and generation of bioactive molecules, indicating that p38MAPK is required for the process of phagocytosis of the neuron debris. In addition, the OEC phagocytic activity had no influence on its generation of bioactive molecules. Therefore, these findings provide new insight into further investigations on the OEC role in the repair of traumatic CNS injury and neurodegenerative diseases.
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[Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 gene polymorphisms associated with dilated cardiomyopathy in Chinese Han population].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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To investigate the association between signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) gene polymorphism and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
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Direct Production of Graphene Nanosheets for Near Infrared Photoacoustic Imaging.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Hummers method is commonly used for the fabrication of graphene oxide (GO) from graphite particles. The oxidation process also leads to the cutting of graphene sheets into small pieces. From a thermodynamic perspective, it seems improbable that the aggressive, somewhat random oxidative cutting process could directly result in graphene nanosheets without destroying the intrinsic ?-conjugated structures and the associated exotic properties of graphene. In Hummers method, both KMnO4 and NO2(+) (nitronium ions) in concentrated H2SO4 solutions act as oxidants via different oxidation mechanisms. From both experimental observations and theoretical calculations, it appears that KMnO4 plays a major role in the observed oxidative cutting and unzipping processes. We find that KMnO4 also limits nitronium oxidative etching of graphene basal planes, therefore slowing down graphene fracturing processes for nanosheet fabrication. By intentionally excluding KMnO4 and exploiting pure nitronium ion oxidation, aided by the unique thermal and kinetic effects induced by microwave heating, we find that graphite particles can be converted into graphene nanosheets with their ?-conjugated aromatic structures and properties largely retained. Without the need of any postreduction processes to remove the high concentration of oxygenated groups that results from Hummers GO formation, the graphene nanosheets as-fabricated exhibit strong absorption, which is nearly wavelength-independent in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) regions, an optical property typical for intrinsic graphene sheets. For the first time, we demonstrate that strong photoacoustic signals can be generated from these graphene nanosheets with NIR excitation. The photo-to-acoustic conversion is weakly dependent on the wavelength of the NIR excitation, which is different from all other NIR photoacoustic contrast agents previously reported.
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A novel HBV genotypes detecting system combined with microfluidic chip, loop-mediated isothermal amplification and GMR sensors.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Genotyping of hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be used for clinical effective therapeutic drug-selection. A novel microfluidic biochip for HBV genotyping has been fabricated, for the first time, integrating loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), line probes assay (LiPA) and giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. Coupling LAMP with LiPA in microfluidic chip shortened reaction time substantially, and combining LAMP with GMR sensor enabled limit of detection to attain 10copiesmL(-1) target HBV DNA molecules in 1h. Furthermore, the independent designed GMR sensors and microfluidic chip can decrease manufacturing cost and patients test-cost, and facilitate GMR detector repeating use for signal detection. In addition, the detection system has a lower background signal owing to application of superparamagnetic nanoclusters. And it can be expected to use for multiple target molecules synchronous detection in microfluidic chip based on a characteristic of stationary reaction temperature of LAMP. In conclusion, the neoteric detecting system is well suitable for quick genotyping diagnosis of clinical HBV and other homothetic biomolecule detection in biological and medical fields.
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[Correlation of lumbar disc degeneration and spinal-pelvic sagittal balance].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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To elucidate the relationship between spino-pelvic sagittal balance parameters and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration of each segment through retrospective analysis in lumbar degeneration patients.
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[Effects of retinol binding protein 4 knockdown on the PI3K/Akt pathways in porcine adipocytes].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is adipocyte-derived secreted adipokines and elevated RBP4 expression level was closely related to insulin resistance and type II diabetes mellitus. However, the exact mechanisms are unknown. To clarify the mechanism, RBP4 lentivirus particles were packaged to infect porcine preadipocytes. Then porcine preadipocytes were activated by insulin or induced model of insulin resistance. RBP4 interference efficiency and the gene expression of each treatment groups in PI3K/Akt pathways were examined by QRT-PCR and Western blotting. The result shows that RBP4 mRNA and protein expressions were suppressed more than 60% (P < 0.01). Furthermore, no matter under insulin stimulation or insulin resistance, RBP4 knockdown significantly increased the mRNA expressions of AKT2, PI3K, GLUT4 and IRS1 compared with the control. The protein phosphorylate levels of AKT2, PI3K, IRS1 arised, meanwhile enhanced the AKT2, PI3K, GLUT4 total protein expressions. Collectively, knockdown of RBP4 increased the insulin sensitivity through upregulated PI3K/Akt pathways related factors expression and phosphorylation in porcine adipocytes. This research will provide a new idea to treat insulin resistance related diseases.
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Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis) using transcriptome analysis.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs), with an average length between 16 nt and 26 nt, are small non-coding RNAs that can repress gene expression on the post-transcriptional level. Macaca fascicularis (M. fascicularis), one of the most important nonhuman primate animal models, is widely used in basic and applied preclinical research, especially studies that involve neuroscience and disease. However, due to the lack of a complete genome sequence, the miRNAs in M. fascicularis have not been completely characterized. In this study, 86 putative M. fascicularis miRNAs were identified using a strategy of our design. The expression of some of these miRNAs in tissue was confirmed by qRT-PCR. The function and pathway of their targeted genes were analyzed to reveal the potential relevance of miRNA regulation on diseases and physiological processes. The current study provides insight into potential miRNAs and forms a useful knowledge base for the future understanding of the function of miRNAs in M. fascicularis.
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[Effect of zinc ion on polymerization and cytotoxicity of sTRAIL in tumor cells].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Soluble tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) is potentially a novel anti-cancer drug due to its superior selective cytotoxicity in a wide variety of tumor cells. Zinc ion (Zn2+) insufficiency might be an important cause for weak cytotoxicity of sTRAIL prepared by gene engineering. In this paper, the sTRAIL protein is highly-expressed with insertion of the synthesized gene encoding sTRAIL into pQE30 plasmid. The polymerization and cytotoxicity in tumor cells of sTRAIL prepared in presence of different concentrations of Zinc ions were compared. It was found that the sTRAIL protein prepared in absence of Zinc ions mainly existed as monomer with weak cytotoxicity. However, in the presence of Zinc ions, sTRAIL formed homotrimer and showed strong cytotoxicity in tumor cells. These results demonstrate that Zinc ion is very important for cytotoxicity of sTRAIL. It is necessary for keeping stable activity of sTRAIL by addition of proper concentration of Zinc ion in the media.
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In-depth bioinformatic analysis of lung cancer-associated microRNA targets.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. However, few studies of its specific mechanisms useful for diagnosis or treatment exist. microRNAs (miRNAs) present one mechanism through which genes with diverse functions on multiple pathways can be simultaneously regulated at the post-transcriptional level. However, LC-associated pathways targeted by LC-related miRNAs (LC-miRNAs) remain completely unknown. In the present study, we investigated 8 LC-miRNAs previously identified as regulators in three molecular subtypes of LC. The results showed that LC-miRNAs may post-transcriptionally function mainly through manipulating the expression of nucleic acid binding proteins and transcription factors, and target genes for the LC-miRNAs were most prominently predicted to function in regulation of transcription. Our analysis also highlighted the potential of these LC-miRNAs to regulate the cell differentiation, proliferation, endocytosis and migration signaling logically required to cause an LC cell mainly through five canonical pathways (PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, MAPK signaling pathway, HTLV-I infection and focal adhesion). These findings may form a useful basis for potential future development of novel LC therapeutic treatments.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.